POLITICS & THE GILDED AGE
END OF RECONSTRUCTION • 1877 … HAYES V. TILDEN • QUID PRO QUO
POLITICAL SCENE DECLINE OF OFPRESIDENTIAL PRESIDENTIAL •• DECLINE POWER POWER PRESIDENCYCONTROLLED CONTROLLED BY BY •• PRESIDENCY G.O.P. REPUBLICANS REPUBLICANS Charges of of Corruption Corruption •• Charges
Corruption Political Machines Graft
Grant & Credit Moblier
William Tweed and Political Bosses
Tweed was the leader of Tammany Hall in NYC •Services and support (welfare) •Graft and corruption
Muckraker Thomas Nast
Thomas Nast used political cartoons to do what the law could not.
Bring Tweed Down
SUPPORT HIGH HIGH TARIFF TARIFF •• SUPPORT BACK BIG BIG BUSINESS BUSINESS •• BACK IMPERIALISM •• IMPERIALISM CORRUPTION RAMPANT RAMPANT •• CORRUPTION THE “BLOODY “BLOODY SHIRT” SHIRT” •• THE Bland-AllisonAct Act (silver) (silver) •• Bland-Allison
HAYES - GARFIELD - ARTHUR CLEVELAND - “WHO ?” • THE FORGETTABLE PRESIDENTS • GARFIELD ASSASSINATED
CIVIL SERVICE REFORM … DEMOCRATS • • •
PENDLETON ACT …1883 Dawes Act ICC …(RR)
MAJOR ISSUES • • • • • • •
REFORM IMMIGRATION TARIFF MILITARY PENSIONS JIM CROW LAWS CIVIL SERVICE POLITICAL MACHINES
The American Farmer
Plight of The Farmer • Falling % of the Population • Deep Economic problems ignored by Gov`t.
• • • •
Life on the Farm Mechanization Tenant farmers…Sharecroppers The Weather…drought Farm Life is dreary
Overproduction • wheat falls from$2:00 a bushel to .78 cents • less $ in circulation…falling incomes and rising expenses • blame placed on grain elevators
The Grange • Oliver Kelly • Munn v. Ill….Granger Cases • I.C.C. control Pooling & Rebates
The Silver Issue “Crime of ’73” demonetization of silver (govt. stopped coining silver). Bland-Allison Act (1878) limited silver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per mo. Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) The US Treasury must purchase $4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month. Govt. deposited most silver in the US Treasury rather than circulation.
Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913
Founder of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (1867)
THE RISE OF ORGANIZED LABOR
A “NEW” AMERICAN PIONEER … THE WAGE EARNER • WHAT PROBLEMS DID THEY FACE ?
1842 … COMMONWEALTH v. HUNT 1866 … NATIONAL LABOR UNION ( WILLIAM SYLVIS ) 1869 … THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR ( STEVENS & POWDERLY ) 1886 … THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR ( SAM GOMPERS ) MAY 4TH 1886 … HAYMARKET RIOT
National Labor Union 1866
Knights of Labor Everyone Welcome
Haymarket Square Bombing
How did Industry try to stop Unions ? Lock out Blacklists Yellow Dog contract Private Guards Court Injunctions
GOV`T & INDUSTRIAL SUPRESSION OF THE UNIONS • •
1870 … 300,000 MEMBERS 1930 … 3,300,000 MEMBERS
WOMEN & AFRICAN - AMERICANS IN THE UNIONS
TERMINOLOGY • • • • • • •
SCABS BOYCOTT LOCKOUT BLACKLIST STRIKEBREAKERS CLOSED-SHOP “BREAD,& BUTTER UNIONISM”
Eugene V. Debs
Cheap $$$ • Bland-Allison Act • Sherman Silver Purchase Act…never used • Favor Big Business
Populist Party Founded 1882…”Less Corn …MORE HELL” • Platform… 1) Gov`t owned R.R…. 2) Income Tax… 3) Secret Ballot… 4) Direct election of Senators
Unite d We Stand , Divid ed In 1889 both the Northern and We Southern Alliances merged into one— the Farmers’ Fall Alliance.
Omaha Platform of 1. System of â€œsub-treasuries.â€? 1892 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone &
5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot. 10. Re-monitization of silver. 11. A single term for President & Vice President.
Here Lies Prosperity
Depression of 1893 â€˘ Coxey`s Army â€˘ J.P.Morgan lends Gold to the Gov`t.
When you`re this ugly you better have $$$
Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)
The “Great Commoner”
Bryant’s “Cross of Gold” Speech You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!
Bryan: The Farmers Friend (The Mint Ratio)
18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”
Democratic Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform ďƒ tariff reductions; income tax; stricter control of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.
Mark Hanna: The “Front-Porch” Campaign
William McKinley (1843-1901)
“A Giant Straddle”: Suggestion for a McKinley Political Poster
The Seasoned Politician vs. The “Young” Newcome r
Into Which Box Will the Voter of â€™96 Place His Ballot ?
Why Did Bryan Loose?
His focus on silver undermined
efforts to build bridges to urban voters.
He did not form alliances with
McKinley’s campaign was well-
organized and highly funded.
Gold Triumphs Over Silver 1900 Gold
nation’s commitment to the gold standard.
A victory for the
forces of conservatism.
Election of 1896 • Bryan v. McKinley
• end of populist party
The Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum
What Are the Metaphors?
Silver Slippers ?
Emerald City ?
Wicked Witch of the East ?
The Wizard ?
Tin Woodsman ?
Cowardly Lion ?
Wicked Witch of the West ?
Yellow Brick Road ?
Flying Monkeys ?
Heyday of Western Populism