Page 1


Architecture Design Studio:

Winney Yongyuan Zhao 2013 Semester Two David Lister

Special thanks to Sherry Ng and David Lister

“Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space; living, changing, new.� Ludwig Mies van der Rohe early 1920s

Contents Part A. CASE FOR INNOVATION Introduction A.1. Architecture as a Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Conclusion A.5. Learning outcomes Part B. DESIGN APPROACH B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototypes B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes Part C. PROJECT PROPOSAL C.1. Gateway Project; Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

Part A: Case for Innovation

Top. Fig. 1. Virtual Envionments Lantern prototype, optic illusions designed and photographed by Winney Zhao Bottom Left. Fig. 2. Virtual Environment, final lantern design, photographed by Winney Zhao

Bottom Right. Fig. 3. Virtual Envionments, final lantern design, detail, photographed by Winney Zhao

Self Introduction About me

My name is Winney and I am a third year architecture student. Previously undertaken Virtual Environments introduced me the basics of digital architecture. Architecture today has moved to digitalization, where it means mapping preconceived designs or knowledge onto the virtual world for further manipulation. The generative process involves using Cartesian co-ordinate systems, mathematical calculations, memory in the process of design which architecture design is much more than just drawing and sketching. Digitally stored as memory, the architectural design process tends to be transparent in the sense of its inaccessibility to be touched yet could be much more complex to a level which cannot be made purely by hand. As technology advances, architecture designs appear to move towards to be more complex, geometrical and highly sophisticated.

In terms of my skills in using digital software, I was introduced to AutoCAD, Illustrator and InDesign basics in visual communications last semester.

In terms of modern fabrication techniques, technologies such as the paper cutter, laser cutter, works by focusing a beam of light on a focused point of a material and slice it through, obeying the co-ordinates told from the machine. This machine can cut thick paper yet not copper and aluminium because they are too thick and reflect too much light. Others include the 3D Printing Systems and robotic manipulation. Using advanced technology would definitely increase efficiency, accuracy and minimise the time needed to be build, yet sometimes could be costly.

I hope in this subject, I can elaborate my skills in Rhino as well as to develop my skill using Grasshopper.

My first engagement with digital software was through Virtual Environments. I was not fluent in using Rhino and have been through the many difficulties, the distinction between what appears in my imagination versus what is being modelled virtually was in a difficult control because of a lack of knowledge and experience of the software. My concept focus was on optical illusions, where an illusion of 3D cubes are to be seen on a 2D paper formed by the penetration of light through variations of thickness of the lamp shade. My final model did not show qualities of optic illusions unfortunately but yet ended with an satisfying result.

Fig. A.1.1: ‘Seeds of Change’ Installation

A.1. Architecture as a Discourse

The aim for this project is to design a Gateway into Wyndham for city bound traffic on the Princess Freeway. The project is located at the eastern interchange. This is an opportunity for an architectural installation that will offer high exposure to users of the highway and potentially be accessible. The design would offer an exciting visual experience to visitors and the local, a representational figure to the Wyndham District, a fascinating transformation of the land and the surrounding. To approach a design statement for proposal in discussion of today’s architecture discourse, concerns the knowledge that extends beyond the physical manifestation of a building, a discussion about social opinions upon built architecture, inventions or ideologies that push forward to the changing culture of architectural practise and development of technology that would assist a conceptual establishment. Architectural conception distinguish a buildings apart from architecture,“Architecture is a building or a city and an idea, if a building has no idea it is only a building, a city is just a city”[1] The concept is personified to be the soul of a building, it drives the design process as well as incorporating an everlasting significance. The ‘Seeds of Change’ installation is an example of concept incorporation with design form, its leaf form is connotative with reference to a growth and greenery. The repetitive of form is evident as metaphor for the changing city. The concept is important in designing this project as a iconic manifestation, should be easily interpretive to the public and persuasive. Architecture is a system of communication and generates conversations, whether it is represented two dimensionally as drawings or in built forms. Patrick Schumacher insists “architecture as autopoietic system”[2] in promotion of architecture as a distinctive discipline where it is an autono-

mous communication network where information recycles within the field of media, publications and representations. The design to the gateway project will stand as a communicator to the public and will formulate a network of conversations naturally and therefore a way of promotion locally, nationally, even internationally. Architecture is influential to our behaviour and that our personal experience and response to architecture is hugely subjective. The build form produces an effect which influences our behaviour. Suggested by Wolf Prix “space is an important influence of our behaviour, of our constitution, it influences our attitude”[2]. Buildings last for a long time which our our “behaviour change over time related to the spaces we inhabit...”[3]. Individual experience and perceptions suggest that there is no cohesive body of knowledge in architecture, but instead individual opinions should be valued. David Hume in 1757 stated that ‘Beauty is no quality in things themselves: it exists merely in the mind which contemplates [4] then: and each mind perceives a different beauty’. Eighteenth century write Richard Payne Knight stressed upon mental feelings can only arise from mental perception and past experience [5]. Emphasizing individual difference, but to value individual’s perspectives can bring more to architectural design in terms of inspiration and enhancement. Bringing in the values of a culture in architecture to the physical context is what makes a design unique. Not only traditional values, but also contemporary values in modern computation, the value lies in the process, complexity and the method of generating new architecture. Ideation, visual stimulation, new methods of approaching architecture are important to make a memorable place for visitors and locals of Wyndham City.

Fig. A.1.2: View from Metro Parasol light and shadow

Fig. A.1.3: Metro Parasol

Fig. A.1.4: Metro Parasol, aerial view

Precedent: Discourse Culture. Symbolism and the rise of a discourse

Metropol Parasol, Sevill Spain J. Mayer H. Architects 2011

Response to design scheme and concept of this structure served as an example of adaptation to site culturally, politically and functionally. The structure was accomplished as a self-supported structure to respect the the presence of the Roman ruins. Served as a canopy to offer shade to the public and to provide light and shadow which stood out from the ordinary casting a set of repetitive geometry. Attractions and amenities offered by this design include an archaeological museum, an elevated plaza, and more [6]. The multi-functionality is to make the square used to operate as a parking lot more liveable. The establishment shows the success in accomplishing design brief and in promotion of a new city symbol. The effect of the design create a strong create a strong contrast between the old buildings. It is a contemporary organic design, which Plaza de la Encarnacion becomes new, fashionable, modern day urban center of public assembly. The construction method, waffling, contrast with the traditional housing of the medieval city created an outstanding, memorable effect which gives the city a new identification. Similarly, our team aim to design an eye catching, modernistic design stance to represent Wymdham city with a new icon. The establishment of this design provoked a diverse in perspectives and vociferous reactions as in mean of social discourse. The designer believed that the structure defined a unique relationship between the historical and the contemporary city�[6]. Others criticised the scale is an inappropriate response to the spatial and historical identity of Plaza de la Encarnacian, it is totally out of scale and context[7]. The social discourse upon the structure shows engagement of the public. Our team would need to back up our our argument to the design to Wyndham City as a defence to inevitable criticisms.

Fig. A.1.5: Tape, experience and accessbility

Fig. A.1.6: Tape, tape framing construction

Fig. A.1.7: Tape, place-making

Precedent: Discourse Experience, materiality and place making

Tape, Public art installations, Melbourne Numen 2012

A creative architectural manifestation which the designer plays with motion and experience. This is a great example to show utilisation of alternative materials, architectural design concept and place making. The concept behind the form inspired by the movement of dancers moving between pillars in a sequence. An artefact of their motion through space and leaves behind an architectural form[8]. Large in scale that dominate the public spaces while making an exotic impression to people who already knew the area. An inspirational design focus. Designed in the aim of change which people can occupy the sculpture and changing experience of the interactions between users. Appears to be an organism that has affixed itself to the architecture [8]. The structure was constructed in by stretching tape between pillars first forming a web which serves as framing and a second layer is then spun in a perpendicular direction bounding the space making it accessible. Tape has a high elasticity which made the structure possible. Like a tunnel, provide an extraordinary experience. This example offers an alternate access experience and material construction. We aim to create visual experience not only to the drivers along the highway as well as making it accessible for users to accommodate. Great example for use to explore the materials and structure that could be utilised aside from wood or steel.

A.2. Computational Architecture

Contemporary architecture practise in the method of computation has push forward architecture to a new boundary, a realm of the unknown and fascination. The architectural practise is shifting from computerisation to computation over the last ten years. Computerisation is to map ideas that have been preconceived in the mind of the designer on to the computer, it is about ‘automation’, ‘mechanisation’., ‘digitalisation’ and ‘conversion’ [9],, computation is about the exploration of indeterminate, vague, unclear and often ill-defined processes, involves ‘problem solving’, ‘mental structures’, ‘simulation’ and ‘logic’ [9], Moved rapidly to computation, the role of the designer have shift from ‘architecture programming to programming architecture’[10],. Programming architecture requires the knowledge of writing ‘script language’, meaning ‘giving highly specific instructions to the computer’[11]. This is to write our own algorithm on the computer. This paradigm shift indicate practitioners in the industry are engaged to creating programs instead of mapping ideas to the virtual world, software such as Rhino3d and its plugin Grasshopper are becoming increasingly popular. The development of digital architecture is beneficial in the attractiveness exerted by the form, patterning and texture that were almost impossible using early design tools. With the increasing capability of simulation, it allows the designer to predict, model and simulate using more sophisticated methods[12].

The advantages of computation in architectural practise allows the designer to extend knowledge beyond the task to generate and explore spaces through modifying of algorithms [13]. To understand and experience the methodology behind the geometry. Moreover, internet platforms allow sharing codes, tools and to learn from each other. Computation design is linked to manufacture technologies, with increase utilizationo of 3D Printing Systems such as CNC milling, Foam Cutting Systems and robotic fabrication advances the architecture world of making models. New technologies will develop and pushes architecture to a further extent, creating new possibilities. Utilising computation in architectural design inform designers to break out to we can imagine and to activate the power of machines. This is the method to approach our project design.

Fig. A.2.1: Art615 Structuring

Fig. A.2.3: Art615 Overall light and shadow effect

Fig. A.2.2: Art615 Patterning

Precedent: Computation Environment, computation and materiality

Art615, Aalborg, Denmark students of Aalborg University 2013

This example introduced our team to the computation technology as well as utilization of light interacting with the chosen material. The design aim behind Art615 was is a large wooden structure ornamented with pieces of wood interlocking each other and lighting to create an art pavilion for a crime-related park in Aalborg, Denmark. Concept focuses on drawing attention from the unsafe park, ensuring the feeling of a safer environment [14] for the visitors which design team have successful done so with given warm lighting and shelter as means of protection. The process of design is similar to our project in a way utilising computer-aided tools, Grasshopper for Rhino. The team focus was to create a semi-closed space and emphasize the increasing build-up of the shape from the smaller end to the larger, the best form was chosen from a number of iterations where parametric modelling allows control of the form [14] Explorations in computation have elaborated their design with added complexity level. The dynamic light adds a dynamic ornamental effect to the shelter which not only artistically beautiful, illuminate the dark but also corresponds to the brief in means of offering a safe impression to users of the park, This project is a example of the varieties of what we can do with wood as a rigid, hard, opaque material,.The covering pieces became the patterning of surface defining its form. The students were also aiming for a degree in transparency by perforating the shell in display of the variations in light. Our team will be using Rhino and Grasshopper in our process of design which this example gave way to an interesting exploration with material quality and its interaction of both artificial and natural lighting.

Fig. A.2.4: Plantonic solids as beautifully complex structures, hexhedra

Fig. A.2.5: Platonic Transformations

Precedent: Computation Abstraction, parametrics and complexity

Platonic Solids Michael Hansmeyer 2008

A computational approach to architectural design that is referred by Hansmeyer to be “more abstract and open-ended”.[15] The idea pushed forward is to go beyond what we can do and to dig deep into the unknown realm. This tie in with what is described in Computation Works by Peter Bradley “computation has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer, through the generation of unexpected results”[14]. This is a great example to show the power of computation and that we are interested in creating a beautifully complex design. Beautiful complex geometries were generated by a apply a formula to a shape, and repeat the formula to the same form for it to increase level of complexity. This is essentially the computational process to generate object where the outcome is stunning and ‘surprising’. Hansmeyer worked with the variants, parameters which controls the design[15]. Refinement in traditional designing methods is not part of designing anymore. A number of stages of the geometry is captured to the left, where each grows more complex than the previous which designer have not preconceived in his mind. The computational approach in architecture not only increased complexity but also contain large information where structures be manipulated to endless distinct formations which could not be achieved by traditional drawing or digitising methods. This precedent shown us the power of computation and that our design will be depended on the rules which a strong background knowledge is needed in order for us to create a beautifully complex structure.

A.3. Parametric Modelling

Parametric modelling in architectural design refers to manipulation of design utilising computer programming that uses parameters such as MCAD software[16], Grasshopper in Rhino. The word ‘parametric’ in architecture is borrowed from mathematics, it is defined as a set of equations that express a set of qualities, known as parameters[17] indicated as ‘scripting’ in architecture, provided with different parameters that would effect the outcome of a particular design. Parametric modelling extend possibilities for creative explorations beyond the limits of what a technology was set for by the manufacturers. The architectural discourse upon the the twenty first century came to a number of views, It comes down to the question where we are now in terms of style? Advocated by Patrick Schumacher whom claim to be the new style after modernism. Characteristics of parametrical architecture include elements and complexes are parametrically malleable [18], that is geometries that are soft, systems be differentiated and interdependent, functions are parametric activity scenarios and communicator each other. Suggest to repel the modernist dependency on rigid figures such as rectangles, cubes, cylinders. Parametrical designs avoid perfect geometries. This is a new source of inspiration I believe as architecture steps away from reductionism and minimalism, but yet too early to be said as a new style while architects of today like PeterZumthor, Tadao Ando and Kengo Kuma design buildings rely on classical geometries[19]. The advantage of parametrical modelling is that allows the designer to change values which

causes the model to change an aspect. This allow us to make changes and to generate a many different varieties in the exploration for our most appreciated outcome. Parametric modelling is a new approach to architectural design which will be utilised in our gateway project adopting Rhino and Grasshopper plugin as well other plugin components by drawing inspirations from the characteristics of parametricism.

Fig. A.3.1: FabPod in use

Fig. A.3.3: FabPod virtual projection

Fig. A.3.4: FabPod amendments and calculations, pink highlights hyperboloids that are too close togeher.

Fig. A.3.2: FabPod finished product

Fig. A.3.5: FabPod, final form, all correct intersections and materials

Precedent: Parametrics Inspirational geometries, problem solving and materiality

The Fab Pod, Melbourne Daniel Davis 2013

This example provided materiality investigation with form and acoustic management. Source of inspiration was by Gaudi’s use of hyperboloids which the design team focused upon its materiality investigating how to minimise the echo within a meeting room without creating an acoustically dead space[20]. Achieve by positioning hyperboloids to maximise sound scattering within the space. Inspirational adaptation of material along with sound investigation in terms of how it works in the interior. This example demonstrate to problem solving in the process of generating the correct rule for the design. The designer required a set of rules that guaranteed a planar intersection between hyperholoids[21]. Investigations, try outs have been tested on the computer to lay out the pattern in a work room. Sound tests were performed to develop new iterations of the FabPod followed by mathematical challenges. Learning and meeting challenges in every stage of the design process shows that parametric design does not only involve generating rules but also requires the knowledge of materiality, calculations and digital manipulations to solve problems as well as to predict ahead. Of relevance to our project, this example gave us inspirations to consider the quality of the material against weathering and its relation to our sense in terms of visual pleasure and possibly acoustic properties, as well as to draw attention to the potential computation and mathematical problems.

A.4 Conclusion and Learning Outcome


Learning Outcome

The Wyndham gateway project as an opportunity to develop a “new”, “exciting,” sophisticated design solution that it must to be driven by a concept idea that is strongly supported and relate to Wyndham City. Stand as a outstanding icon for the city that site in harmony with its context. Utilising computation and parametric modelling we aim to produce a beautiful complex design. The material quality will be interacted with artificial and natural lighting to bring in an enjoyable view for users at day and night times.

Drawing upon the readings over the past three weeks have significantly increased my knowledge and also broaden my view on architecture as a discourse where it is being evaluated beyond its physical manifestation. Architecture today is far more than design, or perhaps it is not about designing form or decoration any more, from today’s architectural design process, the question is not whether or not digital architecture is good or bad, but to question where digital architecture can lead us to and where were are now in terms of style. Research upon precedents are also useful in terms of looking at different architects, competitions and conversation going on in the world. Browsing through the portfolio of well-known architects allow me to see a progression of changing architecture. This also gave me direction in terms of how I can shape my design in the project ahead. The video practises were useful to help me getting us use to the computational techniques starting from zero. But yet I am still limited to generating more complex structures.

References Image Sources Image 1 Image 2 Jurgen-Mayer-H-Seville-Spain-photo-Fernando-Alda-yatzer-7.jpg Image 3 Image 4 Image 5 Image 6 Image 7 Image 8 Image 9 Image 10 jpg Image 11 Image 12 0#undefined Image 13 Image 14 Image 15 Image 16 Image 17

[1] Prix, Wolf. “What Is Architecture?” Interview. What Is Architecture. N.p., Oct.-Nov. 2012. Web. Aug.-Sept. 2013. <>. [2] Schumacher, Patrik. The Autopoiesis of Architecture. Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011. Print. [3] Prix, Wolf. “What Is Architecture?” Interview. What Is Architecture. N.p., Oct.-Nov. 2012. Web. Aug.-Sept. 2013. <>. [4] David Hume, ‘Of the Standard of Taste’ in Selected Essays (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1993), pp.136-137. [5] Knight, Richard Payne. An analytical inquiry into the principles of taste. 4th ed. London: T. Payne, 1808 [6] Argyriades, Marcia. “Metropol Parasol // The World’s Largest Wooden Structure.” Yatzer. N.p., 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2013. [7] Pohl, Ethel Baraona. “Waffle Urbanism.” Waffle Urbanism. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013 [8] Vinnitskaya, Irina. “Public Art Installations from Numen / For Use Design Collective” 27 Mar 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 20 Sep 2013. <> [9] Terzidis, Kostas. Expressive Form: A Conceptual Approach to Computational Design. London: Spon, 2003. Print.pp67 [10] Terzidis, Kostas. Expressive Form: A Conceptual Approach to Computational Design. London: Spon, 2003. Print.pp68 [11] Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 – 71 [12] Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 – 71 [13] Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 - 15 [14] Jordana, Sebastian. “Art615, a pavilion by Aalborg University students” 13 May 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 21 Sep 2013. <> [15] Hansmeyer, Michael. “Michael Hansmeyer - Computational Architecture Platonic Solids.” Michael Hansmeyer - Computational Architecture Platonic Solids. N.p., 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. [16] Rynne, Anthony. “Anthony Rynne’s Website.” Anthony Rynne. University of Limerick, 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2013. [17] Weisstein, Eric W. Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Boca Raton [etc.: Chapman & Hall/CRCnetBase, 1999. Print. [18]Schumacher, Patrik. “Patrik Schumacher on Parametricism - ‘Let the Style Wars Begin’” Architects’ Journal. N.p., 5 May 2010. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. [19]The Institute for International Economics.” : Style and the Pretense of Parametric Architecture. N.p., June-July 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2013. [20][21] Davis, Daniel. “FabPod.” Daniel Davis. N.p., June 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.

Part B: Design Approach


Introducing an pure underwater seascape symbolised by the coral reef. We aim to produce a vibourous, exciting installation in the sense of welcoming visitors and friends to Wymdham City, Paintings reflect on our teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imagination on our design goal, a colourful, glowing type of architectural installation. Viewing externally, we imagine our piece of coral would emerge from the dark. When accessed internally, it would feel like you are a gold fish swimming in between a healthy, lively environment. The colours bring vitality to the structure and that captures attention and to create an underwater environment.

Upper. Fig. B.1.1 .1 The Underwater Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The Seascape. Exterior. Painted by Winney Zhao Bottom. Fig. B.1.2: The Underwater World. Colour and lights. An experience. Interior. Painted by Sherry Ng


To create a journey through an underwater seascape within the landscape using the coral reef as a symbol to represent the Wyndhm District as well as to stand as a lighthouse signposting the future of the city in success of sustainable growth and environmental protection intended by the the District government. Coral reefs only survive in clean and healthy environments, it is therefore a symbol for purity, sustainability and greenery. The adaption of coral reef is also representative of the Wyndhm’s unique qualities and attractions. Geologically located on the west coastal of the Melbourne Metropolitan, the Wyndham City has many unique attractions along the seaside, such as Point Cook Marine Sanctuary, Werribee South Boat Ramp, Wyndhm Habour and most importantly the Water Discovery Center featuring a Water Treatment Plant, this is with a direct reference to our design concept in promotion of stainability, eternity and nature. Our ultimate aim is to create a coral-like structure that is functional, accessible and to be able to recognized by people travelling from a distance. To offer a welcoming, exciting and vibrance effect achieved by patterning and coloured lighting.

Top left. Fig. B.1.3 ‘Seed of change’ installation Top right. Fig. B.1.4 Melbourne West Treatment Plant Middle left. Fig. B.1.5 Water Discovery Center Middle right. Fig. B.1.6 Wyndham harbour BottomFig. B.1.7 Werribee South Boat Ramp

Fig. B.1.9 Assymetrical geometry

Fig. B.1.10 Branching

Fig. B.1.11 Open Brain Structure - organic fludity

B.1. Design Focus Inspiration: Coral Patterning

Inspired by the natural formations, geometries and patterning of the coral reefs, our team decide to make our focus upon three qualities, that is asymmetrical patterning, branching, brain-like structure. These qualities are essentially common coral types which are easily recognized by the public. For us, will be important drivers for the design process which the team will integrate in the design for the gateway. Asymmetrical patterning demonstrated by the divisions of regions. Each individual varies in size, edge length and internal angle, but the geometry stays the same and still perfectly joins with its neighbour. The pattern is biological as well as mathematical. The irregularity found in the branching potentially, offer the kind of structural, mechanical solution to inform our deign.. The open brain coral scientifically named Trachyphyllia[1] produce wavy skeletons and their polyp are ruffled with convoluted shapes and bright, fluorescent colours. Potentially ideal as a geometry for shelter, provide accessibility.. A very organic geometry, fascinated by its coloured translucent quality which we hope to incorporate into our design.

Fig. B.2.1 Green Void aerial view

Fig. B.2.3 Green Void within lighting

Fig. B.2.2 Green Void low-angle view

B.2. Case Study 1.0 The Green Void project by LAVA Materials and lighting

This installation is a great example of form making, choice of material and ideas for lighting effect.

Fig. 2.4The Green Void, materiality

The form of the is organic connect by magnetized trumpet-shaped tubes stretches, suggest a biological reference, coral-like which is inspirational for our project in terms of form making. - asymmetrical, branching and organic. The concept was achieved with a flexible material that follows forces of gravity, tension and growth, similar to spider web or a coral reef which LAVA architects took inspirations from nature and believed that nature create both efficiency and beauty[2].

Fig. 2.5 The Green Void, computation simulation

The installation is a minimal surface that consists of tensioned Lycra material, it is a light weight fabric design. While appearing solid, the structure is soft and flexible which offer possibilities of rearrangement of forms. The material is portable, reusable and can be installed easily within the interior as well as the exterior. It is important to reinforce the idea of sustainability through the choice of materials. Lighting in this project gives an attractive and astonishing effect which light perform as a ornament in design boosts the beauty and excitement of the installation. This is an example of lighting effects on material which the blue lights give a beautiful water effect corresponds directly to what we have imagined our future design would look like. Our team is fascinated by the combination of minimal surface and lighting. We will explore the digital simulations of this design.

B.2. Case Study 1.0 2 Technique: Exoskeleton

To use the Exoskeleton component in digital simulation to create a variety of different, unexpected outcomes. The Exoskeleton thickens a wire fame; it turns curved into a solid that does not involve complicated calculations of pipes and spheres [3]. The component have inputs for thickness of struts, node sizes, faces.. etc. The benefit of using this component for our design is to decorate branching structures, Explorations were made upon on a branched structure. I then invent new structures to test its effects on different figures.

Fig B.2.6 Exoskeleton Script

Fig B.2.7 Matrix I

Fig B.2.8 Matrix II

Fig B.2.9 Matrix III

B.2. Case Study 1.0 2 Technique: Relaxed Surface

To further exploration in generating relaxed surface using a computer simulation technology, the Kangaroo plug in for grasshopper. Forces are applied to the surface in order for it to become relaxed as the Kangaroo Plug-in provides a particle based physics simulation engine. A relaxed surface requires anchor points for the surface to have a place to fix itself to. This was done by firstly creating a mesh box or a set of mesh boxes, join them together to make a tunnel, make anchor points from the mesh and relax the form. The Springs component is also important as it converts lines to springs in order for the surface to be stretched. The result has almost the same effect as the Green Void,, it is liquid and curving and essentially organic. The geometries created is almost natural suggest identification of branching coral-reefs. This technique will be used in further development because it creates the same kind of branching, lightness in form, malleability in form.

Fig. B.2.13 Relaxed Surface Script

Fig. B.3.1 Non/Lin Pavilion Prototype

FIg. B.3.1 Non/Lin Pavilion Prototype, Interior experience

B.3. Case Study 2.0 Marc Fornes/ THEVERYMANNY

The concept of nonLin/Lin Pavilion is derived from organic forms found in underwater coral species with is of direct reference to our design intention. The intentional user experience, form, patterning as well as fabrication of this precedent is worth discuss about. The structure is a combination of fluid organic lines and the integration of holes, end rings, open edges, connections and branches. The juxtaposition of light and shadow made an emphasis on architectural detailing as well as the contribution complex branching of the structure giving an intrinsic, magical effect. Enable users to experience spatial depth, visual illusions and filtrations within the view limitations. Promotion of sustainability in this model metaphorically becomes a problem because bleach means death. The advantage of this prototype is that light and transportable structure assembled from 27 components, 40 pre-assembled white aluminum modules made of 570 CNC-cut single components. [4] They are then assembled together. Our team is deeply fascinated by Mark Forneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach to the pavilion prototype in terms of his treatment of surface detail and its construction methods in putting together this prototype.

Sketch: Patterning, geometry reductionism

B.4. Technique: Development PATTERN SIMULATION

Analysis in the aim of recreating Mark Forne’s coral, we aim to create a simple version, a box containing irregular curves on the box with the area within the curve trimmed off. To identify the qualities within Forne’s model, it appears to be irregular, organic which virtually best achieved by using the voronoi component. This component finds a perpendicular division in the space between points and divide into a number of regions, as points are randomly scatted, the voronoi will divide regions into various sizes and thus producing an asymmetrical pattern. The procedure was to build a box, add points to it and the voronoi to divide the space, detach the curves so that the vertices could become individuals and to create curves within the divided space. A set of continuous curves was produced interlinked with each other which was not initially thought of, but seems to work quite well because the curves moves in and out of the geometry which seem to appear in a similar sense as Forne’s work. To get closer to the example, we hope to add in surface, using the planar surface component and we managed to build surface but yet, unable to figure a way to trim off the curves. Progressed to the next stage. we thought to offset the curves. I somehow managed to offset entire surface within the curved to distance outwards forming a skin layer. This experimentation was unsuccessful, far off from the original design.

Fig. B.4.1 Step one. Create a box

Fig. B.4.2 Step two. Add points

Fig. B.4.3 Step three. Connect to 3D Voronoi Component

Fig. B.4.4 Step Four Connect to curves

Fig. B.4.0 Curve from vironoi box Script Fig. B.4.5 Interconnecting Curves from Step four

Fig. B.4.7 Curves from Offseting Voronoi Box

Fig. B.4.8 Script extended

Fig. B.4.6 Step Five. Offset Voronoi Box

Fig. B.4.9: Voronoi 2DPatterning

B.4. Technique: Development PATTERN SIMULATION II

Fig. B.4.10 Panel pattern process

Fig. B.4.11: Panel

Fig. B.4.12 Shelter Geometry

Fig. B.4.13 Coral-shelter

Fig. B.4.14 Voronoi 2DPatterning

An alternate way to approach Mark Fornes’s design of the coral, we decided to create a two dimensional patterned panel and map it onto a surface. To do this in a simple way, establish a two dimentional region, a rectangle, add points into it, connect to Pop2D for the voronoi to divide space. The next step is to generate two levels for the loft component to form ‘trumpeted tubes’ across the plane. To do this, offset the curves of the voronoi, and give it a direction Z. for it to lift upwards by a factor of one, repeat the process. The number of points in the given region determines the size of the regions, more points means more divisions and smaller individual areas. Variations in height and offset distances gives many variations in creating this panel. The panel is then mapped onto a geometry that is thought to be a shelter for people to access within it. This is our successful outcome was we managed to create a simple structure which could be potentially a coral-shelter. This outcome is inspired by Mark Fornes in stead of creating the same structure as him.

B.4. Technique: Development Form Development

Not only we want to create an accessible structure, we also aim to create a symbol for the city, the form of the installation became important which this stage we are trying to use the shape of the shelter and to build upon it. The result geometry was formulated using the Kangaroo Plugin in Rhino. It is a creation that intergrates with existing geometry. To incoperate the open brain effect, we aim to establish branches and to spread at the end of the branch. To establish a centre point amongst each region of the voronoi, create attract points which the end branch. The Kangaroo Plugin along with the Springs component releases force upon the branching structure. A number of parameters could be varied to change the outcome, such as rigidity in the Springs component, the level of smoothness, the height of the branch and a couple more. The surface could be changed and the number of branches can be determined by the referencing points above the surface.

Fig. B.4.15. Script emphasizing Springs and Kangaroo

Fig. B.4.16 Shelter geometry with reference point

Fig. B.4.17: Connect to Exoskeleton component

Fig. B.4.19 Establishment of final form, upside down

Fig. B.4.20 Final Form

Fig. B.4.18. Connet to components, Spring and Kangaroo plugin to soften form.

B.4. Technique: Development Further Explorations

Fig. B.4.22: Matrix I

Fig. B.4.23. Matrix II

Fig. B.5.1. Wood. Joining pieces together as a framework for relaxed surface

Fig. B.5.2. Relaxed membrane

B.5. Technique: Prototypes Material and form exploration

Our team first decided to use wood to construct our design thought to emphasize sustainability by utilising natural material. This prototype was to test material qualities using wood in terms of its rigidity and stockings as fabric material. The structure was constructed by interlocking triangular pieces together and reinforced by the tension of the elastical quality of the fabric. The model was to explore form possibilities. The downside of this material is that it appear to look â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;deadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; even with coloured lighting, which opposes to our aim of the design as we want it to look alive, although coral bleaches. Our team decided to look towards other materials and form making.

Fig. B.5.3:. Wood fabrication file

Fig. B.5.4. Coral-shelter prototype

Fig.B.5.6 Coral-shelter prototype. Exterior. Spray painted

Fig. B.5.5. Coral-shelter prototype, interior

B.5. Technique: Prototypes Coral Shelter fabrication

Fabriation of the coral-shelter. Fabricated and assembled in card paper. The stability of form the is weak, further alternations will be needed. The interior of the structure is satisfying as it generate an coral-like appearance. The openings allow light to strike through casting irrgular shadow where participants could experience sunlight in the shade almost like a fish swimming underwater. Colour painting the exterior of the prototype to give it an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;excitingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; colourful effect. Brush painted first then spray painted to give a gradual colour change. Not quite successful because the material appear to be thick, lumpy, not as bright and effective as we imagine our symbol would be.

B.5. Technique: Prototypes Coral Installation. Particial fabrication

This prototype is the leg of final model, assembled using card paper. I have incorporated patterning onto the panels to create incominglight variations, as well as to step closer to the appearance of the coral. The lighting effects are explored to demonstrate the experience of the internal structure. A satisfying result.

Fig. B.5.7 Coral prototype

Fig. B.5.8 Coral prototype, interior

Fig. B.5.9 Coral prototype, exterior lighting effects Fig. B.5.10 Coral prototype, interior lighting effects

B.5. Technique: Prototypes

Material testing: Polypropelene and lighting effects

After looking at a few materials and thoght about the desried effect, we want to create an exciting, colour effect, which Green Void precendent successfully demonstrate the sort of astonishing, effect. We want to use light, especially coloured like to add to the uniqueness and enthusiasam of the coral symbolism. Perspex iis the material we are interested it, it is a glass material which is flexible at a high temperature and dries hard after it cools, so is manageble for our model. Perspex has a translucent quality which lallows light to pass through in the way to make an impact to both interior and exterior scenery.

Fig. 7.9 Polypropelene prototype I Fig. 7.8 Polypropelene prototype II

B.6. Technique Proposal

Our techniques, we have considered to use relaxing surface to create an organic branching form. We have Perspex as our material in the aim of creating a colourful, enthusiastic, welcoming impression. Both form and material and lighting effects are of deliberate relationship to the site. We have chosen Site B, the area near the petrol station. One reason is that, people could have the opportunity to access the installation while taking a break, in the location we have chosen also has an advantage exposed to two sides of the freeway,. Our design concept is unique and in a way very closely tied to the qualities of the Wyndhm cities where most important of all, the symbolism of purity, sustainability and healthy growth is what drives to a better future.

Fig.B.6.4 Wyndham City Symbol. Logo incorporated water waves.

Fig. B.6.1 Map, location of installation

Fig. B.6.2 View of installation

B.7. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Learning objectives To develop ability to think cohesively and coherently throughout the project. May sound easy, but very often from a personal perspective, looking for inspirations can drive away from the initial idea and leads to a different approach. To improve skills in practising Grasshopper. To develop ability to make a case for proposals. To acknowledge and to be aware of construction techniques for fabrication. Learning outcomes Able to be consistent throughout the process of investigation and development of design Engaging with Grasshopper through problem solving dealing with technical issues as well as learning from internet sources to inform myself to create my own script have really took me to a higher level of practising design using computational software. To complete this journal is a learning outcome as I have went through the design concept argument, computation to layout of the proposal. The fabrication of prototypes really informed my understanding of materials in terms of structural quality, bending, flexibility.


[1] 2013. Introducing ‘Exoskeleton’ - A wireframe thickening tool. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 24 Sep 2013]. [2] 2013. Green Void » LAVA. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 24 Sep 2013]. [3] MARC FORNES & THEVERYMANY™. 2013. 12 MOSS / DE PURY. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 24 Sep 2013].

B.8 Appendix Coral script

Part C: Gateway Proposal

Image C.1.1 Map showing Site - B and operated roads. Installation on Site-B could be viewed clearly from the gas station, as well as the users of the highway.

C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept

Princess highway presents an outstanding opportunity to enhance Wyndham’s public realm through an innovative contemporary, and visionary piece of symbolic, representative architecture. Our team focuses on particularly on site-B because it offers an opportunity for users in both lanes travelling towards or outwards Wyndham city to be able to vision the gateway design as well as to have a chance to access the architecture while taking a rest at the nearby fuel station. Beyond physical accessibility, site-B will put forward a delightful experience for visitors and locals, a celebration of the city’s transformation and our teams urge to promote an energetic, vital and colourful transformation of the landscape to a seascape. Our ideas is to utilise the coral reef as a symbol of purity, greenery and sustainability to signify city’s development towards a sustainable growth. As corals only flourishes in clean ecosystems it is best to represent Wyndham city also in terms of the City’s unique marine and coast attractions as well as with strong relevance to its Western Water Plant. Critical feedback was given for the need in the further refinement such as to develop a pattern of perplex to our existing geometry, explore in structural connections and to think about elaborating the design in order to ‘transform’ the landscape making it a memorable place.

Fig. C.1.1 Virtual simulations1

Fig. C.1.2 Virtual simulation2

Fig. C.1.4 Prototype4

Fig. C.1.3 Virtual simulation3

C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept Seascape Transformation Precedent: taichung Opera House

Drawing inspiration from the Taichung Opera House, The organic irregularity in shape reflects a water-like, marine expression. Its fluid continuity and the connection in space in form correspond to the irregularity in the growth of corals. According to Toyo Ito, which he refer to as Sound Caves is both a horizontally and vertically continuous network given with a geometric rules, by repetition of diving and alternating zones A and B [1]. The entire architecture is extremely complex yet most importantly, our group was interested in the fluidity and its organic in form utilizing the technique of repetition and connection of spacing. The repetition technique responds to the team’s original promotion of ‘asymmetrical symmetry’ within an organic composition. A coral reef is like a metropolis under the sea, they are massive structures organisms supporting marine species. It is a complex ecosystem that spreads across the sea, they are biologically multistory structures. Drawing inspiration from this, in the aim of transforms the landscape as part of design development, the goal of the group was to propose a ‘emergent layer’ - that is the tallest, ‘mother’ coral towering at 30m in height watching over an ‘understory’ layer - that is, the layer that grows lower in height, 10metres that spreads across the landscape. The mother coral will therefore stood as a gigantic symbol representing the Wyndham District, while the role of the understory layers will attract people’s attention to the side of the road towards the mother coral.

_Emergent Layer


Fig. C.1.1. 1 Virtual Simulation I

C.1. Gateway Design Project: Design Concept Transforming the landscape to a seascape Understory: Simulation I

To create under-stories, our group decided to use relaxed surfaces in the basis of producing one design, replicate multiples of the same design and to connect repeatedly to form a coral colony across on the landscape. Not only it is a symbol but also to establish a extraordinary, weird scene where this becomes an attraction. The design of the structure requires to have openings allowing each cloned multiple to be able to connect to each other. Our first trial have five open connections at the same level. This means the entire colony will have the same height lacking visual interest and dynamism. Examining the geometry, one branch is being pulled away from its centre which the centre of gravity is moved outside the structure and could cause problems for building. It needs opposite forces to keep it stand when building built. Calculations will therefore be complex and unnecessary. This is an unexpected result from computation. For improvement, we aim to vary its height an try to have a balanced, organic structure.

C.1. Gateway Design Project: Design Concept Transforming the landscape to a seascape Understory: Simulation II

Second trial was also unsatisfactory because mainly of aesthethics. The group tried to vary the height of the opening connections, however, both column branches resulted to be much larger than its overhead appearing rather chuncky. The awkwardness in the proportion between height and the radius of the branches gives a rather bold overall impression. Through computation, we are generating forms which we cannot predict completely, and sometimes, but surprises are not always ideal.

Fig. C.1.1.2 Virtual Simulation II

C.1. Gateway Design Project: Design Concept Transforming the landscape to a seascape Understory: Simulation III

Our third and final trial, with improved height variations, balanced, appears to flow well with one another, improved centre of gravity. The overall advantage of this design is that it lowers the cost of manufacture down because firstly, we are using one design source, secondly by repeating such we can create numberous variations without the need to formulate new designs, thirdly, it is flexible to change. The next stage is, to conside patterning, then to consider the compositions to the landscape.

Fig. C.1.1.2 Virtual Simulation III

Fig. C.1.1.3 Patterning I

Fig. C.1.1.4 Patterning II

Fig. C.1.1.5 Patterning III

Fig. C.1.1.6 Patterning IV - Final Puzzling patterning

C.1. Gateway Design Project: Design Concept Perspex: Patterning Designs

Our team aims to produce patterning on panels and map this onto the surface of the coral design. Our aim is create an organic, irregular, patterning that reflects the growth of corals. This is will be produced as the outer surface of the megastrcutres using Perspex. Three different panelings were produced using computation. Our final decision was made upon using the puzzling technique - this is to use one design and repeat the same design over the structure. This is to keep our technique uniform throughout the design. In terms of the puzzling technique. this is further developed in the way which all the pieces differ slightly with each other to create an irregular, organic, life-like impression. The advantage of using perspex is that it can be mould into different shapes, easily changeable, life span of over 50 years, stays against weather, could be produced in opaque, translucent to transparent.

Fig. C.1.1.7 Relationship between users of the area and the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;motherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; coral (map not to scale)

Fig. C.1.1.8: Compositioning (map not to scale)

Gateway Project: Design Concept Seascape Compositioning

To compose the landscape, the group looked upo the biological growth of corals and the Picturesque ideologies. The role for the understory is to visually lead road users to the mother layer. Biologically, the propagation of zoanhids occur by budding[], where they grow onto anything that is placed next to them and thus spreads across the area. New polyps often stay attached to the mother forming a large colony. With reference to the history of architecture, the picturesque movement in the 18th century encapsulate three main principles of great importance are [2], 1) the principle of the Garden City, notion of providing access to rural beauty, 2) the principle of irregularity, providing greater freedom of planning and 3) principle of suitability - that a building should be organically related to its environment. With reference to the picturesque principle, the compositions of the understory should possess irregularity, freedom and merges elegantly within scene. Inspired from the biological growth or corals, that is having larger colonies around the mother and spreads across the landscape, irregularly, adapting the shape of the terrain.

Fig. C.2.1 Protype. Construction testing.

Fig. C.2.3 Hand sketch. Load Path. (A) Central column - carries live and dead loads of the struction to the foundation. (B) Concrete foundation (C) Persex skinning (D) Bolting - screws.

Fig. C.2.2 Protype. Colour effects

Fig. C.2.4 Hand sketch.Tension. (A) Central column - carries live and dead loads of the struction to the foundation. (B) Concrete foundation (C) Persex skinning (D) Bolting - screws.

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Prototype

Considering upon the construction of our design, a prototype was made to demonstrate the central column construction technique. This prototype exemplifies the technique which a load bearing pole is constructed in the center of the object, which beams extending out from the central column holds up the facades. A load path diagram is drawn to show the weight of this construction method which both live and dead loads transfers to the central column then to the foundation. The central column is the most important responsible to lift up the entire structure and against weathering. The problem with this technique is that, people cannot enter the interior of the geometry as our group promoted on accessibility.

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Structure: Digital and Fabrication Perpendicular waffling

To experiment on other construction methods, the team looked at waffling as as the framework of the structure. Without using a central pole, the entire structure is waffled perpendicularly as a self-supporting geometry. The stability is secured by the friction of each intersecting sheets and in construction, metal plates and bolting will be required. Panelling becomes the problem of this type of construction. More importantly, the entire structure becomes dense, and does not reveal the the transparency of the coral and lighting becomes difficult. In terms of accessibility, people cannot enter the structure to experience the the halluscination of being underwater.

Fig. C.2.5 Virtual Waffling

Fig. C.2.6 Virtual Waffling

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Structure: Digital and Fabrication Radial waffling

In the aim of achieveing transparency and accessibility, the group went back to radial construction, learnt from our previous failues, we decide to construct the geometry using in the method of radial waffling - this technique, is to create a framework and convient for the panels to be connected to as well as leaving hollow space in the interior for people to access. Fig. C.2.7 Division

The process of making started of firstly divided the design for the understory into two parts, that is, two separate the trunks. Find the centre point in of each trunk and extend lines radically to section the structure. Repeat the same to create horizontal sectioning, this is to secure the vertical sections. Make them into surfaces and trim the inner parts of the surface to create a framework. This is a loadbearing steel structure.

Fig. C.2.8 Vertical sectioning

Fig. C.2.9 Make surface

Fig. C.2.6 Trim off surface

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Making Process Perpendicular and Radial Waffling







C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Making Process Skinning






Fig. C.2.2.1 Panel connection (photo taken by me)

Fig. C.2.3.1 Facade detailing. (A) Central load bearing column (B) Aethetically connection, bolting (C) Connection - attachment of column to glass

Fig. C.2.2.2 Panel connection5

Fig. C.2.3.2 Facade detailing. (A) Metal framing - for protection and security (B) Glass facade, semi-translucent - aethetic purpose (C) Central metal column (E) Connection, from column to glass (F) Connection between each individual panel.

Fig. C.2.2.3 Panel connection6

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Precedent: RMIT Deisgn Hub Skinning and Construction Study

Our group is interested in the material and connection method utilized in the RMIT Design Hub. Structurally, semi-translucent glass facade connected to steel frames one next to each other, reinforced by connecting to a load bearing metal column which is set back, hidden behind the structure. The facade comprised on 16000 semi-translucent, sandblasted glass cells with the capacity for solar technology to be incorporated into the cells. The facade offers shading [3]. The internal facade will contain high-performance double glazed units with low emissivity film. Studying the construction of the facade, each glass panel is protected and by a metal frame. A thin column runs vertically through the panels a way to string individuals together. The glass panels are attached to the pole by two mechanical connectors which could be used to control the openings of glass. Each framed panel is them connected to a load bearing metal columns hidden at the back. The secure of the facade is useful for the teams to develop a technique for to attach our Perspex patterns to the skeleton structure.

Fig. C.2.3.3 Facade detailing. (A) Metal framing - for protection and security (B) Glass facade, semi-translucent - aethetic purpose (C) Central metal column (E) Connection, from column to glass (F) Connection between each individual panel (G) Steel frame - load bearing

Fig. C.2.4.1 Final model facade detailing. (A) Metal connection - bolting perspex surface onto loadbearing metal column (B) Metal framing (C) Semi-translucent perspex (D) Steel Column

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Skinning proposal

Learned from the precedent, the developed a construction method that is suitable to be built for such a free-form structure. Attach panels to the load bearing frame directly by four connectors on each plane. The panels are individually connected and so convenient for replacement. In terms of materials, the advantage of utilzing steel as loadbearing framework is that strong and design-flexible, allows large span distances and curves; durable and safe, resistance to fire, insects and rustication and quick to build [4]. Fig. C.2.4.2 Perspex

Fig. C.2.4.3 Steel

Perspex has the advantage of exceptional weatherbility and UV resistance, good impact strength, that is more than fifteen times stronger than glass of the same thickness, non-toxis, available in clear or coloured tints [5].





C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic Elements Detailed model

C.2. Gateway Design Project: Tectonic elements Colour and lighting

Skin and lighting. The reason for us to choose skin is related to the biologivcal makeup of the coral reef. Coral polyps have clear bodies and their skeletion are white, corals get their colour from the zooxanthellar inside them, these produce pigments through photosynthesis. so this means corals have two layers [6], one transparent layer and the other the pigment layer. Drawing inspiration from this structurally, our team decides to use coloured lightings with correspondence to pigmented layer and a translucent perspex skin layer.

C.3. Gateway Design Project: Final Model

C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The development of our teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deasign was made focues upon placemaking in a way transforming site-B in the aim of engaging with. technique inspired from the natural biological makeup of coral reefs as well as precedents, the Taichung Opera House. Completing this project have added my knowledge of producing architecture. In terms of computation, the process of design have met difficulties as well as producing unexpected results. Yet the essence behind the utlization of computation is understanding the logic behind every step. Learning how to use of digital softwares especially Grasshopper is almost like learning a new language which is a different set of logic to be learnt, Completing this project have introduced us to reach to the realm of unpredictability. Overall, limited knowledge has prevented me from producing more complex designs. Our team had obstacles in terms of fabrication, this is related to our lack of knowledge of problem solving and understanding of construction techniques. We have explored a few construction techniques this section, yet not enough was known which would have probably enhance our designs. The exploration of materials in the process of making prototypes allowed us to understood more about the qualities of materials and how we could essentially look for potentials and elaborate its potential qualities. Prototypes was also useful in testing out structural stability and the lighting effects of the model.

From trying to work out detailings for connection, independent research was essential and going on-sit study helped to understood the structural beings. Increased knowledge of structural members, forces and connections and the effect of materials used for such design, e.g. RMIT Design Hub. I have also developed skills to take in criticisms discuss shortcoming and limitations, in turn further pushes our design, as wella s the ability to generate design possibilities under our objectives.


[1]Toyo Ito & Associates (2006) Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, Available at: features/toyo-ito--associates/taichung-metropolitan-opera-house/ (Accessed: 5th Cctober 2013). [2] Smith, B. (2007) The Picturesque, Available at: (Accessed: 2nd October 2013). [3]Sean Godsell Architects (2013) RMIT Design Hub, Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2013). [4] Elhajj, N. R. (2013) Advantages of Steel, Available at: (Accessed: 10th October 2013). [5]Associated Plastics Tasmania (2013) Acrylic, Available at: (Accessed: 10th October ). [6] Cow, L. (2013) Coral Reef Ecosystems, Available at: (Accessed: 5th October 2013).

Image Sources 01 02 03 04 05 06

C.4. Algorithmic Sketches

Winney Zhao_558552_AIR_Final  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you