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Where land meets water Deltas, coasts and rivers


Personal note


Where land meets water Deltas, coasts and rivers

content 4 Supporting sustainable solutions since 1946 6 Where land meets water 8 Grand challenges in deltas and along rivers and coasts 10 Professional expertises 14 Specialisations

Reference projects 18 The IJsselmeer Enclosure Dam The Netherlands 20 Coastal protection and urban development Indonesia 22 Hondsbossche and Pettemer Sea defence The Netherlands 24 Monitoring the Sand Engine along the Dutch coast The Netherlands 26 Master Plan Beira 2035 and GreenInfra4Beira Mozambique 28 Climate adaptation Vietnam 30 Delta Plan 2100 Bangladesh 32 ‘Room for the River’ The Netherlands 34 Redevelopment of floodplains and wetlands Romenia 36 Flood Early Warning system Bolivia 38 Jakarta urban drainage Indonesia 40 Volgermeerpolder The Netherlands 42 Remediation of lakes and new port in the Baku area Azerbaijan 44 Master plan for inland waterway transport Serbia 46 Cargo Transportation Route Kazakhstan 48 Second Maasvlakte The Netherlands 50 New Port of Taman Russia 52 Automated container terminal The Netherlands 54 Drilling islands in northern Caspian Sea Kazakhstan

46 36 52

Worldwide operating consulting engineers

Supporting sustainable solutions since 1946


Since 1946 Witteveen+Bos has supported communities, public authorities and private parties with the development of the built environment and the adequate response to challenges arising from natural disasters and effects of climate change. Today we have over 1,000 employees operating worldwide from our offices in The Netherlands, Belgium, Dubai, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Russia, Singapore or Vietnam. Our services include policy development, research and analysis, master planning, design, engineering and supervision of works. Our clients recognise us for our professional expertise, reliability and commitment. We provide advanced knowledge and state-of-the-art solutions in addressing complex projects. A key element in the way we work is the collaboration of our multidisciplinary specialists. The core of our approach towards a project is to perform with excellence in projects and be committed to our client. The employees of Witteveen+Bos are the key foundation of the company. They are dedicated to their profession and ensure quality delivery in accordance with best practice and international standards. At the same time, entrepreneurship, independency and integrity are key elements in our work, strengthened by the fact that the employees are the only shareholders of the firm. This publication aims to introduce our company by highlighting selective projects which we have completed in recent years in deltas and along coasts and rivers. We begin by outlining our mission and our particular expertise in the field of modern Dutch Delta Technology.


Where land meets water

Our business in deltas and along coasts and rivers


The focal point of our projects in deltas and along coasts and rivers is the interface between land and water. Living and working safely in such areas is a complex challenge that calls for an integrated approach, adopting new concepts and providing sustainable solutions. We provide our clients with advice on how to handle these challenges in delta areas and along rivers and coasts. There are many reasons for our involvement, e.g. frequently occurring floods, land erosion, deteriorating water quality, poor maintenance of infrastructure or the development of new urban or port areas.

Mission statement We aim to solve issues in which water imposes a threat upon society and environment. We aim to facilitate and support the development of built and natural environments in deltas and along coasts and rivers.

We use the experience and expertise of our staff, built up over 70 years in projects executed in deltas and along rivers and coasts worldwide. We apply the famous Dutch Delta Technology, exporting our knowledge gained from research and projects in the Netherlands to areas across the world. We are familiar with many local physical conditions, cultures and standards. When we work in new areas, we have the capability to adapt rapidly to the local conditions and governing context. The majority of the clients are drawn from: -N  ational, regional and local government institutes and organisations - International Financing Institutes - Port authorities and terminal operators - Project developers - Contractors - Industries.


Grand challenges in deltas and along rivers and coasts


A changing climate Relentlessly increasing global temperatures change weather patterns, cause sea levels to rise, increase the frequency and intensity of droughts, influence floods, extreme weather events and indirectly induce coastline retreat. Urban and economic developments further enhance these changes, which impose a threat to the existing infrastructure, built and natural environments. Adapting to climate change requires measures based on a sound adaptation strategy and an inclusive approach to problem assessment, planning and engineering. This approach includes among others the assessment of flood risk, impact on freshwater supply, costs and benefits and impact on ecological systems and society. The measures are not just limited to the design and building of urban water systems and flood protection or flood early warning systems but should also encompass raising public awareness, helping people to prepare for emergencies, capacity building through training and institution building. Effective measures in ecosystem management can also provide resilience against freshwater shortages, heat stress and natural disasters. Urbanisation and a growing economy The world’s population is rapidly increasing, with an expected population size of around 9.6 billion people in the year 2050, based on UN population estimates. Consequently the need for housing space, food, clean drinking water and infrastructure also increases. The majority of these relentless developments occurs in delta areas, along rivers and in coastal areas that accommodate half of the world’s population within a 60 kilometre zone from the sea according to the United Nations Environment Programme. Roads, railways, waterways and ports will expand to support economic growth, with increasing population in flood prone areas demanding larger and safer living areas. All of these changes call for integrated solutions.

Environment under stress Due to the high rate of urbanisation and economic growth, the environment is under increasing pressure. Cities are bound to expand beyond their current limits, often at the expense of the environment. Valuable natural resources, including mangroves, rain forests and boreal forests, disappear in favour of fish farms, agricultural land, harbours and housing or are used to meet the demands of the wood-processing industry. Pollution from landfills, waste water and overfishing threaten fresh and salt water ecosystems all around the world. The current rate of urbanisation has resulted in a decrease in biodiversity that is likely to continue in the foreseeable future. Our competence in dealing with these challenges Based on our experience in major infrastructure projects we are equiped to adress the issues above. We do not focus on technical and environmental aspects only but we also deal with finance, legislation and governance. Our firm relies on a wide range of expertise to identify strategies for sustainable development and low-regret measures. By applying adaptive delta management as part of the Delta Approach we help our clients to cope with uncertainties in climate change and future socioeconomic developments, using scenarios and risk analyses. Innovative solutions can benefit both humans and their environment. This can be accomplished by, for example the application of green solutions in urban water management and the concept of ‘Building with Nature’. Our priority is to provide innovative solutions without losing the context of the issues to be addressed and the efficiency of measures to be taken. In our projects we analyse the total life cycle costs of structures, both direct and indirect, which allows us to minimise the total cost of ownership.


Professional expertises


Coastal and river hydraulic engineering Our experts are involved in a range of coastal and river hydraulic issues including flood control, erosion, navigation and protection of infrastructure (e.g. ports and outlet structures). We support spatial developments along rivers and coasts that are related to land reclamation, port expansion or the establishment of new developments. In offshore areas we design marine access channels for ports and artificial islands. Services are provided in the framework of Integrated Coastal Zone Management or River Basin Management. We prepare designs for beach nourishment and of hard structures including breakwaters, sea walls, embankments, groins, weirs and other river training works. Flood management and protection Our approach to flood management is risk based. Managing risks often includes engineering solutions for flood protection. It starts with the analysis of flood events and the existing hydraulic and hydrologic systems, assessing the current rainfall runoff processes, land elevation, land use, drainage or discharge capacity and the strength of existing dikes, dunes and hydraulic structures (e.g. storm surge barriers). These are expressed in probabilistic terms and often accompanied with flood risk maps after damage assessment. Next to engineering solutions, we are also involved in managing risks with non-structural measures, e.g. early warning systems, communication and evacuation plans, and spatial development with focus on resilience. Urban water management and drainage We aim to develop integrated solutions for drinking water, waste water, drainage, water quality and flood control. Where applicable we introduce innovative concepts such as ‘green infrastructure’ and ‘Building with Nature’ for a more sustainable and climate proof urban water system. In the concept of ‘Building with Nature’ natural processes are used

as a complementary solution to e.g. ‘hard measures’. In these projects engineers join urban planners, architects, environmentalists and economists. Port development, port structures and nautical safety We develop master plans for new small and large greenfield ports and specialist terminals as well as planning the development of existing ports. Definition of the basic port requirements (marine access, quay lengths, terminal areas) following from the cargo forecasts in combination with assessment of physical conditions (winds, waves, currents, soil) form the basis for the layout of a modified or new port. Designs are provided for breakwaters, quay walls and jetties for the range of vessels required for all commodities to be handled. Additional to the planning and design of the port infrastructure, we conduct financial and economical feasibility studies. Together with specialised firms we seek for options for project finance and support institutional development of port authorities. Inland waterway transport We provide traffic and cargo assessment studies and forecasts, identification of bottlenecks for navigation in inland waterways and assessment of future developments of navigation on the river system (inland ports, vessels, required navigation channels). Within the framework of inland waterway transport issues we conduct hydraulic and morphological model research of e.g. proposed river training works, Cost Benefit Analysis and Environmental Impact Assessment. We also advise on institutional development, legal aspects of navigation and inland waterway infrastructure and capacity building. Dredging technology and land reclamation Based on comprehensive hands-on experience, we prepare dredging and reclamation plans. For these projects we take into consideration the local conditions, availability of suitable dredging


equipment (capacity and achievable production rates) and other logistical parameters including travel distance to disposal sites. Supervision of dredging works is frequently integrated in our projects. Our dredging experience and expertise is relevant for a wide range of project areas, from small scale dredging in urban areas and ports up to major marine access channels in rivers, delta areas and open sea. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) IWRM in general promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise economic and social welfare. IWRM does not compromise the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Analysis of groundwater and surface water systems are related to rainfall runoff, natural recharge, water demand for agriculture, drinking water and industrial use. For these analyses we include the impact of climate change and socio-


economic development on the water availability and demand in the watershed. Knowledge of geohydrology is a key in determining the effect of activities on the groundwater system, and major issues including drought, salt water intrusion, transport of contaminations and geochemical and geothermic consequences of heat storage need to be considered. Water quality is defined by a number of interacting factors from natural as well as anthropogenic origin. A variety of techniques and state-of-the-art models are applied to carry out analyses into hydrological, chemical and biotic processes and their interactions. Our assessments are used to identify effective sustainable measures to restore water quality to water supply systems. Nature conservation and wetland restoration We monitor the impact on the ecology resulting from new natural developments, the restoration of natural areas or the implementation

of new infrastructure development. The restoration of natural areas like wetlands requires knowledge and insight in the key ecological processes and determining factors. With this insight, effective measures can be identified harmonising with natural surroundings, minimising and mitigating effects on species and their habitats by the implementation of protective strategies and measures. Within the framework of ecological issues related to major infrastructure development or flood management projects, we design plans to accommodate the preservation of ecological processes, with ecological measures integrated with other functions to maintain a sustainable ecological balance. Fish stock and fisheries management Over the years we have gained practical experience with research on fish migration, mostly in relation to the planning and design of pumping

stations, outfalls and outlet sluices, and with assessment studies on fish stock. We prepare fisheries management plans including sustainable measures for commercial fisheries and assist in policy development. In addition, we provide advice on planning and design of fish migration solutions. Environmental economics and cost-benefit analysis Guidelines for applying monetary values to nature, water and soil have been developed by our experts. Social cost-benefit analysis is a method used in large scale infrastructure projects to assess all positive and negative impacts of an investment to society as a whole. Financial, environmental and social impacts are considered and expressed in monetary terms. The investment is socio-economically sound when the balance is positive.




Geotechnics: arctic and seismic design Our geotechnical experts provide advanced designs for all structures built with or within the soil. We cover the entire array of geotechnical engineering services. We have gained comprehensive experience with projects carried out in seismically active and arctic areas (e.g. breakwaters used as ice protection) and other locations with challenging geotechnical conditions. Our geotechnical advice for quay walls, retaining structures, foundations, land reclamations, dikes and dams, coastal protection structures and river training structures is based on a detailed knowledge of the site and familiarity with the range of issues to be considered. Free-span assessments and self-burial analysis for subsea pipelines and cables Since 2002, Witteveen+Bos and ACRB have cooperated in a strategic alliance to advise on submarine pipelines and cables, focusing on the complex interaction between these objects and the dynamic seabed (sand waves) and dealing with threats from ships and fishing activities. The work includes sea bed mobility assessments, quantitative risk-based burial depth studies and pipeline designs. Advanced numerical modelling and dedicated tools are combined with field data and comprehensive experience. The projects range from small diameter power cables for offshore wind parks to long distance large diameter gas pipelines. The strength of the alliance lies in the ability to address and integrate technical and environmental issues to their full potential. Hydrodynamics and morphological modelling For impact assessments and design studies, we use 2D and 3D flow and wave models to assess hydrodynamic conditions. We possess suites of generic models that we use to build

specific models that we can apply for water bodies worldwide. Numerical models are used to hindcast and to predict extreme flood events (e.g. for input of flood early warning systems) at sea, in estuaries and in rivers. We use morphological models for the design or impact assessment of hydraulic structures, port access channels, beach nourishment and river training works. Our experts can combine the model results with expert data analysis of historical morphological developments to obtain a clear picture of potential impacts and effects. Building with Nature Traditionally, in infrastructural projects negative impacts on nature are minimised and compensated as much as possible. A different approach however is to aim at an early stage of the project to proactively incorporate and integrate natural values and processes in identifying and evaluating technical solutions. This ‘Building with Nature’ approach combines nature development with functions such as flood protection and development of infrastructure. Witteveen+Bos participates in the research programme Building with Nature and applies this concept in projects. Fish friendly pumps Traditional pumping stations and hydropower turbines may cause severe fish mortality. In 2008 we introduced the innovative concept of fish friendly pumps that enables fish to survive passage of such obstacles. Resulting from this innovation we have become one of the market leaders in the improvement and application of fish friendly pumps and turbines. We combine mechanical engineering, hydrological and fish biological expertise to advise on the construction and renovation of pumping stations and hydropower plants, with focus on accomplishing high efficiency ratio and facilitating fish passage simultaneously. 15

reference projects

Monitoring the Sand engine along the Dutch coast The Netherlands p. 24 IJsselmeer enclosure dam The Netherlands p. 18 Second Maasvlakte The Netherlands p. 48

Volgermeerpolder The Netherlands p. 40

Hondsbossche and Pettemer Sea defence The Netherlands p. 22 Master plan for inland waterway transport Serbia p. 44 Redevelopment of floodplains and wetlands Romania p. 34

Flood early warning system Bolivia p. 36


‘Room for the River’ The Netherlands p. 32 Terminal APMT Second Maasvlakte The Netherlands Russia p. 52 Latvia


The Netherlands (6 offices) Kazakhstan (3 offices)


Drilling islands Kazakhstan p. 54 Cargo transportation route Kazakhstan p. 46 Remediation of lakes and new port in Baku area Azerbaijan p. 42 New port of Taman Russia p. 50

Delta Plan 2100 Bangladesh p. 30 Vietnam


Coastal protection and urban development Indonesia p. 20

Climate adaptation Vietnam p. 28 Jakarta urban drainage Indonesia p. 38 Indonesia

Master Plan Beira 2035 and GreenInfra4Beira Mozambique p. 26

Offices Witteveen+Bos


The Netherlands IJsselmeer

The IJsselmeer Enclosure Dam Rehabilitation of an iconic work of Dutch flood control


The Afsluitdijk (Enclosure Dam) was built between 1927 and 1932 to protect four provinces bordering on two major lakes (IJsselmeer and Markermeer) against flooding. The 32 km long dam with a causeway and with drainage and navigation locks has been the largest such structure in the world for a long time. It divides the fresh lake water of the IJsselmeer from the salt water in the Waddenzee. The dam does not comply with current standards of water safety against floods and a plan was established to enforce the dam, also creating opportunities for a better fresh water management of the IJsselmeer, recreation and nature development.

Client Ministry of Infrastructure and

In 2012 Witteveen+Bos was commissioned to prepare an integrated design for the reconstruction of the dam, a new drainage lock and three new storm surge barriers. We defined a Design, Build, Finance and Maintenance (DBFM) contract for construction. The ecological values along the structure have been assessed. Eventually the upgraded Afsluitdijk will provide safety against floods and enables sustainable fresh water management and supports natural developments simultaneously. The Afsluitdijk will also accommodate a novel type of fish passage and an osmotic power plant that generates electricity from the difference in salt concentration between fresh and salt water.

geotechnical engineering, ecological

the Environment

Services preliminary and detailed

design, cost estimates, environmental impact assessment, tender documents

Expertises flood management, water resources management,

hydrodynamics and morphology,

monitoring and nature conservation policy


Indonesia Jakarta

Coastal protection and urban development Towards an expanding metropolitan area


The metropolitan area of Jakarta with over 25 million inhabitants, is located in a coastal low land area. Increasing flood risk due to significant ongoing land subsidence calls for an integrated solution as Jakarta also faces a growing demand for domestic, commercial and industrial areas and problems related to heavy congestion, poor water supply and poor sanitation. The National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD) Master Plan was developed in 2013, addressing all these issues. Alleviation of flood risks in the coastal zone with 5 million people at risk has been developed in an integrated plan for a sustainable urban development. This ambitious plan includes an outer coastal protection scheme in Jakarta Bay that has been shaped like the Garuda, the national symbol of Indonesia.

Client Ministry of Economic Affairs (Netherlands) and PT Kapuk Naga Indah

Services strategy development, master planning, feasibility

study, preliminary and detailed design, cost estimates, tender documents, supervision

Expertises flood management, urban water management

and drainage, hydrodynamics and morphology, geotechnical engineering, water quality management, land reclamation, coastal engineering

Urban development and flood protection issues are also addressed in another project: the land reclamation of Kapuk Naga Indah. In this project three artificial islands are planned to be developed just off the Jakarta coast with a surface area of 300 hectares each. The construction of the first island started in 2013. Witteveen+Bos carried out a full package of services including master planning and technical design, Environmental Impact Assessment and supervision of the construction of the first island.


The Netherlands Province of North-Holland

Hondsbossche and Pettemer Sea defence Innovative reinforcement of a sea dike


The Hondsbossche and Pettemer Zeewering, a Dutch sea defense work, is a 5.5 km long dike along the North Sea. Its current layout originates from 1880 and the structure does not meet the current safety standard for water overtopping the dike. In 2012 reinforeing to reinforce the dike by creating a beach in front was proposed. The hybrid solution of a soft measure to reinforce an existing hard structure is an innovative concept. Over 40 million cubic meters of sand will be deposited to create a beach that will reduce the overtopping of the existing dike. Maintenance of the new sandy coastline for 20 years is also part of the project.

Client joint venture of dredging companies

Van Oord and Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V. Services analyses, master planning, preliminary and detailed design

Expertises hydrodynamics and morphology, coastal engineering, dredging technology, nature conservation policy

Witteveen+Bos supported a joint venture of two major dredging companies in the preparation of the design. A major focus of the project was the development of beach and dune recreation and tourism. Witteveen+Bos provided technical and ecological expertise.


The Netherlands Delfland

Monitoring the Sand Engine along the Dutch coast Tracing the sand and Building with Nature 24

To maintain the Dutch coastline, beaches and foreshores are regularly nourished with sand. This measure is carried out every five years and is therefore costly and may harm local coastal ecosystems. The concept of the Sand Engine is based on a novel type of mega-nourishment in which a large quantity of sand is deposited at a single site at once. It is an example of ‘Building with Nature’, a programme of Dutch companies, institutes and universities that focus on the use of natural processes in developing and maintaining infrastructure.

Client Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment

Services survey

Expertise morphology, ecological monitoring, coastal engineering

The concept has been applied in a pilot project in the province of South-Holland where a peninsula of 100 ha was created. In the coming years the sand is expected to be redistributed gradually by currents and wind along approximately 20 km of coastline. A consortium led by Witteveen+Bos is conducting a monitoring programme of geo-morphological and ecological processes, focusing on the redistribution of sand. The data obtained will provide a better understanding of ecological processes on the large scale. The Sand Engine might be a cheaper alternative for the existing method of coastline maintenance, with fewer effects on ecosystems.


Mozambique Beira

Master Plan Beira 2035 and GreenInfra4Beira Green infra solutions to prevent urban flooding 26

Storm water is an urgent problem to be tackled in the low lying town of Beira. It causes pluvial flooding and soil erosion, posing a threat to infrastructure and human health. Together with key stakeholders, we developed the Master Plan Beira 2035 which sets the strategy and direction towards the sustainable development of the town in terms of flood control and economics.

Client Ministry of Economic Affairs (Netherlands), Netherlands

As a follow-up to this master plan, the project GreenInfra4Beira was initiated. The key objective was to create a drainage system that was combined with recreational use and development of nature, resulting in the beautification and greening of an urban environment. Furthermore, a detailed plan for implementation of water retention basins and a drainage system in a pilot area in Beira was provided. The plan has been prepared to enable decision making by local policy makers and is ready for implementation. The plan has been set up in such a way that it can also be applied to areas dealing with similar issues elsewhere.

and drainage, water quality improvement and management

Enterprise Agency

Services strategy development, institutional development,

analyses and feasibility study, master planning, preliminary and detailed design, cost estimates, training

Expertise nature policy, flood management, water resources

management and fresh water supply, urban water management


Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City


Climate adaptation Urban expansion in the age of climate change Ho Chi Minh City will face many challenges in the future as a consequence of a changing climate. This densely populated delta city already experiences frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall and its vulnerable position in the delta. Future sea level rise, land subsidence and increasing river discharges into the delta will further enhance these problems and will increase the risk of flooding. At the same time the city is rapidly expanding towards the sea, and is therefore being more exposed to the delta and becoming more vulnerable.

Client Ministry of Economic Affairs

To make and keep Ho Chi Minh City prosperous and safe from floods in the future, long term choices for city development have to be made now. A climate adaptation strategy for Ho Chi Minh City was developed, consisting of six strategic directions that jointly form a guide towards a climate proof future for Ho Chi Minh City. Detailed plans have been made for new commercial and residential areas to be developed along the Saigon River and for a major harbour expansion seaward. Witteveen+Bos advised on water and flood management, related institutional strengthening and governance, and identified the opportunities to combine urban development and flood protection, all with emphasis on sustainability and resilience.

Expertise urban water management


Services strategy development,

institutional development, master and port planning, preliminary

design, cost estimates, analyses and feasibility study

and drainage, flood management and protection, environmental

economics and cost-benefit analysis


Bangladesh Delta regions

Delta Plan 2100 Sustainable development of a complex delta area 30

Climate change and population growth jeopardise the supply of sufficient drinking water and constrain the overall economic growth in Bangladesh. Monsoon floods and cyclones make the country highly vulnerable. In the delta region salt water intrusion affects drinking water quality and obstructs the food production. Floods in the delta regions increase levels of contamination in drinking water, causing outbreaks of diseases, while further inland the country suffers from drought.

Client Royal Netherlands Embassy

Services analyses and feasibility study,

training, preliminary design, cost estimates

Expertises flood management and protection, hydrodynamics and morphology, coastal and river hydraulic engineering, water resources management and fresh water supply

To deal with this complexity of problems in a sustainable manner and to achieve middle income country status by 2021, the Government of Bangladesh is being supported in preparing the long term Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100. According to the principles of the Dutch Delta Technology, an inclusive approach is followed to address all land and water related issues. Witteveen+Bos conducts field and baseline studies and develops future scenario perspectives for water supply, sanitation, river training works and coastal defense infrastructure. The plan provides technical solutions as well as advice on governance, institutional strengthening and financial management. A common strategy towards sustainable safety against floods, food security and economic growth is being developed. The project ends with a proposition for an implementation framework for recommended measures.


The Netherlands Deventer

‘Room for the River’ Discharging extreme water volumes


Extremely high river discharges in 1993 and 1995 have been the main incentive for the Dutch government to develop and implement a comprehensive national plan entitled ‘Room for the River’ to ensure that rivers can cope with extreme volumes of water without flooding. The main rivers in the Netherlands will be given more capacity to deal with extreme discharges at over 30 locations. Since 2006 flood protection measures, combined with improvement of the overall environmental quality in the river region have been planned, engineered and built. The program is due to be completed in 2015.

Clients (different projects) Ministry of

Witteveen+Bos has been involved in 12 of these projects since 2006 up to the present. We provided services and expertise in all stages of these projects. An example is the project in Deventer, where the implementation of a new secondary channel in the floodplains for the purpose of creating extra discharge capacity was combined with the development of a new recreation area and facilities for the city. A broad range of disciplines has been utilised in this project.

Expertise port development, wetland

Transport, Public Works and Water

Management, provinces, municipalities, water boards and contractors

Services plan development, Environmental

Impact Assessment, engineering and design, permits and procedures, tender documents, supervision of works

management, hydrodynamics and morphology, river hydraulic engineering, flood management


Romania Danube River

Redevelopment of floodplains and wetlands Decision making and sustainable concept of flood control


^ Breach locations during the 2006 flood

^ Maximum flood extent during the 2006 flood (source: Administratia Nationale de Meteorologie, Laboratorul de Teledectie si GIS

For many decades extreme water levels on the Danube River have caused serious flood damage and casualties in Romania. Sustainable measures have not yet been taken as the Romanian administration has not succeeded in obtaining available European financial resources from Brussels. Poor preparation of viable project proposals and the complexity of the Romanian institutional organisations for flood management have been the main causes.

Beneficiaries & Client Ministry of

A consortium of consultants managed by Witteveen+Bos developed a new decision-making procedure for implementation of flood control measures. Its application was demonstrated on a major floodplain along the Danube River for which spatial plans were prepared, introducing a new concept for flood control: rearrangement of the flood plain instead of reinforcement of the existing dikes only. The project also demonstrated the modern inclusive approach of problem solving in which flood control improvements are complemented with agricultural rehabilitation and wetland development and in which the public actively participated in the development of plans. The demonstration project has also supported the Romanian administration to be better prepared to apply for international financial support in its battle against floods.

flood management and protection,

Environment and Ministry of Agriculture (both Romania), Ministry of Economic Affairs (Netherlands)

Services policy development, institutional development, analyses, cost benefit analysis, master planning, preliminary

design, procedures, project funding, cost estimates

Expertise river hydraulic engineering, wetland restoration and management,

hydrodynamics and morphology, nature conservation policy


Bolivia Beni

Flood early warning system Alleviating the effects of floods

Large scale flooding frequently affects the agricultural region of Beni in Bolivia. Yearly floods cause significant economic losses. To alleviate these effects, the inhabitants of the Beni region should be warned for upcoming extreme discharges on the Beni River in order to be able to take the necessary precautions in time. Under the programme ‘Vivir con el Agua’ (living with water), initiated by the Bolivian Ministry for Water Management in cooperation with the Dutch Embassy, a consortium of consultants under the management of Witteveen+Bos developed and implemented a flood early warning system, consisting of a data information module, a hydrodynamic forecasting computer model and a communication system. Data analysis was carried out to generate the input for the hydrodynamic forecasting. Staff members of the Bolivian administration were trained to use the system which will enable the ministry to warn the inhabitants of Beni in time, hence reducing economic loss in the future. The system also allows the administration to produce flood risk maps that that can be used for creating spatial plans focused on less vulnerability against floods.


Beneficiaries & Client Bolivian Ministry for Water Management, Royal Netherlands Embassy Services analyses and feasibility study, institutional development, training

Expertise flood management and protection, hydrodynamics


Indonesia Jakarta


Jakarta urban drainage Implementing small-scale urban dredging techniques Flooding is one of the major problems of Jakarta and the existing drainage system is in poor condition. Maintenance of the existing canals by dredging is not operational in the capital city and a responsible authority for such work has not been established. Furthermore, the drainage capacity is no longer suitable to cope with current and future floods in Jakarta. Dredging of canals is necessary for the discharge of surface water runoff. Witteveen+Bos completed design studies and prepared dredging plans for the areas of Kali Mati and the Pandemandan canal and a disposal area in Ancol. International and national staff were involved in the coordination and supervision of the dredging activities and the training of local operators.

Client Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

Services design, preparation dredging plan, supervision

Expertise urban water management and drainage, dredging technology

The project was aimed at introducing, testing and - if needed - adapting small-scale urban dredging methods, together with training local staff to operate the equipment. The objective was to establish a basis for long-term maintenance and operation of the channels by the responsible authorities. New dredging equipment, acquired as part of this project, was planned to be transferred to the Indonesian authorities.


The Netherlands Amsterdam

Volgermeerpolder Natural capping - innovative solution against waste disposal site pollution


The Volgermeerpolder, an area of 105 hectares, was used in the twentieth century as a dump site for large amounts of chemical waste. A remediation project, the largest in the Netherlands, was commenced in which the development of new nature (both terrestrial and aquatic) and recreational activities were added to the project objectives.

Client Municipality of Amsterdam

The project started with a system analysis of ecological processes and determinants. Management and monitoring plans were developed to give direction to the ecological development during and after remediation. An innovative technical solution was introduced, the so called ‘natural capping’: to the preventiny of leakage of polluted water through the use of a naturally formed peat layer that, replaces the existing capping over time, so that in addition to remediation, the ecololgy was improved and recreation was established in the area. The successful implementation of the project in 2009 has yielded a spectacular increase of biodiversity (species richness of aquatic vegetation) over the years, exceeding the biodiversity in the surroundings.

monitoring vegetation, wildlife and water quality,

Expertise Water quality improvement and

management, water system design, wetland

restoration and management, ecological monitoring Services supervision of ecological management, communication of ecological management


Azerbaijan Baku

Remediation of lakes and a new port in the Baku area Supporting new developments 42

Economic development and growth of Baku has put stress on the lakes that surround the city, resulting in a dramatic increase in dumping of sewage and solid waste. Some lakes carry an additional burden that is associated with extensive oil production in the area. In 2013 Witteveen+Bos performed environmental, ecological and hydrological system analyses to unravel the influences on nine lakes. Our company prepared a detailed plan for restoration and beautification with measures to reduce pollution and restore ecological and economic functions. In anticipation of the European Games in Baku in 2015, the remediation of Boyuk Shor, the largest lake in the area, was prioritised. With the measures executed, the lake will be rehabilitated and, hence, will attract new investments.

Client Tamiz Shahar JSC (Boyuk

As a result of the demands of economic growth, Baku will also relocate the majority of port operations from the existing waterfront of Baku to an area located 65 km to the south to the city of Alyat. This new port is called the Baku International Sea Trade Port. Witteveen+Bos prepared the design for the land reclamation and for port facilities including quay walls over 1,75 kilometers and a ferry terminal. The structures are seismic proof.

water resources management,

Shor Remediation project) and

Evrascon (Baku International Sea Trade Port project)

Services analyses and feasibility study, Environmental Impact

Assessment, cost estimates,

preliminary and detailed design, master and port planning

Expertise water quality improvement and management, hydrodynamics, port development, geotechnical

engineering and seismic design, land reclamation, hydraulic engineering


Serbia Danube

Master plan for inland waterway transport Nationwide enhancement of intermodal transport


The European Union supported the Republic of Serbia in the preparation of feasibility studies, master plans, detailed design and tender documentation with related Environmental Impact Assessment studies to reconstruct the inland waterway transport (IWT) with respect to the network system and the inland navigation ports along the rivers. Our company has established a strategy for development for IWT in the short, middle and long term, identifying priorities in investments and including the preparation of detailed design and tender documentation.

Client European Agency for Reconstruction

Short term restoration measures such as clean-up of unexploded explosives and ship wrecks have been identified, as well as the rehabilitation of the navigation lock complexes at the two hydroelectric power plants at the Iron Gate. After 30 years the locks capacity has become a ‘bottleneck’ in the IWT system between the Black Sea and Austria, jeopardizing the existence of large steel companies and cereal producers established along the Danube River. Our services also included transport and traffic assessments, investigation into modal split as well as advice on the institutional and legislative network for a better understanding of the efficiency and competency of the IWT sector. The environmental issues have been handled in line with the European Water Framework Directive and related regulations.

and procedures

Beneficiary Ministry of Transport (Serbia)

Services strategy and policy development,

analyses and feasibility study, Environmental

Impact Assessment, master and port planning,

survey, preliminary and detailed design, project finance and funding, cost estimates, permits

Expertise environmental economics and costbenefit analysis, river hydraulic engineering,

port development, port structures and nautical safety, (inland) waterways, geotechnical engineering, flood management


Kazakhstan Prorva region

Cargo Transportation Route Large-scale modal shift in Kazakhstan


Many onshore oil fields are established in the Prorva region along the northern section of the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan. The transport of heavy cargo between the oil fields and the Caspian Sea is a major problem as a consequence of poor infrastructure. The project ‘Cargo Transportation Route’ (CaTRO) was initiated to build infrastructure for heavy cargo up to 1,800 ton. This plan encompasses a dredged access channel (70 km) in the Caspian Sea, a port facility (1,000 m quay side) and various Ro-Ro berths, a haulage road (65 km), an accommodation camp and storage facilities. A comprehensive network of causeways will connect the port to the existing main road structure in the region.

Client Teniz Service LLP

Services survey management, analyses,

preliminary and detailed design, permits and procedures, cost estimates, project finance, Environmental Impact Assessment

Expertise environmental economics,

hydrodynamics and morphology, geotechnical engineering, dredging technology and land

reclamation, port structures, coastal engineering

Witteveen+Bos carried out the feasibility study for all project components and aspects including the environmental impact. Our company prepared and processed the local permits and approvals on design, conducted an Environmental Impact Assessment, and managed offshore and onshore surveys. We prepared the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) and the detailed design of the channel and port structures.


The Netherlands Rotterdam

Second Maasvlakte State-of-the-art port district


In order to safeguard its crucial role in the national economy, the Port of Rotterdam is expanding its area up to 12,000 hectares to comply with future demand expectations. New land with an area of 2,000 hectares is being reclaimed from the North Sea and transformed into a new port district. The Second Maasvlakte is the most comprehensive land reclamation project that has been carried out in the Netherlands in the last decades. The area use is targeted at container-handling, logistics and distribution and chemical industrial activities.

Client Port of Rotterdam Authority, Consortium

Witteveen+Bos has been involved in the port expansion over many years and in different project stages. We developed a strategic planning procedure setting out the port authority’s responsibilities in terms of legislation and procedures and assisted the preparation of the concession contracts for different terminals to be developed. In the construction phase a joint venture of two contractors was assigned to develop 700 hectares of new dockside areas including 11 km of seawall. Starting from 2011 we have also been involved in upgrading the hinterland connection for smooth logistic transport of containers and other goods. A design for the seawall was prepared. Based on the principles of Systems Engineering we conducted the design verifications, based on computations and comprehensive laboratory scale modeling. Our company was also responsible for the quality assurance of the geotechnical data used for construction plans, prepared geotechnical designs of different supporting facilities during construction and provided site instructions for sand nourishment.


PUMA (Van Oord and Boskalis)

Services survey, laboratory and prototype research, preliminary and detailed design, permits and procedures

Expertise port development and logistics,

hydrodynamics, coastal engineering, geotechnical


Russia Taman

New Port of Taman Mega-port development along Russia’s Black Sea coast


Within the framework of the Russian federal target programme ‘Development of transport system of Russia (2010-2015)’, the Russian Federation aims to develop modern deep-sea ports for the export and import of goods. The purpose of the Taman project is to create a new port with a capacity of 100 million tons annual throughput, which would make this the third largest port in the Russian Federation.

Client Lenmorniiproekt (LMP)

Witteveen+Bos supported Lenmorniiproekt, a Russian based consultant, to carry out the two stages of the assignment, a master plan stage and a detailed design stage. We prepared the port master plan for the envisaged cargo flows first, including the Basis of Design and the assessment of alternative layout plans and alternative structural concepts at different locations. Subsequently we provided the detailed designs, the construction schedule and the cost estimates of the main hydraulic infrastructure. The project was characterized by the many challenges emerging from large elevation differences, rocky subsoil and seismicity in the project area.

preliminary and detailed design

Benificiary FSI ‘RosTransModernizatsiya’

(RTM) of the Ministry of Transport (Russian Federation)

Services survey, analyses and feasibility study, cost estimates, master and port planning,

Expertise port development, port structures and nautical safety, dredging technology

and land reclamation, hydrodynamics and

morphology, geotechnical engineering and seismic design


The Netherlands Rotterdam


Automated container terminal Sustainable high-end automated container terminal The Second Maasvlakte, a new port district in reclaimed land, enables the port of Rotterdam to accommodate growth in cargo volumes until the year 2030, so as to remain Europe’s largest port and industrial complex. In this area the operator APM Terminals established a new large container terminal of 180 ha in total, with 2.8 km of deep sea quays and 0.5 km of barge quay, providing a capacity of at least 4.5 MTEU. This terminal is APMT’s flagship and one of the most modern, sustainable and efficient terminals in the world. Operations at the terminal are highly automated including automated stacking cranes and automated horizontal transport vehicles.

Client APM Terminals MVII B.V.

Services conceptual and detailed design,

tender documents, procurement, supervision Expertise port development, port structures,

civil, electrical, mechanical and rail engineering, buildings

Witteveen+Bos delivered the full range of services from design and a site commissioning plan to preparation of the tendering and supervision. Our company investigated sustainable measures, supported the set up of the construction schedule and rendered project management services. In the first phase an area of 86 ha with 1 km of deep sea quay and 0.5 km of barge quay were constructed, which became operational by the end of 2014.


Kazakhstan Northern Caspian Sea


Drilling islands in the northern Caspian Sea Complex civil engineering to support the oil industry Since 1998 Witteveen+Bos has been involved in the design and the construction of artificial islands for oil exploration, production and processing in the northern Caspian Sea. We have designed artificial islands and ice protection structures for 12 locations within the Kashagan field. This offshore oil field in the northern Caspian Sea is considered to be the world’s largest discovery in the last thirty years. Designs have also been prepared for the civil topsides. Most challenging for the design has been the arctic conditions and the relatively limited water depth in this part of the Caspian Sea.

Clients NCOC (Shell, Agip, Total, ExxonMobil,

For another oil field, the Kalamkas field, alternatives for the island construction method have been developed, minimising the impact on environment and maximising the preparatory construction activities onshore through the use of caisson design. Important in the design has been the arctic conditions, the presence of a local construction yard and the sea transport of caissons in shallow waters. A rock island with a cofferdam perimeter structure was designed for a third field, the Pearls field. The cofferdam is built from an existing platform that has been placed on piles. Also the island decommissioning after its 40 years lifetime has been studied to ensure minimal environmental impact.

design, cost estimates, permits and procedures

government of Kazakhstan and others) for Kashagan and Kalamkas fields,

CMOC (Shell, Oman Oil and KMG) for the Pearls field

Services analyses and feasibility study,

Environmental Impact Assessment, master and port planning, survey, preliminary and detailed

Expertise ecology, water quality improvement, hydrodynamics and morphology, coastal

engineering, geotechnical engineering, land

reclamation, port structures and nautical safety



Text Witteveen+Bos Concept and design Houdbaar Printing Te Sligte-Olijdam Photos and illustrations APM Terminals Maasvlakte II Cynthia Boll Gerard Dubois Erik Karst KuiperCompagnons Marjolein Meerburg Marcel Mooij Rijkswaterstaat Jamikorn Sooktaramorn Siebe Swart Hilco Visser Fonger de Vlas Witteveen+Bos Š Witteveen+Bos, 2015 Witteveen+Bos Van Twickelostraat 2 P.O. Box 233 7400 AE Deventer The Netherlands t + 31 570 69 79 11 f + 31 570 69 73 44 e i




Where land meets water  

Deltas, coasts and rivers - projects by Witteveen+Bos

Where land meets water  

Deltas, coasts and rivers - projects by Witteveen+Bos