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WILD HORSES Problems on the range are plentiful but solutions slow to be implemented

Nov, 2016

Volume XLVI, Number 11


The Nevada Rancher (ISSN 0047-9489) (USPS #003-257) published monthly at Winnemucca Publishing, 1022 S. Grass Valley Road, Winnemucca, NV 89445 Call us toll free at (866) 644-5011 Periodical Postage Paid at Winnemucca, 89445 Publisher, Peter Bernhard General Manager, Holly Rudy-James Editor, J. Carmen Kofoed Staff Writer, Jolyn Young WP Staff Contributors, Joyce Sheen, Debra Reid, Cheryl Upshaw Contributors, Heather Smith Thomas, Erik Holland, Mike Popovitch, and Lacy Laubacher Sales Representative Ashley Buckingham Office Manager, Tracy Wadley Production Manager, Joe Plummer

Wild Horses

You can call them wild horses, mustangs or feral — but all to frequently they’re recently called emaciated, thirsty and overcrowded. We take a look at the wild horse issue in this edition.  Begins on Page 18

Gift Guide

Here you’ll find a roundup of some of the best gifts to make every cowboy and cowgirl on your list happy on Christmas morning!

Graphic Designer, J. Carmen Kofoed The Nevada Rancher does not assume responsibility for statements by advertisers nor products advertised within, and The Nevada Rancher does not assume responsibility for opinions expressed in articles submitted for publication. The publisher reserves the right to accept or reject advertising or editorial material submitted for publication. Contents in The Nevada Rancher may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including, but not limited to original contents and original composition of all ads (layout and artwork) without prior written permission. Subscription rate: $21.00 per year.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: The Nevada Rancher, Winnemucca Publishing,1022 S. Grass Valley Road, Winnemucca, NV 89445

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Page 12-16


OPINION 

S

Farmers are Proud of their Sustainability Narrative

ustainability is a hot topic around food production these days. Food companies frequently hijack the word for a marketing advantage, but it’s far more than a buzzword for us. Sustainability drives our business decisions from one season to the next: a farmer or rancher who doesn’t know the value of sustainability isn’t likely to be in business very long. And yet, when food companies and self-proclaimed food experts embrace the term, they too often leave the majority of farmers and ranchers out of the discussion and go after the very tools we’re using to protect everyone’s water, air and soil. Our industry is all about innovation, and cutting-edge technologies have changed the landscape of America’s farmland for the better. We have made great strides in protecting natural resources and reducing our environmental footprint, and it’s time we brag on ourselves just a bit. Organic, conventional or otherwise, farmers work hard to make the best choices for their crops, animals and land. We are committed to protecting the water we drink and the air we breathe, and we have the numbers to prove it. Resources like Field to Market’s Fieldprint Calculator track environmental impact and give meat to our sustainability narrative. The U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance also is helping to show what sustainability looks like in agriculture through a series of infographics. We are producing more with less. Take corn for example: The Field to Market Coalition survey shows production literally doubled from 1980 to 2011. Yet, soil erosion per bushel fell by a third, while irrigation water per bushel dropped by half over the same time period. Energy used for the average bushel dropped 44 percent, and greenhouse gas emissions were down 36 percent. Thanks to precision technology, farmers are saving resources, time and money. We are using fewer

pesticides than ever before and applying less water and nutrients to our crops. Smarter farm equipment with GPS helps us pinpoint exactly where and when we need to make applications. We can zero in on crop disease and pests, and target treatment so it’s just the right amount. And we’re adding more tools to the toolbox all the time. From drones to robotic harvesters, agricultural technology is becoming more efficient and streamlined to help farmers continue growing safe, affordable food for all. We can be proud of the new practices and farming techniques we have adopted to protect the soil from erosion and reduce greenhouse gases. We need to take the time to explain terms that are second nature to us, like no-till, buffer strips, and

integrated pest management. We shouldn’t shy away from talking about why we choose GMO seeds. Instead, we should explain the environmental benefits of growing crops that require little to no pesticides, are resistant to drought, preserve the soil and require fewer trips across the field. Farmers do this because it’s good business—and also because they are good people who want to do what’s right. They know that the choices they make can make a big difference. Jesus tells us in Matthew 13, in the parable of the soils, that sustainability is important and the choices we make are crucial if we expect to reap a big harvest year after year. To “sustain” means to keep in existence, to maintain, to continue. We are in difficult times in agriculture right now, and we are asked to do more and more with less and less. We cannot sustain our farms and ranches without using best management practices and the best agricultural technologies in our tool box. Sustainability can seem like a complex concept, but Jesus made it simple when he said to plant in good ground, not by the wayside or among the thorns. He has blessed us with the talents to research and develop new ways to keep the good ground fertile and productive. F

Editorial Ideas Wanted

We’re putting together our editorial calendar for 2017. We’d love your input! What are some topics that would make a good issue theme? Let us know! Send submissions via e-mail to:  editorial@ nevadarancher.com or mail your item to:  1022 S. Grass Valley Road, Winnemucca, NV 89445

Cartoon by Erik Holland

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 3


REPORT FROM THE FIELD 

Adapting to climate change on tribal land explored at upcoming summit Extension partners with tribal communities to help sustain water resources

RENO, Nev. – University of Nevada Cooperative Extension presents the second annual Native Waters on Arid Lands Tribal Summit, Nov. 9-10 in Las Vegas. The purpose of the summit is to help tribal communities in the Great Basin and American Southwest adapt to climate change, with a focus on water resources and agriculture. “At this summit and through the Native Waters on Arid Lands Project, we’re partnering with Native American tribes in the region to identify challenges and opportunities for sustaining water resources and strengthening tribal economies in the face of climate change,” said Loretta Singletary of University of Nevada, Reno, co-project director for the Native Waters on Arid Lands Project, which is organizing the summit as part of its broader outreach initiative. This year’s keynote speakers include Staff Attorney Heather Whiteman Runs Him, with the Native American Rights Fund. She will be speaking on tribal water rights. Virgil Dupuis, from Salish Kootenai College, and John Phillips, from First Americans LandGrant Consortium, will discuss tribal college internship programs. Harold Frazier, chairman for the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, will talk about tribal concerns surrounding the Dakota Access pipeline and saving water for future generations. The Native Waters on Arid Lands Tribal Summit is funded by a five-year, $4.5 million grant from the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture – Agriculture Food Research Initiative. The Native Waters on Arid Lands Project was one of five integrated research and Extension projects nationwide selected for USDA funding. For more information or to register for the summit, visit http://nativewaters-aridlands.com/, or contact Extension Educator Staci Emm, emms@unce.unr.edu or 775945-3444, ext. 10, or Summit Organizer Vicki Hebb, vicki.hebb@indianaglink.com or 605-222-2062 F

University of Nevada Cooperative Extension presents the Native Waters on Arid Lands Tribal Summit to help tribal communities in the Great Basin and American Southwest adapt to climate change and build resiliency for their water resources and agriculture.

Other session topics include: Bureau of Indian Affairs Climate Program, training opportunities and tribal climate resilience examples in arid environments Ground water and surface water relationships affecting reservation environments Invigorating tribal economies through innovative water resource use Tribal rangeland and livestock conservation practices Traditional knowledge and ecology The summit will be held 7:30 a.m. – 5 p.m., Nov. 9 and 7:30 a.m. – 4 p.m., Nov. 10 at South Point Hotel & Casino, 9777 Las Vegas Blvd. South. The cost is $350 and covers meals and refreshments.

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FROM THE GREAT BASIN WATER NETWORK:

Tread carefully in changing water law By Abby Johnson and Howard Watts Great Basin Water Network

This editorial has been submitted by GBWN, who the Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission supports in their efforts to protect Nevada’s water laws and its’ supply. Our state’s top water official – the State Engineer – wants the “flexibility” to manage conflicts if it turns out the State allowed water pumping that impacts the environment or other users of that water resource. That might sound reasonable, but unfortunately various loose interpretations, over-optimistic assumptions, and loopholes since the start of Nevada water law have led one in every five water basins in our state to become over-appropriated, with more rights on paper than water to supply them. Past State Engineers have ignored the links between ground and surface water, failed to count thousands of domestic wells against a basin’s yield, or assumed that not all water rights will be put to beneficial use. Their actions have allowed for the most development, and left future generations on

the hook for the results of over pumping. Our state’s water law was designed to protect water resources from being overused, and to protect those that came first from having their water taken by thirsty newcomers. That’s why Great Basin Water Network, White Pine County, and others have been successful in court, challenging State Engineer decisions to approve water rights for a massive groundwater pipeline from Eastern Nevada to Las Vegas. Flexibility is the problem, not the solution. What the state needs is clear guidance to be prudent, not a blank check to rubber stamp water rights now and deal with the problems later. The State Engineer’s broad proposal would also contradict Federal and state constitutional protections for due process and property rights. Lawsuits over the government’s “takings” could be plentiful and costly for taxpayers as senior rights holders seek compensation for their diminished resources. On Aug. 26, the Nevada Legislative Commission’s Subcommittee to Study Water finalized its recommendations to change water law during the 2017 Legislative session. State Senators Pete Goicoechea and Aaron Ford committed to drafting

a bill to allow flexibility through “adaptive management.” Great Basin Water Network asks them to work with us to make sure changes strengthen our state’s water law, not weaken it. Anything half as vague as the State Engineer’s plan should be a non-starter. To be clear, GBWN doesn’t oppose mitigation plans. But that process has to happen before rights are granted, with specific triggers and remedies. The burden and mandate must be on the applicant as a junior rights holder to scale back when conflicts occur. We believe that language is already in state law and said as much in our comments to the Water Subcommittee. Perhaps the State Engineer needs it spelled out even more, but giving broad authority to grant water rights now, with a promise to deal with conflicts later is a mistake. It jeopardizes senior water rights and exacerbates, rather than controls, the state’s chronic over-appropriation problems. It’s essential that legislators hear now from ranchers, well owners, and others whose livelihoods depend on water, before Nevada water law is changed in ways that jeopardize senior water rights and provoke property rights takings lawsuits. F

Nevada Rangeland Resource Commission was established by the state of Nevada to promote responsible public lands grazing. They work to protect and preserve Nevada Rangelands by providing wildlife habitat, open spaces and access for recrea�on, limit the fuels that fuel wildfires, and develop watersheds that provide greenspaces, and wetlands. Representa�ves come from Nevada State grazing boards, Nevada Woolgrowers, Nevada Farm Bureau and Nevada Ca�lemen’s Associa�on.

www.nevadarangelands.org The next mee�ng of the Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission (NRRC) will be held during the NCA Joint Annual Conven�on in Reno Thursday, December 1, 2016 at 10:00 a.m. 4780 East Idaho Street, Elko, NV 89801 • 775-738-4082 This ad is funded through the NRRC’s assessment of 10¢ per AUM paid by public land ranchers.

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 5


REPORT FROM THE FIELD 

Top 10 Angus Breeders – National association recognizes Nevada’s purebred ranchers By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – Consumers might not know an Angus cow if she licked them on the ankle, but they definitely recognize the “certified Angus beef” label on a package of steak in the grocery store. They are willing to pay a premium price for this value-added product, and registered Angus breeders across the nation help maintain the supply for commercial producers, retailers, and, ultimately, the consumers. The American Angus Association (AAA) recently recognized breeders around the nation who registered the most cattle during Fiscal Year 2016. The 10 producers who registered Above, after over two decades in the business, Ron and Jackie Torell liquidated their entire herd last year at the peak of the cattle market. At left and below, based out of the Spratling family ranch, the Wakley family is having a blast raising cattle and kids. Amelia and Taylor Wakley raise registered Angus and Hereford cattle near Deeth.

the most cattle in Nevada recorded

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a total of 409 head last year. The 10 top recorders in Nevada are: Hone Ranch, Gardnerville; Jackson Mountain Angus, Winnemucca; JR or Carol R Watchtel, Deeth; Lonnie Adams, Fallon; Amelia Spratling Wakley, Deeth; Bieroth Ranch, Mountain City; Flying X Angus Ranch, Elko; Emily Brough, Wells; John and Marjorie Vipham, Mountain City; Torell Livestock, Elko. In FY 2016, Angus breeders registered 334,607 head of cattle nationwide. “Our growth this fiscal year continues to demonstrate strong demand for Angus genetics and solidifies our long-held position as a leader in the beef cattle industry,” said Allen Moczygemba, Chief Executive Office of the AAA. “These results underscore our members’ commitment to providing genetic solutions to the beef cattle industry.” Charlie Hone, owner/operator of the Hone Ranch, continually strives to improve his cattle’s genetics. He raises purebred Angus cattle and sells primarily bulls. “The main reason why I like raising Angus cattle is because they’re


The Hone Ranch raises purebred Angus cattle and sells primarily bulls near Gardnerville.

pretty much the Swiss army knife of the beef industry. You can find genetics within the Angus herd that can do almost anything,” said Hone. As a general rule, Hone strives to raise balanced-trait bulls, but he’ll certainly “push the envelope in any direction by analyzing individual cows and making individual matings to make bulls for any situation.” For example, if a customer wants a heifer bull or a one that will yield a high growth rate, Hone will use genetic selection to target those traits and raise that type of bull. His operation relies on extensive and accurate genetic records, a major benefit of belonging to the AAA. As a member, Hone sends in data such as birth weight on his calves, and the AAA processes the numbers and sends reports back to him. The AAA also keeps track of generations of Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs) and has accurately recorded pedigrees as well. “I like the statistics,” said Hone. Hone and his family plan to continue raising registered Angus in the coming years, but another successful breeder on the Top 10 list recently liquidated his herd. After spending 25 years in the seed stock business and building a 100-head herd of purebred cattle from scratch, Ron and Jackie Torell sold their entire

herd last year. “Recognizing that we were not getting any younger and that we did not have many more cattle cycles left in us, we made the decision in July of 2015 – at the peak of the market – to completely liquidate our cows and infrastructure,” said Torell. He and Jackie continue to operate their custom artificial insemination and ranch consulting business. While the Torells capitalized on strong beef prices to suit the season of their life, a young family near Deeth continues to raise purebred Angus and Hereford cattle. Amelia Spratling Wakley, along with her husband Taylor, toddler son Harris and a baby due this month, also made the Top 10 list. They are based out of the Spratling family ranch in Starr Valley, and both Amelia and Taylor show cutting and working cow horses in addition to raising cattle and kids. Congratulations to all of Nevada’s Top 10 breeders, as well as other operations that raise registered beef cattle. The AAA is the nation’s largest beef breed organization, serving nearly 25,000 members across the United States, Canada and several other countries. For more information about Angus cattle and the Association, visit www.ANGUS.org. F

Upcoming Sales

Saturday, November 19th at 1:00pm 14th Annual Harvest Moon Calf and Yearling Sale Saturday, December 10th at 1:00pm 14th Annual Silver State Calf and Yearling Sale in conjunction with Nevada Cattlemen’s Association Sale

The Best in the West.

You won’t want to miss these sales so mark your calendars! For More Marketing Information, to Consign Your Livestock or Arrange Trucking Call

Monte Bruck, Manager at 775-426-8279 2055 Trento Lane • Fallon, Nevada 775-867-2020 Thanks Again For The Business!

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 7


Wisconsin may expand funding for manure digester technology MILWAUKEE (AP) — Wisconsin’s utility regulator is planning to spend more money on energy projects in rural areas, including a plan to help underwrite the use of systems that convert cattle manure into electricity. The systems known as manure digesters also help farms manage waste, which has become an increasingly controversial issue in Wisconsin as the size of dairy farms grows, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported. Wisconsin Public Service Commission officials said they’re considering spending up to $20 million on manure digester technology, and will lead efforts to encourage other state agencies to explore the equipment. Tressie Kamp, an attorney with Midwest Environmental Advocates, said she was cautiously optimistic about Thursday’s decision. But she emphasized that manure digesters do not, themselves, strip nutrients such as phosphorus from manure. The nutrients, a key source of fertilizer for crops, can spur algae growth and harm aquatic habitats if used in excess. University of Wisconsin-Madison soil scientist Carrie Loboski said a separate system should be put in place that would split solids and liquids in manure, which would allow farmers to manage their waste stream and keep excess nutrients from being applied to their soil. The commission also voted to authorize at least $7.7 million in funding for solar, wind and geothermal projects around the state that would keep a rebate program in place for energy consumers. F

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RANCH WORK 

Culling decisions crucial to future of cow herd Having a plan better than ‘fire-sale’ mentality By Heather Smith Thomas Special to the Rancher

Cash flow. Bottom line. Red ink. How can cattlemen survive in times of low cattle prices? The prices we’re getting for our cattle keep dropping these days, yet the expenses keep going up. Ranchers generally cull harder, selling more cows or heifers, to try to generate enough income to pay the bills. But those culling decisions are crucial to the future of the cow herd. Are we using these decisions to help shape and improve the herd (to be able to more readily take advantage of better prices when they finally go back up again, with better-performing cattle) or are we selling in desperation--sacrificing some opportunities or some long-term goals--using “fire sale” mentality? When making culling decisions, it is important to have a plan, to make the best decisions for your own operation. The plan should include pregnancy testing and closely evaluating every cow. Culling decisions should be based on several factors; pregnancy may not be the only (nor the most important) consideration. There may be some economic advantages to keeping a good young cow even if she came up open after her first calf, and sending a poor producer to market even though she’s pregnant. You also need to have a marketing strategy for the culls. Don’t sell a good older cow while she is still producing top calves, but sell her before she starts going downhill or has physical problems that will reduce her market value. Keep close track of your cows. Some may start slipping in production by age 10 or 12, while others will be highly productive well into their teens. The cows with good fertility and longevity are the kind you want, and the ones you should keep heifers from. If you had a dry summer and cows came in a little thin after raising their calves, that’s not the best time to sell the culls. If you plan to add weight to those cows before selling, it may pay to deworm them, or even implant them. Research at Kansas State University shows that cull cows have excellent response to the traditional implants used with heifers.

During periods of herd reduction to maintain cash flow, a rancher is often better off to get rid of old cows, poor producers, cows with bad teats, bad dispositions, the late calvers, etc. than to cull just the open cows.

Marketing cull cows and bulls usually accounts for 10 to 25% of the annual income on the average beef cattle operation. This is an area that will affect the yearly profitability or loss on any given ranch. One study a few years ago showed that increasing cull cow weight and price by even 10% can reduce the price you need for break-even on your calves by $3.38 per hundredweight. Prudent marketing of cull cows can always improve the rancher’s bottom line, because it capitalizes on the seasonal nature of the slaughter cow market. Another option (rather than holding culls to put more weight on), if cows are not too thin to sell in mid-summer (or you are short on fall pasture due to drought, and cannot afford the feed to put gains on cull cows after weaning) is to wean calves early and send cull cows to market ahead of the annual fall price drop. Calves off those cows can be weaned on green pasture at a fairly young age, and the cows sold. Still another option, if you are not set up to cull that early, is to preg-check in September and sell cull cows then, rather than

waiting until the market hits bottom in November or December. Another option is to put together a group of bred cows you’d like to get rid of for one reason or another—that don’t quite fit your program—and sell them as bred cows late in the year when the bred cow market comes up. During periods of herd reduction to maintain cash flow, a rancher is often better off to get rid of old cows, poor producers, cows with bad teats, bad dispositions, the late calvers, etc. than to cull just the open cows. A good young cow with a bright future should probably stay in the herd even if she’s open; this is the time to get rid of the real culls instead. They will also weigh more and bring more money than a thin, open young cow that just weaned off a good calf. If the ranch needs to generate cash flow and cut back the herd to save on feed costs, this is an opportunity to sell any cow that isn’t a good producer or has a problem that makes your job harder. Every herd has good cattle and poor ones. Continues on Page 10

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 9


CULLING COWS

instead of waiting till spring--so they miss only half a year of production instead of a whole year. The better milking cows with the biggest calves are often in that open 2 year old group. Instead of washing her out of a spring calving system that doesn’t fit that cow, maybe you can put her into another system where she does fit. Fall calving may be the least-cost solution for that animal, as well as an economic opportunity for the ranch. For just a little more investment (to pay interest on the money to run her, and an extra month or two for feeding her to get her bred for fall calving) you can keep numbers up without spending so much to develop a replacement heifer. Why replace a proven young cow with an unproven heifer? Also, the fall calving program could enable a ranch to produce a second calf crop in the off season, to spread out the marketing and benefit from the oftentimes higher prices for calves--when the market is not glutted by spring calves being sold in the fall.

Cont. from Page 9 This is a time to cull the poorer ones or to sell an older pregnant cow that’s near the end of her productive career, rather than sacrificing a good young cow that is only open because she gave of herself too much (to wean a good calf) instead of breeding back on time. Fertility is an important factor, and breed-back is something that should always be considered. But the 2-year-olds that are producing heavy calves have such a demand on them that coming up open may not be their fault. The time to sort and cull on fertility is at the yearling level. The quickest, easiest way to develop genetically fertile cows is to ruthlessly cull replacement heifers on pregnancy rate, leaving bulls with them for a very short breeding season and culling any heifers that don’t settle. The open yearling is also an attractive animal to sell; she’s often worth more than a thin, open 2-yearold that didn’t breed back. It doesn’t pay to give an open yearling a second chance, no matter how good she looks nor how good her rate of gain or her parent’s records. You may be perpetuating her low fertility with every daughter she later produces. Making excuses for low fertility in yearlings will eventually result in a cow herd with low fertility. But you can often compromise on 2-year-olds, because the ones that come up open after a short breeding season are usually the ones that raised the best calves. By contrast, a poor milker that puts more of her “groceries” into herself and has a dinky calf will usually cycle and breed back. Therefore the rancher who automatically keeps every pregnant 2 or 3 year old (no matter how poor her calf) and sells every open young cow (no matter how good her calf) is inadvertently selecting for mediocrity. Over time he’ll end up with a cow herd that produces mostly below-average calves because he has kept that kind of cow.

CULL HEIFERS WISELY

Ranchers are often frustrated during times of low prices, but in the long term, this down cycle could actually be a time of opportunity. Now is the time to lay the genetic foundations to improve our herds.

SHORT BREEDING SEASON CAN BE TOOL FOR SELECTION In our own herd, we have a very short breeding and calving season. With a 32-day breeding period for our yearling heifers, and selling any that come up open, we selected for high fertility in our herd of crossbred cows, over the past 45 years. We don’t have enough feed to keep all our calves as yearlings, but we started keeping extra heifers, using short breeding season as a culling tool, selling any yearling heifers that came up open. We don’t have much investment in these yearlings, since our heifers are wintered on grass (until it snows under) and grass/alfalfa hay and no grain. But with crossbreeding and selecting the

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most fertile heifers, our cow herd became more fertile, with fewer open yearlings. Because we had so many pregnant heifers each year, it gave us more flexibility in culling the older cows. We don’t have to cull just on old age or pregnancy; we can also cull a cow with a bad udder or some other problem (the kind we used to have to keep, to hold up our numbers), because now we have something better to replace her. This sped up our herd improvement.

OPTIONS Every ranch has to handle culling decisions in a way that works for them. Some ranchers solve this dilemma by putting the good young open cows into a fall calving program, breeding them later in the year

Some of the annual operating cost of any ranch is in raising replacement heifers. But these costs can be lowered, not by settling for cheaper, lower quality animals (which will produce less profit in the long run because of their poor performance and production) but by improving their feed efficiency and fertility. Nowhere in our industry is improving production and increasing quality more important than in upgrading the factory--the cow herd. It may be difficult to cut costs on heifers, but a person can make them more efficient and productive. Crossbred heifers are more fertile and productive than straightbreds, often keeping better body condition and being more fertile on marginal feeds and less expensive supplements. For instance, we are able to grow our replacement heifers on pasture after weaning, and then a mix of grass/ alfalfa hay over winter, with no grain or supplements of any kind except mineralized salt. We’ve tailored our cattle to thrive in our harsh mountain conditions, eating what we are able to grow (which is mostly native pas-


ture and mixed hay). If you are selecting for high fertility in heifers, and trying to make the best culling decisions, it’s important to keep in mind a balance between inputs (feed costs) and the type of young cow you want in your herd. You might not want heifers that can only perform well on high quality feeds, especially if you have to buy the feed. If you spend money on inputs (such as grain) to the point you’ve created an artificial environment and can’t determine the heifer’s true reproductive abilities, you don’t know if she can make it in the real world, without the expensive feed. The heifer must be gaining, sexually mature, in good physical condition to breed (not too thin nor too fat), however, and this is easier to accomplish if you have selected heifers that can do it on natural feeds. Part of the selection process is weeding out the extremes--the smallest, biggest and fattest, youngest, or heifers with poor conformation or attitude. And after you’ve put them into the breeding program, early culling of any potential problem heifer is also important. It pays to determine the heifer’s pregnancy status as soon as possible after breeding; then you have more options on what direction to go with the open ones (or late bred heifers if you have a longer breeding season).

not when you are paying high prices for bulls or replacements. In a price crisis, all too often ranchers talk about the negatives, and how hard it is to pay the bills, and tend to overlook the economic opportunities. We may need to be prepared to put cull cows on the market if feed costs are high and we can’t afford to

maintain open cows. But watch the markets. There are huge differences in how ranchers sell their cull cows. Timing is important--where and when, and whether or not the cows are thin or in good condition. If you are in a position to put some weight on those cows, you can still make money. Don’t be tied into a traditional program,

weaning on a certain date, selling culls at a certain time. Just because that’s the way you’ve always done it, doesn’t mean it’s the best way. Be innovative and creative, looking at ways to best market your product. The way you cull your herd and market those culls may be one of the biggest determining factors in surviving the rough years. F

USE CULLING AS AN OPPORTUNITY Ranchers are often frustrated during times of low prices, but in the long term, this down cycle could actually be a time of opportunity. Now is the time to lay the genetic foundations to improve our herds. Seedstock is cheaper than it was last year or a couple years ago, so this is a good time to buy bulls and cull the cow herd in the right direction. Ranchers can make important decisions that will make a big difference on whether or not they can capitalize later on better markets. We can take this opportunity to position our cattle genetically, shaping the cow herd not only for better reproduction and calving ease but also for genetic potential for feed efficiency. Evaluate where your herd is today and where it needs to go. This is the time to make the adjustments, and

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 11


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Prints from small to extra large, and printed products (such as coffee cups, and note cards) available on website at all times. Seasonal items such as calendars are available too!

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 15


Raising Wild a blend of history, Ranch book series by Heather humor and breathtaking beauty Smith Thomas perfect for giving Raising Wild: Dispatches from a Home in the Wilderness By Michael P. Branch Combining natural history, humor, and personal narrative, Raising Wild is an intimate exploration of Nevada’s Great Basin Desert, the wild and extreme land of high desert caliche and juniper, of pronghorn antelope and mountain lions, where wildfires and snowstorms threaten in equal measure.  Within this remote, high desert landscape sits the home of Michael Branch, where he, his wife, and their two curious little girls brazenly live among the packrats and ground squirrels, rattlesnakes and scorpions. In Branch’s hands, this exceedingly barren and stark landscape becomes a place teeming with energy, surprise, and an endless web of connections that ultimately includes his family and home. It is in this desert setting where, in building a ladder to the stars, one can find a connection to the past and to the heavens; where his children’s first garden becomes not the quaint blossoming of seed to flower and fruit but a smoke

Western writer Heather Smith Thomas has written for years, and had amassed a beautiful collection of books that would be perfect for Christmas or any gift-giving occasion.

Horse Tales: True Stories from an Idaho Ranch

bomb–drenched exhibit of futility in the face of the inhospitable desert environment; where the surprise of fire acts as a reminder all too real of the unknowable that awaits us and for which we can never fully prepare.  In this exhilarating, lyrical, and humorous exploration of natural history, Branch reveals a desert wilderness in which our ideas about nature and ourselves are challenged and transformed. Available in hardcover from Roost Books. F

16   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

As the original book in this series, this book is a collection of 22 stories about the horses that helped define the author’s life in Idaho ranch country. Horse Tales is a unique memoir infused with the brand of wisdom that can be acquired only through an existence built around livestock and the land. Thomas centers each story around a specific animal, along the way sharing lessons on life, family and stockmanship.” 282 pages, paperback. $24.95

Cow Tales: More True Stories from an Idaho Ranch This book was published in July 2015. The press release from the publisher states: “Following the success of her acclaimed nonfiction collection Horse Tales…Cow Tales is an entertaining and compelling line-up of autobiographical essays detailing her family’s adventures raising cattle

in the challenging ranch country outside Salmon, Idaho. In the tradition of James Herriot (All Creatures Great and Small), each story centers on a particular animal or aspect of animal husbandry, offering insight into the resourcefulness required to manage a cattle herd, and a heart-warming look at human-animal bonding.” (325 pages; $24.95)

Ranch Tales: Stories of Dogs, Cats and Other Crazy Critters This is the third book in the ‘Tales’ series, and was published December, 2015 (273 pages, $24.95) and consists of stories about memorable ranch animals and wildlife. Each humorous, heartwarming and insightful tale is centered on the unique bond that forms between people and the animals—livestock, pets and wildlife—that populate a working ranch. Order any of these books from Amazon, Barnes & Noble, or from the publisher: The Frontier Project Inc. (phone: 719-237-0243) thefrontierproject@gmail.com Signed copies are available from Heather Thomas, Box 215, Salmon, Idaho 83467 (208-756-2841) hsmiththomas@centurytel.net [price: $24.95 plus $3 postage – Idaho residents add 6% sales tax. For all three books - $70 plus $7 shipping] F


Friday, November 4, 2016 Red Western Classic Show Saturday, November 5, 2016 Bet on Red Auction

Join us for the Cattleman’s Symposium Thursday, November 3, 2016 Topics include: Value and benefit of year-round supplementation Value of carcass ultrasound Sponsored by:

Platinum Event Sponsor & Sale Day Lunch Host Sale sponsored by the Northwest Red Angus Assn.

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For more information, contact Mark Peacemaker: (530) 340-0223

All attendees of the Cattleman’s Symposium can enter to win a Weatherby SA08 12 Gauge Semi Automatic shotgun. Donated by all the Montana breeders participating in the 2016 Bet on Red!

Complete catalog available online at: www.redcows.net THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 17


ISSUE FOCUS

WILD HORSES

Wild horse issue at the crisis point By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – In years past, the federal government offered a bounty for a pair of wild horse ears. In later years, ranchers gathered the horses on their ranches to keep their population in check. In modern times, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is under such intense pressure from wild horse groups that they can’t take any action to properly manage the horses and burros on the Western rangeland. After the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board met in Elko in early September, they incited a firestorm of media backlash when they recommended that the BLM euthanize unadoptable excess horses or offer them for sale without limitation. This second option typically means sold to a slaughter house. “The decision to make this recommendation to the BLM was not taken lightly. I’ve received about 500 hate emails in 24 hours and about 50 emails of support from people that live in the areas impacted by horses. This is the last recommendation that any of the board members wanted to make. However, we don’t see any options left and the resources

committee would rather see tens of thousands of horses sold or euthanized rather than allow them to degrade millions of acres of public rangelands,” wrote Ben Masters in an online post following the meeting. Masters sits in the Wildlife chair on the advisory board. To read more from Masters, see his story on page.... Immediately after receiving the recommendation, the BLM issued a public statement that they would not euthanize or sell without limitation any excess horses gathered off the range. So, what will they do? Nothing. The BLM’s answer to the wild horse problem appears to be to take no action. In Herd Management Areas where the horses’ population is 700% over the Appropriate Management Level (AML), they gathered a handful of horses this fall. The horses they removed will be replaced and then some by next year’s foal crop. Furthermore, a judge for the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals recently decided that the BLM was not required to conduct any gathers to remove horses from the range. Read more about this likely precedent-setting decision on page 19.

18   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

Fertility control is a population-growth tool that activists like to tout, but the BLM so far has not been able to effectively use fertility control in the wild horse herds. Porcine Zona Pellucida (PZP) must be administered twice to each animal the first year, then once a year after that. With a total of nearly 75,000 horses on 32 million acres of rangeland, it’s not practical to dart every single mare. Gelding studs doesn’t work; a single stud can cover dozens of mares, so missing even one stud in a gather-andgeld operation would render the project pointless. But, the BLM is going to have to do something, hopefully sooner rather than later. The AML for the entire West is set at 26,715 horses and burros, and there are currently about 75,000 on the range. There are also over 45,000 horses in short and long-term holding facilities. The wild horse activists have clamored for years to keep the horses on the range, and it appears they are succeeding. To read more about the exploding populations, see page.... Increasingly, the wild horse and burro issue is being picked up by mainstream national news sources. With more information circulating in the media, maybe the court of public opinion will rule in favor of taking drastic action to manage the horses. F


Comments and suggested solutions from a member of the advisory board In September, Ben Masters traveled to Elko to attend the National Board meeting. Soon after, he posted an article online sharing his thoughts and suggestions on wild horse management. Below is an edited version of his original story, reprinted with his permission. By Ben Masters Special to the Rancher

ELKO, Nev. – Right now we are witnessing an ecological disaster on tens of millions of acres of our beloved Western Landscapes. It is affecting reptiles, mammals, birds, invertebrates, migrating species, amphibians, threatened and endangered species, plant communities, soil health, and even water availability. I have seen it firsthand. During this Advisory Board Meeting, we took a field trip to the Antelope Valley HMA Complex. The Complex is East of Elko, NV and is 1.3 Million Acres of High Desert that gets about 5 inches of precipitation a year, mainly as snow. It is a very delicate ecosystem that can take decades, if ever, to recover if it is overgrazed. We stopped about a mile from the major water source of the entire HMA Complex, Dolly Varden Springs. It was almost entirely the invasive Cheatgrass, annual mustard, invasive Russian Thistle, Rabbitbrush, and the invasive and toxic Halogeton. Each of these plant species is very undesirable and has very little forage value for wild horses or wildlife (with the exception of rabbitbrush which is great for pollinators.) If such intense grazing pressure hadn’t existed, there would be a more diverse mix of native grasses. Because of this, wildlife suffers, horses suffer, and we’re passing along a less rich world to future generations and the wildlife that depend on it. It is worth noting that there has been no livestock grazing in this described area in 7 years and the sample research plots show a steady decline in perennial native vegetations and a rise of annual invasives. This degradation is happening to millions of acres across the Western United States right now. There are many species to blame. This can happen when there is overgrazing of elk, deer, cattle, sheep, or horses. How-

Ben Masters is a filmmaker, writer, and conservationist most known for the documentary Unbranded in which he and three friends adopted 16 Wild Horses, trained them, and rode from Mexico to Canada to inspire adoptions. He volunteers on the Wildlife Management chair for the BLM Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board. He creates content for Western Horseman, National Geographic Adventure, and independent projects. You can follow him @ bencmasters. ever, hunting permits and predators control cervid populations and grazing permits are revoked when there are too many livestock. Only Wild Horses and Burros don’t have an “out” because of politics, budget constraints, and there’s not enough room [to] gather and board excess horses. They also have virtually no predators. Wild Horses are causing severe rangeland degradation in some areas. This isn’t an “if.” This is a fact. It is an emergency situation right now and it will only get worse. It is difficult to blame a beautiful animal like the Wild Horse, but it is imperative that we acknowledge the fact that overpopulated large herbivores can and do cause rangeland damage to delicate ecosystems Here is my goal: “To lower Wild Horse & Burro populations to the Appropriate Management Level and to use humane fertility control methods, applied by volunteers, to slow the population growth of the Wild Horses to the point where if/when gathers are necessary, the amount gathered equals the adoption demand. After rangelands have improved and population growth has been successfully suppressed, AML should be studied and increased if available forage exists.” If we achieve this stated goal then we would have a perfectly sustainable, affordable, and publicly acceptable long-term solution to the Wild Horse and Burro Program. Getting there is difficult because of the 45,000 horses already in holding and the 40,000 horses over AML on the range. So what realistic options do we have? Here are the options that I see.

1. Achieve AML by gathering excess horses and put them into holding pens. It would be nice to think that we could get all of these gathered horses adopted but it is not realistic. I don’t think sending all those horses to sit in a pen or pasture with no wild tendencies until they die is a very humane thing to do. 2. Achieve AML by selling excess Wild Horses and Burros to the public. Thousands of horses would be purchased by individuals, but many would find their way on a truck to Canada or Mexico to be slaughtered and used for food. This would be the most cost effective manner but in my opinion, a truck ride to Mexico to die in an unregulated squeeze chute isn’t as humane as swift euthanasia. 3. Achieve AML by euthanizing older unadoptable horses in holding pens to allow space for excess horses on the range to be gathered and offered for adoption. Once AML is achieved, fertility control methods should be implemented to slow the

population growth so that the BLM doesn’t ever have to euthanize again. 4. Use sterilization and additional public lands to achieve AML. Extra public lands could possibly be made available to allow excess horses to be sterilized to create non-reproducing herds to live out the rest of their lives in a wild environment. Once AML is achieved, fertility control could be used to slow the population growth in the reproducing herds to the point where the gather demand equals the adoption demand. However, this scenario is virtually impossible. It would require acts of Congress [and] overcoming dozens of lawsuits. FYI gelding studs does nothing to little population growth because one stud can cover dozens of mares. Sterilization has to be done to mares to be effective as a population suppression. I would prefer to use this option but I don’t think there’s a snowflake’s chance in hell for it to happen. 5. Do nothing. Allow Wild Horses to continue to overpopulate to the point where they eat all available forage and begin starving to death. This is already happening, for example at Cold Creek HMA last year. If we choose this option, we are damning millions of acres of beautiful landscapes to be taken over by invasive plants and destroying the habitat that native wildlife depends on. In my opinion, this inhumane to the horses and the wildlife. I also don’t want millions of acres of degraded landscapes to be my conservation legacy. Sadly, I think this will likely be the outcome if the general public and politicians don’t get involved, educated, and act swiftly. F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 19


Fertility Matters Fertility is the #1 driver of profitability. Without a live calf all other statistics are irrelevant in creating profit. At Burgess Angus Ranch we know that fertility matters. Our own herd consists of 25% of cows that are 8+ years. This is a testament to the adaptability and sustainability of our cattle to the limited resources available in the high desert environment. If you are interested in breeding to quality bulls with proven genetics to increase your own herd profit, plan to join us this December for our annual bull sale.

Round Up of Value$ Bull Sale

December 9, 2016 at the ranch in Homedale @ 1:00 MST

Guest Consignor B&B Red Angus

Burgess Angus Ranch -X Doug & Janice Burgess (208) 337-4094 2725 Mule Springs Road Homedale, ID 83628 www.burgessangusranch.com 16 year old cow, 14th calf

Dealer for Bextra Haysaving Bale Feeders

Nevada Rancher Magazine 20   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

Check out the Rancher Facebook page for bonus content, cool contests, conversation and more!

3 wolves in Wyo. pack targeted after livestock loss JACKSON, Wyo. (AP) — Three wolves in a problematic pack near Jackson are being targeted by wildlife officials after another attack on cattle. The Jackson Hole News and Guide reports the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service again sent a U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services agent to kill some of the animals. This is at least the third time the wolves have made their way onto pastures with grazing livestock. Wildlife Services has killed 11 of an estimated 19 wolves in the pack. Wolves took two calves and bit another about a week ago. Fish and Wildlife Wyoming field supervisor Tyler Abbott has not ordered the pack’s complete removal. He said he’s hopeful the pack can learn to tie livestock with danger as officials kill problem wolves.

Owyhee farms received full water allotment ONTARIO, Ore. (AP) — Farmers that rely on water from the Owyhee Reservoir to irrigate their crops have received their full allotment for the first time in four years. The Capital Press reports that Owyhee Irrigation District Manager Jay Chamberlin says the full allotment helped many growers get back to a normal crop rotation after years of dealing with a water shortage. The Owyhee Reservoir provides irrigation water for 1,800 farms and 118,000 acres of ground in Eastern Oregon and part of southwestern Idaho. In 2014 and 2015 growers received only a third of their full 4 acre-foot allotment. As a result of the shortage growers changed their usual habits, growing drought resistant crops like cereals more than once instead of switching to other crops that could protect soil health. F


ISSUE FOCUS

How many horses are enough?

WILD HORSES

Overpopulation in a land of scarce resources By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – Wild horses have been “saved” to the point where their sheer numbers are jeopardizing their own health and survival. With activists constantly clamoring to stop gathers and keep the animals out on the range, their numbers have now swelled to an unprecedented and unhealthy high. When the Wild and Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act was passed in 1971, there were about 15,000 horses and burros on the western rangeland. The Appropriate Management Level (AML) for the entire West was set at 26,715 animals. Under federal protection, their numbers rose to AML – and have kept rising for decades. Today, there are about 75,000 total animals. That’s nearly three times AML. This figure is from the 2016 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) census, which counted 67,000 animals, plus additional foals born this year. Wild horse activists often claim that the BLM counts are low, but the negative effects that the horses are having on the natural resources is making it increasingly difficult to substantiate a claim that the horses are threatened or endangered. Continues on Page 23

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT GRAPHIC

New research is expected to lead to better management tools. But even if these new tools were available today, it would take decades for populations to come into balance with what the land can support.

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 21


Emergency? What to do?

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775-625-1945 22   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016


These horses are in the Goshute HMA, about 30 miles east of Elko. This photo was taken on September 20 near Tunnel Spring, a major water source in the HMA. /BLM photo

HOW MANY HORSES Cont. from Page 21 In many Herd Management Areas (HMAs), the horses have eaten all the available forage and wandered beyond the borders, which are often unfenced, in search of feed. The water sources can’t produce enough water for the entire herd. Even though the agency didn’t conduct any helicopter gathers this year due to budget constraints, it recognized that the animals and landscape were suffering from the sheer number of horses and that some must be removed for the health of all. Helicopter gathers, though denounced as cruel by wild horse advocates, are the best way to gather a large number of animals in a short amount of time. But, the bulk of the BLM’s wild horse and burro budget goes to feeding animals already removed from the range, and no money was allocated for planned helicopter gathers in Fiscal Year 2016. In February, the situation in one

area was bleak enough that the BLM conducted a helicopter gather to remove some excess horses. The Eagle HMA, located near Pioche, has an AML of 100-210 wild horses, and the pre-gather population was 1,370. In the nearby Caliente Complex, there were 796 horses. This area is managed for zero wild horses. The BLM removed a total of 128 horses from outside these two areas, as the populations have swelled enough to push horses outside of their boundaries. Once FY 2016 began with its tighter budget constraints, the BLM ceased conducting helicopter gathers. The needed to remove some excess animals from areas deemed to be in states of emergency, though, so a bait-trap system was used in a few HMAs. To trap horses, hay is set inside a small panel enclosure on the range. Compared with helicopter gathers, a much smaller number of animals is removed over a longer period of time. But, it is much cheaper, so the BLM conducted a few of these gathers around the state. Last month, the BLM planned

to remove up to 60 wild horses from the Tunnel Spring area of the Goshute HMA, located approximately 10 miles southwest of Wendover. They cited insufficient water sources as the reason for the gather. Goshute has an AML of 74-123 adult wild horses. As of March 1, 2016, the BLM estimated the population to be 904 wild horses, not including foals born this year. “These conditions threaten the health and welfare of the wild horses. The situation is too extreme to address through the normal gather cycle. Given the weakened state of the horses in the Goshute HMA, a veterinarian will be on-call to provide recommendations regarding care, treatment and, if necessary, euthanasia,” read the BLM press release. Further south, the Pancake HMA is located in the Big Sand Spring Valley about 30 miles west of Ely. It has an AML of 240-493 horses, and its current population is approximately 1,800 horses. As water sources dried up in the fall, the BLM planned to gather up to 300 wild horses. “The BLM’s goal is to help as

many horses as able; without emergency action, the condition of the wild horses in the Big Sand Spring Valley is expected to deteriorate and potentially result in the death of some of the horses within a few weeks,” read a BLM press release issued in September. The Antelope Valley HMA Complex is perhaps the most overpopulated HMA in the state, and yet no horses were removed this year. Located east of Elko, its AML is 278 to 464 horses, and its current population is 3,360 horses. That is 700% over AML. Theoretically, gathering part of the overpoulated herds would relieve some of the pressure on the natural resources and improve the health of the environment and the horses. But, removing a tiny fraction of the excess population, as the BLM did with its bait-and-trap gathers, almost amounts to a waste of time, money, and resources. The horses removed aren’t a significant enough number to reduce the population, and reproduction will quickly replace them and then some. F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 23


No Chute? No Problem. Spanish Ranch cowboys rope calves to vaccinate By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

TUSCARORA, Nev. – Last month, the Spanish Ranch had about 70 big calves to vaccinate. Instead of processing them through a chute, the crew opted to add two more shots to their injection schedule: a head shot and a heel shot. With beautiful fall weather and a good corral, it was a longer but much more enjoyable work day than standing by a chute. The work was accomplished with a partial crew of Sam Marvel, Jim Young, Junior Harney and Chase Lewis. Sam’s wife Tori also helped out for the day. Three cowboys roped, and two worked the ground. They sorted three or four calves at a time into a large corral, so everyone got lots of sorting and roping practice. The workday took place at headquarters, where the crew members’ kids played in a tree nearby and an amateur camerawoman was available to take way too many pictures. Here are some of those images from the day.

Above, Sam Marvel sets the ropes in preparation for vaccinating a big calf. Due to their size, some of the calves were tricky (or fun, depending on your viewpoint) to rope. Below, Chase Lewis necks a calf running down the fence on the far side of the corral.

All photos by Jolyn Young, The Nevada Rancher

Would like your photography featured here? Contact us today about sharing your photographs in the Ranching Scrapbook! Editorial@ NevadaRancher.com 24   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016


At left, Jim Young and Junior Harney rope a big, bouncy calf. These two roped well together that day, and you can bet there were some scoop loops and back hands thrown.

Below at left, before breaking for lunch, the crew stopped to air out their horses’ backs. Here, Junior Harney lets some air circulate underneath the saddle on a Spanish Ranch cavvy horse. The big, old-style gelding worked hard and could really pull a calf at the end of a rope. Below at right, being hobble broke is a requisite skill for a Nevada ranch horse. Here, “Tattoo” stands and waits patiently while his rider works the ground.

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 25


ISSUE FOCUS

WILD HORSES

Early-day horse roundups were some wild times!

Methods varied for catching and selling feral animals By Heather Smith Thomas Special to the Rancher

Catching wild horses is a sport as old as history. In North America, horses first arrived with the Spanish explorers and conquerors, and eventually some got loose and went wild. The original horse chasers were Indians, who had already acquired some Spanish horses. They began to capture more horses from the growing wild bands in the Southwest. Later some of the early California cowboys chased and roped wild horses. The earliest account of corralling wild horses was in Mexico, in about 1750. Apache raiders had stolen most of the horses and mules from the Spanish settlement of Sonora, so the people there built corrals at the waterholes, with wings leading to the corral, made from cut branches. When groups of wild horses came to the water, riders burst out of hiding places behind them, driving them into the corral. People on foot hid along the wings, adding to the commotion to keep the horses running toward the corral. Thus the settlement gained back enough horses to fill their needs. In the 1840’s and 50’s a number of Mexican families made their living capturing wild horses and wild cattle. Some Texas cowboys rode bareback, tying their lariats around their horse’s necks, to rope wild horses when they

Men rope wild horses in a pole corral. There were a variety of ways that feral horses were captured, including catches and corrals and roping.

could get close enough. One New Mexico cowboy, Jack Thorp, told about a family in the late 1800’s that came up from Mexico each spring to capture horses. The younger members of the family, two girls, rode swift horses bareback and chased the wild horses. When one of the girls got alongside a wild horse she’d slip from her running horse onto the wild one, taking a 10-foot hair rope with her, which she looped over its head to create a makeshift halter. Her sister would catch the horse she’d departed from and bring it back to camp. After letting the wild horse run until it was nearly exhausted, the mounted girl would eventually stop

him, turn him around, and ride him back to camp. The younger children herded the newly-broken wild horses during the day and kept them penned at night. After the family caught about 50 horses they took them back to Mexico to spend the winter, selling the horses to settlers along the way. The most common ways of catching wild horses included roping them from horseback, or running a herd into a hidden corral. By 1870 hundreds of corrals had been built by the Mexicans between the Nueces and the Rio Grande rivers. Some were simple pens around water holes where a night watcher waited, hidden, to shut the gate on a band if

they came in to drink. This only worked in areas where water was scarce. All other water holes in the area would be “spooked” by putting rags or upturned sagebrush all around them—anything to make the horses suspicious and keep them from watering there. Eventually the thirsty horses would use the only water hole available—the one with the trap. Larger catches were made in big corrals with wings, and many riders would attempt to drive in several bands at once. The corrals were usually built in a location where the horses wouldn’t see them or suspect a trap until it was too late, or they were built along a well-used trail or

Feral horse herds grew as ranchers pastured their animals near their homesteads. Ranchers let their herds multiply on the range until they needed to round up some to sell – but some of the offspring grew up wild and unbranded. Some people made a living gathering and selling unbranded horses. 26   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016


Cowboys rounding up wild horses from the dusty desert.

at a creek crossing the horses used regularly. These corrals usually had a gate at each end so the horses could go through them and become accustomed to the corral, until the day of the roundup when one end would be shut. The bigger corrals were often built in a spiral form or in the shape of a double circle, to keep the horses from heading back out the gate after they ran in. The spiral corral was shaped in such a way that when the horses ran in at the gate, following the fence, they would be directed by the inward curve of the fence toward the middle of the pen. But when they came back around toward the gate, instead of being able to run back out they were deflected toward the center and would thus continue to mill around the corral. Most corrals were built in an area with trees or brush for concealment, and were usually circular in shape so the horses couldn’t stampede into a corner and break down the fence. Sometimes these corrals were constructed by digging a trench, placing sturdy posts upright in the trench, and

tamping dirt around them. The tops of the posts were then tied together with strong strips of rawhide. This made a strong fence that was hard to break, yet somewhat elastic if a horse hit it. Wing fences were usually made of brush, and usually one wing was at least a half mile long. A band of horses coming to that line of brush would be deflected toward the corral—and the gateposts were often carefully hidden by brush. In rough country, catch corrals were often built in a canyon or around a bend in a brushy creek bottom so the horses wouldn’t see it until they were practically inside it. Out on the plains it was harder to conceal a corral, and more difficult to make wings. Sometimes furrows were plowed out for half a mile or so from the corral each way to serve as wings, because the running horses feared the line of upturned sod and would not cross it. Wire hung with rags was also used for wings in areas that had no brush. It was always easier if there was some brush to utilize for wings and for concealment. Continues on Page 28

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 27


HISTORIC WILD HORSE ROUNDUPS Cont. from Page 27 When ready for the gather, a rider would be hidden and waiting at each wing-end, and the other riders would run a group of horses in the direction of the corral, turning them down the long wing as they approached. Then the rider from the short wing would appear, keeping the horses running against the long wing toward the gate. As soon as the horses were in the pen, someone would quickly put up a pole or two across the opening and throw a blanket across the poles to serve as a gate. The horses would rarely try to crash through the solid-looking blanket. Then the horses could be roped, sidelined (a front leg tied to the hind leg on that side) allowing for only a short stride so the horses couldn’t run. Then the group of hobbled horses could be driven to water or out to graze. When driving the herd to market, they would be un-hobbled a few at a time as they learned to be herded and to stay with the bunch. In later years, after much of the West was settled and ranchers pastured their cattle and horses on the rangelands surrounding their home places, the feral herds grew. Many of them were branded horses, owned by ranchers who let their herds multiply on the range until they needed to round up some to sell, but some of the offspring grew up wild and unbranded. Some people made a living gathering and selling unbranded horses. Reub Long, cowboy co-author of the book The Oregon Desert, with a partner gathered and sold more than 3000 horses in southeastern Oregon between 1928 and 1936. Sometimes they had a crew of riders if they were rounding up horses for several owners. The typical horse-running operation would gather a band into a corral, rope and brand the foals, castrate the stallions, and pick out some to sell. Out of 100 horses, maybe half would be their own branded animals, another 30% might belong to other owners, and some might be unbranded and unclaimed—and the captors would brand them. If a branded horse’s owner couldn’t be located or contacted for instructions on what to do with his horse, it would be turned back out on the range again. At that time horses were only worth about 1 cent per pound, but the $7 to $9 per horse was good money back then. The better horses were sold as saddle stock and brought better prices. In most range areas of the West, a few local ranchers, cowboys or “mustangers” made a living or augmented their income by periodically gathering horses to sell. One method sometimes used by people who wanted to catch a few for their own use was to capture foals. In late summer when

Above is ‘Old Boots,’ the mare Charlie Thomas caught on the Wyoming desert as a 5-day old foal. Later all his kids learned to ride on her.

foals were old enough to wean, riders would go out on their fastest horses and run a wild bunch. After a long run, some of the foals would begin to tire and drop back, and some of the riders would drop back with them. In most cases it wasn’t necessary to rope them because the foals were lonely and desperate after being left behind by their mothers. They would stay with the riders’ horses for security and the cowboys could gradually work their way back toward camp. Foals captured at this age often grew up to be good horses when given good feed and care, and were not as stunted as they would have been if left on the range to struggle through a hard winter. My father-in-law, Charlie Thomas, caught some wild horses while he was herding sheep in northwestern Wyoming during the late 1920’s and early 1930’s. He spent the summers with the sheep in the mountains and down on the desert in winter. This was good winter range for sheep and for wild horses. The sheepherders often spent time in the winter catching wild horses, which was fairly easy, riding their grain-fed saddle horses which had more endurance than the hungry wild horses. A good roper could catch and hobble several horses out of a wild bunch and then go back and lead them home to camp. Sometimes the riders were able to sneak up on the wild horses when they were standing behind big sand dunes out of the cold winter wind. Using the wind to advantage, a horseman could sneak up on those horses and get fairly close, to rope one.

28   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

These horsemen often tried to catch and break several horses each winter. A good horse, broke to saddle, sold for as much as $10. There were some good horses in that region, tracing their ancestry back to a Thoroughbred stallion that got loose and ran on the desert for 15 years. He was so fleet that no one could catch him, and he was too smart to ever be lured into a corral. One of Charlie’s best horses was a mare he caught as a baby on the desert, in 1939, when she was about 5 days old. He wanted her mother, but could not catch the fleet mare, so he caught her foal instead and brought the little filly home to raise on a bottle, with cow’s milk. The baby thrived, and grew up to be a good ranch horse named Boots. Charlie was married by then, and in 1943 moved his family to a ranch near Salmon, Idaho. All of Charlie’s children learned to ride on Boots, and that mare was a favorite in the Thomas family until she died at the age of 32. Another ranch family that came even earlier to the Salmon area (in 1912) had been raising horses in Idaho Territory for many years. Jim Bowman and his son Jesse had been nomadic ranchers in the Wood River area near Shoshone before Idaho became a state, keeping their horses in the low country during winter and driving them to summer range in the Sawtooth mountains. After coming to Salmon, Jim Bowman had 500 horses that he pastured on the range. He raced some of his best horses and brought the first Thoroughbred stallion into the Lemhi Valley. Jim and


his son and grandson gathered their range horses every fall, to winter on their home ranch, branding the young stock and selling some of the older horses. Some were sold into the Cavalry Remount program, some were sold to the Forest Service as riding and pack horses and some of the poorer quality horses went to a killer market. A buyer from Butte, Montana came over the mountain every few years and paid $20 a head, and then trailed the 200-plus purchased horses to Montana. After Jim Bowman died in 1929, his son and grandson gathered up most of the horses. His grandson Chester was in the 8th grade then, and riding a good horse that had been trained to run wild horses. Chester told us he vividly remembered those wild rides and still had nightmares about them. His horse was surefooted and knew exactly what to do when chasing the wild ones down out of the hills. Many of them had been born out there and hadn’t been gathered after his grandfather got old, and

they were hard to bring down. As his horse jumped gullies and rocks at top speed, Chester just dropped the reins over the horse’s neck and hung onto the saddle horn for dear life. The riders weren’t able to get them all; there were still a few horses out there in the early 1930’s. In 1935 Chester and his dad gathered the last of them because the Forest Service was becoming stricter about trespass livestock, and the horses were not supposed to be out there. On that particular range, the days of the “wild horse” were over. But in other areas, the groups of feral horses were never completely gathered up, and they became the source of present day “wild” horses. Such was the case in many areas of Nevada, Oregon and Idaho, including the herds near Challis, Idaho. That particular group of horses sparked a lot of controversy during the 1970’s when several horse protection groups took the BLM to court to halt the first proposed roundup on that range allotment—but that’s a whole ‘nuther story! F

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THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 29


ISSUE FOCUS

WILD HORSES

Round ups ruled unnecessary; lawsuit decided in activists’ favor The Associated Press

Additional reporting by Jolyn Young

CHEYENNE, Wyo. (AP) — A federal appeals court ruled last month against Wyoming officials who sought to require the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to round up wild horses from overpopulated herds, a decision praised by horse advocates as potentially precedent-setting for managing the animals across the West. The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver upheld a ruling last year that the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act doesn’t mandate roundup of overpopulated wild horses. Wild horse advocacy groups including the American Wild Horse Preservation Campaign hailed the latest decision. The groups’ attorney, Bill

Eubanks, said the ruling could affect similar federal cases originating in Utah and Nevada. “This is, in our view, pretty important,” Eubanks said. “There are two other pending cases in the American West right now that raise exactly the same legal issue.” The appeals court found that Wyoming’s wild horses aren’t necessarily overpopulated because the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act doesn’t clearly define at what point they would be, Eubanks said. Even so, Eubanks said, the Bureau of Land Management has other options besides roundups to protect rangeland health, including giving them fertility-control drugs and reducing cattle grazing. Wild horse numbers exceed fed-

30   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

eral population goals in several areas across the West. The animals compete with cattle and other livestock for forage, especially around watering holes where animals of every sort congregate, ranchers say. Wyoming filed its lawsuit against the Interior Department and Bureau of Land Management in 2014, saying too many wild horses can damage rangelands and that federal law requires land managers to curtail their numbers. The wild horse groups and federal government didn’t dispute Wyoming’s claim that wild horse numbers topped the Bureau of Land Management’s population objectives in seven of the 16 federal wild-horse management areas in the state. As of March, wild horse numbers

had exceeded population objectives in 15 of the 16 areas, Gov. Matt Mead said in a statement. “Wyoming wildlife, including wild horses, are treasured assets. Mismanagement adversely affects all species and the rangelands necessary for their health and survival,” Mead said. Mead said he was disappointed by the ruling and had asked Wyoming Attorney General Peter Michael to review the state’s options. Bureau of Land Management spokeswoman Kristen Lenhardt declined to comment on the ruling, citing agency policy not to discuss litigation. The Bureau of Land Management will continue to manage Wyoming’s wild horses for the health of both the horses and rangelands, she said in statement. F


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Sligar builds saddles, chaps and other leather items from his home shop in Austin. He and his family plan to move to Fallon soon.

Chase Sligar Leather

Young craftsman is building a saddlery and family in central Nevada By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

AUSTIN, Nev. – A good-fitting saddle is more important to a working cowboy than a running vehicle. Whether it’s the least expensive rough-out model or a fancy flower-carved wood, riding a custom saddle is a point of pride for a buckaroo. He’ll spend months designing the perfect saddle, and at least that long saving his wages to afford it. A saddle is a large purchase for a cowboy, and he’ll be picky about who he gives his hard-earned money. Many cowboys around northern Nevada are entrusting up-and-coming saddlemaker Chase Sligar to build their custom saddles. Sligar spent his childhood on ranches, then worked as a cowboy for several years before turning to leather work as a profession. He has been building saddles and other leather goods full-time in

32   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

his own shop for three years. Previously, he built cowboy gear however and wherever he could, including in bunkhouses and out of his pickup truck. “My focus is mainly saddles, but I do a lot of chaps and briefcases,” said Sligar. He has always been drawn to leather work, making his first headstall at age 10. He built his first saddle when he 17 in the Spanish Ranch bunkhouse, using a little cowboy ingenuity. “I tore apart an old one, and I built a new one out of the pieces,” said Sligar. He was able to try out his handmade gear on the job, as Sligar grew up on various ranches where his dad worked as a cowboy. He followed in his dad’s boot steps and cowboyed for 8 years, until an unfortunate event led him into saddlemaking fulltime.


“When I was 21 I got in a car wreck, and my leg hurts too much to ride all day anymore,” he explained. When he devoted his attention to saddlemaking, Ken Tipton of Tip’s Western Wear in Winnemucca, gave him his first bonafide lesson in saddlemaking. Kelly Martin, who builds custom cowboy boots in Battle Mountain, also helped the aspiring saddlemaker. Since those early lessons, Sligar has continued to practice his craft and hone his skills. To date, he has built over 60 saddles. He aims to always keep a couple of rough-out saddles in stock and ready to sell. He builds this inventory in addition to keeping up on custom saddle orders, of which he currently has 14. With a wait time of three to four months, Sligar is hustling to turn pieces of leather into functional using gear. The 28-year-old’s growing family keeps him busy as well. Sligar and his girlfriend, Shasta Garland, live in the tiny town of Austin with their two kids and a new baby due early this month. He fills leather orders from the shop near their two-story brick house, working around the little ones’ schedule. “I usually try to wake up before the kids do, work for three or four hours, come in, make breakfast, help a little bit, go in and work for four or five hours until lunchtime. That’s what I do all day: come in, go back,” said Sligar. The young father enjoys setting his own hours and spending time with his kids during his work days. “I love it,” he said. “Pretty awesome schedule.” He also enjoys stealing away from the shop to deliver saddles to local customers, many of whom are friends or become friends. After saving up their money and waiting a few months to have a rig built to their exact specifications, saddle buyers are usually pretty excited to see their brand-new saddles. “Every time you deliver saddle it’s a vacation,” he quipped. “I just drive ‘em to people I know. I’d like to drive to all of them. People buying new saddles are fun to be with.” Sligar can’t personally deliver every saddle he builds, but that’s

At top, Tayler Teichert wears a pair of armitas that Chase Sligar built. “People are always trying to trade me out of them,” she said. At right, Sligar built this rough-out and flower-carved saddle in 2013. His customer base is mostly working cowboys, many of whom are his friends. Photos courtesy Tayler Teichert

a sign of his business’ growth. He now ships many of his saddles to distant customers, thanks to word of mouth advertising and Facebook’s long reach. Working cowboys compose the majority of Sligar’s customer base. His

$3,000 base price fits the buckaroo budget, and his relatively short wait list appeals . For a slightly fancier look that won’t break the bank, Sligar sometimes carves flowers on the top of the saddle horn, fork cover and the back of the cantle. This embel-

lishment adds a lot of style to the finished product and only $500 to the price tag. Sligar also builds full-flower carved saddles to customers’ specifications as well. The fanciest saddle he’s built to date had big, square skirts and 250 flowers. He sold it for $7,000 to an Austin resident, who bought it as a gift for her sheep herder boyfriend. While saddles are the bulk of his business, Sligar builds plenty of chaps as well. As with his saddles, working cowboys comprise the majority of his customer base, and the most commonly ordered style are square-cut, step-in chinks with sewn-on fringe. He typically builds four or five pairs of chaps each month, and a contrasting brown and white style has emerged as a popular color combination. “I think I make at least two pairs of brown and whites a month,” said Sligar. Many of his friends cowboy for a living, so Sligar remains connected to the lifestyle. He hasn’t attended a saddlemaking school, but instead relies on customer critiques of his work for continued improvement. “That’s the most helpful and where I’ve gained most of my knowledge,” he said. Tayler Teichert is a longtime friend of Sligar’s, and she uses his gear every day. “His armitas are all that I wear,” she said. “They are the perfect combo of creativity and functionality. They fit fantastic and have lasted for years. People are always trying to trade me out of them.” Teichert, who has worked on ranches from Nevada to Nebraska, also rides a saddle that Sligar built. “His saddles are great using saddles that never sored a horse, day in day out. His tooling style is awesome and unique. You can always tell Chase’s gear,” she said. If you’d like a unique leather gift for the holidays, it’s not too late to place a Christmas order. In addition to the ready-to-ship cowboy saddles Sligar strives to keep in his shop at all times, he can still build custom gear in time to unwrap on December 25th as well. To check out some of his work, visit his Facebook page, Chase Sligar, or call 775-388-2674. F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 33


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Century award goes to Caldwell family farm By Sean Bunce Idaho Press-Tribune

NAMPA, Idaho (AP) — Terry Roedel has lived in the same place his entire life, or at least most of it. In 1942, Roedel was born on his family farm in Caldwell, just off Middleton Road, where he was raised until going off to college. After living in Buhl for five more years after that, Roedel moved back to the farm he grew up on, and hasn’t left since. The story doesn’t start there, however. Before the property was owned by Roedel and his brothers, it belonged to his father, and his father before him. On Sept. 17, the Roedel family farm was honored as a Century Farm by the Idaho State Historical Society. A Century Farm is a property of at least 40 acres that has been owned and farmed by only one family for at least 100 years, reported the Idaho Press-Tribune (http://bit.ly/2eeXunw). “It’s important that the family has stayed on the farm and kept it in our family for that amount of years,” Roedel said. According to Steve Barrett, program manager for the Idaho State Historical Society, there are just nine families in the Canyon County area who have qualified for the Century Farm award, and 439 statewide. “(This is about) the State Department of Agriculture and State Historical Society recognizing what’s becoming a pretty incredible achievement by these families,” Barrett said. “That they’ve been able to stay in family agriculture all this time.” The original Roedel farm was purchased in 1909 by Roedel’s grandfather. It was bought in two separate purchases of 60 and 80 acres, costing just over $17,000 total. Eighty acres of the property was given to other family members and eventually sold for development. The remaining 60 acres was passed down to Roedel and his two brothers. In the time they’ve owned the

Terry Roedel stands next to the Century Farm sign placed by the Idaho State Historical Society after receiving the honor for his family farm in September. Below is the family farm house, which has evolved over the years.

property, the Roedels have grown sugar beets, wheat, alfalfa, corn and at one time it was used to grow turnips. The land is still farmed by Roedel’s brother and nephew, who pay rent for his portion of the property. “I’m sure we could up the rent a little more and he could still make money, but that isn’t the purpose of it, of the family,” Roedel said. “As long as we can just break even we’re fine.” The 60 acres seems to be enough space for Roedel and his family, where many of them still live themselves. Roedel said one of his brothers lives on the corner of the property, another brother lives next door, his daughter and her family live next door as well, and the original house on another part of the property is owned by the family but rented out. Despite developers approaching the family throughout the years with offers to buy his property and the property around him, Roedel is content with staying on the property he grew up on and passing it on to later generations. “Since I’ve always lived out in the country I enjoy the rural area, I like to have a little bit of freedom to be able to move around a bit, but the subdivisions are closing in fast,” Roedel said. Barrett said it’s common for families of Century Farms to share the property, like the Roedels have. “What we look for is that at least 40 acres of the original farm is still in the family,” Barrett said. “Sometimes that parcel belongs to one family member, and the rest of property is parceled to other relatives or sometimes it has been sold to other families, but if they held on to 40 acres that’s all that we’re really requiring.” The Century Farms program started in 1990. Since then, the Idaho State Historical Society has honored 10 to 12 farms a year with the Century Farm award. F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 35


ON A HISTORIC NOTE

Beowawe?

Founded in 1896 as a railroad hub, today Beowawe is a sleepy town on Nevada State Hwy 306 — still with the occasional train, but more frequently seeing traffic headed to the Cortez Mine at the south end of the valley.

Where in the heck is that! By Mike Popovitch Special to the Rancher

I’m sure you’ve seen signs for small towns along Interstate 80 such as Welcome, Deeth, Starr Valley & Beverly Hills. Those seem pretty innocuous and easy to pronounce but what about Beowawe? Pronounced bay-uh-WAH-wee, the town may have gotten its name from Paiute and Shoshone origins which may or may not be so complimentary. Historians say that the town derived it’s name from the formation of a hill that appears as an open gate, possibly the gateway to the Humboldt River and the wagons that passed through on the California Trail. It is said that the Paiute word for gate is beowawe or more plausible, the Shoshone word for “big wagon.” To this day, the origins of Beowawe’s name are still a mystery but some more colorful history has been conjured up as well. As a story goes, back in the mid 1800’s a large man by the name of J. A. Fillmore — who weighed in at over 300 pounds — was prospecting for possible town sites along the Central Pacific Railroad. When he stopped to relieve himself and was witnessed by group of Paiute women, who were surprised by his stature and ran screaming, “Beawawe!!!” which roughly translates to “big butt” Local Shoshone confirm that the word “beacog” means one who has a large posterior. As far as it’s origins, it really doesn’t matter unless you are a history buff and find humor in such anecdotes. However, one visit to the small town will offer a surprise as to how beautiful it really is to anyone. Beowawe is an unincorporated town in Eureka County, perched along the Humboldt River. Large stands of cottonwoods along the river banks provide ample shade for weary settlers, making their way along the California trail while they water their horses and livestock. The town was founded as a railroad hub supplying mines in 1868 and an 1880 census proclaimed that 50 Whites, 7 Chinese, and 4 Indians lived there.

This was probably the peak of Beowawe’s population, having a general store, a saloon, dance hall, a two story ice house, and a large barn for stagecoach maintenance. By 1909, a power plant was built and like all small mining towns, the population dwindled and declined by 1916. In 1931, a fire destroyed nearly all of Beowawe. Present day Beowawe consists of a few houses, a volunteer fire department, and some warehouses that are occasionally leased to mining companies. About a mile east of town lies an oil distribution facility located alongside the railroad tracks which is currently in use. Beowawe is known for the, “Maiden’s Grave” legend where a young maiden was killed by indians or fell from a cliff and then buried along the banks of the river. The folklore has been proven to be false and in the diary of wagon train captain Michael Yager, is the following passage dated Aug. 26, 1863:

36   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

“An event occurred which cast a gloom over our camp; the death of one of its members — an old lady, the mother and grandmother of a large part of our train. She had been sick for several days, and night before last, she became ill so much so our train was compelled to lay over yesterday, and last night, she died. She was pious and beloved by the whole train, relatives and strangers. Her relatives took her death very hard. All her children and grandchildren were present except one grandson who is in the Confederate Army.” His narration continued the next day.

“Mrs. Duncan’s funeral was preached by Captain Peterson. Her remains was (sic) carried to its last resting place as we proceeded on our journey and up on a high point to our left about one mile. The scene was truly a sad one to leave a beloved mother on the wild and desolate plains.” On a hill that overlooks the Humboldt River, a large 20’ cross marks Mrs. Duncan’s grave. The


All photos by Mike Popovitch

grave site has been maintained by the railroad since the 1870’s. Not far from the grave is Gravelly Ford, a shallow crossing on the Humboldt River used extensively by wagon trains. It is here that much blood was shed in battles with Indians and settlers, developing into many atrocities and massacres by both whites and Indians. Beowawe today, is a peaceful town on State Highway Route 306 which is frequented by people passing through on their way to the Cortez Mine at the south end of Crescent Valley. Every few minutes, a tractor trailer hauling materials will roar into town, on its way to the interstate or to the mine. An occasional locomotive will rumble along the Humboldt, momentarily closing Route 306 and the bridge across the river, allowing motorists to gaze at the few homes that are left in town. The town almost had a resurgence with the proposed additional rail line from Beowawe to Yucca Mountain, transporting nuclear waste. However, the Yucca Mountain project was scrapped and the rail line never came to fruition. For me, Beowawe will always be an interesting and peaceful town that few people get the pleasure to visit. It’s a few miles off the interstate and travelers aren’t likely to go out of their way to exit the highway, slow down to the 25 mph speeds through Beowawe and appreciate the beauty. But isn’t that what keeps these small towns such a great secret? F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 37


Nevada Beef Council

News & Notes

Research with Las Vegas Chefs Helps Spur Beef Innovation Did you know that your checkoff dollars also fund research and development of innovative beef products? The Beef Innovations Group is a team of meat and food scientists, product developers, chefs, consumer researchers, packaging specialists, and marketers, inspiring beef innovation to launch successful new products into the market. One recent research project executed by the Beef Innovations Group took place right here in Nevada, and involved exploring the potential of a cold smoked fresh beef product – a creative way to wood smoke fresh raw beef while maintaining a specified temperature. The Beef Innovations Group tested the product with a group of culinary and foodservice professionals in Las Vegas over the summer months, to supplement additional research it conducted with consumer groups in Dallas, Texas. Las Vegas is one of the leading culinary scenes in the nation, and often trends in foodservice can be traced back to this market as their origin, so conducting research on new products in this market was a great fit for the beef checkoff. Done in conjunction with a major beef distributor in the Las Vegas market, the Cold Smoked Foodservice project provided chefs with the various cuts of cold smoked beef, and then held focus groups to gain their feedback. Products tested included sirloin cap (Coulotte), petite tender (teres major), pot roast, and brisket. Half of the chefs received test product in advance of the focus groups to prepare and provide feedback. The other half were provided product following the focus groups to take home to prepare. The overall objectives were to gain insight as to how the product would be accepted and would perform at the foodservice level, how chefs might menu such an item, and to get additional feedback to optimize the product.

The chefs liked a number of factors about the cold smoked beef, including that there is no need for a smoker, which reduces the cook time and staff time needed to monitor. With the use of real smoke as well, it provides the smoky flavor that is becoming increasingly popular. The chefs also liked that there is high volume potential for such a product at buffets—which is big business in Las Vegas. Smoked beef is becoming an increasingly sought after product, with the landscape including liquid smoke, which tends to have negative results in terms of quality, and highend on-site smokers, which require a lot of time and attention when it comes to smoking beef. A precooked, cold-smoked product could have real potential at both the foodservice and retail levels. Also, since the product is raw, it allows chefs to cook to their (or the consumer’s) desired level of doneness, which provides a unique characteristic not found in smoked beef items currently on the menu. This research done here in our own state is just one of a num-

38   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

ber of exciting examples of product development brought about by the Beef Innovations Group. Here are some additional products that have been developed in order to meet the demand for quick, ultra-convenient beef meals. Microwavable roasts: Tri-tip roasts and Sirloin Cap roasts make delicious center-of-the-plate entrées. The Beef Innovations Group utilized special FDA-approved packaging, then developed specific seasoning profiles and fat trim levels, to allow microwave preparation of these roasts with less than 20 minutes of cooking time followed by a rest period. The roasts are packaged in a special plastic bag that allows air to vent while cooking the roast to an appetizing brown exterior and desired level of internal doneness in the microwave. Microwavable ground beef: The packaging for this product is similar to that of the microwavable roasts. The product safely cooks from frozen or fresh in 6 to 9 minutes, and the ground beef then can be crumbled and added to sauces, seasoned for tacos or used in any recipes that call for ground beef. Following cooking,

liquid drains to a separate chamber in the lower part of the bag, for transfer to a sauce dish or gravy pan, or the entire bag can be easily tossed into the trash. Skillet meals: These “weekday steaks and roasts” are packaged with seasonings and easy preparation instructions to provide a beef entrée in less than 20 minutes. Choices include Flat Iron steaks, Sirloin Cap roasts and Denver Steaks. A trio of 3-in-1 kits are available: “Fajita Kit,” “Classic American Sandwich Kit: Cheese Steak / Mushroom & Swiss / BBQ Beef” and “European Classics: Italian / Greek / Pizza Beef.” Delicatessen beef: Delis are a rapidly growing section within the supermarket, and a popular choice for shoppers wanting to purchase prepared foods for consumption at home. Chicken and ham tend to dominate the meat selections though, and the checkoff is working with supermarket chains to develop beef options for in-store preparation so that deli employees, who typically are not trained chefs, can prepare items such as smoked, sliced beef brisket. Slow-cooker pot roasts:  To make mealtime simpler for busy working families, the experts on the product innovation team have developed a packaged, pre-seasoned slow-cooker chuck roast that cooks in its own bag. Just cut off one corner of the bag, set it in the slow cooker, cover and turn it on. As with the microwavable ground beef, the juices move to a separate chamber in the bag when removed from the slow cooker for easy separation. The work done by the Beef Innovations Group is just one more way the beef checkoff is keeping beef top-of-mind in the protein market, and ensuring beef remains competitive with the convenience options of other proteins. F


WESTERN AG NEWS

Bighorn sheep herd rebounding after disease in 1990s By Pamela Johnson Loveland Reporter-Herald

LOVELAND, Colo. (AP) — Majestic bighorn sheep deftly dart up and down the steep, jagged walls of canyons throughout Colorado, delighting wildlife watchers when they spot the iconic Colorado animal that, just over a century ago, neared extinction. With a statewide population of 7,000 bighorns, thanks to decades of work to rebuild the population, big horns cut a prominent profile throughout Colorado’s canyons, including the Big Thompson Canyon west of Loveland. There, a herd of about 70 sheep thrive throughout the seasons, reported the Loveland Reporter-Herald (http://bit.ly/2evx833). “It’s definitely one of the most viewed sheep herds in Larimer County,” said Ben Kraft, a wildlife biologist with Colorado Parks and Wildlife. “It’s amazing how agile they are going up and down those rocks.” Once prominent throughout Colorado canyons, bighorn sheep populations were decimated by the early 1900s due to diseases from domestic livestock and over hunting, leading the efforts to repopulate. For decades, Colorado Parks and Wildlife and the Rocky Mountain Big Horn Society worked together to rebuild the populations by transplanting sheep from one location to another. The first such transplant, from the still popular Georgetown herd, occurred in 1940, according to information on the Colorado Parks and Wildlife website. Since then, more than 100 transplants have taken place, mostly in the 1970s and 1980s, throughout the state. Twice, sheep have been transplanted to supplement the Big Thompson herd — 26 sheep from the Mummy Range in 1987 and 22 from Georgetown in 2000. The most recent infusion was to boost the herd after a large die off of all ages of sheep due to pneumonia, likely from domestic sheep, in the late 1990s. Before then, the Big Thompson herd boasted 150 to 200 sheep. The disease knocked it down to about 100, and now there are even less. However, despite some lingering effects of the disease and some indication of bacteria from domestic sheep, spread through interactions, documented in the herd as recent as two years ago, Kraft said the Big Thompson herd is considered to be on the rebound. The biggest sign, he said, is that the ewes giving birth to healthy lambs.

Bighorn sheep graze along the roadside in the Big Thompson Canyon near Loveland, Colo. The herd is rebounding after being hit by pneumonia in the late 1990s, according to Colorado Parks and Wildlife.

“If we weren’t seeing any, we would be really alarmed,” Kraft added. Perhaps, he said, another reason the herd is smaller now is due to road construction and development in the Big Thompson Canyon since the 1990s. “That area may not be able to support as many big horns as it used to because of loss of habitat,” Kraft said. But the population of 70 seems to be a healthy number, as indicated by births, which is why Colorado Parks and Wildlife issues hunting licenses in the herd, according to Kraft. This year, there were two licenses for ewes and two for rams. The animals forage on grass, forbes and shrubs year round and can be spotted throughout the canyon in all seasons. They do travel more to the east end of the canyon in the spring and the west in the winter, noted Kraft. Throughout most of the year, the rams roam in “bachelor bands,” while the ewes and their young group together. But during mating season, November and December, the dominant rams will join the female herd. Sometimes, the rams even fight each other for dominance, crashing their horns together with force until one ram clearly champions. “Three years ago, I saw two rams, and they did that for like 25 minutes until one collapsed,” Kraft described. “The other jumped on his back.”

Babies are born from May through July, during which time the mothers move to really steep terrain, like the Narrows, for protection from predators. The animals are able to dart up steep canyons because of the way they are built. They have small feet, blocky legs and a stout body, Kraft described. “They’re a lot more compact animal than a deer or an elk,” he said. “They’ve evolved to living in that kind of habitat.” Several different herds live in Larimer County, including one in the Poudre Canyon, one in the Rawah Wilderness and three in Rocky Mountain National Park. Two combined herds on the west side of the national park are estimated at 300 total animals, while the east-side herd has about 100 animals that live in the Mummy Range area, said Mary Kay Watry, conservation biologist. The herd on the east side of the park mostly stays within the boundaries, however, some rams do roam and likely interact with ewes in the Big Thompson herd, said Watry, who works for Rocky Mountain National Park. Wildlife viewing is one of the most popular activities in Rocky Mountain National Park, and big horn sheep are definitely a draw along with many other species, as they are in the Big Thompson Canyon. “Their majestic appearance, that’s a big drive and symbol of wilderness,” Watry said. “Their agility on rough terrain makes them very impressive to watch and to see.” F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 39


WESTERN AG NEWS

Female farmers a unique, growing breed

A more meaningful life

By Lilla Callum-Penso The Greenville News

TAYLORS, S.C. (AP) — There is something special about catching the sun rising above the tips of trees. This is the view that greets Kasie Jo Layman every morning when she goes to work at Sandy Flat Berry Patch, where Layman oversees specialty products for the 400-acre farm. Even on a recent busy Monday morning, Layman was able to sneak away, driving the farm’s beat up pickup truck up the side of the tangled but sprawling hillside to a point just above the trees. “Isn’t it nice?” she says smiling at the landscape before her. “In the wintertime, when the leaves shed you can see all the mountains all around. “There’s freedom up here.” Layman, 29, didn’t set out to be a farmer. Growing up in southern Illinois, the daughter of a carpenter and a stay-at-home mom, she thought she’d do something more practical. But now, two years into the farming life, she can’t imagine doing anything else. She is among a growing crop of women choosing the same path. As the demand for local food grows, so does the need for local farmers. And agriculture, long the bastion of men, is attracting more women. Female farmers now make

Kasie Jo Layman picks tomatoes at the Sandy Flat Berry Patch in Taylors, S.C.

up about 30 percent of the farmer operators in the U.S., a number that has nearly tripled in the past three decades, according to the U.S. Census. And while the numbers of male and female farmers dipped a bit in the most recent census, in the Upstate, there has been growing interest among women. As academic program director for the Sustainable Agriculture program at Greenville Tech, Rebecca McKinney has seen a shift firsthand. About 80 percent of the inquiries McKinney fields are from women, and this year’s premier class is about two thirds women. “I tell everybody it’s because we get it,” says Rebecca McKinney, whose work is also part of Greenville Tech’s Culinary Institute of the Carolinas. “We understand why you should be putting healthy food in your body, why you should be glad to be out in the sun with your hands in the soil.” In an ever-growing industry (the

40   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

state’s agribusiness industry has a $41.7 billion impact according to a 2013 report), the growth of women at all levels of the agricultural spectrum has the chance to significantly impact the food system, particularly in the area of sustainable farming. Women-operated farms tend to be smaller, and run with a focus on environmental and personal health, McKinney says, meaning more attention to environmental preservation and to things like organics and traditional heirloom varieties. “I think this is the salvation of food systems in general,” McKinney says. “This is happening with women and men both in our area that I see, the people coming into farming now are very likely to have children and grandchildren with them and to involve them in the processes and what I see is they’re basically raising the next generation or two or three of farmers.”

Here are some facts you might not have known about Cherokee Bell tomatoes. One, they will dye your hands yellow after just five minutes of picking them; two, they are delicate things, bruising easily, and require a soft touch; and three, there is definitely a right way to pick them. “You have to feel the way it hangs off the vine and then move it slowly in the opposite direction. After studying computer science and engineering in college, Layman said it became clear that office life would not suit her. She moved to Alaska in search of adventure, something different, and there, in the bleakest of climate zones, got interested in farming. Fast forward to 2014 when she visited her older sister in Greenville. The area seemed perfect for farming, so Layman decided to stay and pursue her dream. She met Ruth Ann Lynn one day while working parttime at a local gym. “She said how about working part-time at a farm too,” Layman says smiling. “Yeah right! Its 70 hours during strawberry season!” Now, two years later, Layman lives in a basement apartment at the farm and oversees most of the specialty wholesale accounts. These include roadside markets, specialty stores like Swamp Rabbit Café and Grocery and restaurants. On that recent Monday morning, Layman was out the door by 7 a.m. and had several boxes full of heirloom tomatoes by 8:30 a.m. “It’s crazy what happiness amounts to in life,” Layman says, taking a moment to pause. “I know there’s a lot of factors — relationships, religion. But your job takes up your entire life, so you have to be happy with that, you know?” That is how Laura Collins looks at her shift into the agricultural realm as well. Her interest blossomed from everyday tasks like canning and gardening, and then slowly grew into more. Today, the 30-year-old Collins


lives and works at Bio-Way Farm, in Ware Shoals, and two years in she doesn’t regret her choice. This past spring, Collins completed Clemson’s New and Beginning Farmer program, and she registered for an LLC to start a specialty herbs business. With Herbalicious, Collins hopes to supply what she sees as a niche market for culinary and medicinal herbs. “Maybe it’s a desire for independence,” Collins says. “I have a lot of female friends that that’s all they’ve dreamt about is having a family and a husband, whereas there is a newer age of people that doesn’t really care much for that, and so maybe they’re more like me, seeing farming as a viable option, seeing farming as something they can do because there is more equality and just different goals and different lifestyle choices.”

Growing small businesses In many cases, these emerging farmers are giving up a chance to make more money in other jobs. “I want to be my own boss, maybe,” says Kimberly Ferlauto, 36. Ferlauto has a masters from Georgetown and over a decade of experience working in the non-profit sector, but she said, she got burnt out. Ferlauto is among the first students to go through the sustainable agriculture program at Greenville Tech, which launched this past August. Currently, she also is working at Moon Hare Gardens, a small farm in Greer, where she oversees the farms heirloom crops and is also testing the waters of her own business venture. Not having grown up in agriculture, the program at Greenville Tech is helping Ferlauto form connections within the local farming community, and she hopes it will help create a fulfilling and a lucrative business. “Part of what I’m going to figure out in the program is where the gaps are in the current farming community,” Ferlauto says. “What is there not enough supply of? Where could I plug in and be not just be doing more of what everybody else is?” You can make a living at farming, McKinney says, but too often people can’t separate their hobby from the

Margie Levine of Crescent Farms drops her produce off at Swamp Rabbit Grocery in Taylor, S.C.

business they want to create. That’s why Greenville Tech’s program is as focused on marketing and brand development as it is on soil health and machinery. Greenville Tech created the Sustainable Agriculture program in 2014 as a way to connect the dots of a growing local-focused culinary movement and the growing need for farmers. The program, which is housed under the umbrella of the Culinary Institute of the Carolinas allows students of all levels the chance to learn how to grow a farming business. Students can work directly with culinary students, with both learning how to work together to mutual benefit. The program’s focus on sustainability is very intentional. The practice is more environmentally friendly because it eschews traditional chemical herbicides and pesticides for methods like cover cropping and crop rotation. And with more chefs interested in local food, there is more of a market for sutainably raised products. The average organic farmer can make money, McKinney assured. A good average might be about $20,000 a year per acre farmed, excluding cost of labor, or even $35,000 in a good year, McKinney said. “It takes creativity sometimes to find the market that will support you, but as interest in local food grows and grows in Greenville, I think we have

so many options for where farmers can sell products,” McKinney says. “And I think we’ll have so many more options for the types of products that we can produce that have a market.” That’s where sustainable farming has come into play a big role particularly for new and beginning farmers, both male and female. Since it requires less land and less equipment, the startup costs are much lower. For Ferlauto, sustainable fit both her desire for healthy living and better food, and her budget. “Commodity farming is for the big guys,” Ferlauto said. “That’s hard to do, but it’s also just not appealing to me. Maybe it’s the nurturer in us women that makes us want to be more on the sustainable track, because for me it’s about nurturing the land as well as the vegetables and the people you’re feeding.”

Challenging traditions Margie Levine likes to tell the story about the time she went to buy farm equipment only to be told to get her husband. The 62-year-old owner and operator of Crescent Farm chuckles as she recounts the quest for a tractor part. It wasn’t the first time she was overlooked because she was a woman, and it likely won’t be the last. “I wish it wasn’t like that, and I don’t know why, but when I tell people I’m a farmer they’re like `Oh,

what does that mean, you have a little garden out back?’ “ Levine said with a smile. “Uh, no.” At the age of 60, and many decades homesteading and working on other farms, Levine became a farm owner when she purchased the former Parson Produce in 2014. She launched Crescent Farm the same year and has grown quite the reputation among local restaurants as having some of the best, most interesting certified organic products around. On a recent Wednesday, Levine was making deliveries to some of her clients: Stella’s Southern Bistro, American Grocery Restaurant, Kitchen Sync, GB&D, Dive `n’ Boar and Swamp Rabbit Café and Grocery. The former teacher has always had a hand in the agricultural realm. She has owned cows and chickens, raised pigs and made her own maple syrup, but this is the first time she has been in charge of everything, and it’s meant that Levine sees things from a new vantage point. Her days are long, but satisfying, she says. “It gives you hope,” Levine says. “It’s like every day you start again, like yesterday I tried that and it didn’t work, so well, today I’m going to try it this way instead. I have hope that I’m going to get up tomorrow morning and be able to see these sweet potatoes that I planted six months ago. I think that kind of keeps you rolling.” Back at Sandy Flat Berry Patch, Layman is immersed in picking tomatoes. Today’s crop of Cherokee Purples, a tasty heirloom variety, is slated for Swamp Rabbit Café and Grocery, and so Layman is extra careful with her technique. She moves swiftly but gently, carefully inspecting each tomato before placing it (never tossing) into a box. She’ll cover about 18 rows of 450 feet before she’s done. As she moves along each, Layman smiles. “There’s so much freedom with farming right now,” she said. “You can do what you want. You’re in control of most of it. Gods in control of all of it, but then you have this certain amount of control. You get to choose what you’re eating, you get to choose what other people are eating.” F

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 41


WESTERN AG NEWS

Organization for Western Range Allotment Owners By Charmaign Edwards For the first time ever there is an organization for range or grazing Allotment-owners, ran by Allotment-owners, to protect the property-rights and business interests of Allotment-owners!   It is called the Range Allotment Owners Association (RAO). It is ran by a National Grazing Advisory Board of 13 Directors representing 17 continuous states (1 for each of the eleven Western States, an Indian Allotment-owner, and a Plains Region Allotment-owner for the National Grasslands ranchers). The Association is registered under the laws of Colorado with the Secretary of State. It is registered Nationally with the IRS & has been assigned a tax ID #. Each Director is an Allotment-owner, and will form their own State Grazing Advisory Board and as many local boards as they need. This is ran by us, NOT BLM or USFS. Each Director can invite current members of established grazing advisory boards to join if they wish or form new boards altogether with a minimum of 5 or 6 members (all allotment owners). The RAO already has 12 Directors.  AZ Robert Corbell, CA Tim Erickson, CO Lorene Bonds, ID Tim

Lowery, MT Maxine Korman, NM Gary Stone, NV Wayne Hage, Jr., OR Charmaign Edwards, UT Matt Wood, WY Chuck Sylvester, Native Indian-Allotment Representative Carlos Salazar, Robert Harshbarger National Grasslands. The Association is still looking for a director to repersent the state of WA. All of our directors have shown their determination to stand up for Allotment-owners rights. Join us and protect your future. Dr. Angus McIntosh, PHD is a foremost expert on Private Property Rights on Federal Lands. He is the RAO Executive Director and works under the direction of the 13 National Grazing Advisory Board Directors. The two goals right now are membership and education of ranchers on their rights under the law. When the goal of 100 Allotment-owners in each State/Area is reached there will be 1,300 Allotment Owners! The allotment owners voices will dominate and control the Federal and State bureaucrats. The RAO will dictate all terms and uses of Allotment-owners property, and will have the critical mass to start influencing policy and legislation, NOT the Feds or environmentalists. Angus has talked to several of the

42   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

state directors and the one policy position that was unanimous at this point is “zero reduction in livestock numbers and season of use”.  He also has found nothing in the statutes that would allow for livestock reductions without the recommendation of “Grazing Advisory Boards”.  He believes this will give us a platform to move forward with restoration of livestock numbers on currently de-stocked allotments. While in some states the BLM still has local grazing advisory boards, the RAO intends to create their own, while trying to recruit existing Grazing Advisory Board members. RAO has the legal right to form their own GAB and as many local boards as it deems necessary.  The association will use the existing law to take charge by educating all allotment owners on their rights then using the legal mechanism of the GAB to force the bureaucrats to recognize and protect the Allotment-Owners’ rights. Once each state director has their core GAB in place they will contact Dr. McIntosh and set up a property rights Advanced Training class. Angus says, “This will allow each Director and GAB member for each state to become an expert on your

legal property rights. I have been teaching rancher’s property rights seminars for 15 years.  I have found that the greatest enemy of Allotment Owners is the lack of knowledge of their own property rights. I am truly honored to work with each one of you.  For the first time in years I feel that victory is in our reach.  No matter how the upcoming Presidential election turns out, the one thing I have learned is that there is no elected official or new Secretary of Interior/Agriculture that is going to come riding in to the rescue.  We need to work together with an Association of Range Allotment Owners.  We can do this. Education and coordinated effort can defeat the enemies of property rights.” Angus McIntosh is available for questions from allotment owners at (970) 213-1005. There should be fully functioning SGABs in NM and CO very soon as that is where the most membership is coming right now.  The annual membership is only $150.00 and will give all allotment owners the voice they never had before. So go Online to rangeusa.net to get more information on the Range Allotment Owners Association and join today! F


Fallon Livestock Exchange Fallon, Nevada

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Breakers (Fat Cows)

109-135 116-126

124-130 109-115

105-120 97-102

105-121 Np test

108-116 No test

Boning (Med. Flesh) Cutters (Lean)

97.50-102 91-100

Slaughter Cattle 58-62 Butcher Bulls 60-65 Shelly Bulls 45-55 Feeder Bulls

Top cow: 1680# (avg. 64) Shelly Cutters (Thin) Top 10 cows: 1500# (avg. 61) Oct. 11, 2016 sale; volume: 367. Feeder cattle sold slower, on the same kind and quality depending on flesh and fill.

20-40

Stock Cattle by Weight

Cattlemen’s Livestock Marketing Galt, Calif.

Shasta Livestock Auction Yard, Cottonwood, Calif.

Treasure Valley Livestock Caldwell, Idaho

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb. #2 quality No test No test

500-600 lb. #1 quality 100-125 95-110

600-700 lb. #1 quality 100-107 90-108

95-110

Slaughter Cattle 700-800 lb. #1 quality 90-106 60-100

800+ lb. #1 quality No test 60-100

Boner Cows

55-62

Breaker Cows Cutter Cows

47-55 38-47

Bulls

65-78

Slaughter Cattle 55-59 Bulls

50-70

Pairs: 65-78

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Breaker Cows

No test No test

No test No test

105-119 90-106

No test 85-92

98-108 84-98

Boning Cows Cutter Cows

No test 92-96

50-54 35-49

Pairs: Too few Oct. 21, 2016; volume 700. Compared to last week: Slaughter cows and bulls mostly steady. On feeders, heifers outnumber steers 2-1. No big pen lots of any one category. Market may be stabilizing. Off lots and singles $20 - $40 below top.

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight (Friday Sale) 400-500 lb. 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb. 700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Cows 1700# +

119 avg. No test

97 avg. 95.25 avg.

80.25 avg. 67.25 avg.

Cows 1400-1700# Cows 1100-1400#

54-63 avg. 54-63 avg.

Cows 800 – 1000#

51-60 avg.

83.75 avg. 86.75 avg.

85.25 avg. 83.75 avg.

62-71 avg

Bulls 14001800#

59-71 avg.

Bulls 10001400# Results from Oct. 15 Beef cattle sale (held each Friday) and Oct. 11 butcher cows / bulls sale (held each Monday). No volumes reported for either sale. Notes: 1901 E. Chicago, Caldwell, Idaho, (208) 459-7475, (800) 788-4429, www.treasurevalleylivestock.com

53-59 avg.

Steers

120-130

115-120

105-115

100-110

95-105

92-97

Fleshy Cows

Slaughter Cattle 68 avg. Bulls (High Yield) 56 avg. Bulls (Thinner)

Heifers

110-120

105-115

98-110

93-100

85-100

90-95

Medium Yield

48 avg.

Low Yield

50 avg.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

86 avg. 80 avg.

Slaughter Cattle (Monday sale) 58 avg. Bulls 1800#+

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

High Yield

75-78 70-75

Results from Oct. 17, 2016; volume: 396. Notes: Beef sale every Monday. P.O. Box 29/3457 S.W. Hwy 97/Madras, Ore. 97741/www.centraloregonlivestockauction.com.

Stock Cattle by Weight

Producers Livestock, Salina, Utah

50-60 60-70

Oct. 19, 2016; volume 502. Compared to last week: Slaughter cattle were steady. Feeder cattle in all weight classes were lower.

300-400 lb.

Central Oregon Livestock Auction, Madras, Ore.

400-500 lb. #2 quality 60-100 100-150

Cutting Bulls

70-85

Steers Heifers

Slaughter Cattle

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

500-600 lb.

600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

140-170

127-154

110-130

98-118

94-113

92-107

128-160

110-140

97-128

90-111

87-108

86-102

Heiferettes: No Test

Commercial/Utility Cows

46-69

Cutting Bulls

62-92

Slaughter Bulls

61-78

Pairs: No test

Oct. 18, 2016; volume: 1824. The figures on this report are computer generated from “The Hottest Sale in the West” at Producers Livestock in Salina, UT. Notes: For great service contact the Salina Producers Auction at (435) 529-7437. For current market information call toll free 1-888-287-1702.

Producers Livestock, Vale, Ore.

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Butcher Cows – bulk

Slaughter Cattle 54-62 Butcher Bulls

125-135 110-118

110-133 94-113

100-113 95-103

89-105 87-92

98-100 85-95

Shelly Cows

42-53

Heiferettes: 75-90

90-107 89-94

Top Bull

49-64 68

Young pairs:$1300-$1475

Oct. 19, 2016; volume: 1035. Notes: 90%of feeder steer calves were under 800#; 75% of feeder heifers were under 800#. The future continue to rally and die, leaving buyers with no real confidence. Weaned calves were preferred. Questions about the market and/or to consign, call Producers Livestock, Vale Oregon, at (541) 473-3136

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 43


CLASSIFIED ADS SMITH VALLEY GARAGE Wellington, Nevada (775) 465-2287

MASON VALLEY EQUIPMENT Yerington, Nevada (775) 463-2442

RENTAL/USED TRACTORS

2012 John Deere R450, rotary windrower, 16’ head, 828 hrs ..... $84,450

2016 Case IH Magnum 380 Row Trac, 24” tracks, CVT 315 pto hp ................................ On RENT 2016 Case IH Farmall 110 U 93 hp, CAB, MFD ............................................................... On RENT Case IH Magnum 240, 205hp, CVT trans, front & rear duals, loaded, 840 hrs ................... CALL 2015 Case IH Magnum 310 CVT 265 PTO hp, 200 hrs. ...................................................... CALL 2015 CASE IH Maxxum 115MC 95PTO hp................................................................... ON RENT Massey Ferguson 2660 w/loader, 340 hrs, 70 hp, cab MFD w/ pallet fork ...................... $37,500

MISCELLANEOUS

1962 Ford 2000 Diesel engine, 3-point, pto, big bee box scraper ..... $5,500

Windrowers

2013 NH H8040, 249 hrs. 16ft ................................................................................................... $78,500 Case IH 8860HP, 16ft. nice unit ............................................................................................... Available Case IH 8840 16ft. newer header .............................................................................................. $16,000 NEW WR9870 & WR9860 Razor Bar HDR ........................................................................... IN STOCK Hesston 8400, 16ft. Good Tires ................................................................................................. $17,000 Hesston MF, WR 9760 w/ 700 HR5 9195, Razor Bar, HDR. ...................................................... $85,000

2013 MacDon M205, w/ 16 ft. rotary head 750 hrs. ............................................................. CALL 2008 MacDon M200SP Windrower, 16ft. hdr., rotary, 2585 hrs. Field Ready!..................$57,500 Kuhn SR112 Wheel Rakes (1) left ...................................................................$4,200 2016 MacDon M205 w/R85 Rotary Header, duel direction, Suspended cab .....................NEW 12 & 14 ft. TIDENBERG Feedlot Scrapers ........................................................................... CALL Great Plains 28 ft Harrow Cart w/ 5/8 Blankets ................................................................$21,772 Jay Lor 41000 vertical mixer, 900 cu. ft. New conveyor on discharge .............................. $46,500 Parma 15 ft. double roller, hyd. lift, gooseneck hitch ............................................................ CALL Case IH 530C, Ecolotiger, one pass tillage, 5 shanks ......................................................$41,556 Kuhn GA4321 Single rotary rake ...........................................................................................NEW Kuhn HR 4505 15’ Power Harrow.......................................................................................... DEMO Case IH WD2104 Windrower, 16’ rotary header, GPS ready, 210hp, 25mph ...................... CALL Twinstar 2027 Basket Rake, 101/2 baskets, Very Good Condition................................... $10,500 Darf 1017 Wheel Rake, full hydraulics, Gooseneck Hitch.................................................$29,830 Rowse Ultimate 16, Wheel Rake w/ hydraulic valve .........................................................$33,204

Tractors 1961 Ford Major, 4 cyl. diesel, 64hp ....................................................................REDUCED! $4,000 2015 MF GC 1705,1715, 1710, 1720 compact tractors 4wd loaders, STARTING AT $12,800 2015 MF 1844S 3-string baler ................................................................................................... $62,000 2016 Hesston MF1734, 3 x 9 trans. ........................................................................................... $19,200 1990 Hesston MF 231, w/ MF 232 Ldr., 2wd .................................................................................$5,000 2016 Hesston MF 1734 3x9 trans .............................................................................................. $19,200

Small Balers

2016 MF 1838 2-string baler, with Full Warranty ............................................................. NEW $26,155

Big Balers

1998 NH 595, 4x4 baler, low bales ........................................................REDUCED PRICE $19,500 2009 NH Big Baler, 9080 3x4 baler w/ application kit. really clean............................................. $47,500 NEW 2015 MF 2270 3 x 4 baler ..............................................................................HUGE DISCOUNT 2005 Challanger LB34, same as 4790 IN OUR SHOP ..........................................CALL FOR PRICE

Rakes

2015 MF2270 3x4s get yours before they are gone Special Factory Discount Call Today!

(3) Sitrex pro17 wheel rake, 29’ rake width, high capacity, hydr funct, ............................ NEW $25,000 Darf tv13 12-wheel rake new tines manual opening consignment ...........REDUCED PRICE $3,500 1981 Allen 789 hydr driven 10’ basket rake shop rebuilt ...............................................................$3,750 H&S HDII overhead 17 wheel (new), ready to go, 3 LEFT IN STOCK ....................................... $27,000 12 ft., Towner disc, rebuilt, cleaners, s/n 515302C356 ..................................................................$9,500 15 rt 3 pt. Tye Grain Drill, small & lg seed boxes, double disk openers ........................................ $3,750

44   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016

Tell them you saw their ad in the


THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 45


CLASSIFIED ADS

Bottari & Associates Realty

Paul D. Bottari, Broker E-mail: paul@bottarirealty.com • Bus. 775-752-3040 • Res. 775-752-3809 Fax 775-752-3021 • 122 8th Street • P.O. Box 368 • Wells, NV 89835 Each Office Independently Owned and Operated

Ranch properties now available through Bottari and Associates Realty

Clover Valley Z Bar Ranch: 598+- deeded acres at the foot of the mountains and on paved state route. Approx. 150 acres with harvest and pasture surface water rights out of several streams. Four (4) homes from 1100 sq.ft to 6,320 sq.ft. 3 shops including 2 heated the larger being 5000 sq ft. Green house and gravity flow water system served by two wells that supplies water with and without power. A truly unique property. If you’re looking for a family ag property that can be self-sustaining or a corporate retreat this may be the one you’re looking for. Price: $2,400,000. Diamond Valley Farm: 251 acres with two pivots covering approx.. 215 irrigated acres. Old water rights. Two homes. Price: $895,000. Nevada Sheep Range 10706 deeded acres plus BLM permit . 50% of mineral rights included. Price: $1,500,000. Rim Rock Ranch: sits at the foot of the Pequop Mountains approx.. 17 miles East of Wells, Nevada. 640 acres fenced and cross-fenced. Off-grid home with it’s own power system. Price: $399,900. Ruby Valley Ranch: 622 Acres at foot of the Rubies with surface water rights for approx.. 160+ acres and permits for 125 acres of underground water for irrigation. On paved road. Some improvements Price: $950,000. Ruby Valley 315 acre parcel: with permits for underground water for approx. 150 acres. Approx. ½ mile off paved access road. Price: $250,000.

For additional information on these properties go to:

BOTTARIREALTY.COM ALLIE BEAR REAL ESTATE Specializing in Hunting, Ranching and Horse Properties

Recanzone Ranch - Subdivision potential! For the investor, the property consists of 9 parcels, all contiguous, if someone wanted to split the property. Neat ranch in Paradise Valley. 900+ acres, 300 AUMs, right near town. Original sandstone house. Easy access to Hinkey Summit & surrounding mountains with excellent hunting opportunities. Includes barn, outbuildings & corrals. Howell Ranch Elevation 5,420 to 5,730 ft., 5,900+ deeded acres with 1,073.00 AUMs BLM. 1,200 tons average hay production. 80 acres of ditch irrigation meadows. 2 new 100-acre Reinke pivots. Concrete bunk feedlot (47 bunks, 8 feet long). 3 calving barns, with stalls, corrals, 80” x40” shop (1/3 heated), gazebo w/roasting pit, and 2 railroad car storage sheds. 4 Houses with lawns and established trees. 4R Ranch Located in beautiful Paradise Valley, NV. Very simple ranch to operate. Turn the cattle out for the winter Nov. 1 and come back to the ranch in July. 3 Homes, feedlot, shop, barn and scale. Starr Valley Pasture 1,104 pasture acres with water rights, fully fenced. Private access on gravel/dirt approx. 3 miles from Starr Valley County Road. The East and West Fork of Boulder Creek and the spring all run through the property. Lamoille View Ranch E. Mountain View Drive, Lamoille, 49+ Acres with Water Rights. 5 bed, 3.5 bath, 3 car garage, mother-in-law quarters with 2 bed, 1 bath, separate entrance, barn, 2 stalls, tack room, hay storage, new Dressage Arena, 3 pastures, hay production of 40 ton on good water year. Clear Creek Ranch Year around cattle ranch approx. 10,000 deeded acres, 6 pivots and with 11-month BLM permit. Only 15 miles from Winnemucca, NV. Diamond Valley Farm/Ranch Great farm with 6 pivots, 3 in alfalfa, 1 in wheat and to in fescue and garrison that pasture approx. 400 hd from May to November.

View Complete listings at www.ARanchBroker.com

775-738-8535 • 775-777-6416 Allie Bear, Broker/Realtor Dawn Mitton, Broker/Realtor

46   THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016


Get the most up-to-date market reports by visiting these websites NEVADA Fallon Livestock Exchange Sale every Tuesday 2055 Trento Ln., Fallon, Nevada Office: (775) 867-2020 Fax: (775) 867-2021 Website: www.fallonlivestock. com F

Nevada Livestock Marketing LLC Sale every Wednesday 1025 North Allen Road, Fallon, Nevada Office: (775) 423-7760 Fax: (775) 423-1813 www.nevadalivestock.us F

Superior Livestock Auction Load-lots of cattle sold via satellite and the Internet Northern Nevada Representative Allie Bear (775) 738-8534 www.superiorlivestock.com

CALIFORNIA Shasta Livestock Auction Yard Sale every Friday Cottonwood, California Office: (530) 347-3793 Fax: (530) 347-0329 www.shastalivestock.com

Cattlemen’s Livestock Market Sale every Wednesday 12495 E. Stockton Blvd., Galt, California Office: (209) 745-1515 www.clmgalt.com F

Turlock Livestock Auction Yard Sale every Tuesday 10430 N. Lander Ave., Turlock, California Office: (209) 634-4326 Fax: (209) 634-4396 www.turlocklivestock.com

IDAHO Burley Livestock Auction, LLC Sale every Thursday 1100 Occidental Avenue, Burley, Idaho Office: (208) 678-9411 www.burleylivestock.com

Treasure Valley Livestock Auction Beef sale every Friday; General sale every other Saturday 1901 E. Chicago, Caldwell, Idaho Office: (208) 459-7475; (800) 788-4429 www.treasurevalleylivestock.com F

Twin Falls Livestock Commission Co. Beef sale every Wednesday; General sale every Saturday 630 Commercial Ave., Twin Falls, Idaho Office: (208) 733-7474 Fax: (208) 734-2955 flcco1.qwestoffice.net

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Producers Livestock Marketing Assn. 11 South 100 West, Jerome, Idaho Office: (208) 324-4345 Cattle auction every Tuesday; dairy auction every-other Wednesday www.producerslivestock.com

OREGON Eugene Livestock Auction, Inc. Sale every Saturday 92380 Hwy 99, Junction City, Oregon Office: (800)288-6217 Website: www.eugenelivestock.com

Producers Livestock Marketing Sale every Wednesday P.O. Box 67, Vale, Oregon Office: (541) 473-3136 www.producerslivestock.com F

Central Oregon Livestock Auction Sale Every Monday 3457 S.W. Hwy. 97 Madras, Oregon Office: (541) 475-3851 www.centraloregonlivestock auction.com

UTAH Producers Livestock Marketing Assn. Highway 89 South, Salina, Utah Office: (435) 529-7437 Cattle auction every Tuesday; hog and sheep auctions first and third Monday www.producerslivestock.com

WESTERN REGION Western Video Market Satellite video auctions www.wvmcattle.com

LIVESTOCK AUCTION YARDS 

SALE

November 4, 2016 November 18, 2016 December 2, 2016 December 16, 2016

THE NEVADA RANCHER – NOVEMBER 2016 47


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WAtch AnD biD live eveRy WeDnesDAy:

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Join Us Ringside at Galt upcoming special feeder sales Wednesday, november 30 Wednesday, December 14 Wednesday, January 11

Representatives

Jake Parnell .................... 916-662-1298 George Gookin................. 209-482-1648 Mark Fischer ................... 209-768-6522 Rex Whittle ...................... 209-996-6994 Joe Gates ........................ 707-694-3063 Abel Jimenez ................... 209-401-2515 Jason Dailey .................... 916-439-7761

12495 stockton blvd., Galt, cA 95632

Office ............................... 209-745-1515 Fax ................................... 209-745-1582 Website ......................www.clmgalt.com


Nevada Rancher November 2016