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$N**v 1982

VOLUME III NUMBER 8

IRI, KOREA


rl 619

618

CONTENTS

Editorial

'I'he Necessity of the Establishment Religions (U.R.)

The Dharma Words of Ven.

WON BUDDHISM

Publishedby: Research Institute for Overseas Missions

Wonk*ung

Iri City, Cholla

University

Pukdo, Korea

of the United

Kil Chin Park

8

The Cultivation of Spiritual Stability by Dr. Song Chun Eun .

11

Scientifrc Civilization and Won Buddhism by Dr. Pal Khn Chon

L4

Education of the Children of Others by Prof. Kim Nak Pil

18

Il-won'sang News

corner

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vot,.

ut

No. 8

The Great Master said, "A good mind brings forth all kinds of go' An evil mind brings forth all kinds of evil. Therefore, the mind is the source of all good and evil. From "Short Sayings" in the Canonical Textbook of Won Buddhism

WON BUDDHISM

EDITORIAL The Second Jumping of Point of Won Buddhism On the Occasion of the Inauguration ceremony of Taesan Prime lVlaster

On the ?th of November, at the Headquarters of Won Buddhism the Taesan Prime Master's inauguration ceremony, election o[' members of the Supreme Council and celebrations of Dharma Masters of high virtue. These events, which were observed on four days l'rom the 5th November to the 8th, mean that Won Buddhism has selected new members of the Administration Bureau through general clections. Through a series of meetings such as the General Missionaries Meeting on the 5th, the High Virtuous Dharma Masters' Meeting on the 6th and the joint meeting of missionaries and laymen, a whole scope of changes were brought forth: Prime Master, members of the Supreme Council, directors of both missionary administrations and inspecting office whose terms of office have been completed, were all either re-elected or changed. Especially the election of hime Dharma Master who is the supreme leader of this order drew much attentions from within and out of the Won Buddhist order because the Prime Master is supposed to take t:harge of being the spiritual support of the order and devote himself to its growth. The Prime Dharma Master Taesan who is re-inaugurated under the law of the order clearly said in his.inauguration address that the order would make an effort to train more ordained and lay missionaries in cooperation with all Won Buddhist members, prepare for the .rnification of Korea by enlarging the missionary works on the bases of lawful administration and management of each section under constitution of the order, make the system of order more effective and reasonable, regulate all arbicles of law as well as constitution of the order, open the gate of the order wider, strengthen the research planning and administration of each section, establish domestic or international training centers in and out of the country and increase the Won Buddhist parishes to increase scholarships for prominent l,hr:re was

All communications should be address to Miss Pal Khn Chon D irector, Ouerseas Missio ns

of

Won Buddhism Won Kwang Uniuersity

Korea

1982

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youths etc. The Prime I\Iaster also emphasized the importance of systematizing teaching materials for the development of the sacred tasks of deliverance. He clearly desr:rihed his intention that his order should do its best to contribute to wrrrld pea('e and happiuess. Won tsuddhism, since its late sixtieth year, has been achieving miraculous developments. tt is urrdoubtedly not only due to the perfect cooperation and great spirit of preceding members who have been leading the order but also to the principle and doctrines of Won Iluddhism which are so effective in m<>dern lives. On the occasion of this general meeting, we hoped Won iluddhism would take an opportunity to be ir-rtrospective and examine itself determined to lift itself to the deserved place of an intemational religion. First it is important for all religions to maintain the original ideals and vitality of their founders. The motive power of the development of lVon Buddhism must have been the eternal vitality of the truth which the founder had been enlightened to, and the Blood-Seal Spirit of the nine desciples who made an oath upon truth to dedicate their lives in order to realize the Great Master's Truth. In order to keep the sacred flames of "dedication of life to Truth" which were burning in the nine desciples heart, new generations who are also willing to dedicate themselves to the Truth and the development of the order must follow in succession. Secondly, Won Buddhism must maintain the public confidence which has been acquired through the spirit of "making a small thing into a geat one. " The spirit is based upon abolishing useless formalities, refraining from drinking alcohol and from smoking, ild encouraging economical life of savings. Won tsuddhism has been developing as a religion in practicai life holding up the slogan that Buddhism is practiced in life itself; as a practical Buddhism its faith and occupation has been compatible. The mind's attitude which rejects windfalls without effort and values a small thing acquired by one's own efforts more than thousands of effortless valuables, must have achieved th public confidence which has become the base of Won Buddhism. ' Thirdly, Won Buddhism has been counted as a rqligious order which has served and dedit'ated to all living beings with a spirit of selfless service and has never been led by a self-centered or familycentered concept.

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teaches to discard one's small self fostering and enlarging it to be the great self or the great host of the universe so that it may practice the matchless services for the world. It has been known that Won

It

Buddhism aims to establish one house, one family, one workshop which will bring forth a.comfortable and peaceful world by pulling down the wall of prejudices and hypocrisies. Won Buddhism has positively been marching toward an ideal society of one world, trying to increase mutual understanding in order to establish a moral square in which all religions will be able to approach closer through cooperations and understandings. It is under this spirit that Won Buddhism advocated the aspiration of organizing the United Religions. We expect Won Buddhism to make a new advancement with its basic spirits of "making a small thing into a gxeat one, " "dedication of life to the Buddhist work of deliverance " and "cooperation with one mind," which have come down from the preceding generations. Moreover, in the world today in which evil concepts of money first increase human crisis and misery, Won Buddhism has to restore the Great Master's original spirit of founding Won Buddhism. We Iook forward to the Won Buddhist great contribution in restoring the principle of religion and morality.

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The Necessity of the Establishment of the United Religions (U. R .)

The Venerable Kim Taesan, Prime Master o|Won Buddhism

A message from tht, Prime Dharnta Mast<'r o.l'llort Btttldltisrn to tlt( religiotts leaders o.f the Asiorr cttutttries

has been As one religious person, I am happy that a sincere meeting religious and religions the of many of achieved in wttich the leaders role of the discover to place one in met bodies of Asia today have I think that religion in the cause tf world peace and human happiness' time and the mentioning without history, when we look at all human precisely is spirit human of the axle the become region, that which has to say the religious spirit. In other words, it is not an exaggeration all times' ideothat at the root of the transitions in human history, at presented and logies having their source in religious spirit have been history' In this become a prime power of those iransitions in human occupied a wzry, religion has been a foundation of human existence, human ptace in history, made a great contribution [o the activit" of of furtherance culture, had many achievements in contributing to the of relief peace and made immense contributions in the cause of "'he

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human spirit. However, an unerasable stain has also been left on human history because of the mutual discord and antagonisrr of religions, nrising from the advocation by each religion of its own different doctrinal systems. I think that when one considers the fact that the original mission of religion is the furtherance of peace and happiness whieh arises from the spiritual salvation of mankind, if at even one l,irnr. in human history there has been human disaster or misery as a rr.sult of religion, all we religious people should be deeply penitent. 'l'ht. doctrines and institutions advocated by each religion can be rlifferent. However, when one considers that there can be no difference on the point of the ultimate goal aspired to by each religion's being thc salvation of mankind founded on truth and love and that since this world is one, the huth which activates this world is also one, then viewing the truth which is a fundamental of each religion, it can only be one. If such be the case, I tttink that for all religions who nspire to a genuine human salvation under one truth, the need to be able to meet earnestly, by way of an authentic single-mindedness, to cndeavor toward their common object is the very highest common rionse. Nevertheless, when one examines the present condition of t,oday's world religions, whether it be due to lirnited knowledge I <lon't know, but one comes to feel that the opposite phenomenon to this also exists. This is not only a disgrace to us religious people but (:an be none other than a misfortune to human salvation. Today's world has become smaller to the extent of being expressed as the "World Community." In a world which has become so close if there be person or nation which is bound to past customs and institutions of its own region or which stubbomly adheres to its own superiority, this, perhaps, is not a desirable appearance in line with modexn times. What's more, if religion, which has been the core of the spirit of, the possessor of the highest standard of values of all human history, cannot rid itself of this thinking and behavior, it can be none other than a great contradiction. Now, all religions must, without conditions and cxcuses, open mutual doors, talk seriously and meet as brothers. Now is the time to put our strength togethdr and endeavor for the sake of completion of the original mission of religion. I think that in fact there has never been a time in which the role of re):gion is as urgently demanded as it is today. Examining contemporary society, the striking development of scientific civilization is causing changes in this world every day. As a result of these peoples' lives are becoming bountiful

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and comfortable to a degree unimaginable in the past. In this way, although on the exterior, a dazzling development is being achieved, the interior human spirit is not yet prepared to receive and make the most of it. This kind of spirit and imbalance toward the material is causing extremely serious problems in today's world. The commonly mentioned phenomenon of change in man toward inhumanity, the fall of the human spirit resulting from the principle of the omnipotence of material things, the juvenile problem, which is becoming a great problem worldwide, the phenomenon of the destruction of nature and human nature, the transition in scientific civilization toward militarization and armament, the problems of population, natural resources and pollution which are a menace to human existence, from the most basig problem of the human spirit to the problem of the hard reality of human existence, the problems being suffered by this world are making the days ahead gloomy, like a patient who has received the' pronouncement of a limited time to live. This is not to say that one ihould be pessimistic about the future. I want to stress the fact that the kernel of the solution to these problerrs lies in religion' Contemporary religion is becoming very feeble. Amidst the enormous power of material things which covers the world, the power of the hurnan spirit is becoming weakened. But clearly our body is composed gf flesh and spirit and the flesh doesn't govern the mind but iather it is a fundamental truth that the mind governs the flesh;the act of making it such that the weakened spirit can be expanded and the material governed arrd put to proper use will become the kernel of a true human happiness and world peace. At this point, while I make an earnest appeal for all religions tc unite harmoniously to achieve this, wihout hesitation, for the sake of efficient execution of it, I present the establishment of the United Religions I think that just as in one family, for the sake of achievement of a sound family and fine rearing of the children, the father and mother raise the children with their love and enterprise, so iu the salvation of mankind and attainment of world peace, when a religion which plants in the minds of men truth, love, compassion and virtue and teaches morality for the straightening, brightening and fostering of'the spirit, and a government which by means of fair laws encourages all vocation and learning and by means of rewarding goodness and punishing evil guides humanity uprightly cooperate in harmony with one arother, hr*un happineir u,',d world puu.u will be guaranteed. But in today's

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world, the actual state of things is such that just as a family having a father but no mother, there is a governmental United Nations which is making efforts toward human happiness and peace but a religious organization serving this purpose has not yet been born. Accordingly, let all of us religious people unite harmoniously and give birth to the United Religions which will, from a positon of equality with the United Nations do the job of humanity's spiritual mother, and while we act in conjunction for the better achievement of the original object of the United Nations, let us all strive together for the salvation of the human spirit, which is the original mission of religion. This United Religions cannot, of course, come out as a religious pressure group. Appropriately organized, 6 the special representative of the religion of each nation, let's make it a combined effort performing, all activities from a religious dimension'for the sake of the promotion of human prosperity: activities of communication and friendship between religions, activities of combined education for the sake of salvation of the human spirit, activities of united service for the sake of wiping out the disease of human poverty and ignorance, acti vities for the sake of a solution to the moral problems of humanity and religious activities for the sake of prevention of war, and make it develop with love and brotherliness which are the substance of the basic spirit of religion. Just as a child lacking discretion, when given a knife, will harm himself and others but an adult having a sense of discretion puts it to good use for his own benefit and the benefit of others, so according to whether humanity becomes a humanity having a sense of discretion or a humanity lacking a sense of discretion, today's resplendent scientific civilization may someday bring to this world unlimited happiness or unlimited disaster and the destruction of humanity. Accordingly, we religious people must discern today's reality of a child lacking discretion holding a sharp knife, awaken anew to the original mission of religion and the work atread, break open the mutual barriers thus atlowing circulation and letting the comfortably wann winds of mutual life and communication blow and at the same time use all of our strength to develop and brighten that spirit through truth and morality so that all of humanity can become like adults having a sense of discretion. In this way let us devote aII our strength to build a genuine great civilized world in which the material and spiritual advance simultaneously so that all humanity can laugh and live together as one household, as brothers. _rl


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The Dharma words of venerabte

l(il chin

Park, the central

tvte|nue'oftheSupremeCouncilofWonBuddhism

(1) Religion

I know there are manY PeoPle who have comPleted Primary school through graduate school' I{owever, even though in Your

studies in school You have learned all kinds of subjects, the method of utilizing the mind was ProbablY not included. Religion is the Place where we leam ttre method of utilizing the mind. The method of utilizing the mind is the most imPortant thing

human life. '-A.mong the endeavors in the course of human life, if one knows the method to Wiiffi, use and maintain his mind and President 'of Won Kwang with learning or become "qrippua University he can carry on a technique, method of meaningful life. Therefore, a religion *hith teaches the utilizing the mind is a necessitY' to we have to listen to the good teachings of the sages' listen stability and stability mental obtain instruction is mental cultivation, in our lifestyles and improve our characters' the sake of Believing religion anA teaaing a religious lifestyle is for

in

obtaining mental stabilitY. In hii poem, the famous French lyric poet C. Baudelaire exptesses this kind of feeling: What do You like best? Father? Mother? Younger sister? No' WeIl then, what do You like best? Money? Women? Not these either' Well then, what do You like best? Clouds

!

clouds calmly passing by in the blue sky are best.

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What a leisurely time it is when white clouds pass by in the clear blue sky. There is no evil mind or gxeed or anything else there. It is just calm leisurely. Humanity, living from day to day, is tied to the emotions of hate, egoism and gteed. Our life is a thing of suffering. How would it be if we lived like calmly passing clouds, free of selfishness and worldly thoughts? It would be good to live all day long with those kind of feelings but even if this is not possible, how fine it would be to have such a time for one hour or even just a few minutes. When the mind is at leisure, that is paradise and when it is complicated, that is hell. Religion is necessary for the fosterage of this kind of leisurely thinking. Even though you are busy, if even for a short while, for the sake of fostering a clear and pure mind that is, for the sake of cultivation of spiritual stability, you will have to listen to many expositions of Dharma, come to Dharma Hall, do seated meditation, pray and spend time reading the scriptures.

(21 Original Mind

All humanity possess the same mind as that of God and Buddha. Among our human states of mind, consider the mind of parents. The mind of parents, thinking of their children is the compassionate mind of Buddha itself. The mind worrying that the children might become ill, the mind which is happy when they do well, the mind which forgives them when they do wrong, the mind which desires them to turn our well, the mind which always protects them - the mind inclined in this way is truly a compassionate and beautiful mind. One should not put forth this mind to his own children only but if one expands this mind to deal with one's neighbors, friends, others' parents, all strangers, people of other religions, people at one's place of employment, others' children, those who criticize, as well as all living things, then he is a holy man and a Buddhist. We should not think that we can only become holy men by becoming clergymen or monks. If one lives his Iife with a holy mind, one becomes a holy man and no matter how much one calls himself a clergyman, if he cannot utilize the mind of a holy man and hates others, ostracizes them and wishes their demise with a mind of repulsion, then one is a long way from being a holy man. If we correct our minds which have gone amiss and utilize our original mind just as

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is, then at all places in all endeavors we lead the life of a holy man. And world peace cannot be achieved only by asking it of devintr powers. It can only be achieved if we first purify our minds, stop hating, stop being jealous, discard greed and find peace in each of our mincls. Without effort in correcting our minds, peace will not be achieved. Killing because of religion and taking up of weapons and fighting of religious people is a truly shameful act. Religion, with new hope, must repair this mincl and make effort to retrieve the original

it

mind.

(3)

Something to Boast about to Yama, the King gf Hell

'I'he followi.tg words appear in a collection of essays by the Japanese literary personality, Daibuts Jiro. A man who was mellow with drink came to the house of a friend and lamentingly said, "l've (:ome into this world and done nothing. I've spent my rvhole life without having done anything for my household, society oi: friends. When I die and go before yama to be judged, I'll have nothing to say. I'll have nclthing to say except that I've done nothing. But in my lifetime, there is one etrdeavor that I have perf<.rrnred arclently. 'fhat is that I have returned the shoes placed in the ltathroom, just as they were before. Even when I go before Yama, I car-r definitely say this otre thing." He said this as he heaved a sigh. We are, each clne of uS, engaging in Some husiness as we live our lives. In the edui:ational world, government and public offices or perhaps in private commercial enterprise and so forth, we live our lives while doing our jobs. But these different jobs are done as matters of duty, because they afe so ordered.and for the sake of subsistence. And while we do this work, how much of it is such that we call say we could boast about it to anybody? The day will come for tls, as well, whep we are called before yama and judged. At that time, are there some wgrks about which we'll be able to say "I've done this amount of gooci works" to yama? This we will have to reflect upon. [f there are lto such works we must put forth zealous effort starting now, to do at. least a few works about which we can boast to yama.

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The Cultivation of Spiritual Stability b.t' Dr. Song Chun l:'urr

"Spiritttal Stability tneans the mental state in which the mind is clear and calm, such that it entertains neither a sense of discrimination nor attachmeut. Cultivation means that one extingtrishes the sense of

discrimination and attachment within and the mind is not outwardly attached to disturbances, so that one fosters a clear and calm spirit. " (.urtort, [)octrittt'ch. 4, section 1, "The Cultivation of Spiritual Sta-

bility."

That is, so-called the Cultivation of Spiritual Stability means cultivation and restoration of the clear and clam original mind which is free

from a sense of discrimination or attachment. We have sense organs and must live with the realities of life and thus we cannot live without discriminating; thr-rs we cannot remove our sense of discrimination. It must be viewed that the sense of discrimination we are to remove, spoken of here, means the prepossessed discriminating mind. Accordingly, the discrimination held by the person who has removed dist:rimination and who has restored the clear and calm original mind, for the sake of distinguishing the rational from the irraticlnal is not the sense of discrimination spoken of here. That can be spQken of as pure discrimination based upon r,ruâ&#x201A;Ź principles, discrimination based upon original mind, or perhaps self-nature discrimination. In the Diamond Sutra, this is expressed as the mind put forth without fixed views. This kind of discrimination based on true principles, discrimination based upon original mind is precisely a discrimination removed from dis<:rimination and thus in order to attain it, we must restore our original mind in which discrimination has been cut off. A mind of fixed views and a sense of discrimination are similar and in reality are intertwined with one another, but if we make a distinction between them, a mind of fixed views is a sense of discrimination solidified into a deep attachment to what is good and bad in some specific thing. This is also called a mind of fixed views. In this case, as well, wâ&#x201A;Ź mean a largely illegitimate, unnecessary mind of fixed views and cannot call a healthy life of taste and interests a mind of fixed views. However, no matter how much we say it is a healthy thing, if it becomes an interest or personal attachment which prevents one from performing more upright acts of importance, then it

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of fixed views. From the time we enter this world, we come to live in the world of discrimination and thus if one responds to it with too much sensitivity, he errs and sometimes causes the decline of his personality'and comes to lead an animalistic lifestyle. What is called the power of the cultivation of spiritual stability is something more than erudition. In a sense it is something distinct from erudition. Unable to win out over temporary hatred the attempting of a murder and the act of summoning one's own misfortune and the mis' fortune of the person concerned, or going astray when one shouldn't and the acts which make it impossible for one to live a life other than that of a depraved being-these are acts which are due to lack of the cultivation of spiritual stability. The cultivation of spiritual stability is not something which contributes only to alleviating errors arising from emotions. It is also necessary so that one can win out over the suffering and sadness of the spirit and live as a constructive human being. Moreover, for the sake of preventing a departing from the unchanged, natural mind, rising above the woes and cares of this world even as we live in it, we must not be lazy in our cultivation. The power of cultivation is a stabilizing strength, a strength which qlriets the uproar. Up to now, too much emphasis has been put on Samadhi and Zen Samadhi and other cultivation to which one becomes accustomed in one's spare time, such that the exquisiteness of cultivation amidst one's life has not been popularized. Needless to say, the Great Master Sotaesan, the founder of Won Buddhism did not neglect seated meditation and Calling the Name of Buddha and otherr such c:ultivation which is done during one's free time, but subtracting the sleeping hours, our life is a thing in which we are actively engaged and thus he thought it important to be devoted to cultivation in one's life. Culrivation is none other than the restoration of a clear and clam

has become a mind

mind, as stated above. If it is said that this mind is entirely one's own, then even if functioning intensely amidst affairs, the original mind is not lost. The "liven if you acc:ede to something do not dwell upon it and put forth this mincl", of the Diamond Sutra, as well, is the cultivation where by olle maintains the original mind even when confronting 'ten million cli f ferent conditions.

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'l'his method seems to be an exceedingly difficult thing but it is study by which one can advance if only put in order, rogarrlluss of whether one is active or at rest, in all circumstances, by l.lrr' farmer with his hoe, workman with his hammer, clerk with his ;rlrircus or administrator with his affairs. But one has to concentrate ()n("s effort in order to become skillful at it. If one, without resting, r'ontinues for a long time, there will be a definite change in himself, :rnrl try attending to that change will come an awareness. If one cultiv:rt,('s continuously for a long time, cuts off all worldly thoughts and ;rl,t,:rins freedom of mind, even riches and splendor cannot distract that rnind; even weapons and authority cannot make that mind yield;and :rll the Dharma is excecuted, with no obstructions and even though one l':lr:('s the vices of this world, one always attains unlimited Samadhi. Oultivation must be performed to the extent that one holds onto life, like the cleaning of a room. ;rrr irrlvantageous

.****r(**

The Great Master said, "The strong are those who can control others, but the strongest are those who can control themselves. Those who are able to control themselves can then control others."

From

"Short Sayings" in the Canonical Textbook of Won Buddhism {r*,1.***:*i.*

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Scientific Civilization and Won Buddhism

by Dr. P.K. Chon

1. Contemporary science includes cultural science, social science and natural science and thus Won Buddhist moral philosophy is in the field of cultural science. Accordingly, we are going to interpret the scientific civilization of the topic treated here, narrowly, as material civ. ilization and we are going to clarify the position of the Won Buddhist ethics on the material civilization which results from the development of contemporary natural science. Accordingly, we must clarify what the Won Buddhist ethics is. Nowell Smith has saidthat ethics include: (1) faith concerning human nature, (2) faith in relation to good and desirable things, things which perhaps, in themselves, are valuable and worthy of pursuit, (3) the rules for distinguishing between that which we should do and should not do, and the motivation for choosing the good from the bad. One major task of normative moral philosophy is the act of establishing the moral rules and the act of corroborating their rightfulness and rationality and therefore we must clarify, as well, wherethe rightfulness and rationality of Won Buddhist moral standards lies. However, the Won Buddhist system of ethics does not stop with the establishment of standards of behavior but is distinguished by the chief'object of the Won Buddhist ethics, whereby humanity, is educated by way of the moral norms. 2. The relationship between ethics and material civilization in Won Buddhism has been vividly clarified in the "Motivation Behind the Foundation of Won Buddhism" by the founder of the religion, Sotaesan. After foreseeing that the power of material things resulting from the development of material civilization forces the surrender of the human spirit and that humanity cannot avoid a life as a slave of material things, the troubles of this world becoming severe, he erected the goal of guiding aU mankind from this world to paradise and by his clarifying the true religion's 'faith and realistic morality's training method in this manner, we can see that the ethics of Won Buddhism take a teleological standpoint. The metaphore by which we can best know the relationship is that which exists between the body's health and medical care. If man had no suffering from disease, it seems he would need no medicine or doctors. After his great enlightenment, -1,4-

Sotaesan applied the slogan "As the material develops, let's develop the spirit;" the so-called material development means the advancement of material civilization just as that which exists nowadays, and spiritual development means the improvement of human ethics. This slogan means that if we human beings do not promote the advancement of human ethics, the power of the material will become like the monster Frankenstein. Accordingly, in order not to suffer the evil of material civilization, we must remodel humanity through ethics. 3. Well then, 65 years ago, did Sotaesan correctly diagnose the coming world?, And was the attitude toward the material civilization completely negative? In relation to the first question, detailed proof is not necessary. Last June, on America's CBS TV, the experts reported that even though one hints at the fact that in America, annually, more than 50,000 people lose their lives in traffic accidents, or that in the chemical industry, the water, air and earth are polluted by poisonous waste materials and that the dam age to human life is severe, contemporary large, strong nations confront each other, equipped with the type of warheads which destroy all life on earth, and that an unexpected war can occur due to an error in their intelligence computers. However, if the power of all this manufactured material, as the fruit of human intellect does not by means of a righteous morality, revive human conscience and wisdom, and thus rebuild mankind, the future of mankind will be treacherous; this is something that anybody may realize. But the danger of material civilization, as forecast by Sotaesan, lies fundamentally not in the material civilization itself so much as in the deficiency of moral conscience in the men who utilize material things. Sotaesan's position with respect to the second question is clear. He does not advocate a halt to material civilization nor a restoration

of primitive society, but rather orders a perfect development of

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terial civilization and moral civilization and advocates the construction on earth of a paradise, rich both materially and spiritually. While he analogized the society in which material civilization alone advances while parched in morals to a cripple who is healthy physically but diseased in the spirit, and the society which is developed in its moral civilization and without material civilization to a cripple who is sound in spirit but diseased in the body, he said that between the two, neither may be absent; here the attitude of the Won Buddhist toward material

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is clarified. civilization -' -E;;ever, in the society deficient in human ethics and morals an weapon exceedingly developed material civilization is like a destructive thing. dangerous a thus and in the hands of a cirild having no discretion conscience and wisdom the Accordingly, in the Won Buddhist ethics, put to proper must be developed by which material civilization can be religion. of strength use and this is pushed with the won Bud4. Well then, what is the won Buddhist ethics? In the erected ideal the realize wp that condition dhist ethics, it is a necessary just the is This beings. all saves which by sotaesan of a medicinal world Among disease. specific for a medicine same as prescribing the correct the six diseases oi tftit world diagnosed by Sotaesan, there are those which must be treated right away. The disease of the decline of ethics and morals arising from a discarding of the principles of righteoy:'9:t' for the sake of LUtaining the money needed to enjoy oneself; the and family; disease of quarrelsome resentment and hate of individuals reachegoism's from public interest of of spirit lack the disease of the not are diseases other and these if that diagnosed ing an extreme; he perilous' be will humanity of cured the future The treatment for these diseases which will make a healthy world is precisety the Won Buddhist rnorality' In defining morality, sotaesan divides it into way and virtue; performing urrv act equitably is called wrY lrd tha!. called virtue is the way means the appearance of benefits in any act. In heaven there performed bV heaverr; on earth, the way performed by earth; in mankind, the waY Performed hY mankind' Atso that which appears when people perform the way which they must is called virtue, and when parents, children, inferiors and superiors, husbands and wives, friends and siblings perform the ways which exist between them, the virtue of each appears. Accordingly, that which is called training in realistic morality in won Buddhism, is peoples' performance of those ways which must be suitably performed as parents, children, inferiors and superiors, husbands and wives, friends and siblings, causing the appearance everywhere of benefits, that is vrtue, and by doing such, constructing paradise for individuals, families, societies, nations and the world. Sotaesan divided these ways of performing any acts equitably into the ways which niust be performed by anyone, as a human being, and as the moral t'hiof object which can perform those ways' the major work of Study

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to educate mankind. b. There are 30 items of prohibition to regulate the behavior of Won Buddhists and 22 articles of appropriate behavior which must be put into practice, the latter of which are elucidated in the Articles of Requital of Grace of the Four Graces. The act of requital of gtaces in the Four Graces, that is Grace of Heaven, Grace of Parents, Grace of Brethren, Grace of Law, is the religious and moral obligation of Won Buddhists. The performance of that duty is achieved through practical application of the Articles of Requital of Grace.

The Great Master said, "Not all of scientific studies are constantly in use. On the other hand, however, the study of how to use the mind is constantly used. Therefore, the study of how to use the mind is basic to all scientific studies."

From "Short Sayings" in the CanonicalTextbook of Won Buddhism

I I l( I* *

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WON BUDDHISM

II,'ON BLIDDHISA,I

Education of the Children of Others b), Prol'. Kim Nak Pil

Even though they are someone else's children, doing everything in one's power to educate them, just as though they were one's own children is the meaning of Education of the Children of Others. In the C'onon, the principle of the Education of the Children of Others is clarified. "If the educational system is limited, or if the idea of education does not transcend the boundary of oneself and others, world civilization will be retarded. In order for all brethren to be endowed with a blessed life, the public is to educate all younger generations, expanding the educational organizations and abolishing the boundary between oneself and others." Here we can see that education is the prime mover of the development of civilization. The Master Jeong-San has said, "Education is the source of evolution of the world, the foundation of the civilization of man and the prosperity and decline, rise and fall of the individual, family, society and nation is controlled by proper or improper education." When it is said that the world which Won Buddhism aspires to is the Great Civilized World, dependent upon spiritual civilization, (Dlwma Wortls, "Administration") the importa.nce of education is clear. However when the educational system is insufficient and educators cannot transcend the boundaries in their spirit, the beneficial effects of education are iessened and civilization stagnates. This point is clarified in the Conon in "The Defect of the Education of

" 1. Government and society did not make a positive effort

tl-te Past.

or offer inducements for educaton 2. I'he educational system was constructed so that neither the female nor the lower class could even think of being educated 3. There were few educated people who used their learning for the benefit of the public. 4. Because of the inconvenient organization of public opinion and communication, opinions on education were rarely exchanged. 5. As the idea of education did not transcend the boundary of or-reself and others, men of property, if they had no children, tried in vain only to have children and missed opportunities to educate people, while poor men, though they were eager to educate their children,

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were unable to do so, owing to financial problems, and also missed the opportunity to educate other people. Two directions are presented for the transcendence of these defects and the realization of the spirit of Education of the Children of Others. The first is the will to change those who cannot tc.ach into gooti teachers. The Discourses o.l' thc Cr<'at llustt'r' desilnates the disease:

of not knowing how to teach as one of the major diseases of

contemporary society. Human civiiization has tleen transmitted and by way of teaching and learning. However if the person who has learned something does not in turn teacl^ this knowledge but only uses it for the sake of his selfish desire for existc,nce the imbalance and disease of society deepen. Mencius als.r spoke of the mission of the pioneers to teach the followers and advocated the mutual relationship in teaching and learning of the pioneers and followers. Especially, the phenomenon of discrimination in the world, arising from the differences between today's advanced and underdeveloped nations may be regarded as a major factor in the stagnation of contemporary civilization. All of this, as that which stems from the disease of not knowing how to teach is hecoming a cancerous, major factor in the inability of human evolution to become a more boundlessly creative evolution. Eventually the mission to teach must become institutionalized in the society and nation. This is clarified in the Cunort. 1. At this time when the defects of education are being removed. one must help educational organizations to educate children whether or not one has children, or if possible, one is to educate as many of the children of others as possible, with the idea that they are one's own children. 2. A nation and society must establish a wide variety of educational organizations and must educate with a positive effort. 3. In religious orders, societies, nations and the world, the one who practices the articles of the education of the children of others must be honored and respected in accordance with his meritorious developed

deeds.

The meaning included in these concrete artieles of practice is the opening of the opportunity to learn to everyone, the encouragement of all who have learned something to 6evote themselves for the good of society, and the necessity for all institutions to be set up so that they in turn teach the younger generation. As the so-cailed regeneration of

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67t

670

WON BUDDHISM

WON BUDDHISM

civilization, it is the measure of the level of any society. the The Education of the children of others achieves especially the to turn' spirit of the Wise Man First. For an individual to teach' in humane a of extent that he has received the benefits of the achievement principle life through his personal education is at the same time the individual's an of Requital of braces and the reform measure for the improventire life environment. Education is not for the sake of ment of individual conditions of existence but must be inclined toward of the the universal realization of truth by all mankind. If the spirit course the realized, Education of the children of others is completely of the <:reativity of mans' civilization will open to humanity countless' limitless possibilities.

A Study of Won Buddhism Doctrine Il-Won-Sang

, /;i#

1)

:Iif ?;:|/|';iiI u,,, * u

The Truth of Il-lVon-Sang

Il-Won is the origin of all beings in the universe, the mind-seal of all Buddhas and saints, the original Nature of all living beings, the state in which there is no difference between the Absolute Unity and its Components or between Being and Non-Being, the state in which there is no change of coming and going of birth and death, the state in which Cause and Effect of good and evil cease, and the state in which words and forms with irame are absolutely devoid of content. According to the light of Abstruse Wisdom in the Void, the difference between the Absolute Unity and its Compc,nents and between Being and Non-Being appears, and from this results the difference of Cause and Effect of good and evil; words and forms with name are apparent, with the result that the whole universe appears as distinctly as a jewel held in one's palm, and the infinite capacity of the Absolute Void and Abstruse Being appears and disappears freely through all beings in the Universe for eons. This is the Truth of Il-Won-Sang,

2l

Belief in Il-Won-Sang To believe in Il-Won-Sang is to believe that the Truth of Il-Won. Sang is the origin of all beings in the universe, that it is the mind-seal of .all Buddhas and saints, that it is the original Nature of all living beings, that it is the state in which there is no difference betwc,en the Absolute Unity and its Components or between Being and NonBeing, that it is the state in which there is no change of coming and going of birth and death, that it is the state in which Catrse and Effect <lf good and evil cease, and that it is the state in which words and forms with name are absolutely devoid of content. It is to believe that from that state of Void, according to the light of the Abstruse Wisdom in the Void, the difference between the Absolute l-inity and its Components and between Being and Non-Being appears, and front this results the difference of Cause and Effect of good and evil. Words

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673

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WON BUDDHISM

WON BUDDHISM

and forms with name are apparent, with the result that the whole universe appears as distinctly as a jewel held in one's palm, and the infinite capacity of the Absolute Void and Abstruse Being appears and disappears freely through all beings in the universe for eons. Ttris is the belief in Il-Won-Sang.

3)

The Practice of Il-Won-Sang T5e practice of lt-Won-Sang consists in believing in it and in knowing one's own mind, which, like II-Won-Sang, is absolutely perfect and impartial. One must develop one's mind to be as absolutely perfect and impartial as Il-Won-Sang. One must use one's mind perfectly and with strict impartiality by believing in the Truth of II-Won-Sang and by keeping Il-Won-Sang as the standard of practice. This is the Practice

of Il-Won-Sang.

4l

The Vowing Words to ll-Won'Sang

Il-Won is the inexpressible realm of Samadhi; the gate of birth and death that transcencis Being and Non-Being; the origin of Heaven and Earth, of Parents, of Brethren, of Law; and it is the Nature of all Buddhas, patriarchs, ordinary persons, and of all living beings. Il-Won can form both permanence and transience. Viewed. as permanent, it exists throughout eternity and has developed infinite worlds. Viewed as transient, Il-Won so affects the boundless world as to change the formation, continuity, decay, ffid void of the Universe, and the birth, old age, illness, and death of all things; and it has all the Four Forms of Birth transformed through the Six Paths according to the conduct of their minds and bodies, so that they either follow the progressive way or fall into a retrogressive maze; or they are occasionally favored by harm, or hatmed by favor. We, as deluded beings, therefore vow that we shall not cause ourselves to retrogress nor be harmed, but instead will progress and be favored through our sincere training to keep our minds and bodies perfect, to know Facts and Principles perfectly, and to use our minds and bodies perfectly, until, following IlWon-SanB, we at last acquire the gfeat power of Il-Won and become one with the Reality of ll-Won.

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5)

The Dharma Words of Il-Won-Sang

When one is enlightened

to the Truth of this Won-

Sang, there follows the awareness that the entire universe is one's own property; that all things in the univers are not two but one, although everything has its separate name; that Won-Wang is the Nature of all Buddhas, a1l patriarchs, all ordinary people, and all living beings; that the Principle of birth, old age, illness, and death is like the change of spring, summer, fall, and winter; that the Principle of Cause and Effect is like the

principle of the alternation of the negative and positive forces (YinYang in Chinese) in the universe; and that Won-Sang is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

o o o o o o

This Won-Sang is

to be used when one uses one's eyes;

it

is absolutely perfect and

it

is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

it

is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

it

This Won-Sang is to be used when one uses one's nrouth; is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

it

is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

strictly impartial.

This Won-Sang is to be used when one uses one's ears; This Won-Sang is to be used when one uses one's nose;

This Won-Sang is to be used when one uses one's body; This Won-Sang is to be used when one uses one's mind; it is absolutely perfect and strictly impartial.

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675 671

WON BUDDHISX,I

WON BUDDHISM

2)

News Corner

We welcome a new member to staff at the Won Buddhism magazine,

our

Brian LYndon SPear. He joins us as a proof reader. Mr. SPear was born and grew uP in Victoria, Texas and still calls it home' After graduating from The University of Texas at Austin with a B'A' in History he joined the U.S. Peace Corps in 1979 ot a cold April day he found himself "rd in Korea. In Korea he sPent two Years in the Spear Lydon Brian Mr. Yong In County Health Center working patients with Hansen's Disease patients. His work involved helping the and care medical minor in following their medicine regimen, performing patients are Disease teaching ways of preventing injuries that Hansen's a to patients reluctant get often the susceptible too. He also tiiea to he time this All treatment. rrosipital when they needed to go for major duty studied the tangUage and culture of Korea. When his tour of down settle to ready he wasn't ended in the ,rr--"r of 1gg1 he knew in the U.S.A.

After a visit home Mr. Spear returned to Korea in December 1981 and took a job at Yon Sei University Foreign Language Institute in months' Seoul, Korea where he taught English conversation for eight to more had life country life convinced him that Korean Big Kwang Won "ity at work to chance offer in the way of culture, so when the University in Iri City become available he applied and was accepted' In this way he comes to us at the Won Buddhism magazine and we hope he has a good stay here. Not knowing much about the won gudahist faith rre ttrint<s that working for the magazine will be a great way to learn.

1)

The First General Meeting of the l'lon Moral Alliance

The directors of branches of the won Buddhist Believers' Society Moral Alliance throughout the country met and organized the Won and last July held the First General Meeting'

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The Next Session of ACRP to be Held in Korea

From Nov. 6-11, Won Buddhist Year 66, the ACRP Meeting was held in New Delhi, India. From our religious body, Dharma Master Park Gwang Jeon, the central member of the Supreme Council of Won Buddhim and Chon Pal Khn, Director of the International Administration were in attendance. They put forth the desiro to hold the next session in Korea and distributed the Proclamation and Prospectus of the United Religions, proposing its establishment. 3

)

Won Kwang Uniuersity Research Institute Thought ScholarshiP Meeting

of

Won Buddhist

On July 18, the third scholarship meeting of the Research Institute of Won Buddhist Thought attached to Won Kwang University was held at the Seoul Newspaper Assembly Hall.

4) National University Students' Requitat of Kindness

and Train-

ing Session

For 6 days and 5 nights, from August 15-20, the National University Students' Alliance held the First Requital of Kindness and Training Session at Cholla Bukdo, Busan Goon, Sannae Myeon, Byeonsan Sacred Grounds.

5)

Seoul Parish Public Service Association Charity Bazaar

From Oct. 6-'l , for two days, the Seoul Parish Public Service Association held the Fifth Requital of Kindness'Bazaar at the sight of construction of the new Seoul Assembly Hall and met with great success.

6) llon Kwang University

Students' National Defense Corps

Lecture on Buddhist Meditation.

On Nov. 13, under the auspices of the Won Kwang Urriversity Students' National Defense Corps Religious Sections, for the sake of deep understanding of Won Buddhism, a lecture and seminar was held on the subject of Buddhist Meditation.

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677

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WON BUDDHISM

WON BUDDHISM 7

)

Advocation

of the United Religions

9

Park Gwang Jeon, Dharma Master and Chon Pal Khn, Director of the International Administration were dispatched to New Delhi, India for the ACRP Meeting from last Nov. 6-L2 and they made widely known the motives of advocation of formation of the United Religions (U.R.) which can be the crux of world peace and act alongside the U.N. playing the mother's role. They pressed for the ag"reement and cooperation of each nation.

8)

)

Veneration

of Buddha and Construction of the New lri

Parish

Headquarters

The Ceremony of Veneration of Buddha and Dedication of the Newly Constructed Iri Parish Headquarters and Dharma HalI was celebrated on October 25, Won Buddhist Year 66 with the Prime Dharma Master and many guests present. The buildirg, with 5 floors plus a basement floor and a total floor space of 660 pyeong, built on a plot of ground 425 pyeong in area was newly opened through the ability of enlightenment.

W. F. B.

Sign-ilangirtg CeremonY

For the sal(e of ge' nuine performance of its duty, our religious bodY, which was formallY accepted into the W. F. B. at its 13th meeting in November, Won Buddhist

10)

Year 65, hung the sign "W. F. B., Won Buddhist Headquarters" in the en-

Free lledical Care for the Festival of the Great Enlightenment and b'orma-

rion of the Order In harmony with the Festival of the Great

trance hall on the camPus

in a Sign-Hanging Cere-

mony on Feb. 10, Won Buddhist Year 67.

Enlightenment and Forma-

tion of the Order, during April and May of Won

Buddhist Year 67 , the Won Kwang University Hospital, Hospital of Oriental Medi-

cine and Dental Center offered free medical care to those of villages with no rnedical facilities.

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WON BUDDHISM

WON BUDDHISM

I I ) General Meeting of Researc'lt in lilon Buddhist Titought

The First General Meeting of Research in Won Buddhist Thought was held for two days on Feb. 2-B in the University Dharma Hall under the auspices of the Research Institute of Won Buddhist Thought (Director: Ven. Park Gwang Jeon).

13) Pubtic Performance of the Play "sotaesan, the Great Master"

In April, the month of the commemorative celebration of the Festival of the Great Enlightenment and Formation of the order, a public performance was made in the Busan Citizens' HaIl of the play "Sotaesan, the Great Master." This first dramatization of the life history of the Great Master was performed under the production of Mr. Seog Cheol Woo and the performers were members of the Busan Parish University Students' Alliance.

12) Formation of the |lton Buddhist Charity Center At Won Buddhist Central Headquarters, in realization of the Prime Dharma Master's ideology of a medicinal world whicb rescues all life and grounded on the spirit of embodiment of the national administraticns' guidepost of a welfare state, the Won Buddhist Charity Center was formed and last Dec. 1, m opening ceremony was held.

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Vol-3-No-8