civilization grew out of this cultureâ€™s technological base, as well as its geographic expansion into the alluvial plains of what are now the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in contemporary Pakistan and Northern India. By 4000 BCE, a distinctive, regional culture, called preHarappan, had emerged in this area. (It is called preHarappan because remains of this widespread culture are found in the early strata of Indus civilization cities.) Trade networks linked
this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials, including lapis lazuli and other materials for beadmaking. Villagers had, by this time, domesticated numerous crops, including peas, sesame seeds, dates, and cotton, as well as a wide range of domestic animals, including the water buffalo, an animal that remains essential to intensive agricultural production throughout Asia today.
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