空間発展 RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH
Team Kukan Hatten EARTHQUAKE RESILIENT ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN
1 Sasha London UK Agnieszka Warsaw PL Alaa Alexandria EG
Team Kukan Hatten
Johanna Recife BR
earthquake resilient architecture in Japan
Born in Alexandria - Egypt, 20 years old. Currently a second-year student studying architecture at the Faculty of Engineering Alexandria University and supervising the scientific content of a scientific college student magazine.
Born in Moscow - Russia, 20 years old. I worked as a Sushi chef and a Thai chef for some time but now I work in carpentry making bespoke furniture and kitchens while I prepare to start my first year of Architecture at Westminster University.
Born in Hannover - Germany, 28 years old. In 2003 moved to Recife - Brazil. Graduated from the American School of Recife. In 2010 received a Bachelor degree in International Relations and in 2015 in Architecture.
Born in Zyrardów, near Warsaw - Poland, 25 years old. Graduated from the Warsaw University of Technology with students exchanges at Eindhoven University of Technology in Netherlands and University of Detroit Mercy in US. In 2015 received a Masters degree in Architecture.
THESIS STATEMENT A comparative case study of earthquake resilient vernacular and contemporary built environment in Japan. With focus on analysing earthquake resilience (in geometry, structure, building enclosure and building systems) and the relation to the existing cultural context. As a result of this research we aim to produce an accessible resource detailing the findings of our study to aid future earthquake resilient development worldwide, especially in less developed countries. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK - Study of the general earthquake resilient properties and characteristics of Japanese architecture. The aim of this task is to create a base/template for further case study research. - Each week each member of the team will choose a vernacular or contemporary project which will be analysed in order to understand how earthquake resilient built environment works. The result of weekly research will be presented on Saturday meeting - Gathering all the analysed developments and creating an accessible online database (website), which will aid the research on earthquake resilient architecture.
空間発展 KUKAN HATTEN
Earthquakes in Japan introduction to earthquake resilience
img. 3 - Exceedance probability within 30 years considering all earthquakes (JMA seismic intensity: 6 Lower or more)
img.4 - Japan Tectionic Zone - geographical placement of all tectonic plates around islands of Japan
This research about earthquake resilience in Japan will gather material and examples of those new techniques and methods that are developed and used currently to help future resilient design.
The island of Japan is located in the Pacific Ocean in East Asia and has a population of 126 million people who struggle every year with the consequences of numerous earthquakes. Japan is located in an area where several continental and oceanic plates meet and that is why the island deals with frequent earthquakes and possible tsunami waves. Throughout the past decades Japan suffered three massive earthquakes that killed over 200 thousand people, injured more than 500 thousand, and left thousands of families homeless. Whole cities were devastated and destroyed. In 2011 the strongest ever recorded earthquake hit Japan and triggered a massive tsunami wave along the Pacific Coast, killing thousands of people and serious damages were caused to the nuclear power plant Fukushima. Japan suffers every day from earthquakes and because of that buildings have to be build in a resilient way. The Japanese are adapting and developing new techniques and methods to strengthen their structures, roofs, walls and openings so they could stand impacts caused by earthquakes.
img.7 - Performance objectives under different intensities of earthquake shaking. (From repairable damage under minor shaking to collapse prevention under strong shaking).
In 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake killed 140,000 people in this area. On Tuesday, January 17th 1995, at 5.46 a.m. (local time), an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale struck the Kobe region of south-central Japan. This region is the second most populated and industrialized area after Tokyo, with a total population of about 10 million people. The ground shook for only about 20 seconds but in that short time, over 5,000 people died, over 300,000 people became homeless and damage worth an estimated £100 billion was caused to roads, houses, factories and infrastructure (gas, electric, water, sewerage, phone cables, etc). Many of the older, wooden houses completely collapsed. Fire, triggered by broken gas pipes and sparks from severed electrical cables, caused a huge amount of damage, destroying at least 7,500 wooden homes. Office blocks built in the 1960’s of steel and concrete frequently collapsed in the middle so that a whole floor was crushed img.5
introduction to earthquake resilience but the rooms above and below remained intact. Modern buildings, designed to be earthquake proof, did quite well on the whole and suffered little damage, although some were left standing at an angle when the ground beneath them liquefied. An additional problem for rebuilding was that most people were not covered by insurance due to the difficulties of insuring such an earthquake prone area. Between 3% and 5% of Japan’s industry is located in and around Kobe. This includes most types of industry - from light manufacturing to high-technology and heavy industry. Strong ground movements led to settlement and liquefaction in these areas and damage to industry was severe. This is one of the many earthquakes that took place in Japan and with geographical location near the intersection of the Philippine, Pacific, Eurasian and North American Plates, Japanese people are aware that earthquakes will always be a part of their lives.
Floor plan layout
traditional earthquake resilience In the earthquake prone areas geometry is one of the most important aspects of every building. It is visible in vernacular Japanese architecture where even the most complex geometries are created by stacking simple shapes together. The ancient Japanese architecture (like rectangular takayuka jukyo or circular tateana jukyo) focused on organising all the living space in a single-spatial simple room, because it was the most resilient way to build. When the needs and the way of thinking about the space changed and people started creating more and more complex architectural geometries. Instead of being one structural geometry, they tended to be two or multiple connected but structurally independent spaces. The construction of Japanese buildings spreads out sideways rather than upwards just because it was more resilient to stack a number of simple geometries next to each other. During the earthquake each simple shape will work, vibrate and twist separately and the building has much greater chance to withstand the disaster than a complicated and complex geometry.
img.8 - Buildings should be divided into simple shapes. The space can be separated by seismic gaps, which will allow each building to vibrate and twist separately. This solution leads to minimizing stress concentration in joints.
img.9 - Minka (common people’s house) with two connected but structurally independent buildings omoya and kamaya.
img. 10 - A more complex shape created with stacking of simple shapes on example of Mochitsuki’s House floor plan.
takayuka jukyo in Toro
tateana jukyo in Toro
traditional earthquake resilience Tatami is a type of mat made originally from rice straw and used in vernacular houses in Japan since Muromachi period (though popularized among commoners in the end of 17th century). The uniqueness of interior with flooring from tatami is the way it was designed. In most interior designs the flooring of the room is depending on the floor area, but when it comes to tatami, the size of mats dictates the size of the room. Even though the size of tatamis varies throughout the regions of Japan it is always in aspect ratio 2:1 and in traditional Japanese measurement units 1 ken by a half ken or 6 shaku by 3 shaku (around 1.8m x 0.9 m). Because most of the vernacular Japanese rooms are designed around tatami mats, it is not unusual that room floor areas were measured by the number of tatami mats - 畳, which in traditional Japanese measurement units is translated to one tsubo (equals two tatami mats, which is a square). The interesting aspect of tatami mats is the way they join together. The junction of T shape is considered superior over a cross junctions, which is said to bring bad fortune over the household.
img.15 - Different tatami layout depending of the need of the space in the room. Characteristic T-shape junctions. img.17
img.16 - Each mat had a designated function e.g. entrance mat. img.18
traditional earthquake resilience
img. 22 - Horyu-ji pagoda section
img. 21 - Fulcrum joint and balancing toy principle each story moves independently during the earthquake which negates the destructive forces.
img. 23 - swaying effect and ‘shinbashira’
Horyu-ji pagoda is one of five-story wooden pagodas in the Nara prefecture, near Kobe. Even though it was built in 609 in the earthquake prone area, it is still standing and no major damage had occurred to it during any disasters that happened since the pagoda was erected. It is possible thanks to four structural properties: 1. Material - Every structural part of the pagoda is made out of wood. When wood is under pressure it bends but does not break easily. It is a flexible material, which can easily absorb seismic stresses. 2. Fastening - The wooden beams and columns are fastened together without a nail, but by carved joints. When the ground starts to shake, the wooden elements are rubbing against each other, which prevents the force to go up the tower. 3. Structural layers - Each story of the pagoda works independently. 4. Swaying effect - Introducing ‘shinbashira’, a cylindrical column in the middle stabilizes the structure. During the earthquake second story moves to the right, while third to the left. This snake-type movement negates earthquake forces and protects the pagoda.
traditional earthquake resilience
The traditional Japanese roofs have very interesting and complicated design. They are well known from their complex form and huge mass comparing to the rest of building. There is a number of characteristics that are connecting all vernacular Japanese roofs, sheltering space from rain, snow, wind and sun, maintaining the temperature indoors and most importantly providing good air flow in the interior. The most important factor in the Japanese interior is taking care of comfort of all inhabitants. Providing good air flow and shade, in hot and humid climate, is sometimes more important than protecting the structure from earthquakes. The materials of vernacular roofs differ, from thatch and shingle in farmhouses (minkas) to tiles in urban settlements (machiyas), but the form and structure of the roof is always design in the way to maintain a good comfortable climate in the indoors.
traditional earthquake resilience In traditional architecture Japanese walls are usually created in a way to allow as much comfort as possible, to regulate the humidity, heat and light levels. The exterior walls are usually thin concrete, panels or sometimes even shoji. Shoji can be a door, window or a room divider; they are often comprised of thin wood wrapped in washi or modern printed paper, and sometimes even plastic. The thin panel of ply usually holds together a wooden lattice. The grain of the wood is an important part of the Japanese design. They are often able to slide to allow a customizable space, and having a sliding door takes up considerably less space than a swinging door. In nearly all the residential houses openings were designed to give as much flexibility and choice to inhabitants as possible. They could decide if they want more or less sun in the interior or if they want to create a soothing draft to create a nice indoor climate. Shoji panels enabled this kind of flexibility. However using light structure to support huge openings for shoji panels isn’t the most resilient solution in earthquake prone areas. Japanese people accepted the impermanence of built homes and valued more comfortable conditions indoors than safety.
img.28 - Example of flexible shoji windows and doors in traditional townhouse (machiya).
traditional earthquake resilience The Japanese often built a small “kura” house or storehouse that can be used to house valuables in the event of an earthquake or typhoon. It is usually built of many layers of clay and sand covering the wood. This principle really moves away from the traditional joinery of Japanese architecture. NAMAKO-KABE. The traditional “kura” storehouses often have namako-kabe design. These are wide white joints on usually black slate. They are usually much stronger and the tiled exterior provides protection from fires. They are often slightly rounded at the top to remind people of the sea cucumber, namako.There are multiple types of geometries used, predominantly the shihanbari (pictured) which allows water to run off easily. Alternatively umanori meji is the pattern with lines running parallel and perpendicular to the ground. Some “kura” were still constructed out of wood such as the azekura and board-wall kura, however, these required stricter rules such as distance from other buildings.
img.34 - Little openings in massive structure of kura storehouse. The interior is tightly sealed from exterior.
SHOSHOIN. Built in the traditional azekura log-cabin style with a raised takayuka-shiki floor it is the oldest surviving building of its type. The critical feature is that the logs are triangular in cross section allowing air to pass during the autumn and winter months. Then during the summer and rainy autumn seasons the wood swells up closing the gaps, meaning that it is able to keep the moisture out. It is located in a Buddhist temple complex and houses many of the relics moved from other buildings that have been destroyed by earthquakes over the years. The lack of nails and joints that can move about freely have played a large role in allowing this building to remain standing through the years.
Japanese people accepted the impermanence of built homes. They developed a house typology: typhoon and earthquake-proof storehouse, kura. The structure of this house is a complete opposite to shoji panels. The openings are small to shelter as tightly as possible all the valuable goods and families in case of approaching disaster. img.37
img.41 - Logo of Mottainai Philosophy, philosophy of respect to all the waste human beings are creating.
traditional earthquake resilience Mottainai means in Japanese “what a waste” and describes a feeling of regret after wasted resource. img.38
img.42 - Schemes showing the most important aspect of Mottainai Philosophy - 3R rule: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle with Respect to it.
In Japan, intensive industrialization in the 1950s and 1960s had led to a series of environmental crises, which prompted the government and industry to adopt preventive and remedial measures to improve its management of industrial waste. Construction and demolition waste is the waste materials that are produced in the process of construction, renovation or demolition of residential or non-residential structures. Construction industry produces large amount of waste throughout the year. Most of the time construction and demolition waste ends up in landfills disturbing environmental, economical and social life cycle. Process of recycling construction and demolition waste includes storage, sorting, collection, transportation, recycling and disposing. Recycling methods used in Japan are heating and rubbing methods, eccentric-shaft rotor method and mechanical grinding method.
traditional earthquake resilience
Machiya Townhouse in Kyoto 町家 - plan img.46 - Natural cross-ventilation scheme in a traditional Japanese townhouse - machiya.
- long corridor supporting airflow
- inner courtyard img.43
img.47 - Sketch of the interior of machiya house showing the two-story high tori-niwa (long corridor, which is supporting airflow through the building).
MACHIYA TOWNHOUSES IN KYOTO. Vernacular Japanese buildings were designed so air can naturally flow through the interior space. Nearly all vernacular examples of Japanese architecture share the concern about air control inside of the building, but there is one particular example which shows this approach the best - machiya 町家 (typical townhouse in Kyoto). Machiyas were designed to allow the air to flow through all of the first floor, which kept the building really cool during the humid Japanese summers in a really dense urban setting. To sustain the airflow through the houses Japanese proposed a long corridor, tori-niwa 通り庭, stretching from the front to the back of the house. This solutions creates a cross ventilation which supports air flow in the building and makes the interior really cool during the hot summers. Additionally to maintain air flow inside, the townhouses had an inner courtyard - tsubo-niwa, which allowed the air to exit the building. Tsubo-niwas are not only a perfect way to maintain comfortable conditions inside of the building but also a great solution to provide light to the interiors and connects the inhabitants with environment and nature.
Aso Farm Village
img.48 - Scheme of stress concentration in a hemispherical shape during an earthquake. img.49 - STEP BY STEP scheme on how to build a styrofoam dome structure.
contemporary earthquake resilience Aso Farm Land was opened in 1995 as a full-scale health facility near an active volcano Mount Aso. The Aso Farm Village was designed to help people with rebuilding their health through a number of facilities within the village. For example there is a hot spring with open air-spa. There is also Ganki no Mori (Forest of Vitality) with around 40 interactive equipments to play. The most interesting aspect of the Aso Farm Land project is the shape of the houses. Even though it may seem extraordinary for Japanese culture and architecture, the hemispherical shape is not uncommon in vernacular architecture e.g. ancient pit dwellings, tateana jokyo in Toro, Shizuoka prefecture. The shape of the dome proved to be resilient in case of an earthquake because of the stress concentration. STRESS CONCENTRATION. Domes distribute forces in all directions naturally, and thus the design is much better at dissipating energy. Most of the mass of a dome is low and this lower center of gravity reduces the chance of a collapse.
img.50 step 1 - In-situ circular concrete foundation.
step 2 - Fabricated Airform in proper size.
step 3 - Filling the Airform with steel rebar.
step 4 - Application of shortcrete on structure.
step 5 - Polyurethane foam applied to interior.
Sendai Mediatheque contemporary earthquake resilience The library consists of three main elements: tubes, pipes and skin. The lattice tubes were assembled floor by floor and stabilise the building from lateral force as well as bear the gravitational force of the building. A honeycomb iron frame is connected through T-sections to these tubes, it reinforces the plates removing the need for beams and allowing to reduce the thickness of the floors. The skin is comprised of glass, stainless steel and aluminium. Non-combustible wood and shatter resistant frames help keep the envelope flexible and reduce the damage to a minimum. In 2011 the library sustained a magnitude 9 (Mw) earthquake with little damage. The roof collapsed and some glass broke on the 7th floor however the building remained mostly intact with no casualties.
img.59 - ‘shinbashira’ in Tokyo Skytree
東京スカイツリ Tokyo Skytree
contemporary earthquake resilience
shinbashira - a cylindrical column used in traditional Japanese pagodas to help withstand earthquakes. img.57
After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, Tokyo Skytree took no structural damage, even though the epicenter of the earthquake was around 350 km away. Originally the tower was designed to withstand a metropolitan epicentre type earthquake and in addition a catastrophic storm with velocity to 80 m/s (can be encountered once in 500 years). The structure of this skyscraper is inspired by traditional Japanese five-story pagoda temples, which have never fallen down because of earthquakes. It uses the concept of ‘shinbashira’, a column built in the centre of the temple which is controlling vibrations during earthquakes. Skytree’s shinbashira is a reinforced concrete cylinder and contains a staircase. The shinbashira is surrounded by a steel truss structure, the primary resistance to earthquake. The foundations of the Tokyo Skytree were cast-in-situ wall piles and can resist dangerous forces during earthquakes and typhoons. The whole system reduces the earthquake loads by up to 40%.
Apple Towers Sendai contemporary earthquake resilience
seismic isolation - the laminated rubber bearing and sliding seismic isolator are main structural elements in Apple Towers structure. img.61 building without seismic isolation img.64
building with seismic isolation
The negative impact of earthquake is not visible only after a building collapsed. Earthquakes can also make furniture and non-structural inner walls falling and flying around being a threat to every person in the building. The extensive research on seismic isolation is conducted worldwise to mitigate this danger. The idea behind seismic foundation is that the main structure of the building is separated from base foundation, so that building itself will not be affected by earthquake shaking. Seismic isolations consists of two types of bearings, which are supporting the whole structure of the building. The first is a laminated rubber bearing, made out of layers of rubber and steel plate, which sways from left to right to isolate the building from ground shaking. When shaking intensifies the sliding seismic isolator absorbs the tremors. The Apple Towers in Sendai is a perfect example of that solution. Developer of the 30-story Apple Towers say that during an earthquake not a lot of objects fall over in the building.
Azuma House in Osaka contemporary earthquake resilience Modern japanese architecture takes a slightly different approach with a more minimalistic style. The building envelope has a simplified shape with an almost constructivist touch to it. Concrete is often used to create thick resistant walls, however glass is still a very important aspect of the design to let in light and air and to maintain the tradition of sliding doors and divisions. To comply with the ever rising building standards buildings now often have beams, pillars and thicker walls. However, this is more suitable to low rise buildings as it can suffer damage over the course of multiple earthquakes and it is recommended to use damping and isolation systems for high rise buildings. It seems like modern Japanese solutions took the resilience of earthquake-proof kuras (storehouses) and implemented it to the exterior walls, while interior walls are following the philosophy of flexible and open shoji.
img.66 - Cross-section of Azuma Home in Osaka by Tadao Ando. Showing the structure of the concrete minimalistic walls, the roof and the main inner courtyard.
The philosophy of roofs in modern Japanese townhouses changed because of rising prices of land in big cities. In modern Tokyo or Osaka inhabitants can’t afford to maintain a massive structure of the traditional roof and in most cases they want to add another function to the roof. The vernacular properties of maintaining airflow and comfortable conditions in contemporary flat roofs had to be achieved in different way. Most popular solution is introducing small courtyards and skylights that are the main source of light in the interiors and are supporting airflow inside of the house. Average Japanese person living in a city cannot afford to lose valuable and expensive space for a massive roof structure. The main function of the roof shifted from being a sheltering thermal mass to being a fifth facade, in most cases a terrace.
Townhouses and Skyscrapers contemporary earthquake resilience The use of windows in contemporary Japanese houses didn’t change its primary functions to provide light, ventilation and frame an interesting and valuable view outside. The modern changes in thinking about the exterior wall and the threat of earthquakes in most of big cities of Japan led to losing the flexibility of openings of shoji. In presented case studies the windows - frames are predesigned by an architect and inhabitants have no chance to change the view like they had in traditional Japanese shoji houses. On the other hand the more sturdy walls with smaller and set openings makes the whole structure more resilient and just safer. The Japanese philosophy of flexibility in architecture had to be translated more in the interiors rather than the exteriors. Moreover, in the minimalistic design of the modern facades openings are an important statement and each opening is a result of a number of functional and contextual analyses.
img.70 - Facade of the Room Room House in Tokyo by Takeshi Hosaka.
YOKOHAMA LANDMARK TOWER. Its 392,885 square meters of floor space over 70 floors up into the sky and 3 floors down into the basement include shops, restaurants, and offices. The true appeal, however, is the Sky Garden, a 360-degree observation deck on the building’s 69th floor. FACADE. The final configuration fused several details from Japanese culture into the granite cladding and overall form of the building. First was the azekura characteristic of the tower. Azekura was a style of Japanese architecture dating from 7th century, known for its precise jointing and chamfering of wood. The chiseled appearance of the tower, particularly in the edges defining the four mega columns and the strong horizontal lines, borrowed from the joint details of this architectural style. WINDOWS. Another cultural feature of the tower resides in the dark horizontal windows, mirroring the boxwood combs used by Japanese women.
img.77 - Omotenashi House is designed to be self-sufficient house incorporating technology and traditional Japanese thinking. Students from Chiba University created a low-carbon house which can be used as a post-earthquake solution.
Omotenashi House - passive energy
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
Given the not so distant Fukushima disaster, coupled with a drone carrying radioactive traces landing on the prime minister’s office, Japan is not yet ready to invest in nuclear energy again. Hence looking at alternate sources is very important, there have been advances in solar, wind and tidal energies and Japan hopes to increase it’s energy production from the 2010 levels of 2.96 Gw to 19.6 Gw by 2030. During an emergency or disaster however if there is damage to the grid it is important for resilient shelters to require the smallest amounts of energy possible. Most modern Japanese energy needs are for air conditioning due to the long summers and humid climate. To provide people cool and comfortable spaces the shelters can put features resembling blinds on the outside of the building rather than inside, this will not only create ambient light levels but if the heat is stopped before passing into the building, it is then not subjected
PASSIVE ENERGY contemporary earthquake resilience to the greenhouse effect and you do not need to cool the buildings. As for humidity untreated materials such as clay and timber will absorb and release moisture easily thus reducing humidity in the space. In the aftermath of an earthquake it might not be safe of plausible to start a fire, however something like a thermal solar collector can heat the water as well as be created from recycled materials to reduce waste. The beauty of a thermal solar collector is that even a low cost one is still as efficient as an expensive one and therefore is applicable during a crisis such as this. REDUCING DAMAGE. The PEER centre in California has developed a series of components to try and reduce the damage caused by earthquakes. For example the flexible strap conductor could potentially bend but not break, it would also reduce the force acting on the conductor bushings which are often built from ceramics and are therefore very susceptible to force.
水 | 無駄
WATER AND WASTE contemporary earthquake resilience
Kubota Pipe System - flexiblity
WATER. Japan has, on average, 1,668mm of precipitation a year. While this is considerably more than in a lot of other countries, the river’s steep gradients, short length along with long hot summers, means that a lot of the water is lost into the ocean before it can be used efficiently. Japan currently has a number of systems for grey water recycling which work on the individual level within one house, a wide area circulation type where grey water treatment plants process and redistribute water in a city. There is also a non-circulation type system which gathers rainwater for the untreated flushing of toilets. KUBOTA PIPE SYSTEM. During an earthquake it is important to maintain access and cleanliness in regards to water. So for the last 40 years the Kubota Corporation has been developing an earthquake resistant pipe system which has a wider and longer bell than standard pipes and a thinner spout that sits in it, therefore allowing the pipeline to move with the earthquake without breaking the circuit or sprouting leaks. Closer to the homes, there is a device that is able to sense the pressure in the pipes, and if the line is damaged the drop in pressure will cause the valve to shut off the supply preventing contamination of the supply. Whilst Japan has earthquake resistant water tanks-made from glass-fibres, they are the last stand of defense for a lot of people.
WASTE. In 2008 the Japanese Governement focused on developing recycling policies which would led to reduce of waste from 52 milion tons to 50 milion tons. Moreover, they stressed the importance of waste recycling and suggested the rate improvement from 20 to 25% by 2012. Waste is classified into two categories in Japan: municipal and industrial. The disposal of municipal wastes is the responsibility of the municipalities. The disposal of industrial wastes is the responsibility of the entities that generate the wastes. 3R INITIATIVE. To reduce, reuse and recycle was first used on G8 Summit in Kobe, where the Japanese Government agreed on implementing Kobe 3R Action plan to help improving resource and waste management. TOKYO SUPER ECO TOWN PROJECT. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government launched Super Eco Town Project in Tokyo to stimulate the development of sustainable waste industries. They designated an area in Tokyo to be a place for all the recycling and waste treatment facilities, for example: construction and demolition waste, e-waste or food waste. TMG came up with an idea to control waste around Tokyo by tracing every waste with IC tags. This system is promoting legal waste disposal and reminding citizens of Tokyo how important is proper waste management.
Team Kukan Hatten earthquake resilient architecture in Japan
PERSONAL SUMMARY - ALAA As we saw throughout the research Japan suffers everyday from earthquakes, some of them having enormous dangers. Since we knew that most people don’t die from the earthquake itself but from the destroyment of the buildings, buildings had to be built in a resilient way. That was the aim of our research, a study of earthquake resilient vernacular and contemporary built environment in Japan, also analysing earthquake resilience (in geometry, structure, building enclosure and building systems)with the relation of the buildings to the cultural context. We analysed vernacular buildings like traditional tatami houses and pagoda, but also contemporary buildings like Tokyo Skytree, Yokohama Landmark Tower or Sendai Mediatheque. Observing how both traditional and modern architecture responds to earthquakes helped us to udnerstand the principles of designing resilient architecture.
PERSONAL SUMMARY - JOHANNA Throughout the research we compared vernacular Japanese buildings with contemporary resilient architecture. We saw that even though the architecture and material changed due to the effects of earthquakes in Japan, the traditional values of comfort by, for example, light, ventilation, floor plants and openings were maintained in the modern buildings. The main difference between vernacular and modern buildings is the structure that in the current days is more secure. Instead of using thin concrete walls and wood the walls are made of thick concrete and steel. The geometry used in the past and today is very similar, the only difference is that new techniques that are being implemented in skyscrapers, such as damper systems or seismic isolations allow the save construction of resilient mega constructions. One can say due to this research that the Japanese architecture learned a lot from the past devastation and is developing towards great innovation and safety.
PERSONAL SUMMARY - SASHA By researching the contemporary and vernacular examples of building in Japan we have been able to create a comprehensible study of some of the systems utilized in Japan. Given Japan’s investment and experience in dealing with earthquakes it has been a goldmine of information. By focusing on certain low-cost examples we have been able to find the principles that protect structures in Japan, and could potentially work in other less economically developed countries. Through this project time and time again the key principle has been prevention and not response which should be an important aspect to anyone undertaking a project in dealing with earthquakes. While the Japanese culture is very disciplined and particular it has been a great contrast to western architecture. Instead of trying to defy nature and reclaim the land, the Japanese try to integrate their life into the world around them. I believe that in particular skeleton & infill systems should be explored more widely and their function can be adjusted for other locations around the world. This would ensure reliability and cost-effectiveness of the construction in affected areas.
resilience as structure and infill theory (diagrams by N. John Habraken)
PERSONAL SUMMARY - AGNIESZKA Investigating the traditional and contemporary examples of resilient architecture of Japan has let us to create a story of how people and their architecture tackled the problems connected with frequent earthquakes. The method we have chosen, analysis of various case studies, introduced to us not only examples of buildings that are resilient in the face of an earthquake but also indigenous concepts and ways of thinking of people that are born and raised with a feeling of architectural impermanence. By comparing each week traditional and contemporary solutions we could track a specific mindset that was visible through buildings and its geometry, structure, enclosure and systems. The notion that I found the most important is the ability of a building or structure to work with the earthquake not against it. In traditional pagodas we could observe five stories working completely seperately when the ground is shaking. The same flexiblity and adaptability applied to the simple plans connected with seismic gaps. They were designed to let the building respond to the earthquake. This way of thinking I am hoping to translate into resilient housing solutions. What is more, by analyzing and understanding Japanese approach to the earthquake resilient architecture we have been able to create a small database of examples, which could be later on translated to other very different contexts, countries or places.
resilience in flexibility and adaptability
Team Kukan Hatten earthquake resilient architecture in Japan
Kenzo Tange - A Plan for Tokyo 1960
REFERENCES [ CHAPTER 1 ]
_Daiwa House. Construction Using Earthquake-Resistant D-ROT Metal Fixtures. Available on the Internet: <http://www.daiwahouse.co.jp/lab/ en/tec26.html> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _Domes for the World. The Dome. Available on the Internet: <http://www.dftw.org/domes> Accessed: 27 March 2015. Monolithic Dome Institute. Available on the Internet: <http://www.monolithic.org/> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _Facts and details. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS AND HOMES IN JAPAN. Available on the Internet: <http://factsanddetails.com/ japan/cat26/sub160/item2285.html > Accessed: 27 March 2015. _Facts and details. JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE: WOOD, EARTHQUAKES, TEA ROOMS AND TRADITIONAL HOMES. _GBE – Green Building Elements. Building Earthquake Resistant Buildings is Best for the Environment and the People. Available on the Internet: <http://greenbuildingelements.com/2011/02/24/building-earthquake-resistant-buildings -is-best-for-the-environment-and-the-people/> Accessed: 27 March 2015. Available on the Internet: <http://factsanddetails.com/japan/cat20/sub129/item687.html> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _JNTO. Japan National Tourism Organization. Japan. The Official Guide – Traditional Culture – Architecture. Available on the Internet: <http:// www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/cultural/experience/a.html> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering. Available on the Internet: <http://www.nicee.org/EQTips.php> _nisee National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering. University of California, Berkeley. Response of - Traditional Wooden Japanese Construction. Stephen Tobriner. Available on the Internet: <http://nisee.berkeley.edu/kobe/tobriner.html> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _Wikipedia - Nara Period. Available on the Internet: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nara_period> Accessed: 27 March 2015. _Wikipedia - Tō. Available on the Internet: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C5%8D> Accessed: 27 March 2015.
[ CHAPTER 2 ]
_N. Kani, M. Takayama and A. Wada. Performance of Seismically Isolated Buildings in Japan. Observed records and vibration perception by people in buildings with seismic isolation. _D.C. Wong - Hōryū-ji Reconsidered. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, May 2008. _AIR断震システム. Available on the Internet: <http://www.airdanshin.jp/danshin/> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _ARCHDAILY. Video: Experiencing the Japan Earthquake from the Sendai Mediatheque. Available on the Internet: <http://www.archdaily. com/120114/video-experiencing-the-japan-earthquake-from-the-sendai-mediatheque/> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _ASME. Setting the Standard. Made in Japan: Earthquake-Proof Homes. Available on the Internet: <https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/ articles/construction-and-building/made-in-japan-earthquake-proof-homes> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _gizmag. Secrets of the Sky Tree: Quake-proofing the world’s second tallest structure. Available on the Internet: <http://www.gizmag.com/tokyosky-tree/21682/> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _HUXTABLE, Ada Louise Wall Street Journal. Available on the Internet: <http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703859304576305 243667119026> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _Infill Systems.Available on the Internet: < http://infillsystemsus.com/about-open-building> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _JNTO. Japan: the Official Guide. Japan National Tourism Organization. Available on the Internet: <http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/>. Accessed: 03 April 2015. _MỘT GÓC NHÌN KẾT CẤU - Trang thông tin của Trần Tuấn Nam – Đại học Kiến Trúc TP HCM. Tokyo Skytree. Available on the Internet: <https:// trantuannam.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/tokyo-sky-tree/> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _NIPPONA. Five-story Pagodas: Why Can’t Earthquakes Knock Them Down? Wisdom from the Distant Past. Available on the Internet: <http:// web-japan.org/nipponia/nipponia33/en/topic/>, Accessed: 03 April 2015. _Takenaka Corporation, DEVELOPMENT OF ELEMENT TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORTING SKELETON/SUPPORT INFILL HOUSE. Available on the Internet: < http://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB4013.pdf> Accessed: 03 April 2015. _Trends in Japan. JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE AND SEISMIC ISOLATION TECHNOLOGIES. Available on the Internet: <http:// web-japan.org/trends/11_sci-tech/sci110728.html>. Accessed: 03 April 2015. _Wikipedia - Tokyo Skytree. Available on the Internet: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo_Skytree> Accessed: 03 April 2015.
[ CHAPTER 3 ]
_P. Discoe, A. Quinn. Zen Architecture: The Building Process as Practice, Leyton 2008.
To conclude our research we point out in our thesis statement that comparing earthquake resilient vernacular and contemporary built environment in Japan (in geometry, structure, building enclosure and building systems) and the relation to the existing cultural context had the goal to produce an accessible resource detailing the findings of our study to aid future earthquake resilient development worldwide, especially in the less developed countries. While researching we found many contemporary and modern examples that can be used in areas that suffer from earthquakes and their consequences. We discovered that from a simple geometrical context, buildings should be divided into simple shapes to minimize stress concentration in joints. Moreover, there is a number of traditional structural solutions that can be translated to the contemporary architecture, like shinbashira. What is most important is to understand the adaptable mindset of a community living in earthquake-prone areas. To design the resilient housing we have to respond to earthquakes by applying flexible and adaptable structures, which can easily work with strong forces.
_M.Ali, K.S. Moon. Structural Development in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects, June 2007. _AD Classics: White U / Toyo Ito. Available on the Internet: <http://www.archdaily.com/345857/ad-classics-white-u-toyo-ito/> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Japanese Houses. Available on the Internet: < http://www.house-design-coffee.com/japan-houses.html> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _JNTO. Japan: the Official Guide. Japan National Tourism Organization. Available on the Internet: <http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/cultural/experience/a.html> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Roof Typology and Composition in Traditional Japanese Architecture. Available on the Internet: <http://www.academia.edu/8291977/Roof_Typology_and_Composition_in_Traditional_Japanese_Architecture> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Room Room by Takeshi Hosaka. Available on the Internet: <http://www.dezeen.com/2011/09/28/room-room-by-takeshihosaka/> Accessed: 10 Aparil 2015. _Shakti Shoji. Panel Styles. Available on the Internet: < http://www.shaktishoji.com/panel_styles.htm> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Shoji Interior. Available on the Internet: < http://jennykallis.com/> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Shoji. Available on the Internet: < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sh%C5%8Dji> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _The Landmark Tower Yokohama Office Floor. Outline of Architecture. Available on the Internet: <http://www.yokohama-landmark.jp/office_en/outline/ index.html> Accessed: 10 April 2015. _Wikipedia. Namako-kabe. Available on the Internet: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namako_wall> Accessed: 10 April 2015.
[ CHAPTER 4 ]
_C. Angen. Concept and Technique: How Traditional Japanese Architecture can contribute to Contemporary Sustainable Design Practices. Environmental Studies Honors Papers. Paper 10, 2013. _H. Liddell. Eco-Minimalism the antidote to eco-bling. 2nd Edition Riba Publishing, 2013 _Aiming for Water Conservation-Conscious City: Fukuoka City. Available on the Internet: <http://apcs.city.fukuoka.lg.jp/en/news/series1.pdf> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _CleanBiz.Asia. Japan puts forward strategy to eliminate nuclear power by 2030. Available on the Internet: <http://www.cleanbiz.asia/news/japan-puts-forward-strategy-eliminate-nuclear-power-2030> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _CONTRAHABIT. Azuma Row House by Tadao Ando | Designing Architecture to Purposefully Make People Feel uNCoMfoRTabLE. Available on the Internet: <https://contrahabit.wordpress.com/2011/11/09/azuma-row-house-by-tadao-ando-designing-architecture-to-purposefully-make-people-feel-uncomfortable/> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _dezeen magazine. Still by Apollo Architects & Associates. Available on the Internet: <http://www.dezeen.com/2013/03/08/still-japanese-courtyard-house-apollo-architects-associates/> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _Ecology Global Network. From Energy-Saving Architecture to Energy Self-Sufficient Architecture: History of Energy Saving Architecture in Japan. Available on the Internet: <http://www.ecology.com/2014/10/01/history-energy-saving-architecture-japan/> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _LADWP Tests Japanese Earthquake Resistant Pipes. Avaiable on the Internet: <http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/LADWP-Tests-Japanese-Earthquake-Resistant-Water-Pipes-282532721.html> Accessed: 18 April 2015 _New Scientist Tech. Is night falling on classic solar panels? Availble on the Interent: <http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20827915.000-is-nightfalling-on-classic-solar-panels.html> Accessed: 18 April 2015 _Sekisui Aqua Systems CO., LTD. Earthquake Resistant Tanks. Available on the Internet: <https://www.sekisuia.co.jp/english/tanks/tanks/earthquake_resistant.html> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _SSRN - Social Science Research Network. Recycling and Reuse of Construction and Demolition Waste for Sustainable Development. Available on the Internet: <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2383436> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _STILL (Yotsukaido city chiba). Satoshi Kurosaki APOLLO Architects & Associates. Available on the Internet: <http://www.kurosakisatoshi.com/english/architecture/2012/still/index.html> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _University of Florida. IFAS Extension. Preparing and Storing an Emergency Safe Drinking Water Supply. Available on the Internet: <http://edis.ifas. ufl.edu/ss439> Accessed: 18 April 2015 _Waste Management. Available on the Internet: <http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/japan/Waste_Management.pdf> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _Waste Management in Tokyo. Available on the Internet: <https://www.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/en/attachement/waste_management.pdf> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _WMW. Waste Management World. UNEP Report - Industrial Waste Management Lessons from Japan. Available on the Internet: <http://www. waste-management-world.com/articles/2014/03/unep-report-industrial-waste-management-lessons-from-japan.html> Accessed: 18 April 2015. _Waste Water management systems http://www.chubu.meti.go.jp/kankyo/data/fuji_english.pdf Accessed April 2015
IMAGES INDEX _TITLE PAGE - silive.com. Japan earthquake experts lift tsunami warning. A Buddhist monk Sokan Obara, 28, from Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, prays for the victims in the debris in the area devastated by the March 11 tsunami in Ofunato, Iwate Prefecture, Japan, Thursday, April 7, 2011. Hours later another powerful earthquake hit near the devastated city of Sendai, briefly raising fears of another tsunami. (AP Photo/Lee Jinman). Available on the Internet: < http://media.silive.com/advance/photo/2011/04/japan-earthquake-prayer-2a40912f92b25fba.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img.1 - World Vision Australia. Japan Earthquake & Tsunami 2011. A man surveys the damage and destruction caused by the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan on 11 March, 2011. Reuters/Toru Hanai, courtesy Trust.org - AlertNet. Available on the Internet: < http://www.worldvision. com.au/Libraries/Japan_earthquake_2011/JapanDestruction_3_1200.jpg>, Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.2 - World Vision Australia. Japan Earthquake & Tsunami 2011. A man surveys the damage and destruction caused by the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan on 11 March, 2011. Reuters/Toru Hanai, courtesy Trust.org - AlertNet. Available on the Internet: < http://www.worldvision. com.au/Libraries/Japan_earthquake_2011/JapanDestruction_3_1200.jpg>, Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.3 - J-SHIS. Japan Seismic Hazard Information Station. Exceedance probability within 30 years considering all earthquakes (JMA seismic intensity: 6 Lower or more; average case; period starting Jan. 2010). Available on the Internet: < http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en/wp-content/ uploads/2012/02/tme-total-y30-s55-sui-p0.png> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.4 - Montessori Muddle. L.Urbano. Plate Tectonics and the Earthquake in Japan. Available on the Internet: <http://montessorimuddle.org/ wp-content/uploads/2011/03/japan-plates.png> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.5 - Earthquakes - Accounts of experiences. Available on the Internet: < http://twisterrob.uw.hu/peq/images/kobehid.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.6 - Wikipedia. Great Hanshin earthquake. Immediately before the collapse of the Kashiwai building. Available on the Internet: < http:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Hanshin-Awaji_earthquake_1995_Kashiwai-building_001.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015 _img.7 - The Constructor. Civil Engineering Home. SEISMIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR BUILDINGS. Figure 1: Performance objectives under different intensities of earthquake shaking – seeking low repairable damage under minor shaking and collapse-prevention under strong shaking. Available on the Internet: < http://theconstructor.org/structural-engg/seismic-design-philosophy-for-buildings/2781/> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img.8 - A.Chaudhuri, A.S. Dogra, K.R. Balasu, H.Nelli, R.Samaddar and R.Rathore. Low Rise Earthquake Resistant Buildings. Geometrical Asymmetry - Bulding Joint. Slide 7. _img.9 - A. Higashino. Roof Typology and Composition in Traditional Japanese Architecture. Figure 51. Bunto-zukuri, ways of connecting the omoya and kamaya. Two structurally independent buildings with eaves touching and a connecting corridor, p.36. (Kawashima, Chuji, 1990, p166) _img.10 - A. Higashino. Roof Typology and Composition in Traditional Japanese Architecture. Figure 54. Kamayadatte, Mochitsuki’s House Aichi Prefecture, p.38. _img.11 - GAHTC. Global Architectural History Teaching Collaborative. Reconstructed ancient rice storehouse, Toro, Shizuoka, Japan. Available on the Internet: < http://gahtc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/RiceHouseToroJapan1.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.12 - Wikipedia. Kura (storehouse). Kenchikuben. Log cabin style kura in Nara. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Log_cabin_kura.JPG> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.13 - Japan Navigator. Ancient Rice Paddies - Toro Ruins and Museum, Shizuoka (Museums). Model of a Yayoi hut in Toro Park.Photo © Ad Blankestijn. Available on the Internet: < http://farm7.static.flickr.com/6003/5972453286_4253649974.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.14 - Wikipedia Commons. Goju-no-to Pagoda, Miyajim. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/ Goju-no-to_Pagoda,_Miyajima.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.15 - Tatami by Wabi Sabi. Fitting Tatami. Available on the Internet: < http://tatamiuk.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/tatami-layout.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.16 - JNTO. Japan: the Official Guide. Japan National Tourism Organization. Tea Ceremony. Available on the Internet: < http://www.jnto. go.jp/eng/indepth/cultural/experience/img/f_03.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.17 - Deep Japan. Real Experienc to Enrich Your Travel. Teach me about Japanese tatami floor mats. Tatami smells good !!! Available on the Internet: < http://cdn.deepjapan.org/content/images/.user/_image_2_e0cfsA1377616775400.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.18 - Wikipedia. Tatami. 663highland. Youkoukan Garden, Fukui, Fukui prefecture, Japan. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Youkoukan06n4592.jpg/1280px-Youkoukan06n4592.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.19 - Wikipedia. Tatami. Daderot. Men Making Tatami Mats, 1860 - ca. 1900. Available on the Internet: <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Men_Making_Tatami_Mats%2C_1860_-_ca._1900.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img.20 - Wikipedia. Horyu-ji. 663highland. Golden Hall and Five-storied Pagoda of Horyu-ji. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/Horyu-ji11s3200.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.21 - NIPPONIA No.33 June 15, 2005. Five-story Pagodas: Why Can’t Earthquakes Knock Them Down? Wisdom from the Distant Past. Available on the Internet: < http://web-japan.org/nipponia/nipponia33/en/images/23_2.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.22 - JNTO. Japan: the Official Guide. Japan National Tourism Organization. Available on the Internet: < http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/ cultural/experience/img/e_04.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.23 - Japanese Reader. Hiragana, Katakana, Kanji - Japanese Names Dictionary. shinbashira. Available on the Internet: <http://pedpa. co.jp/library/img/tower-10.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.24 - Reyzen. Awesome Japanese Modern Three Floors House Traditional Tatami Plans. Available on the Internet: <http://www.tagzzy. com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/awesome-traditional-japanese-house-design-with-sloping-ceiling-wooden-wall-and-pillar-outdoor-gardenand-stone-stairs-frontyard-615x461.jpg>. Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.25 - Perspective in Focus. Roofs. Roofs of a pagoda at the Sensoji Temple, Tokyo, Japan. Available on the Internet: < https://perspectiveinfocus.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/roof-of-a-pagoda-at-sensoji-temple-tokyo.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.26 - Wikipedia Commons. Bernard Gagnon. Gassho-zukuri farmhouse, Ogimachi Village, Shirakawa-go, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Gassho-zukuri_farmhouse-01.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.27 - NTO. Japan: the Official Guide. Japan National Tourism Organization. Architecture. Available on the Internet: < http://www.jnto.go.jp/ eng/indepth/cultural/experience/img/a_01.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img.28 - P. Discoe, A. Quinn. Zen Architecture: The Building Process as Practice, Leyton 2008. Shoin elevation, p 32. _img.29 - Chopa. Zen Home & Gift. Standard Shoji Screens/Doors Informational Guide. Available on the Internet: < http://www.chopa.com/ shopsite/media/shoji_door_diagram.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.30 - Jenny Kallis. North Bundy Drive Office. Available on the Internet: < http://jennykallis.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Kayoffice6. jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.31 - Japanese Room in Garden Wallpaper. Available on the Internet: <http://images.hdwpics.com/1513345A6D10/Japanese-Room-in-Garden.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.32 - fineartamerica. Kirsten Giving - Walls Of The Pavilion For Japanese Art. Available on the Internet: <http://fineartamerica.com/featured/walls-of-the-pavilion-for-japanese-art-kirsten-giving.html> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.33 - Wikipedia. Shoji. Japanese room with sliding shoji doors and tatami flooring. Available on the Internet: <http://upload.wikimedia.org/ wikipedia/commons/e/e1/Takamatsu-Castle-Building-Interior-M3488.jpg> Accessed 02 May 2015. _img.34 - P. Discoe, A. Quinn. Zen Architecture: The Building Process as Practice, Leyton 2008. Kura elevation, p.39. _img.35 - Hobidas Market. グリーンマックス 2553 着色済み土蔵（1棟入). Available on the Internet: < http://shopping.hobidas.com/img/rail/ MIMT10/MIMT9328-1.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.36 - Shikkui Denden. Available on the Internet: < http://shikkui.denden-kyokai.com/2014/01/blog-post_31.html> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.37 - Sumitomo Mitsui Construction co.,ltd. Traditional Historical Buildings & Structures. Nishi-no-Shoso-In (The West Shoso-In in Miyazaki Pref. Available on the Internet: < http://www.smcon.co.jp/en/works/nishi-no-shoso-in.html> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img.38 - MASABA. Demolition & Waste. Available on the Internet: < http://www.masabainc.com/wp-content/uploads/Demolition-1.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.39 - MOTTAINAI. Available on the Internet: < http://mottainai.info/fleama/image/top_image02.gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.40 - CalPoly. Global Waste Research Institute. Picture of the Month Archive. May 2011. Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste. Photo by Dr. Nazli Yesiller. Available on the Internet: <http://gwri.calpoly.edu/media/Month_Photos/Construction_and_Demolition_Waste.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.41 - TimeOut Tokyo. Mottainai Festa 2012. Available on the Internet: < http://www.timeout.jp/data/files/00/00/00/01/40/92/cd914b74110c6bec687f2b7f5edf482a9cde86ea_tn482x298.jpeg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.42 - Mystery Channel. Mottainai Reciclagem no Japão. Available on the Internet: < http://tvjbrazil.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/url. gif> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.43 - C. Angen. Concept and Technique: How Traditional Japanese Architecture can contribute to Contemporary Sustainable Design Practices. Environmental Studies Honors Papers. Paper 10, 2013. Figure 8, p. 58. _img.44 - Pinterest. Auður Hreiðarsdóttir. Found on allthroughthelookingglass.tumblr.com. Available on the Internet: < https://www.pinterest. com/pin/363736107377084012/> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.45 - 京町家から学ぶ「通り庭」のススメ. Available on the Internet: < http://www.line-ws.jp/images/t02200587_0225060011122209789.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.46 - Megumi Design. 京都の町屋と桂離宮 その１. Available on the Internet: < http://megumi-design.cocolog-nifty.com/photos/uncategorized/2010/03/23/p3153323.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.47 - Takata Archi. 小松市Ｙ様邸新築工事. Available on the Internet: < http://img.takata-archi.com/20090325_430108.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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_img,66 - The Post-Post-Modern. The Azuma Home by Tadao Ando. Available on the Internet: < http://i277.photobucket.com/albums/kk66/ducanhhau/1.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.67 - ArchiTravel. Online architecture guide. Row House. Available on the Internet: < http://www.architravel.com/architravel_wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/row-house1.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.68 - Pinterest. Huyen Thu Tran. Tadao Ando - Row House Sumiyoshi. Available on the Internet: < https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/446349013042757561/> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.69 - Wikipedia Commons. 663highland. Shoji Ueda Museum of Photography in Hōki, Tottori prefecture, Japan. Available on the Internet: < http:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Shoji_Ueda_Museum_of_Photography07st3200.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.70 - designboom architecture. takeshi hosaka architects: roomroom. Available on the Internet: < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/takeshi-hosaka-architects-roomroom/> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.71 - WIkipedia. Aimaimyi. The Yokohama Landmark Tower. Available on the Internet: < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/ Yokohama_Landmark_Tower_-01.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.72 - ANNE (NO LONGER) IN JAPANAdventures in Ex-expat Life. Tsugegushi: Japanese Boxwood Combs. Available on the Internet: < https:// aerik09.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/2014081311340000.jpg?w=820> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.73 - decohubs. Minimalist Japanese Home. Available on the Internet: < http://bedroomkitchen.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Japanese-Minimalist-Bedroom-552.jpg> Accessed: 02 May 2015. _img.74 - designboom architecture. takeshi hosaka architects: roomroom. Available on the Internet: < http://www.designboom.com/architecture/takeshi-hosaka-architects-roomroom/> Accessed: 02 May 2015.
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Team Kukan Hatten earthquake resilient architecture in Japan
Resilient Architecture Research Course Study by Open Online Academy (Arch 403). Team Kukan Hatten Team Members: Alaa Ahmed, Johanna Faller,...
Published on May 2, 2015
Resilient Architecture Research Course Study by Open Online Academy (Arch 403). Team Kukan Hatten Team Members: Alaa Ahmed, Johanna Faller,...