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Constructing Environments – Week 09

Water proofing materials used in the section:     

Sarking Flashing Sealant on backing rod Weep holes Overflashing

Waterproofing is used to overcome the ways through which water can enter a building. How water enters a building:   

Through an opening Water being present at the opening Uses a force that moves the water through the opening (Newton 2013d)

How waterproofing acts:


  

It Removes openings: such as sealants, backer rods and gaskets Keeps water away from openings: such as drips, slope, overlaps and flashing Neutralise the forces that move water through openings: such as rain screens, labyrinths and capillary breaks (Newton 2013d)

The materials and components used in the section above: Sarking: RFL (Reflective foil laminate) is a type of sarking . Sarking is either a polyethylene moisture proof wrap or reflective foil laminate (Newton,2013d) made of reflective aluminium foil (Fletcher Insulation, 2013). it is a barrier against water and air. it doesn’t allow air to leak and acts as a waterproofing for buildings Newton,2013d).

(Infolink, 2013)

Folded metal flashing: a strip of metal placed at the junction of the exterior building surfaces to render the joint water tight (McGraw-Hill 2003a). It is used to direct water away from a cavity area (Newton, 2013d; Ching 2008 p7.18)

Block work wall with acrylic Trowel render: It is a wall made of concrete blocks (PGH bricks and pavers, 2009) that has been rendered using a hand tool used for plastering (trowel) (McGraw-Hill, 2003 p594d). Acrylic rendering is a “high performance anti crack, shock proof”, insulated rendering, which has a range of finishes in a variety of colours (Ribaproductselector, 2013) Block work: concrete blocks Favourable properties of concrete blocks:   

It is durable Fire resistant Strong : high compressive strength (Newton, 2013b)

Concrete blocks are one of the most commonly used materials because of the above properties. They are used for walls.


Weaknesses properties of concrete blocks:  

Low tensile strength High embodied energy (Newton, 2013b)

Advantages of using concrete blocks:   

Inexpensive Easy installation process Low maintenance (General Services Administration, 2013)

Problems that arise with the use of concrete blocks:  

Cracking (due to the shrinking and expansion caused by cold and warm temperatures) Efflorescence (General Services Administration, 2013)

Sustainability and environmental implications of concrete blocks:  

High embodied energy Durable (Newton, 2013b) Weep hole: it is a hole that allows accumulated water to escape (McGrawHill, 2003 p625e) Uses of weep holes:

 It provides the cavity with ventilation. This avoids mildew and rot forming in the internal cavity. It assists in removing water that may enter the cavity in the wall due to capillary action, condensation (Weepa 2013).

Capillary action: It causes water to enter the blocks due to surface tension, which can make the blocks damp and cause the problems mentioned above. However the weep hole causes a break in the surface which counters capillary action (Pro system 2013). Problems related to weep holes:  

Rodents, and insects can use the hole to enter the cavity of the wall At times the weep hole constructed is too small to allow ventilation to occur which can cause the ‘Leaky house syndrome’ (Weepa 2013).

Sustainability and environmental implications: 

By having weep holes you can increase the longevity of walls and thereby the longevity of the building, as it will be protected by mild dew and other moisture caused problems It will also enhance indoor environment quality, by having a healthy indoor space unlike a building with a ‘leaky house syndrome’.


Materials are saved as repairs will not be needed to overcome the leaky house syndrome

Economic Implications: 

Estimated costs to repair problems that arise due to water accumulation in the cavity of walls in 2002 for New Zealand was $1.8 billion, and in Canada it was estimated to be $23000 per home (Weepa b, 2013). One of the methods to save this money is to have weep holes

Folded colour bond overflashing: flashing helps seal walls against water. It directs water flow away from the interior of the building (Newton,2013d) Colorbond is a type of steel used for flashing. It is resistant to weather and has low maintenance requirements (Bluescopesteel, 2013). Aluminium glazing adaptors: glazing controls heat conduction (Newton,2013d). in this instance the glass roof is attached to glazing adaptors. Glass conducts heat (Newton, 2013c), it is not an effective insulator. Glazing adaptors are used to control the passage of heat. For this purpose it is rigid and insulated (Google books, 2012) Glass roof: It is roofing made of glass, that may act as a sky light (Skyview, 2013). It makes effective use of sunlight during day time (Newton, 2013c) Aluminium mullion: A mullion separates two windows using a vertical bar (McGraw-Hill, 2003 pp377c). An aluminium mullion may have been chosen because of the properties of the metal. It is light weight, resistant to corrosion, and has a desirable finish (Aluminiumleader, 2013, Ching 2008 p12.09) Flush plasterboard wall lining on furring channels: furring channels are used to provide a surface to allow the plasterboard to be applied by acting similar to battans (McGraw-Hill, 2003 p250b; Boral, 2007a). Since Plasterboard is a material used to line walls (Boral 2007b) the furring channels are used to attach it to the wall. Flush is a coating used on the plasterboard to give it a preferable finish (Resene, 2013). Wall tie: it is a metal tie that is rigid and resistant to corrosion that is fitted across the cavity of a wall (McGraw-Hill, 2003 p622). It helps “hold together a cavity wall system of two separate walls” (Australian Building Inspection Services, 2013; Wise property care, 2013). Concrete floor slab: concrete is made of cement, sand, water and aggregates (Newton 2013b; Interactive Structures 2008). To form a floor slab the cement mixture is added to formwork to get a specific shape (Newton, 2013b). The slab is reinforced using steel rods, to provide tensile strength, which concrete lacks. Favourable properties of concrete slabs   

It is durable Fire resistant Strong : high compressive strength (Newton, 2013b)


Weaknesses of concrete:  

Low tensile strength High embodied energy (Newton, 2013b)

Advantages of using concrete slabs:  

Concrete is Inexpensive It is durable

Problems that arise with the use of concrete slabs: 

Cracking (due to the shrinking and expansion caused by cold and warm temperatures)

Sustainability and environmental implications of concrete:  

High embodied energy Durable (Newton, 2013b)

Hatchings in working drawings: Hatchings are used in working drawings to identify the type of material used in a construction (Newton, 2013a) The hatchings below represent some of the materials included in the section drawn by myself for Ormond College

(Higher School Certificate and Charlet Stuart University, 2013)

The section as whole:


On observation you realize the exterior of the building as the section highlighted in the image. The weeping hole faced this direction, while the flashing directs the water in the same direction. As both the weeping hole and the flashing act to protect the wall from water and moisture, it led to the conclusion that the boundary highlighted is the exterior of the building. When construction of a building is occurring, the process begins from the base upwards, beginning with the foundation. The section shown above is of an external wall connected to a glass roof, while indoor that wall is connected to a concrete slab. Water is one of the main problem causing agents in buildings. The section shows many measures taken to protect the building from water. Water cannot penetrate the wall as rain or moisture because of the sarking and the weeping holes. Any water collected in the cavity is expelled from the wall by the flashing, as it directs the water out of the cavity. The sealant too acts to water proof the cavity from the bottom. If the waterproofing is done incorrectly, it will lead to corrosion of metals, such as the reinforcement used in the concrete blocks and slab, moisture retention will lead to dampness which causes fungal growth, and the ‘leaky house syndrome’ which in turn will be expensive to repair. When comparing costs incurred in waterproofing a building properly costs incurred to repair the damage caused by water is greater. Furthermore materials will be wasted if the waterproofing needs to be done the second time. There are also measures taken for thermal insulation. The sarking is not only water proof, it is also airtight which delays the passage of heat from within the building to the exterior. Heat entering from the exterior to the interior too is delayed in the same manner (Newton, 2013d).

References Aluminiumleader. 2013. All about aluminium. [online] Available at: http://www.aluminiumleader.com/en/around/construction/ [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Australian Building Inspection Services. 2013. Wall Tie | Australian Building Inspection Services. [online] Available at: http://www.abis.com.au/wall-tie [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013].


Bluescopesteel. 2013. Flashing materials for COLORBOND® steel and ZINCALUME® steel sheet. [online] Available at: http://www.bluescopesteel.com.au/files/dmfile/TB8Aug2013.pdf [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Boral. 2007. Installation. [online] Available at: http://www.boral.com.au/brochures/ordering/pdf/04686_t_instman_reprint_oct09.pdf [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Boral. 2007. Introduction. [online] Available at: http://www.boral.com.au/brochures/ordering/pdf/04686_t_instman_reprint_oct09.pdf [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Ching, F 2008, ‘Chapter 7: Moisture and Thermal Protection’, Building construction illustrated, 4th ed, New Jersey: Wiley and Sons Inc, p. 7.18 Ching, F 2008, ‘Chapter 12: Notes on Materials’, Building construction illustrated, 4th ed, New Jersey: Wiley and Sons Inc,p12.09) Fletcher Insulation. 2013. Sisalation® Wall Wrap. [online] Available at: http://www.insulation.com.au/products-1/sisalation-wall-wrap [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. General Services Administration. 2013. Concrete Block: Characteristics, Uses And Problems. [online] Available at: http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/112858 [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Google Books. 2012. Patent US4004389 - Glazing adaptor. [online] Available at: http://www.google.com.au/patents/US4004389 [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Higher School Certificate and Charlet Stuart University. 2013. Hatching. [online] Available at: http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/construction/other_units/compulsory/bcg1003a/bcg1003a/hatching.pdf [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Infolink. 2013. Reflective Foil Laminate. [online] Available at: http://www.infolink.com.au/c/Aluminium-FoilInsulation-Association/images/The-national-voice-of-independent-manufacturers-of-radiant-barrierinsulations-and-reflective-foil-laminates-in-Australia-407377-370x278.jpg [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Inspectapedia. 2013. Weep Holes, Drainage & Moisture. [online] Available at: http://inspectapedia.com/structure/Brick_Weeps063-DFs.jpg [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. McGraw-Hill, 2003a, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, pp 187 McGraw-Hill, 2003b, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, p250 McGraw-Hill, 2003c, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, p377

McGraw-Hill, 2003d, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, p594 McGraw-Hill, 2003e, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, p622 McGraw-Hill, 2003f, Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States of America, p625


Newton, C. 2013a. Week 03. Introduction to working drawings. [podcast] 12/08. Available at: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblac kboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262371_1%26url%3D Newton, C. 2013b. Week 04. Material: Concrete. [podcast] 12/08. Available at: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblac kboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262371_1%26url%3D Newton, C. 2013c. Week 08. Glass. [podcast] 12/08. Available at http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblac kboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262371_1%26url%3D Newton, C. 2013d. Week 09. Detailing for heat and moisture. [podcast] 12/08. Available at: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblac kboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262371_1%26url%3D

PGH bricks and pavers. 2009. Block work product guide. [online] Available at: http://www.pghbricks.com.au/Uploads/Download/295/PGHConcreteBlocksFlyer_Web.pdf [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Pro System. 2013. PROsystem - Capillary Rising Damp Sanation System. [online] Available at: http://www.damp-protection.com/en-vlaga.htm [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Resene. 2013. ‘Levels of finish’ for flush stopped linings. [online] Available at: http://www.resene.com.au/homeown/probsolv/Levels_of_finish.pdf [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Ribaproductselector. 2013. Parextherm Acrylic Render System - Parex Ltd. [online] Available at: http://www.ribaproductselector.com/Product.aspx?ci=23883&pr=ParexLtdParexthermAcrylicRenderSystem [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Skyview. 2013. Glass Roofs. [online] Available at: http://www.skyview.com.au/glass-roofs.html [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013]. Today's home inspection. 2013. Weeping Over Weep Holes. [online] Available at: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_KpXOgJaNUgA/TOL1sGTimOI/AAAAAAAADdw/G40sqcoMkgM/s1600/we ep+holes01.JPG [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. visualcommunication149. 2013. Types of hatching. [online] Available at: http://visualcommunication149.sydneyinstitute.wikispaces.net/file/view/wall+details.pdf [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Weepa a. 2013. Importance of Weep Holes. [online] Available at: http://www.weepa.com.au/01_cms/details.asp?ID=76 [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Weepa b. 2013. Leaky Building Syndrome. [online] Available at: http://www.weepa.com.au/01_cms/details.asp?ID=77 [Accessed: 13 Oct 2013]. Wise property care. 2013. Cavity Wall Ties. [online] Available at: http://www.wisepropertycare.com/structuralrepairs/cavity-wall-ties/ [Accessed: 12 Oct 2013].


Week 9  

Constructing Environments

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