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Human Rights and Responsibilities in the Family: Women, Children, Aged, Spouses



Gautama Buddha and Il-Won-Sang

by Dr.Bongkil


A Lotus on American Soil


The Mind of Nature


"The Miracle"

byMr.JackD.Large Brief History of Won Buddhism

WO].I BUIDHISIT,I Ptrblished by : Resoarch lnstitute for Overseas Missions Wonkwang University lri City, Chonpuk The Republic of Korea


I ..L2

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Ven. Sotaesan's Life Shown in Ten Aspects


News Corner



91t WON




NO. 5 Peace




for Unification of Mankind

Today it has become very necessary to build a powerful world opinion with regard to the establishment of international peace. At this juncture, we should all strive hard to create a mature world civilization conducive to the peaceful co-existence as well as to the social and economic welfare of the whole mankind. Contrary to our fervent desire for peace, unfortunately, it is historical fact that some religions have been most disputatious of all, ignoring their original holy mission of peace, largely because of their excessive dependence on their creed and doctrines and their relative neglect of the existence of other religions.

As the 20th century is drawing to a close, we come to face other crucial problems growing beyond control - preservance of our environment, indispensable for the very survival of mankind. The final result of modern persons' conquest of nature, scientific progress comes up against many achievements and blessings of civilization. Many scholars and specialists warn that every individual on the earth must be made aware of the urgent n6ed to preserve it. In this context, major problems of the Earth Village such as pollution of environment and world peace should not treated as local issues and cannot be solved with a nationalistic viewpoint. Before we are to tackle the problems, we must above all unfy ourselves as a crusilde to cope with the universal hot issue. To the oriental mind, peace is not a Static result but a dynamic cooperation and dialectical process. the rhythmic cooperation of Yin and Yang, man and woman, and weakness and strength. This peculiar thought on peace of the oriental mind is in sharp contrast to Western formal or linear logic. To take a good guideline consistent with the just mentioned principle of peace, Ven. Sotaesan of Won Buddhism has it that the superior person can always continue to be superior, by elevating the inferior person to a superior position, through mechanisms of 'mutual interest, and that the inferior may become superior by overcoming difficulty and hardship and by regarding the superior as leader until the inferior becomes elevated to a superior position. Our present civilization quite obviously lacks any unifying principle to lead mankind. Of course, the United Nations is carrying out the function of mediating conflicts and unifylng the world people. But the





United Nations itself has long realized that world peace cannot be achieved only by political, economic and military meins. The defence of peace and happiness can ensue through religion as the most ideal device of unifying principle. With this in mind, on every opportunity to participate in international religious conference,Won Buddhism has been suggesting the idea of founding the United Religions, tantamount to the UN and supplementing the functions of it. In such a unifying and systematic category, it is believed that we should try to work for i gue religionism wherein Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims, Taoists, Jews, and the rest can recognize their common ground, and worship or mediate together without quarreling, and yet without abandoning their colorful differences of method and style. Fortunately, the detente mood and open-policy of western and eastern csuntries alike are at their highest pitch these days, promising a great hope and the brightest prospects in the days ahead. At this phase, all religions, in charge of unifying the world people and leading human mentality, should remove all the barriers among them, slougli off old prejudices and obsolete creeds, and meet as one. It goes witiout-saying that mankind can be one family only when all religions are unified into one, and that the world cannot be renewed without man-

kind's renovation. One problem in any corner of the world can stay no longer at the local level. The stronger cannot maintain their power in their old way to suppress and exploit the weaker. Religions will be surely discarded out of people's mind if they are unchanged and adhere only to their own ways and styles, worst of all evoking wars and conflicts only because of the differences between them. We must hold hands in hands together to march for the lofty ideal and our final purpose - Ieading all creatures to the vast and boundless world of happiness.

The Great Master said, "occasionally a thing which was intended to be good for others results instead in harm. Therefore, when we attempt to do good for others, we should take full precaution against such an accident. On the other hand, those who have been harmed should not blame others, but should consider the original good intention and be appreciative." From "On Moral Practice," The Scnpture of Won Buddhism




Human Rights and Responsibilities in the Family: Women, Children, Aged, Spouses

by Dr. Pal Khn Chon Issues of individual human rights are at the heart of many of the momentous affairs of the day. Related questions pervade talks between nations ranging in size from superpowers down to emerging national entities like Palestine. Too often political negotiators exaggerate abuses of human rights by their protagonists while shrugging off or denying responsibility for similar offences at home. As in most of human affairs, the global issues of human rights can be seen as local issues writ l4rge, and at bottom reflect differences in the ways that individuals evaluate their own personal rights in relation to the rights of others. The tendency of the human being, stunningly flawed of logic as again and again we demonstrate ourselves to be, is to impose rather greater expectations of responsibility upon others than we will voluntarily subscribe for ourselves. So we can find in the issue of human rights a deeper question of human relations: How can we best live together with others in peace and harmony,.enjoying individual personal freedom of search, thought and action while doing nothing which limits or impairs the ability of others in our home, neighborhood, community, society, nation or community of nations from enjoying exactly the same "bundle" of rights we cherish to ourselves. As in all discussions of such questions, dichotomies of value immediately appear, as extremes of opinion separated by a continuum of thought filling a1l intermediate positions, and almost always derived from perceptions of self-interest varied by degrees of enlightenment. Most conflicts in human relations can be viewed as the result of encounters between energies seeking or pressing for change, and those of comparatively rigid, static elements which are conservative of tradition. This combination provides a model . opportunity to study and understand the nature of problems of human rights abuse. Abuse appears to result when rrA" seeks change "X", while "B" resists r'X" and refuses to budge, thereby blocking "A" and "X", t'A" can withdraw to whereupon several options open. Among them,





wait or seek another path, or "A" can keep the pressure on, perhaps increasing it in various ways until the resistance of ,,B,, yields or is eliminated, or is bolstered and shored up to the extent thaithe energy of "A" cannot overcome it in any direct way. The model is obviously oversimplified in terms of international crises of human rights abuse, but since individuals do not experience personal oppression as a global phenomenon, the model is useful for the purpose of analyzing individual rights abuse involving families and family members, which is the subject of this paper. Of Jourse models do not resolve conflicts, but merely provide bnl tool with which to develop an understanding of the causes of conflict. The important next step is to seek ways not only to resolve the conflict in this tase (human rights abuse), but to remove the cause(s) of abuse by eliminating the internal (human) and external (environmental) conditions which foster and perpetuate abuse. Finally, as a religious figure, I must address to myself and to other religious figures the question: What can religions, and religious leaders and laypersons, do to soften these conflicts and elimin"i. abuses of rights in the home and family? These questions are particularly pressing in Korea these days, and w9 f_eeJ strongly the need to inform our understanding of solutions which have been reached by concerned citizens of other-countries and members of other religions, and we do strongly feel the rieed to participate with others in the search for solutions. And we have a modest amount of what we hope is not a vain confidence that our experiences and our approaches, shared with others, will make a positive contribution in this context. Most of the world is acutely aware that Korea in this decade, and for centuries before, really, has been the very crucible of change, and that human rights-related issues are the crux of events there. Social turbulence is widespread, with student groups in nearly every university campus demonstrating almost daily in pwsuit of various goals ranging from local issues such as tuition increases and the use of .amp,rs facilities, to issues of national and international scope. _ Th. frightening image of rock-and-firebottle throwing radicals which dominate Korean news reports reaching the outside world tend to obscure the important fact that even the most violent of these episodes are found to originate in individual reactions to human rights violations and curtailed personal freedoms under a successiop of authoritarian governments stretching several decades into the past.




Farmers, labor unionists, office workers, teachers, medical workers and others have taken to the streets in a frequency and pattern which can be seen in part as a celebration of the newfound liberty to do so. Furthermore, the occasionally chaotic surface appearance of social and political life in Korea has a tendency to conceal the fundamental, sound and solid characteristics firmly rooted in the Korean cultrrral psyche, and in the character of individual Koreans to no lesser or grreater extent than they are present in any other people. These elements often have their origin, and are preserved within, the family structure. They are articulated in the roles and relationships of family members and the perceptions each member forms of the others. Historically, there can be no question that religious principles have contributed to the nature of the Korean "psyche" and/or world view. And only a singularly obtuse person would press forward the view that the influence of religiosity upon the fabric of Korean culture and personality is universally positive, without blemish or flaw. But, as is the case with all metaphysical themes, we believe the faults therein must be laid at the feet of overzealous and ill-informed proselytes, rather than attributing such failings to the essential nature of religion, as some non-religious critics declaim. In seeking ansurers to such questions as those posed,by the above discussion, then, it is a good idea to set basic definitions for certain facts and principles. As it happens, this is the approach brought by the religion of Won Buddhism to the task of fostering positive personal and social behavior in its member seekers. The first definition we need is that of the meaning of religion to and for humanity.We find unprofitable the notion that mankind exists to serve a religious principle, but rather that religious principles have manifested themselves in the human intellect and consciousness as an avenue of channeling positive energies to the site of negative, crisis-producing elements, i.e. perceptions and ideas. In short, religion is the infusion of metaphysical, supernatural psychology and embodiment into mundane, physical nature, thus preserving intact the awe-inspiring mystery of creation and maintaining the necessary hope of a better life and salvation through right thinking and action in the present. One of the most important departments of correct thought and behavior has to do with the family and the nature of the bonds between its members. Here, we feel, is where our religion most clearly earns and deserves its prominent place in the consciousness and devotions of our members, for grreat emphasis do we place on





the tried and true behavior, often curtly and coldly defined in the "filial piety".

language of the west as

This complex principle, r4rith its Confucian roots, Taoist crown and Buddhist branch, is the glue which binds the family members to each other, and together, to the community around them in a chain of salient propinquity which surrounds, ultimately, every other human being and indeed every living thing. One characteristic of Confucian-style family. relations which has been roundly criticized and faulted is that of male/husband/father dominance in the family group. Without adding to debate of the rightness or wrongness of the traditional situation in this respect several points need to be made about the Won Buddhist position regarding the wife's role in it. We regard as both right and responsibility that women develop and maintain a personal account of financial resource to draw upon as a kind of personal insurance for her and her children in the event of some disrupticin of the husbands ability or willingness to give or continue to give material support. There are many well-known possibilities of cause for such breaks in the social fabric of family relations Children also are not only accorded the right, but are expected, to make material contributions to the family welfare whether now, by work in or outside the home, or by hard study, which is seen as a contribution to the future family welfare. In recent times, many young people have begun to openly resent and resist the pressure applied by the oldest members, where extended-family residence is the pattern. They especially wonder why the aged, if still comparatively ablebodied for limited physical tasks, make demands only, without contributing much themselves. In sympathy with the need for harmony in the home, and respect for the rights of young and old alike, we encourage the elderly to help with getting and preparing their own food, at minimum. This is seen as being the fair and just expectation, or responsibility, but in its exercise grows the fruit of self-esteem for those no longer blessed with the vigor and productivehess of their youth. Finally, we encourage all members in the family to maintain respect for the ideas and personal possessions and special circumstances of each other. Students must have proper. study conditions; workers must be able to rest undisturbed; babies must be changed and fondled and fed; the elderly must be allowed to keep their human diErity; parents must have private conditions for intimacy. When all these conditions of




family relations are met and maintained cooperatively, individual rights will prevail, free of abuse, and family members will willingly accept and fulfill their responsibilities and the benefits will spread outward. Without further elaboration, I would merely point out that the nature of these relations have been rather clearly specified and prescribed by the Ven. Master Sotaesan, and can be read in l4lon Bulkyo Kyojun, or The Scripture of Won Buddhrsna, Second English Edition, which was finished just this year. In conclusion, we are of the opinion that the problems which give rise to the abuse of human rights within the family can be solved in part by fostering in family members an understanding, respect and affection for other members and their distinctive roles in the family group. The way to do this appears to lie in strengthening of the individual through the development of the spiritual side, in a prognam of conscious devotion to principles of correct thought and action.

The Great Master said, "One who offers filial piety to one's parents and loves one's brothers in one's home rarely acts wickedly toward other people. But one who never offers filial piety and causes trouble and hatred between one's brothers and sisters cannot do good for other people. Therefore, in Confucianism it is said. that 'filial piety is the basic conduct among all conduct,' and 'a loyal subject is sure to be found in a home which is wellknown for a son upholding filial piety.' This is surely a wellspoken truth." From "The Path of Humanity," The Scripture of Won Buddhr'sm






Gautama Buddha and the ll-Won'Sang lts Faith and Practice)


by Dr. Bongkil Chung ' near the Some 2,500 years ago in the Kingdom-of Kapilaultthu Prince Suddhodana' King to born HimaJaya in maia, a pti... was in bothliterary up gifted well and SUafrrrtha, ashewasnarned,was very and military arts. But ther. *"t something that constantly bothered him. perhaps it wasbecause he was so intelligent. Frequently, he would be found lost in deeP thought: .,I am the princl of a i<ingdom. But I, too, will become-old and die just like any other man. Wheie am I supposed to go after I die? What I die? or wiit-I just go out_of existence?" wiII '- remain of me after left his palace, g_iving !P_the. throne he would one nigt t he-secretly dear son, succeed one day and leiving behind his beautiful wife and and entered the Priesthood. Following the example of the other monks of that time, he set out of tormenting his own flesh. He wanted to to do ", "r..ti.-practice free his mind by tormenting his flestr, which housed all the carnal Mountain' desires, but to nt avail. Whereupon he Aent to the Snow al91e years sitting six for Zen practicedhe it. pt.t.nt Himii"y", where great Samadhi, the attain to eventually came i" tt. quiet. It was ito* he to which no other Brahmans or monks before him had ever succeeded do.

happened at dawn on the eighth day of one December by the him in lunar calendar.-As he looked ,p "ithe bright star, it_came to sky' the there upshining am and stai flash: "I have become that .in sense a like It was here." sitting is and me while that star has become of his becoming o". with the star or even with the whole universe' He had finally com-e to be awakened to the great eternal life' uttered he, "for -everything is "It is a *orde, of all wonders," the Buddha'" He thus expoundporr.rr.a of the- *irdo* and virtue of In other words, everyBuddha. the quality of has the ;J th.i everything even a particlt o{ ihi"; inctuding ; ri"gi; Uilqe of gt"tt, a- tree andthat I have attained earth can attain trre Buddhahood.-He said, "Now the enligt t.n*.nl, tfr* whole universe will also be able to attain the





enlightenment." It was the most daring declaration that every sentient and insentient being could now'have its rebirth in the Buddhahood. Of late, we frequently hear questions like "What is man?" and "Where should we find the real values of life?" However, wo should instead turn our attention to the fact that the society we live in is not meant for any specific individual but is rather an organic communal society. Let us think a little more about it. "I" am doubtless an individual, but where did that individual "I" come from? It did not fall out of the sky, nor did it sprout from the earth. Was I not born between my father and mother? Without my parents, there would not be the individual "I". Then where did my father and mother come from? They, too, were born between their respective parents, who are my grandfathers and grrandmothers. And my grandparents must have had theirs, too. It takes two to produce 9nâ&#x201A;Ź, fo,rr to produce two, eight to produce four, sixteen to produce eightthe figure will increase by a geometrical progrression' Supposing a generalion is 25 years, there would be I20 generations in 3,000 years. Actually, there would be 12I generations including that of one's own. Now can you imagine what the number of ancestors included in the individual "I" in those LZI generations would be iike? It woulrl be astronomical. The figure is 26,549 with 32 zeroes appenden' What is more, man did not come to being just 3,000 ye *- ", Since man is known to have a history of hundreds of millions c the number of our ancestors is almost infinite. In other worus, the individual being "I" requires the support of such infinite life in order to come into being as an individual. Then how is the life of this individual sustained? In order to sustain our lives, we eat again, vegetables, meats and fish. We dso drink water that issues deep from the earth, receive the sunlight from the sun far away, and breathe the air plentiful in the atmosphere. In other words, the individual being "I" comes into being only when life and everything in time, space, history and society have become one. This is not a mere theory but a hard facl. If there is any of you who think what I am saying is too commonplace and is not worth consider' ing, hold your nose with your fingers and try not to breathe for a couple of minutes. No matter how commonplace it may seem, it is a reality. Where did I come from and how am I to continue my existence? In order to continue my existence, I must maintain close relations with






the infinite universe. In Won Buddhism the natural and human blessings are called the For.u Graces-the heaven and earth, parents, brethren, and law. We are individ.uals and the whole at the same time. This fundamental state of being the whole is referred to in Won Buddhism as the ll-Won$ang and is expressed in a circle. This state is called the Dharmakaya Buddha. Gautama Buddha reached this very state of enlightenment. He saw not only the forms of things but the profound truth that could not be expressed in forms. A student of. Zen once wrote a verse, which goes like this: "The circle existed distinct and clear Long before the birth of the Buddha. Even Gautama Buddha knew not how to explain it in full Much less Kasyapa to relate." Although a circle is used to symbolize the ll-Won$ang, it is actually a circle without circumference. And I am standing from right in the middle of that boundless circle. The "I" when Gautama Buddha declared "Holy am I alone throughout heaven and earth" was the real "I" which he discovered after he had attained the enlightenment. The popular belief that Gautama Buddha made that utterance as he was issuing from his mother's womb is believed to have been made out of a religious need to glorify him. Here we should give some serious thought to the matter of retribution and blessings. Whence do our fortune (blessings) and misfortune (retribution) come? They are not given us from any specific p1ace. In fact, we should realize that everything in the universe is capable of punishing and blessing us. The origin of a1l beings in the universe is the ll-Won-*ng or Dhar' makaya Buddha, and we Ere enjoying its blessing called the Four Graces: the heaven and earth, parents, brethren and law. Therefore, we should be thankful to everything that sumounds us at all times and at all places and should treat it with due respect. We should make offerings directly to everything that surrounds rrs whenever and wherever necessary to have our wishes fulfilled. It is the only way we can realize the sources of our blessings and retribution correctly and embrace the II-I4/o n-Sang realistically. However, it is the working of our minds and bodies that has direct bearings on what bring us blessings. and retribution. If we maintain at all times a state of mind that is as wholesome and as perfect as the.IlI4/on-Sang free from lust and greed (Shmadhi), if we are as sagacious and as infinitely knowledgeable, as the ll-Won.Sang (hajna), and if



we are as fair and as just as the II-It/on-Sang in dealing with things on

all occasions unswayed by emotion and personal relations (S/a), wâ&#x201A;Ź find in it the power to atone our sins and bring on blessings and the

way to cultivate our minds and bodies. If we make offerings to the Truth with prayers to the Dharmalcaya Buddha the Four Graces on the strength of the Three Great Powers of Samadhi, fuajna and Sila and to every object surrounding us, it will be the way to our correct faith in, and practice of, the II-I4/on-Sang and to the success in our ventures in life and ultimately to the fulfillment of our greatest wish of attaining the Buddhahood and saving all sentient beings from the sea of sufferings.

The Great Master said, "The Truth of IL-Won is epitomized by Voidness, Roundness and Righteousness. In Fostering the Nature, Voidness is practiced by contemplating the state beyond Being and Non-being, Roundness means to keep a state of mind in which thoughts neither come nor go and Righteousness means an impartial state of mind. In Enlightenment to the Nature, Voidness means to be aware of the absolute state of the Truth of ll-Won where word and thought have ceased to be, Roundness is the immeasurable depth of wisdom which enables one to look through all Truth and Righteousness is the right understanding which can pierce through everything and judge correctly. In the Utilization of the Nature, Voidness is the state of one's mind where no pride abides when one does good for others. To do everything without attachment is Roundness and Righteousness means to keep the middle way in doing all things."

From "On Doctrine," The Scripture of Won Buddhism







Kim. In brief, that is the history of my involvement with Buddhism A Lotus on American Soil by Mr. Michael McCormick

Greetings! My name is Michael McCormick, and I am a student at Lasalle University in Philadelphia, which is on the eastern seaboard of the United States. It is a grreat honor for me to be given this chance to speak to the members of Won Buddhism concerning the future of Buddhism in America. It is my conviction that the future of the U.S. depends upon the contributions of Asian culture and values, especially Buddhism. In turn, Buddhism's continued growth depends upon its success in the U.S.. Before I begin, I hope you can forgive me if I indulge in a brief account of my background in Buddhism; it may help to reveal my perspective, and I wish to show to what extent Buddhism has become assimilated into this country and in what forms. To begin with I first learned about Buddhism in a world cultures courses at a Catholic high school. My initial fascination with the Tao Te Chinq and with Zen Koans would later lead me to a more general interest in Buddhism as a religion. At Lasalle I discovered an atmosphere which was very open to Eastern spirituality and especially Zen.In my freshrtran year I took a course on Eastern religions, and at the same time my need to actually practice Buddhism led me to join the American branch of the Soka Gal<kai, which is a lay organization whose mission is to spread the teachings of the Nichiren Shoshu sect of Buddhism. This sect teaches that the only way to recover your intrinsic Buddha Nature is to exclusively follow the Nichrien sect and to chant only Nam-Myoho-Renge-Kyo. By their count, the Soka Gal<kai has over a half million members in the U.S.. After two years with them I learned a gneat esteem for the Lotus Sutra, but I could no longer stomach their intolerance towards others. Fortunately, I had already discovered different forms of Buddhism in Philadelphia. I am particularly grateful to the Tibetan Buddhists from whom I learned how to do sitting meditation as well as how to recite the sutras in English. Almost immediately after leaving the Soka Gakkai I learned about Won Bukyo (!t/on Buddhism) froni a friend in the religion department at Lasalle. Since the beginning of this year I have been practicing Buddhism under the guidance of Reverend Bokin

since 1984 in the city of Philadelphia.

One thing I would like to point out is that Buddhism is already a part of the American landscape. Besides the Nichirens, various Tibetan schools have cropped up, the most visible group being the followers of Chqyam Trurrypa Rinpoche, who founded the Dharm adhatu Meditation Center, Naropa College in Colorado, and who wrote several extremely valuable books on basic Buddhist teachings for Americans. Buddhist inroads into America are not large, but they are many and varied; more importantly they have an influence that goes far beyond their numbers. The American culture is the end result of what every group who happens to live here puts into it, and it is changing every day. One could say that it is created by everyone and belongs to no one. What this means is that Buddhism has the potential to be just as American as Christianity. This is an important point which Asian Buddhists seeking to come to America should remember. America is a country which thrives on the heritage of many diverse groups, to shed your own so quickly in order to become Americanized is to fail to see what this country is all about. There seems to be a habit among Americans and among Koreans which I shall call religion swapping. It seems that in both countries certain shallow minded people have taken to discarding the religion of their birth in order to become something else. In America, rnany repudiate Christianity merely because it seems "old hat", or unscientific, or too intolerant, or unbelievable. These people, who have never gained more than a superficial understanding of what they are discarding, then attempt to become Buddhists. They then rest smugly in the belief that they have transcended the superstitious ignorance of the unenlightened Christian masses, the whole time making a sad mockery of Buddhism, I understand that the same kind of thing is happening in Korea, as misguided people fail to properly investigate their heritage and subsequently turn instead to Christianity in order to gain some vague promise of a happy everlasting life in heaven. That is Christianity at its most childish level; and what is more, I have heard that these so ealled Christians then proceed to treat their Buddhist neighbors with an intolerance that is completely out of keeping with their faith in Christ. I am not denying that there may indeed be some sincere converts to Christianity and Buddhism; but I think that a few points should be made. One should not expect to understand the true meaning of a





foreign religion until a sincere attempt has been made to find the value in one's own heritage. In addition, a true Buddhist is one who recognizes the Buddha's expedient means in all other religions, and the true Christian is one who can see the workings of the Holy Spirit in all other religions, I hope that this type of shallow and misguided religion srapping can give way to a sincere and mature approach to Christ and Buddha. If Buddhism does make the successful transition to America, what will be gained? I have spoken of the pitfalls, but what positive changes might Buddhism bring? To begin with, Americans need to appreciate the value of mindfulness in their lives. Though America may be one of the most prosperous countries in the world in the material sense, Americans tend to be beset by all rnanner of anxieties and neuroses. Very few Americans are aware of the tricks their minds play on them, hardly any suspect that their minds are filtering and interpreting life for them, and it is a rare person what recognizes that through mind' fulness they can escape their fears and create a fulfilling and meaning' ful life by directly perceiving life without the clouds of delusion. For many Americans, life is incredibly fast paced and full of pressure and tension; there is very little opportunity or encouragement for the cultivation of mindfulness. A daily Buddhist practice of sitting meditation and the centering practice of chanting the name of the Buddha is exactly what most Americans are in need of. In addition, Americans need to become better acquainted with the moral and ethical implications of the Law of Cause and Effect. Most Americans do not appreciate the fact that their every action has far reaching consequences, few realize that they themselves are contributing to the problems that they are faced with, and even fewer choose to look within themselves and take responsibility for what they have set in motion. This lack of understanding of the most basic principle of life has brought about a host of problems. The breakdown of the American family, the rampant drug and alcohol problem, our fallen national prestige, and our failure to do anything about an enormous national debt all go back to this. Once again Buddhism could provide the solution through teaching Americans the importance of acknowledging the Law of Cause and Effect and living accordingly. Christianity in America also has much to gain from Buddhism, and this may prove to be the most delicate and critical area of all. The life of Jesus the Christ is the gireatest example of selfless love which the world has ever witnessed, and it is also the gneatest testimony of the




triumph of love over death. The way of Christianity should be a universal way of love free from fear. In America, however, people have lost sight of the true meaning of Christianity. TV evangelists turn it into a money-making scheme; people of shallow understanding turn it into a religion of spiritual blackmail-teaching that one musit believe in Jesus or spend eternity in hell, while others become once-a-week Christians on Sunday while living a selfish and anxiety ridden life the other six days of the week. Many more simply abandon Christianity as a living universal way of love that transcends Western culture, ideas, and traditional religious boundaries. Though there are genuine Christians to be found in America, one would be hard pressed to cd1 America a genuine Christian country. Most importantly, if Buddhists can become living examples of love, joy, compassion, and equanimity, then their example will help Chris' tians re-awaken those things within themselves. In this way, America can experience a spiritual renaissance and become a country of spiritud as well as material prosperity. It is my hope that Won Buddhism can contribute to such a spiritual renaissance in America as well as Korea. In the last year that I have practiced and studied l4/on Buddhism I have seen much that has given me cause to hope. Won Buddhism's openness to other Buddhist teachings and even other religions is pethaps its greatest asset. In addition, the integrated and comprehensive practice outlined in the Won Buddhist Scripture is an excellent way of daily practice for Americans. It has the virtue of being well balanced and complete, without becoming too esoteric or complicated. Of course, Won Buddhism will have to adapt some of its forms and teachings so that it can become more accessible to non-Asian Ameriâ&#x201A;Źffi, but I do not believe that this will be too large of a problem due to the openness and flexibility in I4lon Buddhism. Once again I must thank you for this chance to speak about the future of Buddhism in America, I hope that the years ahead will be ones of gnowth and advancement upon the Way for all of us.








an insight of the inner core of things the properties of which are composed of simple, pue, honest, principled, and just substances. Just as cases of different shapes contain the substances of the pertinent shapes, for example, a circular case contains a circular substance

The Mind of Nature

by IvIr. Ilho Sung We must admit from the start that no one really knows what mind in its essence is, any more than we know what Life is, or t-he Natr:re of the Infinite Realit:r- that is the Source and Substance. As Lau Tsu said, ,,Tao cannot be defined, what is defined cannot be Tao."

Illumined souls through the ages have realized that man is an extension of the original Nature. Buddha declared, "The mind is everything; What we think we become." Jesus declared, "It is done unto yor""..ording as you believe." Buddhism likened the mind to a mirror, i reflection oi the Ultimate Reality. The ego-mind which seeks to split itself off from the Nature-extended mind that is our real identity has no real existence but is an illusion man has built for himself in order to do as he pleased. People ior ..nturies under the influence of this false ego'identity have reached out for hetp to get them out of the difficulties this illusion has led them into, conceiving Buddha, God, or other omnipotent and omnipresent being as a power to destroy their enemies if they prayed or made sacrifices to influence this power in their favor. Like ifreir ego-identity this concept of salvation is a false one. There are two ways of viewing life. One is based on self-centered or ego-love and from this basis our reactions are those of hurt feelings, being insulted, impatient qnd irtitable. The other way is to have a Natrire-centered love. On this basis we are able to ignore insult, irritation and unpleasant situations. A good self-image produces a happy confident p.irorr, a bad one an insecure, unstable person, either sinking into depression, or becoming arrogant and domineering to compensate for the sense of inferioritY. One enlightened to the Nature is possessed of insight. In other word.s, if a rnan has an insight into something, he appro-aches it with a simple, pure, honest, principled, or just mind so that he may apprehend its-inner nature more directly and straightly than otherwise. Without getting rid of such things as sophistication, impurity, dishonesty, e*p.hi.rrcy, and injustice so that their opposite counterparts may take ttreir place in his mind, he will never be able to penetrate into or gain


and a square one a square one, so minds of different dispositions apprehend the different properties or qualities of things: for example, a crooked mind accepts the crooked property of a thing and a straight one a straight one. If this develops into a habit, it gives rise to the formation of the pertinent personalities. More truly, this must be argued reversely: the substances of different shapes make the cases of the pertinent shapes and contact with the different properties of things moulds the minds of different dispositions. The most important thing in education is to develop the insight of discerning the different aspects of things so as to accept the necessary qualities of them and reject the unnecessary ones. A proper parable is in order here. If a man puts into his bag nothing but stone, what he can later take out of the bag will surely be nothing but the stone and if he puts into his bag nothing but gold, he will be certainly be able to take out of his bag nothing but the gold. In the same woy, we can only take out of our mind what we have put into it. A man of the mind of simplicity, purity, honesty, principle, and justice will behave in accordance with that state of mind so that he may straightly penetrate into the true inner nature of things, whereas a man of the mind of sophistication, impurity, dishonesty, expediency, and injustice will behave in tune with such a state of mind so that the crooked behavior may only allow him to linger or wander around the periphery and superfluity of reality far from so much as having any taste of the inner nature of things. To put the Nature outwardly, life itself is, also, a natural phenomenon which is to be led as nature dictates. One will be doomed if one attempts to lead one's life against the dictation of nature. The richest life is nothing but the most natural life. But human society is now too artificially conditioned to concern itself with the natural way of living. Most people are more concerned with wealth, status, and fafne. They ere putting cart before ox as they regard them as their object of life and their life itself as no more than the means for them. To regain their true or natural life, they must take themselves back from their absorbed interest in those superfluous things the stern realities of life by learning to accept what is naturally given, what is necessary to them.***






The Great Master said, "All the founders of religions have appearances at different times, teaching people the ways of life. The essentials of their teachings, however, have been different, due to differences in the times and locations in which they lived. This can be compared to medical doctors working in their own specialized fields. Thus, in Buddhism, through the principle of the formlessness of all things in the universe, emphasis is put on the Truth of No Birth and No Death and the Principle of Cause and Effect in explaining how to become enlightened from a state of delusion. In Confucianism, the stress is on beings in the universe havini form, thereby essentially explaining the ways of Self-Discipline, Domesticity, Statesmanship, and of Establishing World Harmony through teaching people the Three kinciples and the Five Moral Rules in human nelations, and Benevolence, Righteousness, Propriety and Wisdom. In Taoism, on the basis of the natural law of the universe, they explain the original state of purity, serenity and unartificiality, teaching us how to foster one's own Nattue. These three' ways, although their doctrinal principles are different, aim at the same goal of leading the world into a righteous way and bringing its benefits to all beings. In the past, these three religions put stress only on their own principles of teaching. In the futtue, however, it will not be possible to achieve universal deliverance of the world with only partial teachings. Hence, we have inteEated all these doctrines, unifying the teachings of the Cultivation of Spiritual Stability, the Study of Facts and hinciples and the Selection of Right Conduct, into Won. We have also established courses of study, such as the Perfect Integration of the Soul and Body and the Parallelism of hinciples and Facts. Anyone who practices' these methods of study will not only become versed in the fundamental teachings of the three religions but also will be able to accept the teachings of all religions and all laws in the world, attaining enlightenment to the gneat Truth which reaches every-

from ancient times made their


" From "On doctrine, The Scriptwe of Won Buddhism





iracle" by Mr. Jack D. Large

Early in my year of teaching English conversation in Korea, I- recall events of1ec9nd the past year and p6nder over the future. when I

arrived at wgnlwang _university to assurne my present duties, I had limited knowledge of Korea, kneur hothini tf Won Buddhism. It "nd has been a challenging and rewarding experiende. I have L..n at once baffled and enlightened by many- surirising opportunities to develop a new perspective on the nature and meaning of lile in this world.

I came here equipped with a modest experience in publication, and in teaching anthroporogy, a field which .r.o*prrr., lin_ guistics. I had o3!v a superficial knowledge of traaitional "pplied Buddhist thought, but a- lifelong enthusiasm for cross-cultural encounters. It was interest in the latter to which can be attributed my good fortune in "discovering " W onkwang University. It is always diffi6ult to know with certainty the path one,s future may take. However I am confident, in a way I irave nly", been before, that my own path will continue to be illuminated by the light of this experience. Westerners raised in the cultural ii.*rjn.rJ .onaitioned bv traditional Christianity ordinarily .o*. uv .n-iiprl.i"tion of the positive influence of the major religions -' b"aat ism, Islam ""rt.rn and Hinduism - only as the result of a concerted study effort. This was es-pecially true before the present decade, which t r..r, a substantial increase in the numberi of practitioners of "r religions in these western countries. The increase is fed by immigrration, refugeeijm, education and television, primarily. Missionaries continue to attract adherents to all organized religions, transcending cultural, national and continenial Uo*ai.i.*-ihil-lffi suspected that'they do so as much by the attractive force of personality as any logic internar to the ryri.* u"r"g pr";;il.-iod"y, I am so sure of tltt, and the teachings of the founder o f Won Buddhism aie the source of the change in my position. Hq{ anyone suggested to me-in August of r9g7 in November, I_would begin a professional scrutiny of a religiorrthat, ao.r*ent for the purpose of publication, I would have thougirt them iaaf.air;;, I was seeking employment, but as a teacher tf evolutionary anthro-



96t WON


pology, a field I then believed was only marginally connected to study of religious behavior. I did not suspect that I would soon begin the

first reading of five consecutive proofs of what has become the Second English Edition of the Scripture of Won Buddhism (Won Bulkyo Kyojun). I have not been an overtly religious man, pret'erring to maintain my reverence for "The Miracle" as I had grown to think of the natural cosmos, or "The Great Spirit" (following Native American mythology), as an internal, highly personal and personalized, notion. Those times I have been willing to consider my own tendency to religiosity as part of any systematized or organized viewpoint, it seems to have most closely resembled that of Taoism, although my understanding of that set of beliefs was decidedly limited. Mainly, it consisted of a liking for the image of water seeking its own level. Thus it was satisfying indeed to know that, in moving my life to Korea, I would soon experience at first hand the practical effects and influences of these, for me exotic, beliefs on the social fabric of a community. I came into this new position as a direct result of my willingness to befriend a Korean man who was, like me, a gnaduate student in a small state university in a sparsely populated region of the western U.S. In pursuit of a second graduate degrree, he encountered personal tragedy in his family, and badly needed a friendly ear to listen, and compassionate counseling. We became fast friends in the short time remaining before circumstances forced his return home to Seoul. When he left, he promised to let me know if he learned of any professional opportunities which might open for me in Korea once I had completed my gnaduate study. Business matters subsequently found him commuting weekly to Iri, Chollabuk-do, where he became acquainted with my predecessor, at Wonkwang_ University. I wrote one or two letters to my Korean friend after he left the tI.S., but I was totally unprepared for the urgent letter, a year later, urging me to forward a packet of personal documents to Dr. Chon Pal Khn, vice-president of the university, Director of Overseas Mission for Won Buddhism, and the translator and editor of the First English Edition of Won Bukyo Kyojun. In the course of events, she was to become the supervisor, teacher and benefactor of my present position. I learned of her project only after my arrival in Iri. Despite my personal secularity, I was delighted to learn of this




singular opportunity to test my English copyreading- skills on a task so inhlrentty challenging. The work began in January, 1988, and following the solution of several procedural difficulties, a regular routine emerged. We adopted a procedure whereby Miss Kang Sien-nam, Prof. Chon's indefatigable adminisUative assistant first :qe.roxed three copies directly from t6e First Engtish Edition, one for each reader. We would then each read the same chapter solitarily, carefully noting desired corrections, alterations and questions on every page. We would then meet, and we did so daily, six days a week, during those hours of the day not filled by regular duties at the university. At our meetings, I would read each page aloud, stopping to note my corrections, questions and suggestions, and those of my colleagues. Sometimes our deliberations would necessitate spending an entire session on a single short passage, as they struggled to clarify crosscultural ambiguities to me, and I strove to make the English version accessible to .the western mind-set.

Dr. Chon's copy was the master copy, and when we completed work on a chapter, many pages would be covered with handwritten alterations from the original. The margins would be filled with notes from which all the changes and corrections would be reproduced. Sometimes entire paragraphs would require restructuring.

Two things struck me early about the work - one, that the First Edition had been a monumental accomplishment of translation by Prof, Chon, and two, she had no hesitation to change her original language if thorough discussion could convince her that'a suggested change would remain true to the intended meaning of the hime Master, Venerable Sotaesan, who authored the Korean original, and also become more accessible to the consciousness of English readers. If the work progressed slowly at times, it did so in an atmosphere of canonical and scholarly integrity. Miss Kang would then make all the indicated changes, using a combination of white-out, glue and paper splices, then prepare another generation of copies which could be checked yet again, before being sent to be typeset. We soon discovered that every step in the process introduced new errors in a frequency of one or more per page, so there could be no shortcuts. Too late we realized that we might have saved substantial time and effort by putting everything on computer disk for word processing once the initial reading had been completed. Finally, we had corrected all of our own errors, those produced in making corrected copies, in typesetting and in page pasteup. In all,





we went through-fiye complete, and countless partial readings of the second English Edition of ?he scnpture of won Buddhism. - At lome p_oint in the. process, I became aware, with the crystal clarity that follows upon any sudden awakening, that I would proUably never get an opportunity to do any work again which would be ai important or personally enlightening. My diicovery of the life and teachings of Ven. Sotaesan, and those who have followed him, enabled me to rediscover a dimension of myself which had lain long-suppressed in my subconscious. _ Even today, I am not much more willing, ready or eager to give that dimension public air than I have been in ifre p"rt. It is ior me itill a highly personal phenomenon of awareness. If ii must be expressed, the expression must take the form of a verbal acknowledgmeni of my grratitude for the Grace of Heaven and Earth, of my paients, of my biological and spiritual Brethren, and of Natural and Humanistic Law. These Graces, to my way of thinking correspond identically with the perennial object of my earlier and persistent reuerential awe. These are, to me,'"The Miracle".

once the Great Master was at Ryungsan Monastery and a new member served him food and offered him a valuable present. The Great Master said, "I should appreciate your cordiality, but someday this attitude may change according to your way of thinking. Can you comprehend the reason why?" The new member said, "Venerable Master, how should my mind come to change without a reason? " The Great Master said, "According to what you expect from me, our relationship will last permanently or be a short-live-d one. If you expect from me something that I have, our relationship will last; but if you expect a thing I do not have, ow relationship may not last long." From "The Path of Hurnanity," Scripture of Won Buddhr'sm




Bribf History of Won Buddhism Won Buddhism is a new Buddhist order founded in April 1916 by IVIost Venerable Sotaesan in Voungkwanggun, ChoJJa-n amdo in the southern part of Korea. It stands for the new mocie of tsuddhism which should keep pace with the times and practical life.


Ttre Ven. Sotaesan was determined from childhood to perceive the great principles of the Universe. After years of moral training and spirituai search, he attained self-enlightenment and made up his mind to deliver the world'with the spirit of Buddhism from the contemporary situations in which spiritual morality was gradually declining and the seas of suffering were deepening under the influence of radical progress of material civilization. During this period, he organized the Buddha-Dharma R.esearch Society, upholding the slogan of "Develop our spiritual morality while the material civilization is being developed." After he was inaugurated as the first president of the society, he made every possible effort to raise enterprise funds, with which he reclaimed 25 acres of dry beach on the one hand, and established a peaceful community of coilective Iife on the other. This was the beginning of Won Buddhism. Soon after the reclamation project was completed in August I9I9 (the 4th year of Won Buddhism), he entered Mt. Pongnae inCholla-pukdowith his disciples, where he debated with them on the Truth and morality, and drafted the principal doctrines and institutions of Won Buddhism. Thus having arranged every necessary preparation for the new Buddhist Order, he came to Slnyong-dong suburb of lri, CholJa-pukto in April, 1924 and established the General Headquarters there, opening the gate of faith to the public under the provisional name of the- BuddhaDharma Research Society.

For more than twenty years thereafter, he vigorously struggled against hardships and difficutties for the training and development of the society under the relentless oppression of the Japanese rule. Unfortunately, however, the Ven. Sotaesan passed away on the lst of June, 1943 (28th year of Won Buddhism), and the late Prime Master, Ven. Chongsan succeeded him. The Ven. Chongnn also devoted himself to the development of the society. In April 1946,a year after the liberation of Korea from the Japanese occupation, the society was renamed Won Buddhism. Won Buddhism has since been prosperous. Ttre present






Ven. Sotaesan's Life Shown in Ten Aspects

hime Master is the Ven.

Taesan. The commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of Won Buddhism was held on lst October, 197L. Last year, 1988, marked the closing of the second generation of Won Buddhism * one generation is 36 years in l4/on Buddhism. Since its foundation. Won Buddhism has been especially stressing overseas missionary works. The Vene-able Sotaesan, upon the attainment of his great Enlightenment,. pointed out that the cause-and-effect principle operates with

no birth-and-death truth as a perfect organ on an interrelated basis in all things of one reality and source. As well known by the remark on the cause-and-effect principle by him, Won Buddhism carne to reach the conclusion that Buddhism offers solutions to the problem of life on the principle of the Nature - the cause-and-effect morality - and dictates men to follow the principle of Nature. This means, in other words, that we are to be taught by the Nature - the essence of mind. Ven. Sotaesan also likened the outward nature to exhibition. He got some awakening from the exhibitions he visisted. He stated that an exhibition contributed to the development of human wisdom, giving people opportunities to hear and see widely, which bring forth very fruitful results when one's attitude is very sincere. He went on saying that the whole universe is nothing other than the exhibition ground which is limitlessly wide and vast. It follows that from ancient times, therefore, all Buddhas and sages, observing this everlasting and unfolding exhibition, Iearn and teach their source of morality. Repeating Buddha's dharma word of "The mind is everything; What we think we become," our mind can be, depending on the will of each person, the container of good or evil thoughts. It is nearly impossible to be awakened to the principle of Nature in a short time, but one who has a belief in it and practices personally can be guaranteed the chance of living in paradise - just in this world.



Meditating on Nature and Human Life At the age of seven, he began to ask questions about nature and human life, such as "Why do clouds and winds arise in a calm and clear sky?" and "Why do mothers and fathers live in close relationship?" His meditation on such phenomena lasted for four years, and finally became the basis of his future enlightenment to the II-Itron (One Circle) Truth.


96 26






ii I


rl I I




It I

,li llr i

Otrering Prayer at Sambat kss At the age of eleven, Ven. Sotaesan got a chance to attend the seasonal ceremony for worship of ancestors, where he heard a story about a moun-

tain spirit. The story inspired in him a hope that if he could meet a mountain spirit, his questions would be answered. In order to meet a mountain spirit, he climbed the Sambat Pass, 4 km from his home, every day for five years.



Searching for Spiritual Masters Failing to be answered by a mountain gpirit, Ven. Sotaesan at the age of sixteen happened to read an ancient story about a man of the highest spiritual ability. From then, throughout the next six years he searched for spiritual masters to no avail.


lli lll ill llr lt1

il il







-t;vr .{--.:}}{ *ry;*x;,!;;t

At twenty'two, gving up all his fruitless desires until then, ven. findly became absorbed in Samadhr, forgetting his surroundings.



to the ll-llton Trath In the early morning of April 18, 1916, as the light from the eastern sky drew back the dark curtain of night, Ven. Sotaesan's mind opened up and all his previous questions melted away, and he finally attained the great enlightenment after 20 years' life long effort. (The First Year of. won Great Enlightenrnent



97t 30


Rechmation of Fertile land on youngun *ore After his Enlightenment, Ven. Sotaesan reclaimed the deserted, muddy shore at Youngsan with. his devoted discip6 spending one year for the work, under the conviction that future reiigions must curtivate spirit and body together. (The Srd year of Won nudahismy




Emeqgence of the Blood.Seal Miracle

After finishing the reclamation, Ven.. Sotaesan and his nine disciples for the salvation of human beings, demonstrating their will of dying without regret for the world. This was proved by the BloodSeal Miracle of the thumbprint on white paper. (The 4th Year of Won prayed unselfishly

Buddhism, 1919)






Writhg thc Ecntiol lloctrine ol


Won Buddhism

atMt. Pyunsn

From the 5th year of Won Buddhism, Ven. Sotaesan spent four years at Mt fuunsan writing the essential doctrine which is to integrate all religious prinsiples into the ll-Won Truth.


Transmitting the Iaw Centering aro'rnd Shinyong At the ninth year of Won Buddhism (1924), in order to realize his lofty ideal, he founded the center of Won Buddhism atShinyongdong, Iri. Most of the disciples educated here were dispatched to local temples to do their religious works.

974 34

975 WON





News Corner 1.


Il-Won-Sang at Seoul Juvenile Correction Institute Seoul Parish of Won Buddhism set up Dharnta Hall at Juvenile Correction Institute, Kunpo, and held opening ceremony on of.

Jul. 16, 1988. The Dharma Hall was provided from the proceeds of

a charity bazaar of Seoul Parish after five years of preparation. 2.


of Sisterhood Relationship with Kenya paralympic

I eam

Seoul Parish of, Won Buddhism set up sisterhood relationship with Kenya Paralympic Team, invited 18 players of the team, and gave a welcoming dinner party to them at Seoul Won Buddhist Hall on oct. 15, 1988. The Parish also showed them around the famous sightseeing places in Seoul



10. Passing away into Nirr"ana

On June 1, in the twenty-eighth year of ltron Buddhism (1943), his sacred life having been devoted to delivering the people, Ven. Sotaesan entered Niryana. Three years before his passing away, he left his Dharma

l$on Buddhist Followers with Great Dharma Ranks to be Born closing the 2nd generation of Won Bu'ddhist ordqr, the l25th Supreme Council of l4/on Buddhism proclaimed the advancement of Great Dharma Ranks for 39 Devotees and 30 laity on oct. 20,


Production of Copper Plates Representing Ven. Sotaesar's Life in Relief The Commemorative Commission for Ven. Sotaesan's Sacred Achievements asked Professor Pae Hyung Srk, sculptor, to make the copper plates representing ten aspects of Ven. Sotaesan's life to be set up around the Sacred Pagoda of Ven. Sotaesan, which was completed on Oct., 1988.


The Commemorative Meeting for the Close of the 2nd Generation of Won Buddhism and General Assembly to be Held Finishing the 2nd generation of Won Buddhist Order, the Commemorative Meeting for the Sacred Achievements and '88 General Assembly of Won Buddhism were held at Munhwa Gymnasium and Won Buddhist Center separately from Nov. 5 to 7, 1988. In the former meeting, various events such as the Awarding


Being changes into Non-being,

And Non-being into Being, Turning and turning again; But in the trltimate Reality Being and Non-being are Both Void, But the Void contains everything and is perfect.

976 36



Ceremony of Dharma Merits, Inaugural Ceremony of l0th hime Master, election of the members of Supreme Council, Completing Ceremony of Sacred Pagodas of Ven. Sotaesan and Ven . Chongsan, were held, Ven. Daenn, the Prime Master, said, "In the Srd generation of the Order, we should make the most of developing the chances of the nation and world to realize the vast and immense paradise, the long-cherished ideal of Ven. Sotaesan. 6.

Won Buddhists Participate in Human Unity Conference

27 Devotees of Won Buddhism participated in Human Unity Conference in New Delhi, India,.from Nov. II to 15, 1988. In the opening ceremony, the participants, in Won Buddhist robes, presided over the prayer and delivered Ven. Daesn's message to the effect that mankind should recognize that the world's peace and happiness can come from the cooperation of all religions. 7


Won Buddhism Represented at World Fellowship Meet

Won Buddhist representatives and observers attended the general meeting of the 16th World Fellowship of Buddhists held at Fo Kwang Shan Hsi Lai Temple, Los Angeles from Nov. 9 to 26, I988. All members participant in the meeting paid silent ribute to

The members of the Supreme Council of Won Buddhism had the first meeting on Nov. 6, 1988, since the Srd generation of the Order started.



the late Ven. Soongsan , Kil Chin Park, the former director of Won Buddhist Regional Center of WFB, on Nov. 20, 1988. It was the first time the WFB conference was held in a western eountry.



"Night of llon Buddhism" Held in Frankfurt I50 Korean residents in Frankfurt, West Germany, had "Night of l4/on Buddhism" at Friedrich Dessauer Haus on Dec. 3, 1988. Im Chang Soon, the Consul of Korean Consulate at Frankfurt delivered a congiratulatory addr6ss:'uAlthough it is orily a short time since Won Buddhism came to West Germany, I am deeply impressed by the fact that Won Buddhism provides a good rest for Korean residents at Frankfurt and has gradually settled in Europe as an exemplary religion."

!t/on Buddhist participants in the Lai Temple, U.S.A..

t5th WFB

Conference at Fo Kuang Shan Hsi

Women priests of three religions, Buddhism, Catholicisnr, and Won Buddhisn, gave their joint charity recital at Hoam Art Hall, SeouJ, on Oct. 3, 1988. The newly erected sacred Pagoda of ven. sotaesan, founder of won Buddhirn.

Ttre newly erected Sacred Pagoda of Ven. Chonqsan, the first srccessor to Great Master Sotaesan.


In commemoration of the cloe of second generation of won Buddhism, celebration with a large attendance was held at Munhwa Gymnasium, wonkwang lJniversity, on Nov. 6, 1988.

Won Buddhist participants in the 15th International Human Unity Conference with Indian delegates on Nov. 15, 1988, New Delhi.

Seoul Parish Won Buddhist Devotees with the Kenya Paralympic Team at Seou.l l4Ion Buddhist Center on Oct. 15, 1988.