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POLITICS & THE GILDED AGE


END OF RECONSTRUCTION • 1877 … HAYES V. TILDEN • QUID PRO QUO

RECONSTRUCTION


POLITICAL SCENE DECLINE OF OFPRESIDENTIAL PRESIDENTIAL •• DECLINE POWER POWER PRESIDENCYCONTROLLED CONTROLLED BY BY •• PRESIDENCY G.O.P. REPUBLICANS REPUBLICANS Charges of of Corruption Corruption •• Charges


Corruption Political Machines Graft


Grant & Credit Moblier


William Tweed and Political Bosses


Tweed was the leader of Tammany Hall in NYC •Services and support (welfare) •Graft and corruption


Muckraker Thomas Nast


Thomas Nast used political cartoons to do what the law could not.


Bring Tweed Down


THE G.O.P.

SUPPORT HIGH HIGH TARIFF TARIFF •• SUPPORT BACK BIG BIG BUSINESS BUSINESS •• BACK IMPERIALISM •• IMPERIALISM CORRUPTION RAMPANT RAMPANT •• CORRUPTION THE “BLOODY “BLOODY SHIRT” SHIRT” •• THE Bland-AllisonAct Act (silver) (silver) •• Bland-Allison


HAYES - GARFIELD - ARTHUR CLEVELAND - “WHO ?” • THE FORGETTABLE PRESIDENTS • GARFIELD ASSASSINATED


CIVIL SERVICE REFORM … DEMOCRATS • • •

PENDLETON ACT …1883 Dawes Act ICC …(RR)


MAJOR ISSUES • • • • • • •

REFORM IMMIGRATION TARIFF MILITARY PENSIONS JIM CROW LAWS CIVIL SERVICE POLITICAL MACHINES


The American Farmer


Plight of The Farmer • Falling % of the Population • Deep Economic problems ignored by Gov`t.


• • • •

Life on the Farm Mechanization Tenant farmers…Sharecroppers The Weather…drought Farm Life is dreary


Overproduction • wheat falls from$2:00 a bushel to .78 cents • less $ in circulation…falling incomes and rising expenses • blame placed on grain elevators


The Grange • Oliver Kelly • Munn v. Ill….Granger Cases • I.C.C. control Pooling & Rebates


The Silver Issue  “Crime of ’73”  demonetization of silver (govt. stopped coining silver).  Bland-Allison Act (1878)  limited silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo.  Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)  The US Treasury must purchase $4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month.  Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury rather than circulation.


Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913


Founder of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (1867)


THE RISE OF ORGANIZED LABOR


A “NEW” AMERICAN PIONEER … THE WAGE EARNER • WHAT PROBLEMS DID THEY FACE ?


 1842 … COMMONWEALTH v. HUNT  1866 … NATIONAL LABOR UNION ( WILLIAM SYLVIS )  1869 … THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR ( STEVENS & POWDERLY )  1886 … THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR ( SAM GOMPERS )  MAY 4TH 1886 … HAYMARKET RIOT


National Labor Union 1866


Knights of Labor Everyone Welcome

Terrence Powderly


Haymarket Square Bombing


How did Industry try to stop Unions ? Lock out Blacklists Yellow Dog contract Private Guards Court Injunctions


GOV`T & INDUSTRIAL SUPRESSION OF THE UNIONS • •

1870 … 300,000 MEMBERS 1930 … 3,300,000 MEMBERS


WOMEN & AFRICAN - AMERICANS IN THE UNIONS

NOT ALLOWED


TERMINOLOGY • • • • • • •

SCABS BOYCOTT LOCKOUT BLACKLIST STRIKEBREAKERS CLOSED-SHOP “BREAD,& BUTTER UNIONISM”


Eugene V. Debs


Cheap $$$ • Bland-Allison Act • Sherman Silver Purchase Act…never used • Favor Big Business


Populist Party Founded 1882…”Less Corn …MORE HELL” • Platform… 1) Gov`t owned R.R…. 2) Income Tax… 3) Secret Ballot… 4) Direct election of Senators


Unite d We Stand , Divid ed In 1889 both the Northern and We Southern Alliances merged into one— the Farmers’ Fall Alliance.


Omaha Platform of 1. System of “sub-treasuries.� 1892 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone &

telegraph companies.

5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot. 10. Re-monitization of silver. 11. A single term for President & Vice President.


Govt.-Owned Companies


Bi-Metallism Issue


Here Lies Prosperity


Depression of 1893 • Coxey`s Army • J.P.Morgan lends Gold to the Gov`t.

When you`re this ugly you better have $$$


Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins


William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)

The “Great Commoner”


Bryant’s “Cross of Gold” Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!


Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio)

18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”


Democratic Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform ďƒ  tariff reductions; income tax; stricter control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.


Mark Hanna: The “Front-Porch” Campaign


William McKinley (1843-1901)


“A Giant Straddle”: Suggestion for a McKinley Political Poster


The Seasoned Politician vs. The “Young” Newcome r


Into Which Box Will the Voter of ’96 Place His Ballot ?


Why Did Bryan Loose?

 His focus on silver undermined

efforts to build bridges to urban voters.

 He did not form alliances with

other groups.

 McKinley’s campaign was well-

organized and highly funded.


Gold Triumphs Over Silver  1900  Gold

Standard Act

 confirmed the

nation’s commitment to the gold standard.

 A victory for the

forces of conservatism.


Election of 1896 • Bryan v. McKinley

• end of populist party


The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum


What Are the Metaphors?

Dorothy  ?

Silver Slippers  ?

Kansas  ?

Emerald City  ?

Wicked Witch of the East  ?

Oz  ?

The Wizard  ?

Tin Woodsman  ?

Scarecrow  ?

Munchkins  ?

Cowardly Lion  ?

Wicked Witch of the West  ?

Yellow Brick Road  ?

Flying Monkeys  ?


Heyday of Western Populism


POLITICS & THE GILDED AGE