EUROPEAN CELEBRATIONS WITHOUT MYSTERIES GUIDEBOOk
kURBAN FEAST IN TURkEY
The Feast of the Sacrifice takes place about 70 days after the end of Ramazan. The Feast of the Sacrifice commemorates Ibrahim’s willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael to show his faithfulness to Allah. A goat or sheep of minimum one year old is killed / sacrificed. Sometimes even a bull or a camel of minimum 2 years old is sacrificed, representing a sacrifice of up to seven people. The meat is then given to the poor (both within Turkey and outside) and shared among family members and neighbors. Typical for both the Feast of the Sacrifice (Kurban Bayramı) and the Sugar Feast (Ramazan Bayramı) is that parents buy new outfits for their children and give the old clothes to the poor. Typically, the children wear their new clothes throughout the festival.
ANIMAL'S DAY IN THE NETHERLANDS, OCTOBER 4
It is a very special day, particularly for animal lovers In the Netherlands this often means that children are allowed to bring their beloved pets to school and households up and down the country reward their loyal companions with a special treat, such as a luxury meal or a delicious slice of Dutch sausage. Thereâ€™s no doubt about it, the Dutch really are a nation of animal lovers.
ST. PARASCHEvA DAY IN ROMANIA, OCTOBER 13
On this occasion arrive in Iasi, in pilgrimage, about 1 million pilgrims, most of them waiting for hours in a line which covers 2-3 kilometers in order to reach the relics of the Saint and pray. Saint Parascheva is considered the Protector of Moldavia and Bucovina, being the most popular of all the Saints whose relics are in Romania. Christians believe in the miraculous powers of the relics.
TEACHERS' DAY IN POLAND OCTOBER, 14 24 November- Teacher`s Day in Turkey 28 January- Teacher`s Day in Spain
29 January- Teacher`s Day in Catalonia 30 January- Teacher`s Day in Greece
The Teachers’ Day (Dzień Nauczyciela), officially called the National Education Day (Dzień Edukacji Narodowej), is celebrated on October 14 in Poland. The schools organize the formal assemblies to honour the teachers. National Education Day was introduced 28 years ago. It is the anniversary of creation the Commission of National Education, created in 1773 from the initiative of King Stanisław August Poniatowski.
OCHI DAY IN GREECE, OCTOBER 28
It is celebrated throughout Greece, Cyprus and the Greek communities around the world on October 28 each year, to commemorate the rejection by Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas (in power from August 4, 1936, until January 29, 1941) of the ultimatum made by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini on October 28, 1940.
THE REPUBLIC DAY OF TURkEY, OCTOBER 29
The Republic Day of Turkey is one of the public holidays in Turkey, commemorating the proclamation of the republic in 1923. It lasts 35 hours, starting at 1:00 pm on October 28. Many people go to local stadiums on October 29 to watch performances dedicated to Republic Day in Turkey. Such performances usually consist of theater sketches, poetry readings and traditional Turkish dances. Many school children participate in school performances for parents and teachers.
HALLOWEEN, OCTOBER 31
It is a yearly celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October. Typical festive Halloween activities include trick-ortreating (or the related "guising"), attending costume parties, decorating, carving pumpkins into jack-o'lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, visiting haunted house attractions, playing pranks, telling scary stories, and watching horror films. In Poland we celebrate Halloween at schools.
THE CHESTNUT DAY IN SPAIN OCTOBER 31
All Saints' Day is celebrated in Spain on the same day as in the rest of the world - on November 1. In Catalonia, the locals eat 'Casta単ada', a meal that consists of chestnuts, sweets called 'panellets' and sweet potato. Note that this meal is often eaten the day before All Saints' Day these days.
ALL SAINTS` DAY IN POLAND, SPAIN NOvEMBER 1
It is a solemnity celebrated on 1 November by the Catholic Church in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
AGIOS GEORGIOS METHYSTIS DAY IN GREECE, NOvEMBER 3
On the 3rd of November the custom refers in the Dionysian celebrations, in a feast dedicated to Agios-Giorgios Methystis, where the locals open their wine barrels. The traditional dish is goat in tomato sauce with rice.
THE HOLOCAUST OF ARkADI IN GRRECE NOvEMBER 7
The Arkadi Monastery is one of Crete's most venerated symbols of freedom. The defiant defence of this fortress-like monastery during the 1866 Cretan rebellion against the Turks is still legendary and inspirational.
SAINT AGIOS MINAS DAY IN GREECE NOvEMBER 11
There's nothing like being saved from your enemies by a Saint. But if you are, you'd better give thanks to that Saint every year, just to be sure karma doesn't come and pay you what you're due before the deity intervened. Heraklion, a small village on the Greek island of Crete, isn't taking any risks on that front. After being saved from the knives of Ottoman Turks in the 19th century, and by Saint Minas, locals (likely descendents of the saved townsfolk) pay their respects every November. There's a parade, food, drink and a service in the lovely church that was named after the Saint.
ATHENS POLYTECHNIC UPRISING, NOvEMBER 14
The Athens Polytechnic uprising in 1973 was a massive demonstration of popular rejection of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974. The uprising began on November 14, 1973, escalated to an open anti-junta revolt and ended in bloodshed in the early morning of November 17 after a series of events starting with a tank crashing through the gates of the Polytechnic. November 17 is currently observed as a holiday in Greece for all educational establishments; commemorative services are held and students attend school only for these, while some schools and all universities stay closed during the day.
GUY FAWkES NIGHT IN GREAT BRITAIN, NOvEMBER 5
It is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain. Its history begins with the events of 5 November 1605, when Guy Fawkes, a member of the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested while guarding explosives the plotters had placed beneath the House of Lords. Celebrating the fact that King James I had survived the attempt on his life, people lit bonfires around London, and months later the introduction of the Observance of 5th November Act enforced an annual public day of thanksgiving for the plot's failure.
COMMEMORATION OF ATATÜRk IN TURkEY, NOvEMBER 10
In October 1938, AtatĂźrk was dining with friends on the presidential yacht, Savarona, when he was taken ill. He was conveyed to the nearby DolmabahĂ§e Palace, where he eventually died, on Nov. 10. Since then, every clock in the palace has been stopped at 9:05, the precise moment of his death, as recorded rather movingly in pencil on the desk diary of Celal Bayar, later the countryâ€™s third president, which is on display in the Second Congress Building in Ankara.
POLISH INDEPENDENCE DAY NOvEMBER 11
It is a national day in Poland celebrated on November 11 to commemorate the anniversary of resumption of independent Polish state â€“ Second Polish Republic in 1918 after 123 years of partitions of Poland made by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Empire. It is a non-working day in Poland.
ST ANDREW’S DAY IN POLAND, NOvEMBER 30
29/30 November in Poland is the day of mysterious parties with the candles and future telling games, called Andrzejki (St Andrew Day)– the same as in the very past, but nowadays treated as a fun. The most spectacular is pouring liquid wax into water. The shape which formed as the wax solidified is then illuminated to throw it’s shadow on the wall. The shape of the shadow gives the opportunity for unlimited interpretation, which is fun for all participants. The shoes competition is reserved for the girls only. All of them took off their left shoes and put them in a line one after the other. Then this line of shoes “walk” to the door, the last moving to the front on by one, thus walking forward. The girl who’s shoe reach the door first, would be the first to get married.
SAINT BARBARA DAY IN GREECE, DECEMBER 4
Saint Barbara's day is celebrated annually on December 4, in a feast day similar to that of North American Halloween. The traditional food for the occasion is Burbara, a bowl of boiled barley, pomegranate seeds, raisins, anise and sugar. Walnuts or almonds can be added.
SAINT NICHOLAS DAY IN POLAND, GREECE, DECEMBER 6
It is a festival for children in many countries in Europe related to surviving legends of Saint Nicholas, and particularly his reputation as a bringer of gifts. In Greece, Saint Nicholas does not carry an especial association with gift-giving. St. Nicholas is considered the patron saint of the Greek navy, military and merchant alike, and his day is marked by festivities aboard all ships and boats, at sea and in port. In Poland children find the candy and small gifts under the pillow, in their shoes in the morning of 6 December.
SAINT SPYRIDON DAY IN GREECE, DECEMBER 12
Spyridon is the patron saint of potters (from the purported miracle of the potsherd) and the island of Corfu. Recognizing St. Spyridon's role in the defence of the island, Venice legislated the annual "Litany of St. Spyridon" on August 11 as a commemoration of the event. His feast day is celebrated in the East on the Saturday before Great Lent (known as "Cheesefare Saturday") and December 12. For those Eastern Churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, December 12 falls on December 25 of the modern Gregorian Calendar. In the West he is commemorated on December 14.
SAINT DIONYSIUS OF ZAkYNTHOS DAY, DECEMBER 17
It has been found that his body remains intact and emits a mixed fragrance of flowers and frankincense. Therefore he is venerated, and his sainthood has been proclaimed by the Patriarch of Constantinople. His feast day is celebrated on December 17, and on August 24, the Church celebrates the transfer of his holy relics.
CHRISTMAS DECEMBER 25
It is an annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ and a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated generally on December 25 by millions of people around the world.
EPIPHANY IN POLAND, GREECE, SPAIN JANUARY 6
It is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ. Western Christians commemorate principally (but not solely) the visit of the Magi to the Baby Jesus, and thus Jesus' physical manifestation to the Gentiles. Eastern Christians commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God.
GRANDPARENTS' DAY IN POLAND, JANUARY 21,22
In Poland it is celebrated on January 21. Grandfather's Day (Polish: Dzień Dziadka) is celebrated a day later, on January 22. In Poland, Grandma's Day (Polish: Dzień Babci) was created in 1964 by the Kobieta i Życie magazine, and popularized from 1965 onwards. In UK it has been celebrated on the first Sunday in October since 2008.
vALENTINE` S DAY 14 FEBRUARY
It is celebrated in many countries around the world, although it is not a holiday in most of them. Valentineâ€™s Day is not a national public holiday in Poland. Many people send Valentine's Day cards, gifts or text messages to their partner or somebody for whom they have romantic feelings. Cards and gifts are traditionally sent anonymously. February 14 is not a public holiday.
FAT THURSDAY IN GREECE, POLAND THE LAST THURSDAY BEFORE LENT
Among the most popular all-national dishes served on that day are pÄ…czki in Poland fist-sized donuts filled with rose marmalade, and faworki, French dough fingers served with lots of powdered sugar. It is widely celebrated in Greece. Apart from the festivities that take part in the streets, including getting dressed and telling jokes, a lot of eating is involved. Mainly people look for an excuse to eat a lot of meat since a few days later fasting begins.
CARNIvAL IN GREECE,BELGIUM, SPAIN IN MARCH
Carnival is celebrated nationwide in Spain. It is defined by its music and costumes on the street. People dress up, organise parties, take part in parades and prepare their dancing and singing along the year. The Carnival in the Canary Islands was declared a Festival of Tourist Interest, and together with the Carnival in Cรกdiz are the most important festival for spanish tourism.
WOMEN'S DAY IN GREECE, POLAND, ROMANIA, SPAIN, TURkEY, MARCH 8
In different regions the focus of the celebrations ranges from general celebration of respect, appreciation and love towards women to a celebration for women's economic, political, and social achievements. Started as a Socialist political event, the holiday blended in the culture of many countries, primarily in Europe.
NATIONAL DAY OF GREECE, MARCH 25
National holiday celebrated annually in Greece commemorating the start of the War of Greek Independence in 1821. It coincides with the Greek Orthodox Churchâ€™s celebration of the Annunciation to the Theotokos, when the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Mary and told her that she would bear the son of God.
SAINT PATRICk'S DAY IN IRELAND, MARCH 17
Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland,Northern Ireland. It is a cultural and religious holiday celebrated annually on 17 March, the death date of the most commonly-recognised patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. On St Patrick's Day it is customary to wear shamrocks and/or green clothing or accessories (the "wearing of the green").
PANCAkE DAY IN GREAT BRITAIN
It is a day in February or March, preceding Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent), which is celebrated in many countries by consuming pancakes. Shrove Tuesday, a moveable feast, is determined by Easter. The pancake race remains a relatively common festive tradition in the UK, especially England, even today. Participants with frying pans race through the streets tossing pancakes into the air and catching them in the pan whilst running.
ASH WEDNESDAY IN POLAND, SPAIN
It is the first day of Lent in Western Christianity. It therefore occurs 46 days before Easter and can fall as early as February 4 or as late as March 10. Ashes are ceremonially placed on the heads of Christians on Ash Wednesday, either by being sprinkled over their heads or, more often, by being marked on their foreheads as a visible cross.
CLEAN MONDAY IN GREECE
Clean Monday begins the season of Great Lent in Eastern Orthodox Churches. Clean Monday is a public holiday in Greece and Cyprus, where it is celebrated with outdoor excursions, the consumption of shellfish and other fasting food. Clean Monday is named like this because Christians are `cleaned up` spiritually and physically.
CELEBRATION OF TURkISH NATIONAL ANTHEM, MARCH 12
Turkey commemorates the anniversary of the acceptance of Turkish National Anthem, summarizing the great struggle of the Turkish nation during the Turkish War of Independence.
ÇANAkkALE vICTORY IN TURkEY MARCH 18
The Anniversary of the March 18 Çanakkale Victory. In 18 March 1915 Turkish army won the Çanakkale war(Chanakkale). Turkish army fought army of England,France,NewZealand and Australia.This war happened on Gelibolu peninsula in World War I. The leader of the army was Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
OLDER PERSONS DAY (WEEk) IN TURkEY, MARCH 18-24
This holiday is similar to Grandparents` Day in Poland. Turkey still has a young population in respect to most otherEuropean countries, although the proportion of the population comprising older people is expected to increase in future years. This will necessitate a change in the perception and provision of health and social care services. Current services are already insufficient to meet the needs of the older population. The government and other institutions in Turkey need to be ready to meet these ever increasing needs and enhance the quality of existing services in order to improve the health and living conditions of older people in the country.
Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. is a festival and holiday celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred three days after his crucifixion by Romans at Calvary. It is the culmination of the Passion of Christ, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance.
WET MONDAY IN POLAND EASTER MONDAY
Ĺšmigus-Dyngus is a celebration held on Easter Monday in Poland. Traditionally, boys throw water over girls and spank them with pussy willow branches on Easter Monday, and girls do the same to boys on Easter Tuesday. This is accompanied by a number of other rituals, such as making verse declarations and holding door-to-door processions, in some regions involving boys dressed as bears.
APRIL FOOLS' DAY IN POLAND AND GREAT BRITAIN APRIL 1
It is celebrated as a day when people play practical jokes and hoaxes on each other. The jokes and their victims are known as "April fools". In Poland, prima aprilis is a day full of jokes; various hoaxes are prepared by people, media (which sometimes cooperate to make the "information" more credible) and even public institutions. Serious activities are usually avoided. In the UK, an April fool joke is revealed by shouting "April fool!" at the recipient, who becomes the "April fool".
LABOR DAY MAY 1
Many people in Poland have the day off work or school on Labor Day (Święto Pracy), or May 1 (1 Maja). It is a time to celebrate both the spring time and workers’ rights. Many people in Poland enjoy May 1 by being outdoors, as it marks a time when the weather becomes warmer in the spring. It is part of a holiday season known as Majówka, which includes Poland’s Constitution Day, celebrated on May 3. In the United Kingdom, May Day is still celebrated in many towns with the crowning of the May Queen. Maypoles can still be found in some towns and May Day traditions may include hobby horses and local people dressed in costumes.
FLAG DAY IN POLAND MAY 2
This feast is celebrated by organizing various types of events and political demonstrations. For example, in Swinoujscie, in 2011, more than 600 people gathered on the beach to the kept white or red cards to create a Polish flag.
There are two reasons historical, for which established Flag Day is May 2. First, it was on this day winning Berlin soldiers from the 1st Division of the Kosciuszko put flag on the victory column in the Tiergarten in Berlin. Secondly, during the communist period, May 2, citizens had a warrant to remove the flag, so that they were not posted during the holidays not recognized by the authorities on May 3.
CONSTITUTION DAY IN POLAND MAY 3
It is a Polish national and public holiday that takes place on May 3. The holiday celebrates the declaration of the Constitution of May 3, 1791. Festivities date back to the Duchy of Warsaw early in the 19th century, but it became an official holiday only in 1919 in the Second Polish Republic. Delisted during the times of the People's Republic of Poland, it was reestablished after the fall of communism in modern Poland.
MOTHER`S DAY IN POLAND, MAY 26
Mother's Day is a celebration honoring mothers and motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in spring. Mother's Day in Greece and Turkey is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. In Spain it is celebrated on the first Sunday of May.
GREEN WEEk IN POLAND JUNE 50DAYS AFTER EASTER
The festival celebrated in early June and closely linked with the cult of the dead and the spring agricultural rites. It usually fell upon the Thursday of the Green Week. Its name is derived from the Slavic word for "seven", because the Green Week was the seventh (sometimes the eighth) week after Easter. The Rusalki were believed to be at their most dangerous during the Green Week and were supposed to have left their watery depths in order to swing on branches of birch and willow trees at night. Peasant women sometimes hung offerings to appease them. A cross, a magic circle, incense, garlic, wormwood, a pin or poker and verbal charms were used to render the rusalki harmless. Swimming was strictly forbidden, lest mermaids would drag the swimmer down to the river floor. Later, in the Christian liturgical year, it became a feast commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ
CHILDREN` S DAY IN POLAND JUNE 1
In Poland, Children's Day (Dzień Dziecka) is celebrated on June 1. The International Children's Day was introduced in Poland in 1952. It coincides with the beginning of summer and it is usually treated as a holiday, as it takes place near the end of the school year. Schools usually organize special activities for the day of the celebration, and the first week of June is a time of festivities organized in parks and entertainment centers for children. Parents buy small gifts for their children. In Spain, this date is celebrated on the 2nd Sunday of May, and it's called "Día del niño„. In Turkey, this date is celebrated on the 23rr Sunday of April.
CORPUS CHRISTI IN POLAND IN JUNE
Corpus Christi is an official public holiday in Poland, so schools, banks, government offices and most private businesses are closed. There is a trade prohibition on public holidays in Poland. Traffic is stopped during the Corpus Christi procession times in many places in Poland. People intending to travel via public transport during public holidays must check with the public transit authorities on any changes to time schedules.
It is observed on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday in villages, towns and cities all over Poland.
kUPALA NIGHT IN POLAND IN JUNE
The celebration relates to the summer solstice when nights are the shortest and includes a number of Pagan rituals. On Kupala day, young people jump over the flames of bonfires in a ritual test of bravery and faith. The failure of a couple in love to complete the jump while holding hands is a sign of their destined separation. Girls may float wreaths of flowers (often lit with candles) on rivers, and would attempt to gain foresight into their relationship fortunes from the flow patterns of the flowers on the river. Men may attempt to capture the wreaths, in the hope of capturing the interest of the woman who floated the wreath.
ASSUMPTION OF MARY IN GREECE, POLAND, ROMANIA AUGUST 15
The feast of the Assumption is a public holiday in many countries. Many people in Poland attend church masses on the Day of Assumption. A number of churches have services to remember Polish soldiers who died fighting for their country. Gatherings take place at some cemeteries where readings are made in honor of dead soldiers. Another ceremonious event on August 15 is the Change of Guards near the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Warsaw. The Day of Assumption is an official public holiday in Poland, so schools, banks, government offices and most private businesses are closed.
THANk YOU FOR WATCHING THE FOUNDER OF THE PROJECT AGNIESZKA WÓJCIK