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number of juvenile drug offense cases processed during 1995 was 145 percent greater than in 1991. The Centers for Disease Control reports that, while illicit drug use has declined among youth, rates of nonmedical use of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medication remain high. Prescription medications most commonly abused by youth include pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and depressants. In 2009, 20% of U.S. high school students had taken a prescription drug, such as Oxycontin, Percocet, Vicodin, Adderall, Ritalin, or Xanax, without a doctor's prescription. Teens also misuse OTC cough and cold medications, containing the cough suppressant dextromethorphan (DXM), to get high. Prescription and OTC medications are widely available, free or inexpensive, and falsely believed to be safer than illicit drugs. Misuse of prescription and OTC medications can cause serious health effects, addiction, and death. Another study reveals that 7 to 10 percent of adolescents are in need of substance abuse treatment, but only a small number—usually those individuals with severe substance use disorders, comorbid psychiatric disorders, or legal problems—receive treatment. This population is underserved in large part because of limited resources, inadequate age-appropriate programs, and lack of a broad consensus on preferred treatment strategies. Citations: Center for Disease Control. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009. MMWR 2010; 59(SS-5):1–142. Eaton, D. K., et. al. (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 59, 1–142. Kaminer, Y. (2001). Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Where Do We Go From Here? Psychiatric Services, 52[2], 147-49. Latimer, W. W.; Newcomb, M., Winters, K. C.; Stinchfield, R. D. (2000). Adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome: The role of substance abuse problem severity, psychosocial, and treatment factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68[4], 684-696. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Report Series: Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 01-4881, Printed 2001. Revised August 2005. Safety: Solutions 5.1-5.11 Solution Number: 5.1 ACC Peer Court Solution Description: To improve neighborhood safety and address juvenile justice issues, the ACC Juvenile Court will organize a peer court for teens arrested in non-violent and first time offences. The goal of FC-CIS and the ACC Juvenile Court is to obtain funding through private sources, such as the Georgia Bar Association, to implement the peer court in 2014. The 81 Appendix F


court will be staffed by youth volunteers who serve in various capacities within the program, trained and acting in the roles of jurors, lawyers, bailiffs, clerks, and judges. Such courts have been shown to expedite the court process and to facilitate a sense of restorative justice as well as provide significant involvement in the judicial process for the teen volunteers. Brief Summary of Evidence: According to the National Association of Youth Courts, there are currently over 1,050 peer courts in the United States, and at least two active courts in Georgia (in Fulton and DeKalb counties). Judge Robin Shearer of the Juvenile Court in Athens-Clarke County has articulated a need for a program for the non-violent and first time offenders to be adjudicated in a way that holds teens accountable while providing a sense of justice that may not be achieved when a disposition is assigned by the judge or probation officer. Peer courts provide a timely sentencing hearing that takes place in the evening. Peer courts also benefit the teen volunteers who participate in them. Teens learn about the law, practice public speaking and advocacy, and accrue many hours of community service. Citations: Butts, J.A., & Buck, J. (2000). Teen Courts: A Focus on Research. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Butts, J.A., Buck, J. & Coggeshall, M. (2002). The Impact of Teen Court on Young Offenders. Urban Institute Justice Policy Center. Schneider, J.M. (2007). Youth Courts: An empirical update and analysis of future organizational and research needs. Hamilton Fish Institute Reports and Essays Serial. Washington, DC: Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence, George Washington University. Solution Number: 5.2 Citizens Police Academy (CPA) Solution Description: To address and improve neighborhood safety and relationships between the police department and communities, the ACC Police Department offers two Citizens Police Academies (CPA) each year. During the 13 week program, police personnel offer community members a transparent look at police operations, philosophy, procedures, laws, and rules. The CPA curriculum includes topic such as: Criminal Investigations, Patrol, District Attorney/Criminal Investigations, K-9/Traffic, and Drug and Vice. Graduates of the CPA learn how they can better protect their neighborhoods by working with the police and other local government agencies to solve community problems. Parents from the ACC PN will learn about policing in ACC, tour police facilities, become familiar with a variety of laws, and directly discuss with police officers ways to solve specific and general crime and disorder problems in their neighborhoods. In 2012, two Neighborhood Leaders will serve as Safety Specialists and use their CPA training to

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develop Neighborhood Watch groups in their neighborhoods, as well as serve as neighborhood liaisons to the police department on safety issues. Brief Summary of Evidence: The Athens Clarke County Citizens Police Academy completed its 25th semi-annual session in the spring of 2011. Many CPA graduates continue to be active in the Citizens Police Academy Alumni Association (CPAAA) performing volunteer functions at a variety of police facilities and functions. Graduates of the program tend to be supportive of the police department and government and police personnel who work in the program develop improved relationships with the citizens who attend CPA sessions. Citizens Police Academies have become widespread across the country. A recent study by Becton, et al. assessed the extent to which such programs influence citizens’ beliefs and perceptions of the police. Respondents who had participated in a CPA agreed that the academies help promote good community relations. Citations: Becton, J., Meadows, L., Tears, R., Charles, M. & Ioimo, R. (2005). Can citizen police academies influence citizens’ beliefs and perceptions? Public Management, 20-23. Pope, J., Jones, T., Cook, S. & Waltrip, B. (2007). Citizen’s police academies: Beliefs and Perceptions regarding the program. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 3(1), 42-53. Solution Number: 5.3 Family Team Meetings Solution Description: To address children’s safety within their families, FC-CIS proposes that Children’s First, a local non-profit dedicated to promoting safe homes for children in times of family crisis, will facilitate Family Team Meetings (FTM) to engage the family and friends and supports in a strength based problem solving approach that is family centered and focused on practical solutions. Family Team Meetings are used in several areas of child welfare from prevention services to foster care and permanency planning. Children’s First proposes to use this model as a resource to families experiencing crisis, in the midst of a crisis, or in an effort to further stabilize a situation that is now over. The targeted population is families in need of this level of support who are referred by a community resource, self-referred, or court ordered to attend in the ACC PN. The FTMs will use the research-based model of facilitation and support while engaging the participants as experts in the areas of need. Brief Summary of Evidence: Most Family Team Meetings (FTM) are focused around children that are in the welfare system and therefore most of the evidence is in that arena. The Ohio Department of Job and Family Services did research on effective ways to help protect Ohio. From their 2009 study focusing on FTM’s, 11 out of 17 counties that used FTMs felt that they had significant impacts on the families they were working with. The process engaged the biological and extended family more, as well as increase accountability for the family 83 Appendix F


and resulted in a stronger development of the case plan. It was also reported from this study that families had stronger natural supports, family relationships and the family felt more empowered overall. FTMs also linked families to more appropriate and timely services. Citations: Human Services Research Institute (HRSI) (2010). Comprehensive Final Evaluation Report: Ohio’s Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project “ProtectOhio” Covering the second waiver period. Solution Number: 5.4 Safety-related Mindful Awareness Practices Solution Description: Mindfulness enhances community safety because it is designed to enhance stress resilience and attention and improve social-emotional learning. Proposed mindfulness awareness practices/training is appropriate for children, adolescents, safety and juvenile justice-related professional, Rites of Passage providers and participants (see Solution Number 5.6), and parents. As detailed below, mindfulness has global effects on the brain and behavior and participants with larger deficits generally reap the most benefit. The above audiences in the ACC PN will be supported through the Mind Body Institute program, which offers practical tools to improve attention, social-emotional learning and to create school and neighborhood culture that promotes academic, social, emotional, and relational development and growth of all learners. Brief Summary of Evidence: Programs using mindful awareness practices are conducted throughout the world, in medical, clinical, and educational settings. There are currently over 142 clinical trials on mindfulness registered with the National Institute of Health. Of particular interest is a $1.2 million grant awarded to Pennsylvania State University and the Garrison Institute by the United States Department of Education’s Institute for Educational Sciences to study a program using mindful awareness practices to reduce teacher burnout and improve resilience. Recently, the United States Military has put in place a program for pre-deployment training based on mindful awareness practices. Citations: Beauchemin, Hutchins & Patterson (2008). Mindfulness Meditation May Lessen Anxiety, Promote Social Skills, and Improve Academic Performance Among Adolescents With Learning Disabilities. Complementary Health Practice Review, 12[34]. Biegel, G., Brown, K., Shapiro, S. & Schubert, C. (2009) “Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77[5], 855–866. Black, D.S., Milam, J. & Sussman, S. (2009) Sitting-Meditation Interventions Among Youth: A Review of Treatment. Pediatrics, 124, e532-e541. 84 Appendix F


Coatsworth, J.D., Duncan, L., Greenberg, M. & Nix, R. (2010). Changing Parent’s Mindfulness, Child Management Skills and Relationship Quality With Their Youth: Results From a Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies 19, 203-217. Solution Number: 5.5 Clarke County Juvenile Court Restorative Justice Training Solution Description: To improve neighborhood safety and reduce juvenile recidivism, implementing a restorative justice system in juvenile courts creates a setting in which all parties, including the offender, participate meaningfully in arriving at a collective solution for reparation. FC-CIS proposes to significantly increase the use of restorative justice by collaborating with the Georgia Conflict Center to train Clarke County Juvenile Court (CCJC) staff and advocates in the conflict management skills needed to introduce restorative justice, address barriers, increase victim and offender understanding and acceptance of the program, and facilitate the development of solutions and the building of relationships. The goal is to reduce recidivism of the youth offenders, increase satisfaction with the justice system for the victim, and improve the ability of both to learn, grow and better their perspective from the experience. Students in the ACC PN who attend Clarke Middle School will be a target population. The result is a court able to offer a tool that is more effective, efficient, and inexpensive for all involved. Brief Summary of Evidence: Victims who experience a restorative justice program express high levels of satisfaction with the process and the outcomes and believe that the process is fair. There are strong indications that victims are much less satisfied within the traditional court system. In addition, victims’ satisfaction levels appear to be related to the fulfillment of restitution agreements. Offenders also express higher levels of satisfaction with restorative justice programming and perceive the process to be fair, as research suggests that offenders processed by the traditional system are less satisfied. Most restorative justice program participants have a high level of success in negotiating restitution agreements. There is also an indication that a high proportion of offenders referred to restorative justice programs follow through on their agreements and are more likely to comply than are offenders with court-ordered restitution. Most important perhaps is that recent studies have shown that restorative justice significantly reduces recidivism. Citations: Rodriguez, N. (2007). Restorative Justice at Work: Examining the Impact of Restorative Justice Resolutions on Juvenile Recidivism. Crime and Delinquency, 53 [3], 355-379. Hoplamazian, M. (2009). Restorative Justice in Virginia: Past, Present and Future. Virginia Community Criminal Justice. Sherman, L.W. & Strang, H. (2003). Repairing the Harm: Victims and Restorative Justice. Utah Law Review, 15-42. 85 Appendix F


Solution Number: 5.6 Rites of Passage Solution Description: To prevent African-American youth ages 10-19 from entering the juvenile justice system by addressing risk factors such as teen pregnancy, youth violence, and school failure, the Rites of Passage afterschool program utilizes an Afro-cultural approach to combat social problems that youth in the ACC PN are facing. The program focuses its work with children who are identified as “at risk� by the Department of Juvenile Justice, the Department of Family and Children Services, the CCSD, or the Athens Housing Authority. All services of Rites of Passage are designed to meet the programmatic goals of the Family Connection Partnership, which are to improve child health, improve child development; improve school performance, improve family functioning, and improve family economic capacity. The program operates on the belief that all youth should know how to plan ahead and make choices and resolve conflict nonviolently, have interpersonal skills, have something to contribute, have a sense of purpose, have integrity, value themselves and others, have family support that include high levels of love and support, be given positive roles in the community and freedom of expression through the arts. Brief Summary of Evidence: By utilizing this family-centered, Afro-cultural, celebration-of-heritage model, for three years the Rites of Passage in Athens has served as a full-time project and achieved remarkable results working with more than 150 youth annually who, while including a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, have predominately come from troubled backgrounds. The Williams article examines the Connections intervention program, an African-centered rites-of-passage program in Chicago. The rites-of-passage program used transitional initiation rites to instill youth with an African cultural social ethos that promoted a sense of purpose and meaning. The rites-of-passage program reduced violence among young, African American males by enhancing and promoting the following tools: 1. Self-sufficiency, self-empowerment, and ethnic pride; 2. Community building; 3. Economic empowerment; 4. Ritual as tools for preventing and solving interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict; 5. The spirit of communalism; 6. Empathy/affect; and 7. Spirituality/African centeredness. A report from the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk states that the cognitive performance of African American children from low-income backgrounds can be enhanced by promoting aspects of the Afro-cultural ethos. The results of all of the studies show that African American children's learning and achievement performance in areas such as cognitive processing, comprehension of story and textbook material, creative problem solving and task engagement, academic-related task performance, experimental task performance, and motivation are all improved by Afro-cultural approaches. The Afro-cultural approach to education with central focus on self-esteem, responsibility, and leadership development, has successfully been incorporated into the Benjamin Mays Academy (formerly Institute) of Hartford, CT. Citations: 86 Appendix F


Athens-Clarke County Family Connection Partnership, Report to Athens-Clarke County Department of Human & Economic Development, 2002. Awad, G.H. (2007). The role of racial identity, academic self-concept, and self-esteem in the prediction of academic outcomes for African American students. Journal of Black Psychology. 33,188–207. Boykin, A. & Bailey, C. T., Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk, B. D. (2000). The Role of Cultural Factors in School Relevant Cognitive Functioning: Synthesis of Findings on Cultural Contexts, Cultural Orientations, and Individual Differences. Report No. 42. Gordon, Derrick M., Iwamoto, Derek, Ward, Nadia, Potts, Randolph and Boyd, Elizabeth (2009). Mentoring urban Black Middle-School Male Students: Implications for Academic Achievement, Journal of Negro Education. 2009 July 1; 78(3), 277–289. Johnson, W.E. (Ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press Williams, L. (2010). Cultural interventions.for reducing violence among young, African American males from Social work with African American males: Health, mental health, and social policy. Potts, Randolph G. (2003). Emancipatory Education Versus School-Based Prevention in African American Communities, American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, Nos. 1/2, 73 - 83. Wilcox, W., Lazarre-White, K. & Warwin, J. (2003). Rites of Passage: Preparing Youth for Social Change. Afterschool Matters, 3, 52–60. Solution Number: 5.7 Clarke County Attendance Panel Solution Description: The Clarke County Attendance Panel process is a school-community early intervention effort to improve students’ school attendance; it was first implemented in the CCSD during the 1989-90 school year and continues to have excellent outcomes. Students served through Attendance Panel are generally elementary and early middle schoolaged, including Alps Road Elementary School and Clarke Middle School, when their attendance can be improved through assisting families with identified needs. Older middle school and high school-aged children experiencing chronic attendance difficulties are referred to Truancy Court through the filing of a Truancy Complaint in Juvenile Court. The Attendance Panel process involves three levels of intervention for students: Level One, the Agenda Setting Meeting; Level Two, a letter from the AthensClarke County Attendance Panel; and Level Three, a referral to an Attendance Panel meeting or calling in a report for educational neglect to the Department of Family and Children Services

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Brief Summary of Evidence Local data: School social workers referred 68 elementary students and 1 middle school student to the Attendance Panel during the 2010-11 school year. Data was available for 65 of the 68 students referred. Twenty-two students and their families were invited to personally attend a meeting of the Attendance Panel at Juvenile Court. Other referred students and families received School Social Worker (SSW) school follow up, a letter from the panel, and/or a report was made to the Department of Family and Children Services for educational neglect. SSWs collected information on attendance for three data points. Data was collected on the number of days attended by each student in the 20 school days prior to the school’s referral to the SSW. Data was collected on the number of days attended by each student in the 20 school days immediately following that individual student’s date of Attendance Panel intervention. Lastly, data was collected on the number of days attended by each student in 21st through 40th school days following the Attendance Panel intervention. The average attendance for all students in the 20 school days prior to the SSW receiving a school referral was 61.92%. The average attendance in the 20 school days following their Attendance Panel intervention was 80.08%. This indicates a rate of improvement of 30.24%. The average attendance for the 45 students with data available for the 21st through 40th days post intervention was 83%. This indicates a rate of improvement of 34.4% for those 45 students. Research and field studies have suggested that effective attendance programs link partnership activities with important school goals using six types of involvement: parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community. When schools design and implement activities that focus on attendance using these six types of involvement, parents and others in the community can make a difference. After controlling for prior rates of student attendance and mobility, a study of 39 elementary schools found that the quality of family, school, and community partnership programs was associated with rates of student attendance. Citations: Epstein, J. L., Clark, L., Salinas, K. C. & Sanders, M. (1997).Scaling up school-familycommunity connections in Baltimore: Effects on student attendance and achievement. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Epstein J. L., & Sheldon, S.B. (2002). Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. Journal of Education Research, 95[5], 308-320. Heilbrunn, J.Z. (2007). Pieces of the Truancy Jigsaw: A Literature Review, National Center for School Engagement, Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver, CO. 27 pp. MacIver, M.A., et. al. (2009). Advancing the “Colorado Graduates” Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge, The Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 54 pp. 88 Appendix F


Solution Number: 5.8 Clarke County Truancy Court Solution Description: The purpose of the Clarke County Truancy Court is to improve students’ school attendance through an accountability court model of rewards and sanctions for students charged with truancy as first time offenders, in order to give ongoing supervision by the Court and more immediate response when appropriate. Truancy Court began in the Clarke County Juvenile Court in January 2009 and is held on the second and fourth Tuesday of each month at the Juvenile Court. The student’s first appearance in Truancy Court is for arraignment, unless the student has been ordered to attend after a disposition in another matter. If the student denies the charge of truancy, the case is set for trial in the normal course of business, ensuring that the due process rights are protected. If the student admits the charge, the court immediately holds a disposition hearing and determines if the student is a candidate for participation in Truancy Court. Initially, the Court reviews the case during each scheduled Truancy Court. If improvement in attendance is noted, the student may be ordered to appear only as necessary to maintain appropriate supervision and contact with the student and parent. If no improvement in attendance is noted, the parent or legal guardian will be placed on notice that a Protective Order will be entered against the parent if the Court finds that the parent’s or guardian’s behavior contributed to the student’s lack of attendance. During each Truancy Court session, school social workers and juvenile probation officers provide reports to the court regarding the student’s attendance, academic performance, and behavior at school and in the home and community. Brief Summary of Evidence: During the 2010-2011 school year, 13 students were ordered to participate in Truancy Court. The School Social Workers collected data on the number of days attended by each student in the 20 school days prior to the school’s referral to the school social worker. Data was then collected on the number of days attended by each student in the 20 school days immediately following that students’ initial date of Truancy Court. The students showed a 54% improvement in their attendance post-Truancy Court appearances and interventions. Research and field studies have suggested that effective programs link partnership activities with important school goals using six types of involvement: parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community. When schools design and implement activities that focus on attendance using these six types of involvement, parents and others in the community can make a difference. After controlling for prior rates of student attendance and mobility, a study of 39 elementary schools found that the quality of family, school, and community partnership programs was associated with rates of student attendance. Citations: Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N. & Nugent, M. Elaine (2001). Truancy Reduction: Keeping Students in School, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 15 pp. 89 Appendix F


Epstein, J. L., Clark, L., Salinas, K. C., & Sanders, M. (1997).Scaling up school-familycommunity connections in Baltimore: Effects on student attendance and achievement. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Epstein J. L. & S. B. Sheldon. (2002). Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. Journal of Education Research, 95[5], 308-320. Gandy, C. & Schultz, J.L. (2007). Increasing School Attendance for K-8 Students: A review of research examining the effectiveness of truancy prevention programs, Wilder Research, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 21 pp. Solution Number: 5.9 Safe Dates Solution Description: To improve adolescent safety related to teenage dating, the Safe Dates curriculum will be offered to middle and high school students in the ACC PN through various community partners beginning in 2013. With assistance from Project Safe and other partners, in 2012 a program structure will be developed to implement Safe Dates either in community settings such as schools or community centers, or through the ACC Juvenile Court or Department of Family and Children Services. The dating abuse prevention curriculum consists of five components: a ten session dating abuse curriculum, a play about dating abuse, poster contest, parental material that includes a letter, newsletter, and the Families for Safe Dates Program. Because dating violence is often tied to the abuse of alcohol and other drugs, FC-CIS will consider using Safe Dates in conjunction with alcohol and other drug prevention programs, as well as any other general violence prevention programs. Brief Summary of Evidence: Safe Dates was evaluated with a randomized trial, including five follow up assessments, up to four years post intervention. Positive program effects were noted in all four evaluation papers that have been published. In summary, adolescents who were exposed to safe dates in the eighth or ninth grade reported less psychological, moderate physical, and sexual dating violence victimization than those who were not. Safe Dates had both primary and secondary prevention effects in that the very first initiation of these behaviors were prevented and for those who were already involved in dating abuse, these behaviors were reduced or eliminated. The program was equally effective for boys and girls and for whites and non-whites. Together, these evaluations demonstrate that attitudes and norms relating to dating abuse can be changed through intervention. Citations: Foshee, B., et al, (2005). Assessing the effects of the dating violence prevention program “Safe Dates� using random coefficient regression modeling. Prevention Science, 6, 245-258. 90 Appendix F


Foshee, B., et al., (1998). An evaluation of “Safe Dates, an adolescent violence prevention program, American Journal of Public Health, 94, 619-624. Whitaker, D.J. & Lutzker, J.R., eds. (2009). Preventing Partner Violence: Research and Evidence Based Intervention Strategies. First ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Solution Number: 5.10 Anti-Bullying Interventions Solution Description: During 2012, FC-CIS will be consulting with UGA College of Education Dean Andy Horne, a national expert on bullying prevention, to determine the best evidence-based anti-bullying interventions for the ACC PN schools and neighborhood. A multilevel approach which includes efforts at universal prevention and targeted prevention will be implemented in 2013. In 2011-12 a student-led initiative at Clarke Central High School entitled Help Us Stop Hating (H.U.S.H.) launched with the goal of decreasing school violence by increasing peace in the school community. H.U.S.H. students will facilitate workshops for incoming freshman and plan events for all students to educate students about respecting diversity, taking responsibility for their school environment, ending hate, and stopping violence. Through this campaign, students hope to create a learning environment that ensures all members of the school community feel safe and welcome. Brief Summary of Evidence: A common approach to the prevention of bullying and other emotional and behavioral problems is the three-tiered public health model. This model includes a universal system of support or a set of activities that affect all students within a defined community or school setting. Layered onto that first tier of support are selected interventions that target a subgroup of at-risk students. At the second tier, selective interventions may include social skills training for small groups of children at risk for becoming involved in bullying. Finally, an indicated preventive intervention (tier 3) may include more intensive supports and programs tailored to meet the needs of students identified as a bully or victim and the needs of their families. The Safe School Ambassador (SSA) program is a student bystander education program implemented in 900 elementary, middle, and high schools to reduce bullying and improve overall school climate. The program incorporates youth development and prevention principles to train student leaders to identify, prevent, and respond to bullying and aggression in their schools in order to act as proactive bystanders. In a two-year evaluation study of the SSA program in five middle schools in Texas, researchers found that suspensions and other disciplinary actions at schools implementing the SSA program were reduced by an average of 33 percent and overall school climate improved. This evaluation demonstrates that student-led bullying intervention programs have the potential to reduce bullying and create a positive school environment. Citations:

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Espelage, D. & Horne, A. (2008). School violence and bullying prevention: From research based explanations to empirically based solutions. In Brown, S. & Lent, R. (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Psychology, 4th edition (pp. 588 –598). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Newman, D. & Horne, A. (2004). The effectiveness of a psychoeducational intervention for classroom teachers aimed at reducing bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 259–267. Orpinas, P., Horne, A., & Multi-site Violence Prevention Project. (2004). A teacherfocused approach to prevent and reduce students' aggressive behavior: The GREAT Teacher Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26 (Suppl. 1), 29–38. Pack, C., White, A., Raczynski, K. & Wang, A. (2011). Evaluation of the Safe School Ambassadors Program: A Student-led Approach to Reducing Mistreatment and Bullying in Schools. Clearing House, 84(4), 127-133. Solution Number: 5.11 Youth Police Academy Solution Description: To address youth safety in the ACC PN, beginning in 2013, ACC Police Department (ACCPD) will host Youth Police Academy twice a year. Youth Police Academy (YPA) will be offered for 2 ½ hours per day for 10 days afterschool for students ages 10-16. ACC PN students will be guaranteed 25% of the enrollment. Modeled in the Citizens Police Academy (see Solution 5.2), police personnel will offer participants a transparent look at police operations, philosophy, procedures, laws and rules. Participants will understand the police experience from the officer’s perspective, gain an understanding of the etiquette of interaction with police and courts, and receive training in the skills of conflict resolution and interpersonal communications which can solve problems and build relationships to prevent violence. Graduates of the YPA will learn how to interact with the police and gain a better understanding of their role and responsibility in the community. Graduates will have learned how to better manage conflict and also be able to communicate effectively with police, courts, authority figures and other citizens. Brief Summary of Evidence: ACC Police Department (ACCPD) has the experience of the Citizens Police Academy to show the positive relationships, supportive involvement and practical knowledge gained through the interaction of police and adults in the educational and training partnership developed. The CPA completed its 25th semi-annual session in the spring of 2011. Many CPA graduates continue to be active in the Citizens Police Academy Alumni Association (CPAAA) performing volunteer functions at a variety of police facilities and functions. Graduates of the program tend to be supportive of the police department and government, and police personnel who work in the program develop improved relationships with the citizens who attend CPA sessions. The graduates of the CPA will be called upon to help with the YPA in order to lead the children into a better future.

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Studies of similar youth police academies show positive conclusions with police and youth interactions. Ninety percent of the participants felt a sense of belonging and being part of the community and boys and girls at the lower end of the personal and social competencies continuum were the ones most likely to benefit from their involvement in the program. Specifically, it was this subgroup of youth who showed significant increases in their self assertive efficacy, self-regulatory efficacy and empathy. These skills reflect on the abilities of youth to competently manage the demands of social and interpersonal situations. Research has also been conducted to evaluate the police officers’ ability to effectively communicate with youth with positive results. Citations: Anderson, S.A., Liefeld, J., Sabatelli, R.M. & Trachtenberg, J. (2005) Police Working with Youth in Non-Enforcement Roles Outcome Evaluation 2002-2004. Anderson, S., Griggs, J., Kosutic, I. & Sanderson, J. (2008). Effective Police Interactions with Youth: Training Evaluation. Community Stability: Solutions 6.1-6.3 Solution Number: 6.1 Increase Adult Literacy Solution Description: Local studies have shown that increasing numbers of adults living in ACC (including the ACC PN) lack high school degrees. Accessible and affordable GED classes are a necessary component of community stability. Currently, Athens Technical College Adult Education Center in the H.T. Edwards Complex in the ACC PN offers 90 percent of GED classes in the county. Additional physical space is available but FC-CIS proposes that additional funding be provided for two part-time instructors and materials to provide 40 additional seats. An important partner in supporting adult literacy is the Athens Clarke Literacy Council (ACLC), an organization that works to promote and support all facets of adult literacy, including Adult Basic Education, GED preparation and English as a Second Language (ESL). They offer GED scholarships, post-secondary scholarships, volunteer training, provider support (both technical and monetary assistance) and increase community awareness of literacy issues and needs. Through other grant funding and fundraising efforts, ACLC will be offering comprehensive volunteer training in adult literacy and ESL. These workshops will help develop a database of volunteers available to organizations and individuals who are looking for tutors and tutoring opportunities, respectively. ACLC will support this solution by increasing awareness of the Athens Technical College Adult Education GED classes. Brief Summary of Evidence: The need for adult literacy training is well documented, as are the economic benefits. Economic benefits associated with completion of the GED accrue to dropouts who leave school with very low skills and they tend to appear over time rather than immediately upon receipt of the credential. The economic returns to postsecondary education and training are as large for GED holders as for regular high school graduates, but the 93 Appendix F


tendency persists for GED holders to obtain less postsecondary education or on-the-job training than those who finished high school in a normal progression. ESL training has also been shown to have significant economic benefits. While the overall fiscal impacts of English language instruction have yet to be determined, substantial evidence shows that holding all else constant, increased English ability brings higher earnings, with the greatest benefits accruing to more highly educated immigrants who can make use of specialized training once they have the English skills needed to do so. Citations: McHugh, M., Gelatt, J. & Fix, M. (2007). Adult Language Instruction in the United States: Determining Need and Investing Wisely. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, 24 pp. Mora, M.T. (2003). An Overview of the Economics of Language in the U.S. Labor Market, Presentation Prepared for the American Economic Association Summer Minority Program, University of Colorado at Denver, June 20, 2003. Tyler, J.H. (2003). Economic Benefits of the GED: Lessons From Recent Research, Review of Educational Research, 73, 369-403. Solution Number: 6.2 Goodwill Jumpstart Solution Description: Contributing to community stability through job training and microenterprise opportunities, the Goodwill of North Georgia’s 10 hour Jumpstart class provides in-class and out-of-class opportunities to explore and develop new, untested business ideas. Goodwill’s Athens Career Center Manager will manage the program for 35 adults in the ACC PN. Based on best practices, the Jumpstart class allows the participants to take an introspective look at the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship and their impacts of upon business feasibility. This program creates a training opportunity for those individuals with business ideas who may have difficulty developing their ideas. To date, more than 50% of participants who have gone through Jumpstart have found it necessary to revisit their business idea or have determined that their business may not be feasible at this time. Other outcomes have included enhanced career exploration and job placement. Brief Summary of Evidence: The first Goodwill Microenterprise Program, BusinessNOW, was organized based on the best practices of similar programs that were designed to serve Women Entrepreneurs who were either on or at risk of entering the TANF rolls. In 2000, BusinessNOW received a grant from the Aspen Institute under the FIELD (Fund for Innovative, Effectiveness, Learning and Dissemination) Division. FIELD has been instrumental in researching, identifying, developing and disseminating of best practices in the Microenterprise Industry. An extensive study and data compilation from five of the leading, long term Microenterprise Development organizations supports the theory that microenterprise training services are associated with positive business outcomes for 94 Appendix F


those who complete training. The research indicated that a meaningful number of clients started, expanded, and stabilized their businesses in the months and even years immediately following their training completion. Citations: Edgecomb, E.L. & Klein, J.A. (2005). Opening Opportunities, Building Ownership: Fulfilling the Promise of Microenterprise in the United States. Aspen Institute, Washington, D.C. Schmidt, M.C., Kolodinsky, J.M., Flint, C. & Whitney, B. (2006). The Impact of Microenterprise Development Training on Low-Income Clients, Journal of Extension, 44, 2. Solution Number: 6.3 Affordable Housing Solution Description: Community stability is enhanced by affordable housing options. Two public housing neighborhoods, Jack R. Wells and Rocksprings, are located in the ACC PN. Through a combination of partners, including the Athens Housing Authority (AHA), OneAthens Housing Team, and Habitat for Humanity, housing-related issues in the ACC PN will be addressed. One of the FC-CIS Neighborhood Leaders will serve as a Housing Advocate Specialist who will advocate for affordable housing, collaborate with AHA to address resident concerns, serve on the AHA Inter-Community Council, serve on OneAthens Housing Team, and address neighborhood housing concerns. AHA will also provide training for Neighborhood Leadership Academy related to housing advocacy. In 2012 Habitat for Humanity of Athens will build, at minimum, two new homes in the ACC PN in addition to a number of beautification projects and structural repairs throughout the neighborhood. Habitat's Executive Director serves on the FC-CIS Planning and Implementation Committee and the OneAthens housing team and will align the two efforts. The OneAthens Housing team continues to address supporting efforts to coordinate and increase financial and housing counseling, encourage reuse of troubled and abandoned properties, work on a comprehensive affordable housing study to assess needs, encourage shared equity models for affordable housing development, and foster local government support for affordable housing. As part of the long-term housing goal, AHA is engaged in the early stages of a transformational effort for one of the key public housing neighborhoods in the ACC PN. A “HOPE VI like” strategy is currently planned for the Jack R. Wells community. The present 125 public housing dwelling units would be demolished and replaced with a mixed-income, possibly mixed-use complex. The current number of public housing units would be maintained with several hundred additional tax-credit and market-rate units being added to the existing site. The end product would be market-rate quality for all units and include amenities and resident services not currently possible under the low-rent public housing program. The anticipated investment of federal, tax-credit, and local dollars should exceed $35 million. To assist in making these plans a reality, the AHA has retained the services of a nationally known development consultant – a former 95 Appendix F


HUD Assistant Secretary. With his help, the Authority recently completed a procurement process for the real estate development partner necessary to assist with the tax-credit application and the complex nature of these transactions. Columbia Residential has a proven track record of success and excellence. Their Columbia Parc redevelopment of a troubled, post-Katrina public housing neighborhood in New Orleans has just won awards for “Best Family Development” and “Best Overall Development.” Early resident consultation and design work in Athens is just beginning. Application for tax-credits is planned for the next available cycle in June 2012 with award expected in the fall of 2012. Construction would then begin in the spring of 2013 with occupancy of the first of three planned phases in 2014. The mutually shared goal of both AHA and Columbia Residential is an award winning redevelopment of Jack R. Wells for the benefit of the current public housing residents and the entire Athens-Clarke County community. Summary of Evidence: Since the groundbreaking studies reported in Jenks and Mayer about the ways in which neighborhoods affect their resident children, several studies have attempted to show the effect of neighborhood influence on child development. Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn utilize the quantitative studies of the previous ten years to show that there are three primary mechanisms of neighborhood influence on children and adolescents: institutional resources, relationships within the neighborhood, and norms/collective efficacy. Citations: Jenks, C. & Mayer, S (1990). The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood, in Lynn, L. E. and McGeary, M. (eds) Inner-city Poverty in the United States (111- 118), Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Leventhal, T. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The Neighborhoods They Live In: Effects of Neighborhood Residence on Child and Adolescent Outcomes, Psychological Bulletin, 126[2], 309 - 337. Williamson, O. (2004). Successful Homeownership and Renting through Housing Counseling. Neighborhood Engagement: Solutions 7.1-7.3 Solution Number 7.1: Neighborhood Leadership Solution Description: Beginning in 2012, twenty FC-CIS Neighborhood Leaders will participate in a Neighborhood Leadership Academy (NLA) and receive common training and education in areas such as conflict resolution, mediation, public speaking, cultural competency, inter-personal communication skills, and community advocacy, among others. Trainings will be provided by local partners, including the UGA Fanning Institute, the Georgia Conflict Center, and Mind Body Institute. The Academy will connect training, skills and 96 Appendix F

WIT scs Solutions  

Kaminer, Y. (2001). Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Where Do We Go From Here? Psychiatric Services, 52[2], 147-49. Latimer, W. W.; New...