The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Balochistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. Town-planning: In some of the excavations, the remains of entire cities have been unearthed. From these it is observed that a Harappan city was protected by huge walls built on all sides. The walls had watchtowers at regular distances.
Seals: Square seals or
coins have been found in the excavations at various places. They were made of the powder of a particular white stone. Besides, seals of ivory, clay and metals, too , have been found. These seals bear the pictures of animals and manlike figures. At the top, letters are engraved in a script which has not yet been deciphered. Historians believe that such seals were used in rituals or for trade.
Earthenware: Shapely earthen pots is one of the characteristics of the Harappa civilisation. Several specimens of such earthen pots have been found in excavations. One city on another: At Mohen-Jo-Daro, the remains of cities built one above the other have been found. From those remains it WWW.WISHESH.COM | JANUARY 2017
appears that the original city at the site perhaps got buried due to some reason. After a period of time, another city was built on the same site. Seven such layers of construction have been found at Mohen-jo-daro.
The Great Bath: A huge square bath of 56 meters x 56 meters has been found at Mohen-jo-daro. At its centre there is a tank measuring 12 meters X 7 meters and 2.5 meters in deep. There are steps leading down to the tank. The tank has been built in baked bricks in such a way as would prevent seepage of water. There is also a provision for draining and re-filling the tank from time to time. The Harappan people seem to have given special attention to facilities for cleanliness and hygiene. Their town-planning was systematic. The facilities provided in the Harappan cities clearly indicate that these cities must have had an administrative system which laid down rules of town management and implemented them strictly.