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I I967





WON BUDDHISM Published by:

WON KWANG COLLEGB Iri Citv Cltolla Pukdo, Korea

I CONTENTS Editorial


Golden Rules The Way of Cultivation of Mind from the Supreme Scripture of Won



The Meanings of Channa ' by Dr. Kil Chin Park Realization and Bliss

Why is Buddhist Reformation Considered Inevitable? by Prof . Chun Eun Song The Modernization of Buddhism hy Dr. Richard A. Gard

r$il ;*


by Won ll Kwang (Ralph L. Goggin) .....


As the material civilization makes rapid progdess, cultivate the spiritual civilization accordingly.


Everytime Channa Everywhere Channa



Vol. I No.



"At the Thread of Pacific


We recognize that a new age is beginning before our eyâ‚Źs. When we look upon our past, history tells us that the ancient India bloomed along the Ganges river, Chinese civilization along Yellow river and Greece boasted of-its civilization at the Aegean Se,a. And, in the middle ages, these ancient civilizations which once formed a Roman civilization has been flourishing as the European civilization of today since it reached the Atlantic Ocean at the beginning of the Modern Age. However, now we see that the new history which is to overspread the new future is beginning at the Pacific Ocean. The characterestics of the atlantic civilization from the Modern Ages have been regarded as natural science, materialism and industrialfum, and finally this Atlantic civilization, prosperous for five or six hundred years, has come to a point ulhere it is to be forced to yield its place to some other civilization. It is passing away, leaving us undesirable influences. I dare not say it has entirely disregarded internal life, soul and spirit, but too much inclined toward materiality and the flesh, and also it has over stressed the importance upon motion, people

running about, chattering, strolling, for nothing. In this period being quiet peacefully is fully forgotten. We, who are to meet the Pacific Ages are responsible for leading this new age . The motto, "As the material civilization makes rapid progress, cultivate the spiritual civilization accordingly," which the Ven, Sote,san, the founder of Won Buddhism announced fifty two years ago at the Ryong Kwang county, is a pr'ecept suggesting that, the age of Pacific civilization, in which a compl,ete society cultivating both mind and materiality is realized, will follow the Atlantic civilization. The material civilization which does not keep pace with the ' spiritual civilization and vice versa, should be called a crippled civilization. Even though the development of scientific techniques, which is the production of the Atlantic civilization, has reached its highest degree, the A-Bomb does not give a solution for the quarrels caused by jealousy betuieen husband and wife. We foresee the end of this diseased world approaching at hand in which people are hopelessly fascinated by materiality and the flesh, regarding religions as have noting to do with our real lives. Now we religious people should take the initiative at the approach of the Pacific ages. What is the spiritual attitude needed to be a leader in the Pacific ages? First: We should be conscious of religion. We should say religion can be distinguished as having two parts: one is the ritualistic religion in which strong stress is put on its doctrine and rites. The other is practical religion, that is, living religion. Buddhism or




Christianity up to date may be called a ritualistic religions. Anyway, the religion qualified for taking a leadership at the new Pacific age, say it is to be Buddhism, Christianity or Confucianism, or any other religion, should not be separated from our real lives. It is told that Goethe, a German poet, said; "You need not necessarily pray to god, but should keep the pious and cautious mind of prayer through your life." The Bodhisattava cherishes the Four great Vows. The spirit of these four vows also should directly penetrate our real lives. When a religion has come to be connected closely and practically with our real lives, it will cease to be an empty shell of doctrines and rituals.

Second: We shoud be conscious of production. To be conscious of production means to have the spirit of construction and labor. It is a symbol of this consciousness that our Ven. Sotesan abolished the system of alms and offerings which have been a method of living for old Buddhist monks, teaching his desciples self-support. In the old days, Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and almost every r,eligion, were the religions of consumption. I do not mean the production necessarily to produce something at work shops. When we clean our rooms, wash clothes, plant a tree in the ground, save money, these mean production. It would be more worth while and exciting to compose music oneself than to appreciate it when it is composed by others. With these spirits cherished and practicing them through our lives, we should be a great pioneer of the approaching Pacific Ages.

Golden Roles The one who pretends to be higher than anyone else falls lower and the one who tries to win over the other will necessarily be defeated. It is easy and probable for a brave one to meet a formidable enemy; and a clever one is apt to make a failure of important matters. If you r,eproach another's ignorance of your good deed, the very good deed you have done ulill put forth buds of evil and if you are penitent of any evil you have done, the bud of good will be put forth from the

very evil. You, therefore, should neither let the doing of a good deed obstruct the-improvement of your mind nor let the despair of evil drag you do,wn. A foolish man is only pleased to get a gift and is ignorani of the fact that he will get multiple damages from the gift, while a wise man does not love to get any gift; and even though he gets any, he does not take the whole but divides it for the public so that he prevents misfortune. The one from whose mind evil spirits and poisonous spirits are gone can dissolve them from others. The mind that fights against others is; the cause of bringing disaster;





and the mind concordant with others, the cause of blessing. man teaches the'world with good, and u rogri,"*ith evil; so the merits of both in teaching tt. world' are equal, the"foirner, boing blessed; the latter, being punished. we, therefore, should nit hate the rogue but take pity on him.

A virtuous

The Way of Cultivation of Mind f rom

the Suprem,e Scripture


Won Buddhism

The Ven. Sotesan said: "To view the of cultivation of mind in the oriental religious -way orders in fhe past, the monks attached too much importance to the practice.of b,eing-quiet so that some renounced their fainily, entering mountains; and others.did nothing but read sutras and scriptures ur6n when the sacks of. grain were cleared away by rain from iheir yard. This came from the belie'f that the discipline and daily life inteifered each other. How can such a way be called a proper one? we do not, ther'efore, discriminate wort<^ from cultivation of mind and show the way to get the power of Thrse Degrees of Study at -great quiet and_ moving simultaneoirsly. so now, keef on practicin! at beirtg qui,et and moving alike." "As far as getting the power of cultivated mind is concerned, one should bear in mind that there are two ways: one is the cultivation of temperament -and the other that of mentality. A soldier's immobility of heart on the battle field, for example, reiults from the training of temperament and a monk's tranquility of mind in the trying circumstance,s of the five evil desires comes from the cultivation"of "mentality. With his cultivated temperament. a soldier can not be called to have a perfe-ct mind without the cultivation of mentality; while a monk's tranquility of mind can not be perfect if he has not ihe temperamental training-in actual trying circumitagcgs." "If you want to get a perfect personality and get the supreme wisdom, do not lean on o[ly oni thing you do. ]h9re is, nowadays a tendency that mpst people'are apt to cling to ob_stinacJ so that they do not aitain to a peifec^t morality: for examptre, the followers of Confucius stick to their customs Buddhists to theirs and other m_en cf r'eligion and social works to their knowledge and the works they do. Their obstinacy is so much so that they neithEr know jiglrt frory ylong,. and_ advantage from disadvantage, ,o. utilize the, other's profitable principles. They can not in such i way become

well rounded persons." And one layman asked: , , "won't one- lose one's own opinion ind subjectivity if one gets out <lf onc's own tradition and asseftion?"


To this question replied The Ven. Sotesan as follows: "This means not that you must adopt all principles of other's at randorn without your own assertion but that you must adapt and utilize them upon your own right opinion." "A monk's attitude to train his mind only at being quiet avoding tryinq circumstances is compared to a fisherman who avoids water with intention of catching fish. What effect can be expected? You, therefore, to get to the truth(way), should train mind in the disturbing environment. Only the mind trained in such trying circumstances will not be tangled with unfavorable conditions in actual daily life. A man whose mind is not trained in trying circumstances will be perturbed once he is confronted with a disturbance. Such a mind is compared to a mushroom grown in shade, which will fade away as soon as it iq exposed to the sun. That's why you can see Yimae said that Boddhisattvas keep tranquility of mind in a noisy disturbance while a wicked man disturbs his mind even in a tranquil state. This means that seraching for truth depends on the sujective control of mind and not on the outer conditions.

The Meanings of Channa Dr. Kil Clin Park 1. Channa is the way to be all attention, to keep our spirit awakening. The ceaseless operation of our Six Organs or Six Roots(eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, *ill) causes the dark cloud of desires and avarice in our mind, producing so many people who lead soulless lives. Channa is the way to enlighten the original nature and to recover our lost soul or spirit by calming down various kinds of evil thoughts. Once a Ch'an Master, Bul Chi, said that evil words are cut short by putting cobbles in the speakers mouth, and cruelties and violences of an evil man are checked by the criminal code. So, the source which can give us strength to prevent our consciousness from being degraded by desires. is enlightenment. Avarice. delusion and attachment are to be rooted out only by the strength of our enlightened mind. This enlightenment means the spiritual awakening. 2. To practice Channa is to liquidate what one is. As we sometimes lose the way on our journey, so we are groping in the dark way, full of avarice, delusion, arrogance etc. To remedy this evil situation, complete liquidation of self is needed. That is, once we give up ourselves completely, then, only then, we can obtain true spiritual freedom, the original Nature. 3. Channa is to purify our will. Originally our mind has a track to follow when it operates. Occasionally, however, tempted by delusions, our mind goes to and fro finally running off the track. We should try to keep on the track through mind training, and all the obstacles on the by






track should be swept away. .Otherwise constant accidents will be caused. This sweeping means to purify one's will. In other words, channa is the way to wash the diit off our mind so that we may be on Righteous way. 4. Channa is tho method to ,extinguish all thoughts and knowledge. With the consciousness of thoughts and rnowledgJ in our mind we fiit to perceive our original nature. This means thougn'ts, knowledge, reasoning, etc., prevent us from seeing into our originll nature. We can no more see into our real nature through these mEdia than an old mouse c-al gn-aw an iron horn of an iron cow, _or a mosquito can pierce the skin of an iron cow. It would rather be better to r,etreat. 'iherefore, the quickest way to approach our original nature is to calm down the operation of knowledge and thoughts.- This is the same in case we are engaged in some busine'ss. Doing something with superfluous thoughts we can not meet with success. For an example we may take a man playing che1s. If his mind is occupied with superfluous thoughts while playing, such as to overcome the -othgr side, to earn some money by defeating him, etc., needless to say, he should fail. Thoughts, t<nowliidge, reasonlng, etc., are great obstacles for o,r.r directly ehtering into the Original nature.


Channa means the continuance of a concentrated state of mind. Buddha reached Enlightenment becaus,e he kept his mind undisturbed through constant temptations attacked by Mira and his beauties in the course of his Self.-training on the stone under a tree after six ye,ars

ascetic life through which he-realized that the merely overstr,essed physical torturing means nothing for the attainment Buddhahood. Channi is the continual practicing to achieving the concentrated mind state. 6. channa is the study seeking for the rnastery of the mind. In an army the general in command does not fight with a rifle or a sword p8liygt the enemy._ If the-commander, whols to give orders to his men, left his post. to fight against the enemy himself,-the troops wlould fali into great disorder and would be defeated. The Maste. oi mind should r,emain in a calm state controling its men, the Six organs or Six Roots, yI., they fight against the enemy. When the Mastel of mind neglects his responsjbility everything wrong. By practicing Channal We can m''.ke the Master of mind-goesperform its rol-e is a Mas-ter of mino. 7. channa is th-e way to harmonize our Body, Breath, Mind, the world. To Harmonize the Body means the harmonization between the "Fire" and the "Water" elements in our body, that is, to let the fire downward and the water lpward. This harmonization gives us good health. To harmonize the Breath means to ke,ep the brealh even, ihrough which all parts of our p-hysical operation goei smoothly. To harmonii,e the mind means to eradicate the diseases of mind, such as delusion, attachment. We can recover our healthy mind by stamping out the diieases in our mind and, naturally, as a result, our life wiil bi kept in good order and


will be harmonized, and, further, this harmonization extends it's scope to homes, nations, and to the world. This is the harmonization of the world.


Chanrra should be experienced, not understood through words. ln the book of "Chuang tzu" we read: Once Huan Kung was r,eading

on the floor in his housc when a man named Lun Pien who was a maker of wagon wheels went up close to him and asked, "What are you reading?" Huan Kung answered, "Teachings of the ancient sages." Again he was asked, "Are the sages still living?" "No, they have alrtady passed away." "Then it is nothing but a draft that you are reading." "What makes you say that?" Herewith Lun Pien stated; "I am a wheel maker, with a gimlet and chisel to make holes and cut through. However, the exquisite principle in my mind is unable to express in words to my sons until my age of seventy and I am still engaged in the v,ork and my sons are not still initiated the principle. Much more in the case of the exquisite principle of sages' teachings. The book you are reading may be f,-rll of good words. However, reading is another thing from the experience, the essential spirit, of the sages." That is way we see so many readers of the teaching of sages but see few sages even among the readers. As we know, letters and words are not the intermediary things we should depend upon to understand Truth. Channa teaches us the way to initiate the exquisite principle from mind to mind. Channa is to be experienced.

Realization and Bliss hy Won Il Kwang (Ralph L.



is of one Suchness. Suchness is the primordial Substance. Aspects of Suchness are: Intelligence (Mind), Law and Manifesta-

tion. (The thing ltself, the Way It works and What It does.) This is the Trinity of the ONE, of which there is none other. All proceeds from the ONE, and all is in the ONE. All is of one Suchness. There is unity in all things. We are of the same Nature as the ONE, and we are one with the ONE.

This nature is our Original Nature, our Real Self, our Buddha-


All things, both formed and unformed, both manifest and unmanifest, have the same Buddha-nature. All are sons of the same Father and all are brothers of each other. Every thing-every human, every other creatrrre, every tree, every stone, every star, every drop of water, every cloud, every thing that is



t72 WON




scen and unseen, is of one Suchness. All are my brothers. Through our ignorance we believe ourselves to_be separate from the C)NE ancl fiom oui brothers. W,e cognize only what is perceptible to our imperfect ordinary senses, and use our limited intellect to from con..ptr df what we so ,l;-ty and incompletely perceive. There are other vibrations outside the range of the vibiations of light, sound, taste, smell in on. and feeling that we do n-ot have the sensory app-aratus to

-tune we know is not even one small fraction of an iota of what we do not know. Yet, we think there can be no existence outside the realm of our ordinary senses-that unless something can be seen,


*. ihink

heard, tasted, smelled or felt,

it is not real.

However, the things we sense are the unreal-they are but the shadow effects of causes that come fi'om the Real. Down through the ages, in all areas of this planet,. men have hacl an instinctive awireness dt ttre Real. They have mistakenly supposed themselves to be apart from lt, while, in truth, they have always. beett a part of It. They have longed to find It, to become unit'ed With It. tliis is what religion and philosophy have been all about. Maty. have been the methodi of search and the practioes involved in the seeking. Some, who have attained, who have been call9{. Masters, have passed on their findings. _Hgwerer, -many of their followers have so larbled and misinterpreted the Teachings that they bear slight resemblance to what was taught. One such Master ivas Sakyamuni Buddha. ("Buddha" means One Who Has Awakened.) He said- that Nirvana is $3p5313-that is, the condition of bliss is to be found in ordinary living in this world. Another, the Christ, centuries afterward, expressed the same thought in different words. He said that the kingdom of heaven is within you-not somewhere outside



We have the Buddha-nature within us already. The place to


for it is within. When we have become awakened. we have realized our Buddhanature, we have realizcd Nirvana or the kingdom of heaven, we have entered into the void of our ordinary sense perception and have realized Nirvana in Samsara ( that is, the kingdom of bliss in our ordinary life.) to do this, we neecl to void the sense perceptions and quiet the intellect. The kingdom is not reached through intellectual processes, but through intuition (direct knowinq) bv -means of Dhyana' Ch'an or meditation, which is a process of going within. One can engage ih this practice anytime, anywhere-. This is way Won Buddhism slys: "Ch'an anytime. Ch'an anywhere.l'Org does not need to give up th"e world and retire to a monastery _or hermitage, and spend a[ of hii time sitting quietly in meditation.. The needs o^f everyday living and responsibilities must be met lly mos.t 9f .Ut. One can .ngug. in- Ch'an no matter where he is or what he is doine. It means

-7 -

koeping the mind quiet white the body is active. It means closing-the rnind to all other ihoughts, and concentrating upon-being absorbed in-what one is doing at the time, to the exclusion of all else. Once a master oJ Ch'an was asked, "What is Ch'an?" He r'eplied, "When I work I work. When I eat I eat." Another was raking a yard and received his awakening when the rake struck a titre. Regular periods of si[ting in meditation at a set time each day, especialiy early in the morning, or else wheneve,r convenient, can and shbuld also be engaged in. With the body comfortable and still, the sense organs inactive-, the mind quiet and without thoughts, listen with the mind,for the voice of the silence from within, and with it oomes awakening. continued self-discipline and practice may gq required before theie is sulcess. In time, though, awakening will be achieved and one will know the bliss that is Nirvana. Who, or what, is it that says: my body, my intellect, my thoughts, my self? My body is something I inhabit. My intellect is the element of consciousness I use. My thoughts are the mental activities I engage in. My self 1s the illusion of individuality that the unenlightened I think it is. I am not my body, I am not my intellect. I am not my thoughtsI am not what I Suppose to be my self. I have, and I use, a body, trn intellect, thoughts, and what appears to be self. What, then, is this I? The I is the true Self, as distinguished from the illusory self. I am an individual (undivided) manifestation of the One Reality. I am one with Universal Buddha-n2tll1s-Bhutatathata, THAT that is.

Why is Buddhist Reformation Considered Inevitable? by Prof. Chun Eun


What is the ultimate goal of Won Buddhism as a new religion? And, what is Won Buddhism? As far as the ultimate goal is concerned, Won Buddhism is, in my own view, the same as traditional Buddhism, and not so different from every other religion. It is to rescue or deliver all sentient beings from the pains of life to eternal paradise.. Mor.e precisely speaking, cla-ssifying this ultimate goal of deliverance into, trlitt t.ti, I believe,-precipitate understanding the. necessities'of retigion. Fiisi, religion aims tb deliver all sentient being to eternal paradise, as sllggesied a-bove, from all pains such as anxiety, fear, sadness, etc.






Everyone has sufferings, as the Buddha wisely pointed out, and religion teaches us how to solve the pains spiritually, by belief. The second aim is to lead us from the ignorant sensual life to the life of truth, by the enlightening invariable ultimate truth of the Universe. The third aim is to lead us to be good, rightly conducting ourselves and serving others through social welfare. lt goes without saying that latter two can be reduced to the one great aim of the former. The venerable Sotesan, the Founder of Won Buddhism, was early determined to perceive the great principle of the universe and our life. After years of moral training and spiritual search, he attained the great Enlightenment in his native land, Ryung Kwang, at the Korean age of 26, in 1916, without any leader's help. ln reality he was not only a non-Buddhist till his Enlightenment, but also he did not even know at all about Buddhist doctrine, whereas his native land was mountainous and far away from any educational system. When the great Enlightenment was achieved, his bliss was unspeakable, and many followers assembled around him so that they might learn what he had attained, and

follow a new saint. Thereby a new religious order appeared. One day the Founder wanted to know what the other great saints taught, so the various scriptures containing Confucius' Four Scriptures, the Buddhist Sutras, the Christian old and new Testaments and the Taoist scriptures were assembled by his disciples for his reference. After refernce to the Scriptures,, he was surprised to know the past saints had already found the truth which he perceived. Above all Buddha's Diamond Sutra was most supreme and its principal thought entirely coincided with the Enlightenment by Ven. Sotesan. This event made him respect the Buddha, the great Enlightened one as the most to be respected among all other saints that had yet appeared in the world. Thereafter Buddhism became the mother religion of the religious order and Won Buddhism has developed into a new kind of dynamic Buddhism. [n spite of the supremacy of Buddhist doctrine, yet reformation of Buddhism was considered inevitable, according to the Venerable Sotesan's opinion, in order to rescue the world for the future, because Buddhism was so supra-mundane and static as not to influence the real life. Ven. Sotesan thought traditional Buddhism should be reformed and more popularized, made dynamic in everyday life, and modernized in order to be in accordance with reality. He thought that even great saints could not but depend upon the environment in which they lived in cultivating others, and that the new world, becoming smaller, more civilized, and more complicated, was demanding Buddhist reformation so as to broadly realize Buddha's real ideal in the world. In addition to this, Buddhism had often been specialized in, or entered into unimportant details, through its long period of propagation, while many synthetic, radical essences were neglected.


At the beginning, Won Buddhism appeared as a "savings-league", on tho foundation of the cultivation of dry beaches, the charcoal dealer, the wheat-gluten vendor, and agriculture and livestock breeding, subsequently i! ruas developed into building a dynamic religion inseparable from actual life, giving us a new pattern of ideal religion. In general, the religious and spiritual thinkers of the past observed our world too negatively and evasively. Therefore, our practical life has been considered as sinful, worthless, filthy, suffering and vain. Because of this, many religious thinkers and believers naturally put emphasis upon the future life after death rather than our real world, considering our secttlar world or affairs the symbol of evil. Such an inclination, neglectful of our secular world, necessarily separated re,ligion from the reality in which we live, and weakened the power of salvation, or religious rescue. In order to have the great power of salvation, religion must be popularized, and also it must be directly connected with our real life, in order to bc popularized. The primitive substantial spirit of the saints must be reconsidered and understood properly and perfectly, though it is true that evory religion has an inclination comparatively negative to the real world. If we are, in reality, properly enlightened, our world is filled with most necessary things. For instance our physical body is also very precious and indispensable in order to do good for the world. This example can be applied to everything in the world. Accordingly the negaticin and assertion of our real world must be paralleled properly, just like two sides of a sheet of paper, for the true realization of the ideal of the right religion. Ven. Sotesan taught us to r-egard all the world and the things in it with gratitude, in place of hating it. He always emphasized, that ieligion and our practical life should be one and should coincide, under-the

various platforms; that all things are Buddha's images, so we must serve them with sincerity, just as though in front of the Buddha's image; that we must alWays practice Everytime Ch'an, Everywhere Ch'an, so as to make Ch'an lively, ceaseless and worthy throughout life; that Moving and being quiet the two are of one suchness and keep both the spirii

and body fully integrated; that Buddhism is life itseif. Life is none other than Buddhism. Thus, Veu. Sotesan made spirituality parallel with realism, and also made secular affairs, involving everyday tasks or professional activities parallel with Buddhist descipline. Such positive thoughts are applied, except abgve mentioned, to the descipline the Threefold Training. -That is, samadhi must not be a discipline only by sitting ch'an, without any real obstacles, but we must practise it through everyday life as welt as sitting Ch'an in the room. So it is not neoessary for ui to discard our real life to attain Samadhi. As to the Sila descipline, it. m.ust not be restricted only to the monastries, but it should be-realized in social life in

a somewhat reformed form, practising what is good and avoiding what






is not good. In fact, our world, itself, is none other than a large monastery


it is. Prajna discipline

in the harmonious study of sciences and world affairs together with the ultimate truth and doctrine. The above thoughts are for the coincident realization of our real life we think


and Buddhism.

In conclusion, the principal aim of the Buddhist reformation by Won Buddhism may be summarized in this respect.

Tha fottov',r, u ,,,, irrrrn a"ur)rra liglttenntcnt Hall ol Won Buddltism.


,,'*. Rictrard

). orro

ttt the


The Modernization of Buddhism Friends!


has been some time since I last visited you, but during that absence I often thought about you, what vou think and how you live, a Buddhism in this part of the world. I am very happy to be here on your birthday and I am sorry I could not arrive earlier today. This evening, for a few minutes, I propose to outline for discussion, some points concerning the role of Buddhism in the modernization of Asia, and afterwards invite you to discuss the subiect and ask my interpreter friend to summarize for you what we discussed together earlier this afternoon. We all know that the world is changing, that life in Asia that life in Korea is changing. Some people call this modernization. What does modernization mean? Does it mean progress or does it simply mean something different from the older traditional ways of life and subject? However we may view modernization, one aspect of it is the scientific attitude, research, investigation into the nature of all things. It does require an open mind, curiousity, investigation, scientific approach and cpenmindedness. This means that a person who does not have an ()pen mind does not have a curiousity, a genuine interest in the nature of life around him, that such a person without a cultivated mind can not properly understand modernization and he can not take part in it. Now fortunately Buddhism emphasizes the cultivation of the mind. As I understand Won Bulkyo, you give great emphasis to the cultivation of the mind. Therefore, it seems to me that you should be able to understand this aspect of modernization, to evaluate it and contribute toward it in the changing of your society. Another aspect of*modernization is change: Something new something different from the traditional way of life. This requires recognition of the changing conditions oI new problems, new requirements. It is a challenge to man's thought and action.

Now, fortunately, Buddhism recognizes change. Change is a part




of life, all that is changes. These flowers change, we change. Everything changes.and chanfe_in socieiy il b; irolrct*d by tho Buddhist.

As I undersrand it, won Bulliyo also recognir., .t Jn;;;; pticei g-t:ut' importance up.on education. No* what i"s education? Ii is learn_ rng,

tearning new things, understanding the nature orttrings, -i:h.-;d;.arion td.i. problems, and a-ttempjing io *ir. process in won 1t.*; i" Bulkvo shoutd hatp ih peopre aaopting, society and prepared to 6e able to iontiot-rrg.rr1."ai;g;"[;G;ln that change, to direct it toward better human life. What I have said so far about modernization, the Buddhist underit, the importance of culti;;ti.t ;h;-'miiro, a;d ;d;;tion ,rj3'dpq. in won Bulkyo, is.only one side or tn. illi the principle, the theory, the plot, the idea; the other side ,ir.Ir.. i;p;; concerns the practice, fulillment, apprication, the cha;ir;til works trriat y"u iave in JIr.e 'four -the wo.r. Bulkyo. I have ierected ;;;il;;l rt, problems or tasks in the modernization bt Ariu. charitabre works for one concerns agricultural production, the second concerns publii healttr, ah. ihird ;;flcerns business and economic life, and the fouitii-.on.L.n, education. The first concerning agriculturat proorc-tion, we must fird *uy,


p".pres in .producirg qT_. foodl pirticurarit I;.-S;;iri^purt India, East Pakistan. and-tire other A.iun d;;; are aii". starving. we need them produce more food.and.-ii,;y;;j';";;.,lir' *. :g,-h.Jp n oo ratsed or grown from destruction by insecis, by rats aqd other plrrt and animat diseases. For exampt., a'gri.rri"iir i6;;#;;,i"orir,orug.

and distribution

in India,-unless tiret *.un, uie-modernized,


p Breat deal in regard to food, many miliion p""i,f. *ifi ;i;;; t-o^ deatt in the next few years. The question is now asked, "Does rerigion, any'rerigion, help or -ii?ir""frJ'i. tire proJucti;;'oirooii" |3Loicap -rrr ask Buddhism, "What does lluddhism have to say? Wh"i;;perience have in the oroduction of food. uno pr.*r;il; the does Buddhism food 1-* being destroved bv'insects, disease, iutr, and other rieans before it reaches Luryun bein!s?" t, it ir ,rg"?o^r, i; *og.t"rito'* that won K*uog Universitv tras a Departm;lt of Agriciritd; to plan more studies qlh.er4.,i..1n uftigurt*; "rd';l;li;;'uiJioing ih'i, rs rmportant because most of the other Buddhist Univeriities that I-uitit.a in Asia have not yet esrablished a department or courses of studv--i; &ri;;lt*J.' fni. must be done in otier countries u1$ n,..rrup;t6, will" show trr. *uy

that Buddhist principles can be practice'd p;;;Jirr. rlr_ ;;ilitri.f The second problem in tasi<s of Budohis"m concerns public health. In the last few weeks in the calcutta area in India there has been _ I believe still is a smailpox urong rh; p;;;i., il,i, is problem. we - ,no vaccrnation against ;"i;llp;; would believe that modern that.hygienic semination measures would heTp, irr"i l,.lp, -riv mothers in the Calcutta area are reported in tlre ,il;ilers to oppose, object


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t79 BU

News Corner


to having their children vaccinated, because the mothers believe that smallpoiis caused by the goddess of smallpox. Vaccination has no.thing to do-with the goddess of smallpox. This ii a religious or a superstitious reason against measures to contiol and prevent the spread of the diseases. So the question is "what does Buddhism have to say? Wh-at does Buddhism do about disease, about medicine, modern medicine?" Here it is important to know that Won Kwang University has a de_pa.rtment of pharmacy, the study of materials for the proper use of medicine. ^ The third task oi problem of modernizatioh is the development of new forms of economic life. New industries, new businesses, new methods of earning a living. Here again the question "What does Buddhism have to say about work, about private property, about trading, commerce, banking, and so forth?" What is [he Buddhist view and conduct in business life which is a part of the modernization process?" Here rgain it is important to know that Won Kwang University. l.ras courses ln commerce, economics, and that part of modern life, anC it would be interesting to know how you express Buddhist principles in the study of economlcs.

And the fourth problem and task in modernization is education. New methods of teaching, new methods of research, of learning, of providing more education for more people, for children and also for adults. Of this whole task of education we often say that Asia can not be developed without more education for the people. This is true in the Western w'orld, Africa, South America, everywhere in the world today. If we are to modernize, if man is to control modernization, we must be properly and fully educated. Education is very important. And so the question is, "What does Buddhism think about education? What does Buddhism do in education?" I think the answer is quite simple and direct. Buddhism is education. [t is learning the real way of life and the way to fulfill, to attain the ultimate goal of life. To become enlightened, much of Buddhism in principle and practice is education in this fullest meaning. tt is the cultivation of humanity in man and respect towards all living things. And so it is important to know that Won Kwang University has a department of education. And so we pick up both sides of the paper; one side is cultivation of the mind, education; the other side the charitable works. This is according to Won Bulkyo, as I understand it, and this applies to the role of Buddhism in the modernization of Asia. Now I may have omitted something that we discussed earlier this afternoon. lf m! interpreter friend thinks I left out of something important, or interesting. I invite him now to tell you about it.


on the 26th of April, on the occasion of the 52nd BirtMay of "Won Buddhism", Dr. Richard A. Gard, an eminent BudrJhist Scholar, w'idely known, made his third visit to won Buddhist Headquarters and won Kwang universrty. On his arrival at won Buddhism, at the grounds of w.K.U., in which the program of athletic games we_rg being held in commemoration of the Birthday, he was welcomed by all




s) 6)


being presented with a lovely bouquet.

-members, In the evening from half past 8, at the Enlightenmeni Hall, he gave a speech on the subject "The Moderniza[ion of Buddhism". He had also a noteworthy discussion with professors of the Buddhist course. He has been an intimate Buddhist friend of Dr. Kil _Chi1 Park, President of Won Kwang University, for years. on the 8th of March-the grand entrance ceremony of won Kwang Univ. took place at the campus. It commenced with attendance oT guests of th. President, professors, itudents and a great many -serr:iors

honour fol -and p-arents. A reception party prepared by the freshmen followed the cerlemony. At ihe-party, of the various program numbers, the music contest was highly applauded. At ten, on the 26th of April, the 52nd Birthday ceremony of won Buddhism was held solemnly at the Enlighteninent Hall-in Headquarters_ and all branch temples. At Headquarters after the cereTony all attendants worshipped the sacred pagoda of the late ven.

sotesan, the founder of won Buddhism. Tlie worshippers were entertained with a good lunch, music and sports as usda^I. on the 16th of V,uy tt . birthday of the compassionate Sakyamuni Buddha was celebrated by all the won Buddhist membeis. At Headquarl.f,_ at eight !.vt. I special lecture on the subject "Eight features of Sakyamuni Buddha" was delivered. Asia Foundatioir contributed to Won r*""g university a lot of valuable Fnglish books which will help the study of the-staffs and

students in various fields. on the 27th of April the Korean committee of the world Buddhist Fellowship m:!at sjoul, the capital of Korea. They discussed bringing the next w.B.F. conferenie to Korea, but come to an agreE-

ment to put off this subject. won Kwang university made it a rule to invite an distinguisherj perscn once a month and hear his lecture. On the 2lst of June professor .Ryr- Tal-Yung,_u,(ho .teaches at the Agricultural college, Seoul National univ. has been invited. His speeches on the subjdct "The basic Problem for the Rehabilitation of our country" mad.

a deep impression on the audiences.


on the l st of June the Grand Summer Memorial

Service was held

with an utmost solemnity at Headquarters not less than 700 followers joined^ in this ceremony. Twenty-three years ago today our Founder of won Buddhism passed into Nirvana to the utmosf grief of his followers.






r80 Miss Pal. Kh,n Chon, professor'

of Won Kuang Uniu. and the

chief editor of "Won Buddltisrn" journal' usill leaue Korea for U.S.A. on July 30 to studg English at Teras Women's Uniuersity as a graduate student for a LJear from September 1967 to July 1968. During her staE in the country of her studY, all letters and communications Jrom readers uill be most appreciatecl. Her address is:

Miss Pai Khn Chon Texas'Women's University

Box 2906, TWU Station, Denton, Texas 76204

GirL and bog students of Won Kusang '[JnitsersitE Buddhist course after attending the strict training course for a month during their usinter uacstion. The sitting are their instructors.

Dr. Richard A. Gcrd usas entertaLned tuith

a bouquet on his ar-

riuaL at the ground of

Won Kutanl Uniuersr.ty Headquarters of Won Buddhistn.


We acknowledge with many thanks the receipt of the following. Canadian Theosophist, The: Vol. 48 No. I Toronto, Canada. World Suddhism: Vol. XV, No. 8, Colombo, Ceylon. China Buddhist Monthly: Vol. 11, No. 10, Taipei, Taiwan, China. Bodhedrum: No. 175, Taiwan, China. Hai Ch'ao Ying Monthly: Vol. 48, No. 6, Taipei, Taiwan. Middle way: Vol. XIII, No. l, London, England.

Voice Universal, The: No. 61, London, England. Occult Gazette: 80th Issue, Kensington, W.S., London, England. Der Keris: No. 68, Bnemen, Germany. Yana: Marz-April, 1967 Maha Bodhi, The: Vol. 75, No. 4, Calcutta, Iiidia. Bulletin of the Ramarkrishna Mission Institute of Culture: Vol. XVIII, No. 4, Ca1cutta, India. Bukkyo Times: No. 711, Tokyo, Japan. KBS Bulletin: No. 82, 1967, Tokyo, Japan. Buddhist Union Newsletter, The: Vol. 15, No. 2, Singapore. American Buddhist: Vol. 11, No. 5, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Suchness: Vol. 7, No. 2" Cbigage, U.S.A. Bulletin of the Washington Friends of Buddhism: Vol. 10, No.7. Washington, D.C., U.S.A Lion's Roar Magazine, The: Vol. 6, Nb) 6, Taipei, Taiwan. Tenrigyo: New No. 64, Tenri-City, Japan. Zen Notes: Vol. XIV, No. 4, New York, U.S.A. PRS Journal: Vol: 26, No. 4, Michigan, U.S.A. Awaken the World: No. 365, Taipei Taiwan, China: Everlasting Light: Vol. 8, No. 36, Penang, Malaya. lnformation Bouddhistes: Vol. 13, No. 49, Brussels, Belgium. Buddhism in Taiwan: Vol. 21, No. 6, Taipei, Taiwan, China. The Source (Yuen Chunen): No. 39, Hong Kong. Daihorin (Maha Dharmachakra): Vol. 34, No. 7, Tokyo, Japan. World Federation: Vol: 40, No. 3, VRINDBAN, U.P. INDIA. Daijo: Vol. 18, No. 5, Kyoto, Japan. Hongwanji Shinpo: No. 1574, Kyoto, Japan. Layman's Buddhism,: No. 159, Tokyo, Japan. Buddhism in Hong Kong: No. 85, Hong Kong. Wheel publication, The: No. 106, Kandy, Ceylon. Contemporary Religions in Japan: Vol. VII, No. 4, Tokyo, Japan.


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