Page 1










WON KWANG UNIVERSITY Iri Citt1, Cholla Pukdo, Korea


Editor's Note The Prime Master's Half-Centennial Adtlress Commemorative Address

A Declaration of Objectives for the Future The Direction of Religion in the Future and \Yon Buddhism 13

Proof of the Experience of IL-WON-SANG bq Prof. Yoo Byung-Duk


Approaches Toward One World by Reo. Lce Kong-leon


The General Characteristics of Won Buddhism by



Song Chun-Eun

No. 3




Ptblished by:

by Dr. Richard A Gard



october, 1977, was a month that will long be remembered by Won Buddhists everywhere, as it was the period which marked the Half-Centennial Commemoration of the Founding of Won The month was filled with religious events and festivities at the Central Headquarters in Iri, the Conference Center in Seoul, and at the sacred lands surrounding Won Buddhism's birthplace in Ryong Kwang, South Cholla Province. Over 50,000 people attended the celebrations. The Half-Centennial actually marked fifty-flve years of achieve: ment for Won Buddhism. It was intended first of all to pay tribute to the many people who struggled so hard from those difficult years in 1916 right up until the present to -help the Order achieve - It was also designed to the position of importance it occupies today. declare dramatically Won Buddhism's objectives for the future. To this end, last Oetober and the months preceeding it saw the completion of several major undertakings, among them construetion of the new, expanded Central Headquarters in Iri, the convention center in Seoul, restoration of the sacred lands in Ryong Kwang, and compilation and publication of Won Buddhist literature in English, Japanese, and Chinese. One of the major themes of the commemoration was the need for expanding and coordinating efforts for bringing Won Buddhism's message to all the peoples of the world. We were fortunate to have as guests for the events in Iri several representatives of Buddhist organizations in Japan and the United States, as well as several representatives from the traditional Buddhist Order in Korea, Chogyechong. (This delegation was led by the late, Venerable Chongdam. who passed away this November). From the U.S. came Dr. Riehard A. Gard, Assistant General Secretary of the World Fellowship of Buddhists and Director of Institute Services of the Institute for Advanced Study of World Religions; from Japan came Mr. Nakayama Ryuen, former editor-in-chief of the Bulckyo T'imes, and Mr. Ikeda Aeiki, representing the World Buddhist Association of Japan. The texchange of views of future efforts for international cooperation among Buddhists was both stimulating and valuable for all concerncd. It is to be hoped that a firm basis was established for the future I)rogress of these efforts. My own personal regret concerning the Half-Centennial activities was that more of our members and friends in other countries were rrot rubout to participate in some way in the commemoration. There-





fore, this issue of won Buddhism is designed primarily to share


the Half-Centennial observance. To do this we hive included some of the addresses that were delivered during the commemoration, as well as some pictures of the newly-completed headquarters in Iri. r must offer my apologies for the Iong Iag between issues of this magazinq For the past year I have been olcupied with transIating the Canonical Textbook of Won Buddhism llhe Won pttlkyo Karrrr asic texts of 'W'on Buddhism, and we feel that its appeaflance in English will do much to spread knowledge about Won Buddhism and its teachings throughout the world. It is our hope that the textbook, appearing as it did in conjunction with the Half-Centennial, will become a foundation for increased international activities for won Buddhism. rn this regard, I arn also hopeful that Won Buddhism magazine


abroad. By increasing the length and frequency of the issues, I hope to make it a forum for exchanges of opinion about Won Buddhism and religion in general, for the use of our readers throughout the world. Contributions are earnestly solicited and will be greatly appreciated. Beginning with the next issue, I hope that Won Buddhism will become a genuine journal of informed opinion, and that for our members and friends in other countries it will be a firm link between their own lives and the teachings of Won Buddhism.

The Great Master said, "Men of moral training seek to know what the mind is and how to acquire freedom of mind, what the principle of birth and death is and how to transcend it, and what the principle of sin and blessedness is and how to control it."

Yen. Taesan, the Prime Master of Won Buddhism.

The Great Master said, "To be enlightened to one,s own Nature is to be ]ike a millionaire who has not been aware of the extent of his holdings but who finally becomes aware of his wealth. To utilize one's Nature may be compared to a man who recognizes the extent of his holdings which have been taken over by other people, but who finally regains ownership by trying every method."

from Section 71; Short, Sagings itt, The Ca,nonical Tertbook of Won Btddhism

from Section 7;

The Principle of the Ori,ginal Nature in The Cononical Tentbook of Won Buddhi,sm








It has already been a half century since the Great Master began the Order of Won Buddhism with the eternal wish of saving the multitude in the great cultured world to come. We have gathered at this plaqe to reflect upon the historical significance of this time and to commemorate the occasion in order to reaffirm the position of our Order as a worldwide religion. This ceremony was made possible today owing to the ardent foilowers in and out of the Order who have served physically, spiritually, and materially for this half-centennial eommemoration task. I dare say that at this point the Order is taking a great step forward. Therefore, those who have worked so very hard to bring about this commemoration event are to be congratulated and thanked. While I praise highly the invaluabtre service eaeh of you have given, I would Iike to emphasizethat the root of the Order must be strengthened more and more in order that our task of salvation may continue forever with effective results. As you all know, a tree without a deep root will not thrive, and a building without a firm foundation will not stand long. Likewise, the great task of the Order will not bear good fruit without fostering its root firmly. The root of the world Iies in morality; the root of morality lies in the religious order; the root of the religious order lies in Buddha; and the root of Buddha lies in cultivation of the spir,it. Therefore, the only way to save the world through morality lies naturally in cultivating the spiritual power rooted in the Great Way of II-Won, and which in turn acts as the root of the Order and the world. There are three ways to cultivate this spiritual power. The first is to secure the power of moderation through the Threefold Trainings. Even though skyscrapers are built higher every day, if the spiritual power of mankind is not heightened our life will be threatened with fear and anxidty. Therefore, we must make diligent efforts in the Cultivation of Spiritual Stability so that we may lie in eternal peace and security. Even if million^g of electric lights are Iit in every corner of the world, if the wisdom of mankind does not shine brighter our minds will fall into dark abyss in spite of the nightless quarters of cities. Therefore, we must make diligent efforts in the study of Facts and Principles so that we may brighten our minds with the Iawful light. Even as means of transportation develop every day through land, sea, and sky, if the human mind Ioses its standardized ways of Iiving we will wander in a maze and on a wicked road. Therefore we must make diligent efforts in the Selection of Right Conduct, so that we


may gain the power of practicing the middle way with firm purpose. We will become the true owners of the scientific culture only through the Threefold Trainings. The seconcl rvay of cultivating spiritual power is to obtain the power of inspiration through a life of gr,atitude. Throughout our lifetime we are blessed with the Grace of Heaven and Earth, which offers us Iimitless graee with no notion or ideas. Therefore, in order to return the blessings, we must pattern our lives after the thoughtfree ways of Heaven and Earth so that we may use our mind, body and materials with no notion of service. AIso, throughout our Iives we are blessed with parental love. Our parents offer us endless benevolence through love and sincerity and through prayer and teaching in raising us while we are helpless. Therefore the way to return the benevolence is to pattern our lives after the parental way of looking after the old, the young, and the sick. Throughout our lives, we get the most help from our fellow countrymen. They grant the grace of cooperation through which the institutions of the scholars, the farmers, the artisans, and the merchants as well as the living and nonliving thingS depend on one another. Therefore, the way to repay the grace is to pattern our lives after the way of cooperation among our fellow countrymen in getting along with men and things.

Finally, throughout our lives we get great protection from

Iaws. The Iarv grants the graee of protection so that 11'e may IiVe in peace morally, politically, and scientificallv as we train ourselves and strirre to improve our daily lives. Therefore, the way to repay the Grace of Law is to pattern our Iives after lawful protection and abide by the precepts. Our bodies are public property endowed with the above Four Graces, and therefore we must not betray the graces but reward them with gratitude. Then there will appear the power of inspiration, and everything will work out well ; we shall beeome the key persons for creating peace. The third way of cultivating spiritual power is to exhibit the power of equality throrigh the harmonious practice of the Four Essentials. Since the peace of mankind is rooted in respecting other's human rights, ancl human risht is rooted in the practice of self-reliance, we must not discriminate bet'n'een men and women or among different races, but only endeavor to secure spiritual self-reliance, physical self-support, ancl economic self-maintainance so that we may enjoy the equality of human rights and eventually the realization of world peace.

Since the improvement of mankind is brought through the develop-



2t0 WON



ment of knowledge, and bright human life is secured through sincere learning, we must work together, in keeping up with learning in such areas as ethics, science, art, everyday life, etc., so that the life of mankind may develop eternally without regression. Since the civilization of mankind is developed and transmitted through education, and since the value of the enlightened lies in teaching the"followers, we must cooperate with each other in developing education and in encouraging Iearning through spirit, body, and material things so that we may bring about a civilization and live eternally in the righteous world. Since the world is of one household and mankind of one family, each of us must practice the Four Essentials faithfully so that we m,ay be the key persons in exhibiting the power of equality and building a utopia in the world. As we wish to spread eternally the bright ray of II-Won aII over the u,orld, we must acquire and develop for ourselves the power of moderation through the Threefold Trainiilgs, the power of inspiration through the requital of the Four Graces, and the power of equality through the practice of the Four Essentials so that we may strengthen the root of the order and utilize it as the tonic for saving the multitude. Then, and only then, numerous saints and Buddhas will appear who will serve in turn in developing the strength of the Order and in saving the multitude for eternity. I sincerely wish and pray on this occasion of the Half-Centennial Commemoration of Won Buddhism that all of us within and outside the Order, all of our fellow men, all the natives of the nation, and indeed all mankind may unite as one for the realization of this great task of bringing a utopia to this world. The Truth is One, The World is One, AII people are members of One family, The world is the place of work for One purpose, Let us develop the world of Il-Won.


COI}IMEMORATIVE ADDRESS delioered by Dr. Kil Chin Park, Chairrnan of the Commemoration Ccimmtttee

Distinguished visitors and guests who have come all this way to attend our Half-Centennial; fellow adherents of both the Iaiety and priesthood who have spared no efforts for this occasion; and ladies and gentlemen: It is my great honor to extend my hearty welcome and thanks to all of you. Today the countries of the world are seeking ways for co-existencg, putting aside their self-righteous assertion,s, Drrd scienee has niade it possible for men to drive a vehicle on the moon's surface while we watch it here on earth. But all countries on earth are still placing their trifline interests before the common g:ood of mankind, and highlr developed science is not utilized for peaceful purposes but is mobiliie[ for a formidable nuclear arms race which is greatly threatening the


are seeking onry expediency, Iettins materiar eiviIization overwhelm their spirit, which is tike putting the cait before the horse, and are thus bringing about the traqedy of men losing theii selves. Although some privileged classes and societies benefitted bi material civilization are Ieading an affluent life, the majority of mankind is still groaning under ignorance, poverty, and disease. Moreover, even religions which are supposed to be spiritual pillars of aII mankind have lost their influence and have degenerated into unhealthy dogmas depending chiefly on chance and superstitious miracles, standing- aloof from our practical life. It was about fifty-five years ago that the late, Great Venerable Sotaesan, who attained Buddhahood in Ryong Kwang, Cholla-namdo, Korea through arduous self-training, began to advocate a religion that would contribute to human life, holding aloft the slogan, "As material civilization develops, cultivate spiritual morality." In order to connect the religion closely with our practical life. he opened a wide path of belief that all are incarnations of the Buddha and, therefore, we must do all things as offerings to the Buddha, and a great way of spiritual training requiring us to practice meditation at all times, regarding- every place as a Dhyana hall. He taught us to build up harmonious character by perfecting both our body and mind, by devoting ourselves both to the study of Buddha Dharma and to practical works, and by developing both science and ethics together. Thus he founded Won Buddhisffi, & new religion fof

-7 -





mankind, on the basis of a belief in truth and in practical moral training, which is most suitable for our new age. Won Buddhism has since b-een steadily carrying out its rriission oienlightening and educating tlre masses, and developing various charitable activilies through all the vicissitudes of this world. w'e are noy_carrying out, one by one, the grand tasks of building o_ne world, the ideal of all mankind, throngh various organizations of the adherents numbering almost one million, about ZOO branch temples and 50 institutes at honre and abroad, and through a missionary network extending to about 30 foreign countries. Half a century may be a short period of time. But, during that short period, we have achieved a great deal in reforming our society. We meet here tod'ay to bequeath our shining history -and brilliant achievements to our posterity. We are gatheied here today to pray for further progress for our Order, and to unite our grand efiorts to build a paradise on earth, the ardent wish of all mankind. Distinguished visitors and guosts: I appeal to you to extend unstinting support and cooperation to us so that we may realize our humble yet ardent wishes. Fellow adherents: I appeal to all of you, on this occasion, to double your efforts and devotion to make won Buddhism a great, universal religion. Thank you.

the ultimate standpoint they are all directed to the same purpose of developing our lives. Despite mutual opposition, they can help Iead us to the common purpose of developing, if properly used. Therefore, all are doing the same work and in the same place, this one world. Consequently, we believe that the time in which we live demand that religions, nations, and rulers of the world unite their power as one family so as to realize a world of co-existence and mutual prosperity. Friendship and kinship among nations and races is the most urgent requirement, and rulers and workers in different parts of the world must collaborate for the purpose of furthering human welfare. Therefore, we hereby resolve that we shall work to build 'a new world in collaboration with other religions and other workers seeking a better world, with the one purpose of promoting human welfare. RESOLUTIONS: 1.


October 8, the 56th year of trVon Buddhism. o rr.



The Truth is one. AII things emanate from this one Truth. The important mission of seeking the one ultimate Truth must be carried out by every religion and moral order, so that woricl peace and happiness for human beings misht be realized. In spite of different doctrines and methods of propa.gation, religions are, in essence, rooted in an ultimate Truth which is central to all of them. The world in which we live is also one. Contemporary civilization is gradually conquering the universe ancl is leading us to one world, beyond the boundaries of East and west and between nations. All human beings are one famii)'. lururry different races and cultures live in the world, but the source of Iife is the same. There are in the world many different works being undertaken by different persons, nations, races, and ideologies, but viewed from



Conscious of the principle of unity among religions, among workers seeking to build a better world, and among all human beings, we resolve to become agents for achieving world peace and freedom among the races of humanity. We resolve to combine our efforts to achieve a world of order and peace through the elimination of poverty and the furthering of human rights, as well as through an end to the arms race and the elimination of pollution on this planet. 'W'e resolve to increase our efforts to realize the peaceful unification of our divided nation, based on fostering independent national power. We shall also seek to foster in our country a spiritual movement worthy of world-wide acceptanee. :W'e reslove to further our efforts to promote cooperation among religions in both religious and secular tasks through international associations of religions. In conjunction with this, we reslove to make our Iives one with religion, through faith in a religion of Truth and through the discipline of practical morality. On the occasion of the Half-Centennial Anniversary

of the Founding of Won Buddhism, in the 56th year of the Won Buddhist era.






Deootees and follouers entefing Headquarters obseroarae.

Won Kuang Unioersity October 8, 1971

fot the Half'Centennful

tlcncral Meeting of Won Dharma

Won Buililhist Half-Centennial commemoration ceremony helil at Won Koang Unioersity on October



It'achers throughout Rorea in the aunal;o Contntemoration lldl at Ilaadquarters.

tlitorium of the

October 10, 1971


Dr. Richard A. Card addresses the alf:g srll.rnial conoocation.







pfinrc Master Tar,.san (the fourth from left) and Rers,. S;o;,i;;" (D;. Kil chin Park, the olmir;tttttt of the supreme council; the third front. left) and, other ntembe r,r oI tlrc sultrcnie council of wotr Buddhisnt. are read,y to open the Yong Mo Shrine.

whic H alf -C

in entennial

C om m

entor ation.



Riclwrd A. Card

This topic is timely and important. We are all interested in the direction of religion in the future and how Won Buddhism ean help make this a happier and more peaceful world. These are important matters awaiting bur attention, but they are also difficult to determine and describe. In the world today, there are many forms of religions and innumerable religious groups, organizations, and institutions. How can we know their eommon direction ? IVon Buddhism is a dynamic movement in Korean and world Buddhism which has been developing and expanding for fifty-five year,s. How can we know its future participation in world religious trends ? Because of the importance of this complex subject and in spite of these difficulties of analysis, I would like to offer several views for your consideration. How should we understand and define the nature of religion? The usual cone,eption, now current, is that "religion" is a body of organized beliefs and practices by men coneerning supra-human ideals or power. This notion is essentially Western in origin, dating fr',om the European Renaissanee and developed particularly since the early 19th century. In Asia, about one hundred years ago, the terms for "religion" and "philosophy" were coined first in Japanese and thereafter in Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese. as well as Such a view of religion now tends to regard Buddhis;m Christianity, Hinduism, fslam, and Judaism for example - as merely - and more one institution among' many in society. But traditionally fundamentally considered, Buddhism has been a whole culture or integrating way of life and thought in many societies, just as have Christianity, Hinduism, fslam, and Judaism. The point to be noted here is that formerly in traditional society Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, fslam, and Judaism all functioned similarly in the daily lives of many peoples, and nowadays in contempor,ary society they have mueh in common as institutions competing with political, economic, social, and other institutions. The bbsic question is whether these so-called religions in the future will become isolated institutions in national societies or can become more civilizing forees in world society. In the first case they will share common difficulties; in the seeond case Won Buddhism can make a substantial contribution because it is primarily concerned about human values and




2t8 219


welfare according to Buddhist ideals and conduct and not institutional formalism. The present problems and future needs of the world in which we live together are countless, but three basic problems and needs may be mentioned here for our consideration. The first is the universal need for the right knowledge and right conduct of men as responsible human beings. In short, --u, must humanly cultivate himself. This task will require an increased study and improved practice of the humanistic and social seiences, inellding ethics. The second is the universal need for the right understandinl by man abottt, and the right functioning of, the natural environment-. In short, m,an must_naturally enlighten trimsett. This task will require increased study and improved practice of the material or physicai sciences, including ecology. And the third is the universal need for the true comprehension !.y -*n about, and the proper exercise of, the interdependent relationship between man and Nature. fn short, man religiously realizte and perfect himself in relation to all forms of life. tfris iask will require an increased study and practice of philosophy and religion, and particularly the wholehearted understanding ^urra cooperation am,ong Buddhists, Christians, Flindus, Muslims, JJws, and ot-her reli_ gionists. The relevance of Buddhist thought and the importance of Buddhist eonduct to meeting these needs stroua be readily apparent to everyone concerned. centuries ago the Buddha advised men [o "do good, a'oid-Twenty-five wrong, and purify the mind.,, This guiaance has de_ veloped as the essential Threefold Training (Tri-siksa) for all Buddhists: training in virtuous conduct (Sila) which will ieaa to higher morality (Adhisila)-; training in concentrative absorptio, (sr*rirril which will lead to higher thought (Adhicitta) ; and tirl"irg in transcendent comprehension and u_nderstanding' ('prajna) f;;-Enligte;ment_ (Bodhi) which will lead to higher insight- (Adhiprajna)"and thereby Nirvana. consequentiy, pasf Buddhisl contribuiiom to the rig_ht knowledge and right conduct of man toward himself, and Nature are evidenced in many Asian societies even today."trr.rr, Time does not permit here even a summary of this record of accomplishment, but the application of \4/on Buddiris- ut orta b;;r;: sidered briefly because it aims to promote bo'r,h spirituJ u"t material civilization for the betterment of man and his enviion*ent and tte"env la,stins world peace. In this respect, the Essentiar ways it Human Life and the Es-sential Wa;ys of Training are described in Ctrpier-O v--wlrvvr v of The Canonical Textbook of Won Buddhism (Won futiyi Xyoiii"i- ai



follows: "The Four Graces and the Four Essentials are the Essential Ways of Human Life, and the Threefold Trainings and the Eight Articles are the Essential Ways of Training. One would be unable to follow the Essential Ways of Human Life but for the Essential Ways of Training; one would be unable to give evidence of the effects of practising the Essential Ways of Training without the Essential Ways of Human Life. To give an analogy, the Essential Ways of Training are compared to the medical art with which a doctor cures patients, and the Essential Ways of Human Life to the medicine used to cure the patients." The Four General Principles are " (1) Right Enlightenment and Rieht Conduct ; (2) Awareness of Graces and Requital of Graees; (3) Practical Utilization of Buddhism; (4) Selfless Service to the Public." The main Won Buddhist view is that "All are incarnations of TruthB'uddha; do each thing as an offering of worship to the Buddha." Thus all men should not forget the Buddha even for a moment in their daily Iives.

Accordingly the Gate of Faith in Won Buddhism is based on the Theory of the Interaction of Cause and Effect and consists of the Four Graces and the I'our Essentials. The Four Graces are " (1) The Grace of Heaven and Earth ; (2) The Grace of Parents; (3) The Grace of Brethren; (4) The Grace of Law." The Four Essentials are "(1) The Cultivation of Self-Ability; (2) The Wise Man First; (3) The Education of the Children of Others; (4) Respect for Those Dedicated to the Public Welfare." The standard of Won Buddhist discipline in daily life is "Pra&-

tise Meditation Continuaily, Practise Meditation Everywhere." By following this standard Won Buddhists are ever alert and do not neglect their discipline but practise Buddhism at all times and places. The Gate of Practice in Won Buddhism is based on the Theory of the Perfeet Void and the Abstruse Being, and consists of the Threefold Trainings and the Eight Articles. The Threefold Trainings are: (1) Cultivation of Spiritual Stability (Samadhi) ; (2) Study of Facts and Priniciples (Prajna) ; (3) Selection of Right Conduct and Abandonment of the Wrong (Sila). The tright Articles are Faith, Courage, Doubt, Sincerity, Disbelief, Covetousness, Laziness, and Foolishness. 'Won Basie Won Buddhist practices naturally follow these basic Buddhist doctrines. They are grouped together as the three main Tasks of Won Buddhism : ( 1) To study and propagate the Buddha Dharma; (2) To provide and maintain educational institutions; and (3) To plan and undertake charitable works. Detailed reports of accomplishment in these three kinds of activity are given elsewhere in this Qom-






memoration Program. I rvish only to mention here that Won Buddhist doctrines are relevant to present and future social problems, that Won Buddhist practices are applicable for their solution, and that the Won Buddhist motto of "As material civilization develops, cultivate spiritual civilization accordingly" can help guide our daily life. In these ways, won Buddhism as a dynamic movement in Korean and world Buddhism will be able to assist present-day religions in establising "an ideal world in which both material and spiritual elements can progress in harmony."


In won Buddhism, Il-won-Sang (o), the one circle, is the object of faith and the standard of practice. The truth of Il-Won-Sang flrst emerged with the enlightenment of the Great Master S,otaesan, the founder of Won Buddhism, and is the most absolute expression of this faith's doctrine. Traditionally, the Reality of the Truth of Il-Won-Sang can only he symbolized by drawing a circle. The Reality of the Truth is considered to be beyond description, comprehension, or formal logical judgement. Therefore tJre truth of Il-Won-Sang is the original and absolute truth. By their very nature, human beings, through their actions, question rvhere the seat of truth lies. They search beyond the fact of individual existence for a more fundamental truth which lies at the root of existence. Such a truth can only be found in oneness. But human beings pursue different truths. The Great Master, having observed the organization of the universe after his enlightenment, helped explain this apparent fundamentally contradictory fact through the truth of Il-won-sang (the one circle). He expressed his first impression this way: 'All beings are of One Reality and all things and principles originate from one source, where the Truth of No gir[h and No Death and the Principle of Cause and Effect operate as perfec,t organs oil an interrelated basis.' This explains Won-Sang as the Unlimited Reality of all beings and the origin of all things and principles. The words 'ail beings are of one Reality' are the expression of the direct experience of the original nature of sentient beings. The words of 'All things and principles originate from one source' may suggest


that the individual principle of existenee is not separated but interrelated with one root. Therefore, when a man has an insight into the teality of all beings, the man becomes a root from which all beings and principles originate and which creates the relations of cause and effect. Accordingly, the enlightened man will be a passage through which the truth of ll-Won-Sang is revealed. The state of .enlightenment can be explained by nothing but direct experience which is attained by u purii"ular training .outtn called "the search for the Way." Thus, to the enlightened man who has insight into the truth, the root of human life, the world, and the universe is one and all existences are essentially in an interrelated state. 'The truth of No Birth and No

Death arrd the principle of Cause and Effeet operate on an interrelated basis,' is an expression of the phenomena of all beings in the universe which are reviewed from the state of enlightenment. 'The truth of No Birth and No Death' is again expressed by the word 'permanence,' and the words 'Cause and hffect' are expressed by the word 'transience.' 'The truth of No Birth and No Death,' which is implied in the word 'permanence,' is again expressed by the word 'Natgre'. 'T!. truth o1 Crr.. and Effect' which is implied by the word 'transience' is expressed by the words 'unscheming and natural'. Accordingly, the truttr of Il-Won-Sang, which was revealed by the Great lvlaster, the Ven. Sotaesan, was eventually theorized from two respects: the Fundamentals and the Function. This will be called 'The Theory of Proving Enlightenment.' Logic concerning religion can be called an illogical theory or a theory of exceptional form, because it is undemonstrative and experiential. However, the way of expressing the order of the world and the universe, which was disclosed through the enlightenment of human beings, as its first step must be dependent upon the Iogical way, undemonstrative w&Yr illogical theory, or a theory of exceptional form. The ultimate way of expressing the religious experience does not always depend upon a logical explanation as in philosophy. Religion may depend upon Iogic in its expression, but it is supposed to enter the domain which stands beyond logic. Existence in such a domain was forcibly theorized by the Great Master, who gave it the name Il-Won-Sang. Above, I mentioned that the great Way of the universe'has beqn proved with the enlightenment of the Great Master. This great Way was expressed as the Truth of Il-Won-Sang and also was called Insight into the 'l\ray' or 'Enlightenment to the Way.' Therefore, this state of Truth is called 'the inexpressible realm of Samadhi' which transcends logical theory. In Buddhism, such an absolute experience of a man is expressed in words like 'View of Voidness' or 'Experienge of Nothing-





ness," which mean the state of consciousness of self which is free from attachment to any object. This is the 'Light of Mind' which illuminates by itself. The Great Master explained iias follows: '. . . . the state in which words and forms with name are absolutely devoid of content. According to the light of Abstruse wisdom in the Void, the differenee 'between between the Absolute unitr Being _its_components and and Non-Being appears . . . .' 1nd In the Diamond-Sutre,lt i. ."pressed by the phrases 'A mind operation ffiifrlIn noffiingf The intuition and insight in the r!ut9 of being free fromlgo .u, be irnderstooa ,, , t[e prineiple which exists through all things.


Lee Kong_leon

'AII )-eings are in one Body and all Iaws have one source., These lvere the first words when our Great Master, the Venerable Sotaesan, attained enlightenment to the great Truth of Won tfr.orgf, self-discipliry at the age of 24, while hJwas in the small village 5r yungchon in Ryong Kwang count.v, South Cholla Province. This was his brief serrnon that all beings in the universe, with all their clifferent forms names, are based upon the same Nature and forms and that atl -and kinds of Dharma teachings, with all their different systems and proeedures, have one great source of Truth. The round form which symbolizes Dharma-kaya Buddha Il-won'Won Buddhist doctrine, the Threefold Train!rng, the highest point of ings, whieh are the Cultivation of Spiritual Stabitity, Study of principle and Fact and seleetion of Right conduct, and tt. ,.quital of the Four Graces the Graee of Heaven and Earth, of Parents, of Brethren, and of Laws - are the doctrines by which we are trying io estaglish a - of this earth. They are based upon this very sermon perfect paradise whieh appears in the first section of Introductibn, Part II, the Discourses of the Great Master in the canonical rextbook of won Buddhism, therefore, since it's inception, has never built a

wall between itself and other religions, but has been keeping harmoni-W6fr"

fraternal relationships by sharing dialogues ura ,naerstandings, and this relationship will be kept continuatty in the future. The great way of Il-won, perfect and unprejudiced, which was found by the Great Master, was further expressed by his direct sucou's and


cessor, the Ven. Jungsan, and at present is being practiced by the third master, the Ven. Taesan and by Won Buddhist members presently numbering 600,000. Thus, this great Way is being realized gradually. The Ven. Jungsan, the successor to the Great Master, advocated fthe Trinal Ethics of Oneness' as the way of establishing harmony among the people of the world, saying "IJnder one roof and with one Iraw, as one family of one home, at one workshop with one mind, try to es' tablish the world of Il-Won (oneness)." The Ven. Taesan, the third Prime Master, in order to make the Law prevail over the world, has suggested that Four Great Service Organizations be organized. In 1919, the three religions in Korea (Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity) fully cooperated to fight against the injustice of the Japanese government in the 'Sam Il (the 1st of March) movement.' In 1965 six major religions, including Won Buddhism, in order to promote dialogue, established an unprecedented organization for all religious derrominations to talk together. These events are the distinct activities which may prove the intentions of Won Buddhists and followers of other religions in Korea who attempt to approach one world. Besides, in October, 1970, at Kyoto, Japan, there wa-s held the World Conference for Religion and Peace, where 280 representatives of all religious denominations and scholars attended. From Korea, four representatives of Won Buddhism, led by Dr. Park Kil-Chin, attended the oonference and submitted a message from the Prime Master of Won Buddhism. Politically and diplomatically, the United Nations has been trying to build One World, but the ideological conflicts between democracy and communism have always blocked its realization. Hence. the united powers of the world religious movements as a kind of spiritual United Nations have been.required, and the World Conference for Religion and Peace was regarded as a prelude to the activities of this religious United Nations. At this Conference people from Bahaism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Jainism, Islam, Sintoism, Sikhism, Zotoastrianism, and some other notable religions, ardently expressed their deep interest in world peace. As a token of this deep interest they passed resolutions to take initiative in achieving unity and cooperation, and to take into consideration and work for the ma: jority who are poor, exploited, homeless, or refuges of wars or other

disasters. If people realize that we are all of one family, rooted in one source of Nature, and that the origin of all doctrines is based upon one principle, the lOne World' will be started from the mind of each person. When understanding and cooperation between religions, races, and






ideologies are promoted, the 'One World' can be

by bit.

built on the earth bit

The participants in the World Conference on Religion and Peace agreed to make this Conference a permanent organization which may syrnbolize a spiritual United Nations and also made a decision to have the Second Conference within three years. \trrhen we assembled in Tokyo again two days after the conference, we had a 'prayer meeting for world peace' under the slogan 'The World is one, the human race is one.' In this meeting people cried out loudly; 'We believe that religion is the source of peace,' or 'hr order to accomplish peace, vre will establish one world.' This seemed the very starting point to march forth toward the The great dream 'of a family of man which is aclvancing toward the establishment of one world will finally come to bear frult by the activities of the religious people of the world who are taking the initiative in this parade.


The characteristics of the doctrine and organization of Won Buddhism, which have been followed by the order for over fifty years, can be elassified into ten broad categories. 1. Th,e f aith and, pra,ctice of Won,m ori,gi.nates in th.e Truth of ll-lVon, uhich, is tlte source of humart, bei,ngs and the,uniaerse and wltich i,s th,e essential nature of att beings. This means that the source of faith in Won Buddhism is traeed to the Truth of II-Won, which is the original nature of human beings and the urriverse, dnd is the perfect Realiiy. The ultimate purpose of p"r"tice is to become one with the Truth of Il-Won and to realize the life whieh is rooted in the Truth of Il-Won. The Truth of Il-Won is expressed by other words such as the Law, the Way etc. Won Buddhism believes that through worship to II-Won-Sang one can transcend faith in an individual or a sectlrian viewpoint, finally Ieading people to the One Truth which is ultimate and universal. This is because the ultimate Truth exists beyond an individual personality or sect, and is the domain which transeends conflict and cliscrimination. The Truth of Il-Won is the One ultimate Nature lvhich stands beyond


any name or charaeteristic. In Rig Veda it is said: 'The Truth is one; sages call it by different


symbol of the Truth of Il-Won. However, sectarian and external methods which put emphasis on words and forms of thought in seeking the Truth can not be successful ways of reaching the ultimate Oneness. This method is idolatry of the Truth. If people are free from idolatry, they will come to realize the ultimate place where all conflicts are dissolable and all religions are able to meet. Such a Truth is regarded as the origin of all things. 2. Won Buddhi,sm places emphasis on tlte great Four Graces and on of Heaaen and Eartlt,, of Parents, of Bretltren,, and of Law Requi.tal of these Graces and Seraice' to the Public. It also-puts ernphasis on eueryda,A lif e in th,e direction of tlt e Graces. This means to emph asize a constructive and positive life of gratitude and requital by realizing the great Four Graces. The negative Iife, worthless though it may seem, should be turned to a worthwhile Iife until it can be cultivated to achieve a brighter future. We ean make use of even a harmful reality by our olvn attitude in accepting it. In this way. there can be no absolute harm. The reality of Cause and Effect should hecome the motive for turning to the Graces. g. Won Buddh.ism nractices both Faith in Truth and Fai,th in Facts, and empltasizes Offeri,ng Worsltip to Buddltas i,n our eaerAdaa life. One of the mottos of Won Buddhism is "AIl are inearnations of Truth-Buddha; do each thing as an offering of worship to the Buddha." This is the integrated form of the Faith in Truth and the Faith in Fact. It means not to regard Truth and reality as separate, but to have an attitude of caution and respect before all thinss as if we were before the objeet of Truth or absolute faith: this vrill make it possible to construct a greatly blessed world. Actually, a mind of caution and respect in everydav life means a great deal more than that of caution and respect which is ritually paid to the absolute existence or its symbol.


Won Buitd,hisnl neaer reqwd,s religi,ous practi,ce anil real li,fe as separate, but, regords real l,ife itself as reli,gi,ous practi,ce and attempts to reali,ze' the en'treme bliss of ori,gi,nal Nature. In Won Buddhism, practice which is observed in real life is emphasized, and practice which is separated from real life is regarded as less important. The meaning of religion can not be found outside of life, The world itself is regarded as a Dharma hall, aqd q specific






Dharma hall is thought of as an elementary and complementary one that prepares us for training in the real Dharma hall. ihe mottos "Practice meditation continually, practice meditation everywhere," and, "Buddhist Truth is found in life; life is Buddhist Truth itself" are to encourage substantial practice in complicated Iife. Actual life can not be an obstacle to religious practice; instead, through aetual life, religious practice will prove it's worth. Practice which disregards real life means very little. 5. Won Buddhism makes efforts not to become preiud,i,ced toward either spi,ritual or phAsi,cal li,f e, but to tntegrote both linses perfectlA, Generally, religion values spiritual life and purification of the soul. Accordingly, physical life requiring such things as clothes, food, and shelter, is apt to be disregarded. AIso, religion often forces a negative attitude toward aetual life. However, both the direction which holds up the human spirit Iike religion or morality and the direction which establishes the actual living v/ay are two directions indispensable for human life. 6. Won Buddhi,sm places equal em,phasis on the methods of practice called Reli.ance on the Another's Help and Re'liance on Self-AbilitA. Aetually, in the Truth of Il-Won itself there exists no inside or outside which is integrated into one. Accordingly, the ultimate Truth is omnipresent. Therefore, the best way to complete one's own personality and to establish the ideal world is to practice these two methods coneurrently. 7. Won Buddhi,sm seeks the popularizotion ond general;izati,on ot neligi,on.

Religion should not stand apart from the society of ordinary peoplâ‚Ź, but should perform it's task by aceepting actual human life. Through succeeding generations, the original spirit of religion should be continually revealed 8. Won Buddhisnl regords it perfect practice to integrate deliaerance, sagacious insi,gltt, ancl, proper conduct. Deliverance means to be able to keep our original mind in all favorFrble or adverse circumstances without losing stability and peace of mind. Sagacious insight means the ability to comprehend and discern truth and right conduct correctly, and never Iose the right view. 9. lilon BudC,hism nrckes no distincti,on bet'toeen deaoted workers of Won Buddhi,sm, and its lay ntembership, betueen rnen and wornen, maruied orllnlndrried, bttt p'uts im,portance only upon tha leael of ,their practiae,


10. Won Buddhism trie,s to seek out agreem,ent and harmonv wi,th other religious denomfurations on the basis of tlte ultimate Truth of the uniaerse. AII religions and denominations must interact with each other in order to reach the common goal, while still maintaining their unique characteristics. They must cooperate for mutual harm,ony and prosperity in order to become reliable religions and to perform the original task perfectly.

LETTERS FROM READERS OF THE CANOMCAL TEXTBOOK OF WON BUDDHISM November 19, 1971 You did an excellent job on the book. I approve of your final decisions on all of the translations. The printing is exeellent,tco, and adds

I can understand why Chinese characters and a glossary, etc. were not added now, and I think you were wise to proceed as you did. Your translation has certainly been a great contributi,on to Won Buddhism and, I think, to all persons who are interested in knowing more about Korea. You should be very proud of the fine work you have done, and of the contribution you have made to Won Buddhism. to the value of the book.

Sincerely Yours,



November 21r 1971

I wish to acknowledge the receipt of the book, THE CANONICAL TEXTBOOK OF WON BUDDHISM, which I recffi 6th. You are to be congratulated for having done such a splendid piece of work. I have read it through completely once, and will go back to it again and again to study more carefully. It is a wonderful guide tq

' ?3*





Publications Received (as of November, 1971)

Iive by. Now, that it is done, I am in hopes that it will gain a wide circulation and enable many people to become acquainted with Won Buddhism. Other than a very few minor typographical errors I have found nothing wrbng in it. It is a very attractively produced book and of a handy size, and well made. It should prove to be a very helpful companion. I am very grateful to have a copy of it.






Nov. 20r'7L

I find myself in substantial

We acknowledge with man.y thanks the receipt of the follorving. Uiddle Way: Vol. XLVI, No. 1, London, England, (May, 1gT1) Hai Ch'ao Yin Monthly: Vol. b2 No. 4 Taipei Taiwan Occult Gazette: August, 1g?1, London, England. Bodhi Leaves: B. 46 Ceylon. Buddhism in Taiwan: Vol. 24 No. 14 Taipei Taiwan, China. Der Keris: March-April, 1971, Bemmen, German

Daihorin: June,

1971, Tokyo, Japan.

China Buddhist Monthly, the: Vol. 15 No. 11 Taipei Taiwan, China. Lion's Roar Magazine, The: May, 1971, Taipei Taiwan, China. Western Buddhist, The: Si:ring. 1969, London, England.

Buddhist tlnion Newsletter, The: Vol. 17 No. 4 Singapore Informations Boucidhistes: Vol. 14 No. 54 Brussis, Belgium. Wheel Publication, The: No. 737/l3B Kandy, Ceylon.

Oriflamme: No. III Germany.


Newsletter, The Temple of UnCerstanding: Spring 1970 Washington, U.S.A. Hirrduism: No. 42 London, England. (Septernber-October 1970) Laymen's Btrddhism, The: October, 1971 Tokyo, Japan.

Dialogue: Vol. 4 No. 1 Washington. U.S.A. Bulletin of The Washilrgton Friends of Buddhism: VoI. II No. B Washington,


with what is written here, though I have not yet read the whole book, owing to the fact that is only arrived a day or two ago. The general attitude I find entirely admirable, especially that of bringing the Dharma into daily life instead of relegating it to the shrine and the festival days. agreement

Sincerely Yours,

Ralph L, Goggi,n

No. 85 Idaho, U.S.A. Voice of Buddhism: VoI. B No. 1 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Yana: March-April, 1971 Germany. L'osservatore Romano. September, 30, 1971 Vatican City Bodhedrum: No. 233 Taiwan, China Maha Bodhi,i The: February-March Volume ?9 No. 2-3 Calcutta, India Buddhism


in }iong Kong: No. 131 Hong Light: No. 46 Penang, Malaya.


Bulletin of ttre P"amarkrishna Mission Institute of Culture: VoI. XXI. No.9-10

Golpark, Calcutta. World tr'ederation: Vol. 44 No. 4 April 1971 Virndban, U.P. India. Zen Notes: July, 1971 New York, U.S.A. (Vol. XVIII, No. 7) Suchness: Vol. 9 Chicago, U.S.A. American Buddhist: Julv, 1971 San Francisco. Califot'nia, U.S.A. Canadian Theosophist: Vol. 52 No. 2 Toronto, Canada (May-June 1971) World Buddhism: Vol. XV, No. 9, 10. 11, Colombo, Ceylon. Ienrikyo: No. 79 Tenri-City, Japan. Voice of Ahinsa, The: Vol. XVI, No. 13 India Youth Quarterly, The: Vo1. B No. 4 Taipei Taiwan, China. PRS Journal: Autumn, 1971 l\{ichigan, U.S.A. Bukkyo Times: No. 9 09 Tokyo, Japan. Voiee Universal.


No. 76 London, England. (1971)

Pacific Buddhist: Vol. 11 No. 2 Honolulu. Yeun Chun, (The Soul'ce): No. 45 Hong Kong. I,ight of the Dhamma, 'Ihe: Vol. X, No. 2, Mandalay, Burma. Light of Buddha, The: Vol. IX No. 12, Mandaiay, Burma. Rcligious Digest: No. 43 Colombo, Ceylon.

From the editor: Lsincerelq apologize that I could not put all letters whtch I receioed from other readers in this magazine because of the lack of spaces. My deep appreciation


go to all of the readers who sent me a kind letter concerning

nry English oersion.


(]olden Lotus, The: Yol 22 No.3 Philadelphia. U.S.A. Ilawaii Buddhism, The: No. 486 Honolulu. Hawaii, U.S.A. 'l'hcosophia: Vol. XLIV, No. 3 Calitornia, U.S.A. Awaken the World: No. 314 Taipei Tairvan, China.

Light: Vcl. VII, No. 1 Penang, Malaya. Ideita: Vol. 6 No. 2 Kensington, N.S.W., Austt:alia' KRS Bulletin: No. 100 Feb.-March 1970. Tokyo. Japan' I)aramhansa Ycgananda Magazine: VoI. 4 No. 9-12 South Africa. ,-ilruk.yo (Religion): No. 33 I(yoto, Japan. l)aijo: Vol. VIII, No. 3-4 Kyoto, Japan. ('orrlt'rnporirry Religions in Japatr: Vol VI No. 4 Tokyo, Japan. itrr<lrlhisl. student, Vol. I No.3 Thc Buddhist Society, Ifniversity of Malaya. Golden