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Oldest Independent Livestock Monthly in Nevada $1.25

LOOK BACK at history Remembering influential buckaroos who recently passed

December, 2016

Volume XLVI, Number 12

Here and on the cover: Paradise Valley work by Amy Pointer The Nevada Rancher (ISSN 0047-9489) (USPS #003-257) published monthly at Winnemucca Publishing, 1022 S. Grass Valley Road, Winnemucca, NV 89445 Call us toll free at (866) 644-5011 Periodical Postage Paid at Winnemucca, 89445 Publisher, Peter Bernhard General Manager, Holly Rudy-James Editor, J. Carmen Kofoed Staff Writer, Jolyn Young WP Staff Contributors, Joyce Sheen, Debra Reid Contributors, Heather Smith Thomas, Erik Holland, Mike Popovitch, and Lacy Laubacher Sales Representative Ashley Buckingham Office Manager, Tracy Wadley Production Manager, Joe Plummer Graphic Designer, J. Carmen Kofoed The Nevada Rancher does not assume responsibility for statements by advertisers nor products advertised within, and The Nevada Rancher does not assume responsibility for opinions expressed in articles submitted for publication. The publisher reserves the right to accept or reject advertising or editorial material submitted for publication. Contents in The Nevada Rancher may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including, but not limited to original contents and original composition of all ads (layout and artwork) without prior written permission. Subscription rate: $21.00 per year.

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Old or new? Amy Pointer’s cover image starts off our historical issue in true Nevada style, and blends nicely with Jolyn Young’s ‘Modern Times, Old Methods’ photo essay.  Our Looking Back feature pages begin on Page Four Remembrances Several longtime Nevada buckaroos passed away recently, leaving behind a rich legacy of horsemanship, ranching knowledge and family tradition.

Pages 4 - 11

Georgie Sicking May 20, 1921– Nov. 6, 2016



Farmers and Ranchers Make their Voices Heard

s the dust settles on a long election season, now is the time for the real work of addressing the critical issues facing America’s rural communities. Our elections are decided by those who show up, and that’s just what rural Americans did. As we move forward, we expect the new administration and Congress to support the rural Americans who supported them. Farmers, ranchers and rural business owners deserve a seat at the table when it comes to shaping policy that impacts our livelihoods and our way of life. I’m proud of how seriously our grassroots members take their civic responsibility. That duty doesn’t just fall on Election Day. We must hold our elected leaders accountable to make good on their promises to agriculture and rural America. The communities of America’s heartland aren’t just stops on a campaign tour: they are the backbone of our economy. President-elect Trump has promised a pro-farmer administration, and Farm Bureau will hold him to that. America’s farmers and ranchers have made great strides in our sustainability thanks to hard work and innovation. We need our elected leaders to recognize the value of tools like economies of scale and biotechnology, and then to lead the way in setting policies that promote science and common sense. We need regulatory and tax reforms that address the unique challenges of agriculture. Farmers and ranchers take great care to preserve

Contribute to the Rancher! Do you have a photo, a story idea, a press release, a event or other item to share with Rancher readers? Send submissions via e-mail to: call toll free (866) 644-5011 or mail your item to: 1022 S. Grass Valley Road, Winnemucca, NV 89445

their land and protect their businesses for future generations, but regulatory overreach, like EPA’s Waters of the U.S. rule, threatens to stamp out our ability to produce. We need to protect natural resources, but that work is done best by the people who know the land, not bureaucrats thousands of miles away. And we need to ensure our farm and ranch families can pass their operations on to the next generation, without having to sell assets that are critical to the farm just to pay the tax bill. Too many problems still hang in political limbo. Agriculture faces a real labor crisis, but we can have meaningful reform only if we come together to address the need for both a workable visa sys-

tem and a secure border. “American farmers are the best in the world at growing food and other products that people need to flourish,” President-elect Trump said. We couldn’t agree more. We will work with his administration and Congress on issues like the farm bill, energy and trade to boost American agriculture and increase access to American-grown food, fuel and fiber. Our elected leaders come at these issues with different points of view, but they all have one thing in common. Each ran on a platform to make America better and improve this country for all of us. That same unity of purpose drives us at Farm Bureau. We can learn from each other as we respect our differences. No matter what we raise or how we do it, we must work together to protect our farms and strengthen our rural communities. F

Vincent “Zippy” Duvall, a poultry, cattle and hay producer from Greene County, Georgia, is the 12th president of the American Farm Bureau Federation. The American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF), commonly referred to as the Farm Bureau, is a nonprofit organization and describes itself as the largest general farm organization in the United States.

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year from all of us at the Nevada Rancher!




Tom Marvel Cowboy for Life By Katie Marvel DeLong

Tom Marvel, 92, a life-long cowboy and horseman, passed away peacefully at his home in Elko, Nevada, on October 28, 2016. This is his story-- the tale of a life well-lived. Tom Marvel never graduated from high school. He quit school after the eighth grade at the age of 14 having never earned a high school diploma. That said, however, Tom Marvel was indeed an educated man. As an avid reader and critical thinker, he was self-educated in many respects. His main education, however, came in a different form -- with a hard-earned degree from the “School of Hard Knocks.” By most standards, Tom’s life would not have been considered easy, but Tom said, “I never had a tough life. I did whatever the hell I wanted.” Tom explained, “I was just one of hundreds of guys that lived the way I did. During the Depression, many people quit school and went to work. Most did it because they had to. I did it because I wanted to.” Thomas Jenkins Marvel was the second of three sons born June 7, 1924, in Battle Mountain, Nevada, to Louise Jenkins Marvel and Captain Ernest Ray Marvel. He had an older brother, Dick, and a younger brother, John. Although both of his parents were well-educated, when Tom quit school and began a life of cowboying on the rugged Nevada range, Tom’s mother, Louise, did not try to stop him. She knew he was a different sort of child. With his Welsh temper and tenacity, Tom would fight to the bitter end for what he felt was right. He would grow to be a man of even greater determination. “In 1938, when I was 14, my dad met me with a saddled horse and another packed, and said, ‘Hit the

Tom Marvel in about 1980.

road.’ So I did. Don’t get me wrong though. This is what I wanted, and Dad knew it.” Tom said later his mother told him that they knew he would never be satisfied until he made his own way in the world, so they let him go. Tom’s mother was a very influential lady and made sure Tom got his first job with the Cattle Association out of Elko, Nevada. Although in the end, Tom didn’t stay there long. He soon went to work for Bill Nichols at the 25 Ranch near Battle Mountain as a “cattle rep” for the W.T. Jenkins Company. Even at age 14, Tom was no “greenhorn.” He was already a seasoned cowboy, having first started working with the cowboys in 1932 at the tender age of 8. “That first


summer, my brothers and I stayed for a while at the Stampede Ranch, northeast of Battle Mountain, with an old Indian by the name of Jim Fatty. We helped with the cattle and packed supplies to the sheep camps.” Every summer until about 1937 (from mid May to September), Tom and his family resided at Gold Creek in northern Elko County. It was a 75 mile trip to get there, and at that time pickups were not used. Everything was done with packhorse trains. Tom and his brothers spent those summers packing supplies to the sheep camps which ranged from five to more than twenty-five miles away. At one time, the family ran more than 33,000 sheep across five counties. By the age

of 13, Tom was very apt at packing a horse himself. Tom also helped gather the steers at the end of the summer and helped trail them 40 miles to Carlin. Every year, Tom and his brothers would go to work as soon as school was out. Tom’s family owned and operated the W.T. Jenkins Company, first established by his Welsh grandfather, William Treharne (W.T.) Jenkins. Jenkins came to Nevada in 1872, to mine and then in 1877, went into the sheep business. He began as a “tramp operator,” maintaining headquarters in Battle Mountain and began buying base property. He founded the W.T. Jenkins Company and continued to increase his flock to twenty-thousand. The sudden death of W.T. Jenkins in 1899, did little to diminish his enterprise, as his wife Edith, with help from some cousins, took over the reins of the operation. Another untimely death of Edith during the Spanish Influenza Epidemic in 1918, brought Tom’s parents, young Louise Jenkins Marvel and her new husband, “Cap” Ernest Marvel to the helm of the ranching operation. ‘Cap’ having been a career army man gave up his post in the U.S. Army to work sideby-side with his new wife to manage and run the W.T. Jenkins Company (or as they called it “The Outfit.”) Louise was President, and Cap was General Manager. Giving up the Army was not an easy decision for Cap having devoted 17 years of his life to it. He had helped fight Poncho Villa, a Mexican revolutionary and guerrilla leader, on the Mexican Border in 1916. This Expedition, known as the “Punitive Expedition into Mexico” was led by Brigadier General John J. Pershing. Future General George S. Patton was on Pershing’s staff during the Expedition. After the United States entered WWI in April of 1917, Ernest earned the rank of Captain under future General Pershing. Ernest was on a ship headed over-sees when the war ended. The ship turned around and

REMEMBRANCES returned back to the states. In 1918, Ernest met Louise Jenkins in San Francisco where he was stationed at the Presidio. Louise was attending Miss Sarah Dix Hamlin’s Finishing School for Girls. Upon her graduation, they were married and lived for a short time in Petersburg, Virginia, where Cap was stationed at Camp Lee. It was at Camp Lee that they were summoned home following the death of Louise’s mother. The decision to take over the ranch would change the course of their lives and the lives of their children forever. As President of the W.T. Jenkins Company, Louise slowly began transitioning “The Outfit” from running sheep to cattle, eventually transforming it into one of the largest cattle-ranching operations in the state of Nevada. In later years, Tom’s mother, Louise Marvel, was the first woman to be awarded “The Cattleman of the Year” award by the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association. She also won the “Distinguished Nevadan” award and was listed in Who’s Who in the West and Who’s Who among American Women. Tom always said that his mother was a very grand lady, loved by all. Tom said, “When I was young, we never had stock trucks. Pickups and horse trailers were unheard of. The outfit spread 70 miles south of Battle Mountain and 70 miles north of Battle Mountain. Everything was done on horseback. In 1939 and through much of the 40’s, the Martin and Home Ranch were our main ranches. We had two ranches in Jersey Valley -- Upper Jersey and Lower Jersey, and one ranch in Antelope Valley. At that time, we ran about 1800 head of cattle and about 20,000 sheep. Each year we continued to build our cowherd. The cattle wintered on the desert south of Battle Mountain. In the spring, we branded and moved the cattle to the Martin Ranch. Some cows with small calves were left back. We had two trail drives to Beaver Creek and Stampede, and most of the cattle would summer there.” Tom explained that there were no

An Ode to Papa

A poem by Katie Marvel DeLong I’ve heard tell of horseback men, Of cowboys brave and kind Who love to live the cowboy life And not get left behind. This is the life where men are men And boys grow up to be Strong as the ones before them That is the way, you see. But never did I know a man Grand as grand could be As the one that we called Papa Tom Marvel and his bride, Rosita, were married in 1946

drift fences, so all the larger outfits had reps that would go to the different ranches, gather their cattle, and trail them home. Tom said there was a lot of neighboring. “Cattle would get mixed and reps would pick up their cattle.” Again everything was done horseback. As a rep for the W.T. Jenkins Company, Tom would ride to various ranches such as the TS, Ellison’s, the Moffitt Ranch, the Hammond Ranch or the 25 Ranch, report to the “buckaroo boss” who was in charge of several cowhands, help gather and sort out the Jenkins cattle. Then he would trail them home. In 1940, Golconda High School was in need of another player to fill their basketball team. The coach asked Tom to join the team, so Tom played basketball that year with guys like Glen Tipton. He was back in school again (at least for a little while). Although, he rarely attended class as he was too busy cowboying. By 1941, as WWII raged across Europe, the U.S. began to prepare for war. The draft demanded the service of thousands leaving the W.T. Jenkins Company in need of accomplished cowboys and leaders.

Who meant so much to me. He grew up very quickly. He worked upon the land. Because he knew that men must do The job that is at hand. Well-known for his temper A short fuse he was dealt But God blessed him with a talent Many a horse has known and felt. He married a beautiful lady, As lovely as a rose. They lived, worked, loved, and followed Christ. This is the life they chose. Seven children called him “Dad,”

Papa was a rancher, A soldier, reader, friend A tireless believer Forever, with no end. He told me once that faith in God, Continues to blossom and grow. If only we plant the seed And open our hearts to know. So of all the great things Papa did The best one, I must say, Is how he taught us to tip our hat, To bend a knee, and pray. Now when I think of Papa, I think of horseback men, Of greatness and of kindness Of all that he had been.

With many great-grands more.

But mostly I think of what he was An inspiration to me For all the love he gave us And taught by example to be.

He helped us all throughout the years, With Nana by his side. Forever a picture of true love – A cowboy and his bride.

I tip my hat to Papa And thank him for his love For teaching us to send a prayer To our good Lord up above.

With grandchildren galore. A dynasty, he has founded

Continued on Page Nine



Georgie Sicking May 20, 1921- November 6, 2016 Funeral services for Georgie Sicking, 95 year old Kaycee resident who passed away Sunday afternoon at the Johnson County Memorial Hospital in Buffalo, was celebrated on Saturday, November 19, 2016, at 1:00 p.m., at the Garden’s Funeral Home in Fallon, Nevada with Jerry Harper officiating. Graveside services followed at Churchill County Cemetery. Visitation will be November 19th, from 11:30 until the beginning of the service. Donations in Georgie’s memory may be made to the Hoofprints of the Past Museum in care of the Harness Funeral Home. Online condolences may be made at: Georgie Connell Sicking was born May 20, 1921, in Seligman, Arizona, to Oscar and Mayme Connell. Georgie received her name because her parents who were expecting a boy, and George was the only name they had picked out. Her father, Oscar, was a rancher, cowboy and mustanger in the desert of Arizona. Georgie grew up in this lifestyle, and became one of the first women to gather wild cattle and horses in Arizona. She became a legend in the area, riding, roping, branding mavericks and promoting the western way of life. She could shoe her own horses and doctor them when needed. She married Frank Sicking in 1940. Together they worked for various ranches in Arizona. Georgie worked alongside the other hands, although not always for the same salary. The men learned to respect her ability to ride and rope with the best of them. Her goal was always to be a “Top Hand.” From early on, she had no use for the word “can’t.” She knew there was always a way to get things done, and taught her kids to believe that as well. Together Georgie and her husband had three children: Joe, Sue, and Eddie. The family moved throughout Arizona, California and Nevada for many years, working for other ranchers, gathering wild horses and cattle. When they moved to Fallon, Nevada, they owned their own place. Georgie was in a world of her own running and roping wild horses. Frank became a brand inspector in Fallon, Nevada; and Georgie began barrel racing successfully. Frank was killed in a woodcutting accident on November 7, 1974. Georgie worked various jobs to keep the family going; she worked at various stock yards and ran cattle. After a few years she went back to Arizona, and worked for a ranch gathering cows. While there she acquired enough cows to take back to their place in Fallon, Nevada. During her life of hard work, Georgie wrote poetry. A poem would occur and she would scribble it down on whatever was handy. She kept these poems, but never

really performed them until 1985, when she was invited to attend and present her poetry at a Cowboy Poetry gathering in Elko, Nevada. This was the beginning of her career as a cowboy poet. Her standards for poems were “Keep it cowboy and keep it clean.” She was invited to numerous Cowboy Poetry Gatherings, and always had her poems memorized. In 1989 she was inducted in the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame as the 1989 Western Heritage Honoree; she received the Pioneer Woman Award at the National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration in Lubbock, Texas. In 1994, she received the Gail Gardner Award for “Outstanding Working Cowboy Poet,” and various other awards through the years. She published three books of her original poetry, a CD of cowboy poems and a documentary about her life. At the age of 56, Georgie began to lose her eyesight, and began to depend more and more on her memory to compose and recite her poems. She moved to Kaycee in 2001, to be close to her daughter, Sue. Georgie continued to recite her poetry and attend cowboy poetry gatherings. Her latest poem entitled “When I Get to Heaven,” was featured in the October 11th issue of the Kaycee Voice. Sicking has received many accolades, including an award from The Nevada Cattleman’s Association for having ridden 100,000 miles on horseback. Also, being the first Nevada honoree inducted into the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame. Georgie is preceded in death by her husband, Frank, son, Edward Sicking and her parents, Oscar and Mayme Connell. Georgie is survived by: Son Joe (Nancy), Paradise Valley, NV. Daughter Sue Jarrard (Sonny), Kaycee, WY Grandkids John Sicking (Veronica) Eagle, CO, Amy Jo Moore, (Kyle) Prescott Valley, AZEddie’s sons, Frank and Raymond. Numerous Great grandkids including Tate, Zane and Mallie Moore, sisters Emma Jane Brocchini of Oklahoma and Sammy Brackenbury of California. F


John Carpenter Long time Assemblyman John Carpenter passed away on Saturday, November 19th at home at the age of 86. Born in Fallon, Nevada but raised in Ely. He graduated from White Pine High and immediately went into the ranching business with his Uncles. Prior to serving 24 years in the Nevada State Assembly, he served as Elko County Commissioner for 14 years. He was a beacon for the community, dedicating his life to public service and always fighting for his beloved hometown and state. He was named to the Assembly Hall of Distinction in 2011. He is survived by his cherished wife Roseann of 64 years and seven children – John “Jet” Carpenter (Tina), Scott Carpenter, Elizabeth Carpenter, Susan Carpenter (Kim), Doug Carpenter, Lois Carpenter and Linda Meo (Nick)—as well as 19 grandchildren and seven great grandchildren, his cousins Paul Carpenter and George Carpenter, sisterin-laws Florence Roberts (Wayne) and Teresa Slater and many many nieces and nephews with whom he maintained close relationships. He was preceded in death by his parents John(Jack) and Lucille Carpenter, his in-laws Clarence & Genevieve Slater, sister Phyllis Hand, brother Jake Carpenter and his brother-in-law and best friend Larry Slater.

John, a long-time rancher and real estate broker, led with a quiet strength, supporting not only his family, but the land and community at large. He was a very passionate gardener and cultivated beautiful flowers (most notably, his famous tulips and gladioli), as well as fruits and vegetables, which he shared with his neighbors and the Elko Senior Center. He will also be remembered for his Christmas lights, which were a favorite holiday tradition and stopping point for the community. His Sunday ritual was visiting all his friends that were either housebound, in the hospital or at the Manor. He enjoyed the challenges when it came to fighting for rural Nevada such as the Kelly Springs project, Jarbidge Shovel Brigade, Elko Convention & Visitors Authority, Educational funding, Vitality Center, California Trail Interpretive Center, Northern Nevada Community College (aka Great Basin College), Northeastern

Nevada Museum, Peace Park, Elko Senior Citizens Center, Elko General Hospital, Snow Bowl and Sherman Station. He was also instrumental in starting the Basque Festival along with Jess Goicoechea and supplying the sheep for this event for many years. In addition, he was a member of Elko Rotary, Knights of Columbus, Cattlemen’s Association and Past President of National Woolgrowers. John died as he lived – surrounded by his family, the people he loved most in the world. Services were held Saturday November 26, 2016 at 10:00 am at the Elko Convention Center. A Rosary was held at 7:00 p.m. Friday, November 25, 2016 at St. Joseph’s Church. In lieu of flowers, the family request memorials be sent to Northeastern Nevada Museum, Northern Nevada Autism Network, the California Trail Interpretive Center or a charity of your choice. F

11:00 a.m. ◆ February 18, 2017 Friday, February 17 Sifting in the morning Churchill Co. Cowbelles Dinner/Dance and FBS Awards Presentation Social Hour: 5:30 pm; Dinner 6:30 pm; Dance 8:00 pm; Fallon Convention Center

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For more information or a sale catalog, please call the Sale Office:

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association 775-738-9214




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REMEMBRANCES TOM MARVEL Cont. from Page 5 Tom’s dad, Cap (Ernest), called upon young Tom to assume responsibility as cowboss of the company. At 17 years old, Tom took over control and management of all the cattle. Riding long hours in the saddle was a life that he loved. In 1944, Tom met the love of his life, Rosita Camarillo Petit. Rosita, had come with Tom’s cousin, her school friend, to visit another classmate in Battle Mountain. When Rosita first saw Tom, “he was sitting tall in the saddle riding a horse known as Redwing. He came riding over the horizon helping his crew move a herd of cattle.” She describes how handsome he looked. For both of them, it was love at first sight. Rosita was born April 9, 1925, and was raised in a family of old California blood. Her mother, Rosa, a feisty Spanish “Californio” of the Camarillo family, married a kindly, soft-spoken man of French and German decent named Alfred Petit -- a farmer from the Oxnard Plains of California. Rosita’s grandfather, Adolfo Camarillo, a man of small stature but enormous proportions of generosity and influence, was considered to be “The Last Spanish Don.” The town of Camarillo, California, was named in his honor. On December 28, 1945, Tom and Rosita were married in a church built by Rosita’s uncle, St. Mary Magdelan’s Catholic Church in Camarillo, California, during Tom’s furlough from the U.S. Army. (Tom had enlisted earlier that year.) As Tom served his country in Okinawa in the Army Air Corps photographing and developing film of enemy combatants, halfway around the world his young wife, Rosita, delivered the first of their seven children. While still at war, Tom became Catholic, a faith he practiced and loved for the remainder of his life. Upon his return from World War II, the Marvels settled in Nevada and began a life of cattle ranching. The time Tom spent in the army (close to 3 years) was the only extended period he ever spent away from the ranch. In 1947, the W.T. Jenkins Company, purchased the 25 Ranch west of Battle Mountain. After living in town for a short time, Tom and his family moved out to the ranch on the Humboldt River. Tom was cowboss, and “The Outfit” was now running over 8,000 head of cattle. Tom’s brother, Dick, was in charge of the sheep, and brother, John, was the office manager and also helped with the cattle. Six of Tom and Rosita’s seven children -Tommy, Suzy, Mike, Sally, Joe, and Pete -- spent much of their childhood at the 25 Ranch. All of the

Tom Marvel riding ‘Eagle’ at a Stampede Rodeo.

children also worked hard by helping with ranch chores and riding. The boys spent time on “the wagon” helping to gather, brand, and process cattle. Rosita often helped with the cooking on the ranch and also cooked on the “wagon.” The W.T. Jenkins Company employed numerous cowboys, sheepherders and ranch hands for the hay crews. At the 25 Ranch, Tom helped with the haying a few times. Although most of the time, he was far too busy taking care of the cattle. In 1964, the 25 Ranch sold along with the rest of the W.T. Jenkins Company. Tom and Rosita acquired the Martin Ranch south of Battle Mountain where they moved their family. Here the youngest Marvel child, Amy, was born. Rosita was 40 years old at the time of her birth. At the Martin Ranch, Rosita continued to help cook and feed crews of cowboys just as she had done at the 25 Ranch. During the haying season, she fed the cowboy crew and the hay crew. Tom did what he had always done -- ran cattle, cowboyed, and continued to polish his skills as a master horseman. In 1986, Tom and Rosita sold the Martin Ranch and moved to California for a time where Tom trained cutting horses and made an even greater

name for himself in the horse industry. However, the pristine high desert of Nevada has a way of capturing people’s hearts and calling them home. Tom and Rosita returned to Nevada and the home that they loved. Tom continued to live his life as a cowboy and even rode colts well into his 90’s. In 1996, Tom Marvel received the “Vaquero Award” given by the California Reined Cow Horse Association for contributions of outstanding horsemen to the cow horse industry. That same year, the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association awarded Tom membership to the 100,000 Mile Club. This honor is bestowed on cowboys who have ridden 100,000 miles or more in their lifetime. In 2013, Tom was awarded membership into the “Buckaroo Hall of Fame” honoring buckaroos and cowboys of the Great Basin. Tom did some remarkable things in his life. Besides living the life of a cowboy, not many men can say that they helped bring one of their great-grandchildren into the world, but Tom Marvel did just that. On Labor Day, 2012, at the age of 88 years old, Tom, with help from his wife Rosita, delivered one of their great-grandsons after the child’s mother went into labor at the ranch. Tom claimed it wasn’t too much different from all of the calves and colts that he helped birth in his lifetime. On October 28, 2016, after more than 92 years of living the cowboy way and nearly 71 years of marriage to his loving wife, Rosita, Tom Marvel passed away peacefully at his home in Elko, Nevada. After a Rosary and Funeral Mass in Elko, on November 4, Tom Marvel was laid to rest the following day in a very fitting manner. With Tom’s “Bar X” brand branded onto his casket and some of his grandsons’ cowboying ropes wrapped over the casket, family and loved ones lowered him into the ground in Battle Mountain, Nevada, the place of his birth 92 years earlier. Cowboying remains a way of life for the Tom Marvel Family. Between 7 children and their spouses, 28 grandchildren and nearly 40 great-grandchildren, many continue to be involved in the ranching industry. Tom was a true cowboy his entire life with a strong love of family and a deep faith in God. He adored his precious wife, Rosita, and was a devoted father and grandfather. He was a horsemen and excellent teacher who helped countless people with horses and horsemanship skills. Known as “Papa” by his grandchildren, he was tough but also kind, compassionate and loving. He never failed to express his love and pride to those in his life. His faith and love of Christ was an inspiration to all. Tom’s legacy will forever live in the hearts of his family and those that knew him well.F




Jim Andrae: All he ever wanted to do was buckaroo By the Buckaroo Hall of Fame

Jim Andrae photographed by Lee Raine. Andrae was inducted into the Buckaroo Hall of Fame in 2014.

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – Jim Andrae was born February 14, 1933 in Mountain City, Nevada. He was delivered by Sam Baker’s wife, who was a midwife in the area. He passed away Oct. 23, 2016 in Elko. His parents were Tuffy and Katie (Zaney) Andrae. He had one brother Jack, who passed away at an early age. Tuffy owned a ranch near the Spanish Ranch in northern Elko County. Jim went to grade school at the Spanish Ranch in a building next to the cook house. He would ride his horse from his dad’s ranch to school. All Jim ever wanted to do was be a buckaroo. He went to work for the Spanish Ranch to ride broncos in 1949 at age 16. He stated in a recent interview with Mike Laughlin, that it was the excitement and riding tough horses that he was looking for when he hired on there. The Spanish Ranch is a large outfit started by the Altube Bros, who came from California in 1871 to the Independence Valley in northern Nevada. They used the Pitchfork brand on their cattle and horses.


Mark your calendars for our


28th annual event


WinnemuccA R HR

Ranch Hand Rodeo Weekend

March 1 - March 5, 2017

Join us at the Winnemucca Events Complex to experience Nevada’s largest & most exciting Ranch Hand Rodeo and Horse Sale! Over 30 teams compete for prizes and bragging rights!

Tentative Schedule Wed & Thurs, March 1-2, 2017

Ranch, Rope & Performance

Horse Sale

2016 Top Ten Average ~ $10,440 High Selling Horse Not Smart Smokin~ $17,500

Special Events All Weekend!

Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash Cow Dog Trial ~ Stock Horse Challenge

Cow Dog Trial and Finals

Friday, March 3, 2017 Stock Horse Challenge & Horse Sale Preview Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Ranch Hand Rodeo Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash Ranch, Rope & Performance Horse Sale

Sunday, March 5, 2017 Ranch Hand Rodeo Winnemucca RHR Barrel Bash

2016 Ranch Hand Rodeo Winning Team

TL Ranch - Bruneau, ID

For More Information: (775) 623-5071 or 10   THE NEVADA RANCHER – DECEMBER 2016

“We really do owe everything to Tom for starting us out right. It changed our lives forever. He made such a difference in so many people’s lives. I have never heard anyone say a bad word about him.”

- Kate Hyde

The Altube’s also acquired the IL ranch in 1898 and then later sold it to Allied Land and Livestock. Ellison Ranching Co. owned the Spanish Ranch when Jim worked there. Stanley Ellison was the overall manager at the Spanish Ranch and Claude Barkdull was ranch and cattle manager. At that time Jim said the ranch ran close to 10,000 mother cows and about 600 horses. He got his wish to ride broncos then, as he puts it, saddle them (geldings ranging from 6 or 7 years old) then get on them in the corral, turn them around a time or two and out the gate they went. There were no gooseneck trailers in those days, so by the time they got to the rodeer some 10 to 15 miles away the horses were calmed down and ready to learn something. Back then the cattle were gathered and held in an open group or rodeer with no fences or corrals on the open range. The neighboring ranch’s cattle would be parted out first and held in separate bunches, then each ranch would drive their cattle home the same day. Jim served as the Spanish Ranch representative or ‘rep’ for 5 years at the IL rodeers, parting or sorting out the Ellison Pitchfork cattle, usually 300 to 400 head. He then trailed them home that same day with not much help, only maybe to get them started on the trail. Andrae claimed the horses got rode enough to make good horses out of them instead of riding in a trailer like they do nowadays. Jim said they’d use the ‘two pull’ method of breaking horses. You would pull your cinch tight, pull your hat down and get on. Jim stated on those days with large rodeers, it took quite awhile to sort out all the neighboring ranch’s cattle so they could eventually brand the IL calves. It took most of the day to get done branding the 150-200 calves in the rodeer. He became well suited to the buckaroo lifestyle that he yearned for as a

young kid. The Ellison Ranch raised their own horses. They were half thoroughbred and half quarter horse according to Andrae. He said they were good to catch the smaller and slower wild horses on the desert, able to out run them in no time. The best horses he had seen were started using the Spanish vaquero techniques. Jim never took a hankering to showing horses like his dad did. When Tuffy would go to a horse show somewhere, Jim would go to a rodeo instead and ride broncs. One time Stanely Ellison was going to weigh the steers early one morning. Jim was riding a pretty broncy horse and he told the cowboss that maybe he should stay behind a ways and lope his horse in a circle to air him out a little. The cowboss didn’t think that was a good idea. About then Jim’s horse blew up and bucked down through the middle of the steers, scattering them everywhere. Next time they went to weigh the steers, Ellison sat down by Jim at supper the night before and told him he better ride his personal bridle horse if that bronco was all he had to ride. The open ranges were fenced in large fields by the BLM in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. Jim claimed they were suppose to regulate the cattle and make it easier to manage the range. But, as far as he was concerned the fences created too many corners for cattle to gang up in instead of flowing naturally to forage and graze. The wild horses were abundant then too, Ellison hired pilot Len Shepard to fly and roundup the excess horses. Ellison told Shepard and his buckaroos to get everyone, because it they left any out on the range, the BLM would figure on providing grazing for them in the future. In the 1980’s, Jim helped run the wild horses in the Dry Creek area. They caught over 300 head, and the ranch kept 13 stud colts out of that gather to use as saddle horses. He said not one of them turned out or

amounted to anything. One time Jim and his crew roped 40 head of wild horses, which he said, that was the easy part, loading them was the hard part, but the action made it exciting. Jim married Sharon Smith in 1956. She was the daughter of Allied Land and Livestock ranch Superintendent, Charlie Smith. Smith encouraged Jim to come work at the IL. In 1957 Jim began working for the IL Ranch in northern Elko County. At that time the IL was owned by Allied Land and Livestock, who purchased it in the 1930’s. They also had holdings in southern Oregon at the Roaring Springs Ranch near the Steens Mt. They were one of the largest cow outfits going. In 1968 the IL had 9,200 cattle and 16,000 sheep. It was started in 1871 by a mining and railroad man named Isaac Laurence Requa. He recorded the IL brand which was from the first letters in his name. They also used the Lazy SL brand. Jim buckarooed there many years and became the ranch manager later on. The IL covers 1,300,000 acres and has 151,000 deeded acres located about 75 miles from Elko, NV. The headquarters is on the So. Fork Owyhee River. It was 35 miles to its eastern border and 55 miles to its western border from the headquarters. There is 351 miles of fences on the IL ranch. Jim was the buckaroo boss at the IL for 7 years. After the birth of their son Rick in 1965, Jim and Sharon moved to Smith

Valley, Nevada where he worked in ranching in the early 1970’s. They made the move so they would be closer to school. He then worked two years for the John Asquaga Ranch at Jack’s Valley, Nevada before leaving there in the late 1970’s. He hired on as the cattle manager at the T Lazy S ranch near Battle Mt. Nevada for Agri-Beef. Then, in the early 1980’s he returned to the IL Ranch and was ranch manager there until he left in 2006. Jim and Sharon moved to Elko area after over 22 years as manager at the IL. Jim says the ranch and buckaroo life has been the best life. It is the people around you in ranching that makes it so unique. He worked with a lot of good hands over the years and remembers Lolo Munoz and Albino Taos two Mexican vaqueros (both inducted into the Buckaroo Hall of Fame) He said they would use 75 to 90 ft. rawhide riatas and always catch what they were trying to rope with ease. Andrae retired from buckarooing and worked as a brand inspector in Elko County until his passing on October 23. Preceding Jim in death were his wife Sharon, brother Jack Andrae and one sister Barbara (Andrae) Hall. Jim leaves one sister Betty (Andrae) Rivers and his son Rick, daughter-inlaw Amy and grandson and namesake James “Jimmy” Andrae. He was inducted into the Buckaroo Hall of Fame in 2014. F



Vintage Christmas

Celebrating the holidays with mid-century style By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. -- A look back at holiday ads and illustrations from the middle of the 20th century bring some festive fun and nostalgia to the season. Check out these images to see what was popular before “trending” was a thing.

During Roy Rogers’ reign over American TV sets and children’s hearts, ad campaigns promoting toys and costumes based on his shows were popular Christmas gifts. Toy pistols and cowboy hats are still in-demand items for today’s cowboy kids, with a little different shape on the hat brims.

You’ve heard of hot chocolate and hot toddies, but did you ever think to drink hot Dr. Pepper? Who knows - it might be the next big thing! Although, since this ad came out in the ‘60s and it’s not popular yet, this probably isn’t going to replace hot buttered rum any time soon.


Oooh, what could be hiding under all those ribbons? Better get a bigger litter box - looks like the kiddos got a new pet for Christmas!

Sweetness and hope

Don’t expect too much fancy romance from a working cowboy. Hopefully this one brought his gal a coat, since she’s terribly underdressed to be out hanging Christmas decorations in a snowstorm.

Merry Christmas!

There is a nighttime sweetness and hope that hovers over us this time of year here at home. This is a time for summing up and looking ahead … and a time for dreams. And at night… ah, that’s the time, isn’t it? Outside it’s dark, December dark, and we’re inside and warm and cocooned up. The cold makes our world shrink, especially at night. But we have our dreams. For Janice Thomas, our art teacher at the high school, it’s that painting she’s planning. She makes starts at it, from time to time, but she’s wise enough to know she isn’t good enough to paint it yet. She paints other things well, but that one … it has to be perfect. It will be the painting of a lifetime, she knows. Doc will drift off to sleep tonight thinking about that new fly rod. He has half a dozen, of course, that will take about any weight line, and let him catch anything from mouse to moose. But even the most expensive rod isn’t what he dreams of. This year, for Christmas, he’s giving himself a rod-builder’s jig, and he will make his own rod from a Sage blank. That will be the one. It will have his own wrappings and he’ll put the ferrules on it himself. He’ll be able to feel the fish breathe with this one. It will be true and wonderful and last forever. For cowboy Steve, the December dream is always the same: spending all his time at that little cabin up there in the mountains. Sometimes he’ll sit by that stone fireplace downstairs and sip coffee, and sometimes he’ll be up in the turret he built and sip coffee. Ol’ Snort, his cowpony, will be out in his corral, of course, except when the two of them are exploring the miles of mountains behind the cabin. And in the cabin, while sipping coffee, he’ll hear music on the radio and a breeze going through the pines outside. There is a nighttime sweetness and hope that hovers over us this time of year. Here’s to dreams.

–––––––––––––––––– Brought to you by “Sweetgrass Mornings” by Slim Randles, memoirs of an outdoor life. From THE NEVADA RANCHER – DECEMBER 2016 13

Upcoming Sales Saturday, December 10th at 1:00pm Special Calf Sale

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Getting Ready for Christmas on the Ranch (1950) Milly Hunt Porter edited “Think Harmony with Horses” by Ray Hunt and “True Unity” with Tom Dorrance. Between editorial projects, she published “Hey Elko,” a collection of her original verse, inspired by the city and county of Elko, Nevada. She wrote “The Horse Gods” in 1994 and lives in Bruneau, Idaho. Learn more at

By Milly Hunt Porter Special to the Rancher

The winter of 1950-51, Ray and I were the last couple to leave the hills. The fall had been spent pushing the cattle out of the hills. On some occasions, the buckaroos would come up from the home ranch, spend the night, have a pre-dawn breakfast, an early start and move a really big bunch down toward their winter quarters. There were good fenced holding fields on the deeded land in the hills. Since no cattle had grazed there in the summer, these fields had fall feed. As the cattle moved from the summer feed season in the highest elevations down to the river ranch, there were other ranch owned gathering areas. These were usually places where the ranch personnel was a single fellow who did not mind living more isolated. In the late fall of the year some of these single fellows in the line camps were still out pushing stragglers along. On one occasion we stopped to leave off some supplies at one of the camps. Sixty-six years later, I don’t remember much about the fellow there except I thought he was pretty old. He must have been close to fifty years. He had kind blue eyes and heavy eyebrows and quite a mustache. He invited us to stay and eat. He could make the best biscuits with what seemed like little fuss, in a short time in the top of his flour sack. He baked them in the oven of his little wood burning stove. Thirty years after that, I included a little poem about biscuits made in the top of the sack in my “Hey Elko” book. I was surprised how few folks seemed to have had the privilege of having such a treat. In those years the ranch was a good sized cow and calf operation.

When the snow started in the high country, those old momma cows knew where to go and how to get there. Fresh out of Idaho farming, we were probably the greenest part of the operation. The ranch was an established business with a comfortable rhythm, not fancy but good fences, solid buildings; a fixed up sort of place. In those days, there was not a posted mission statement but we all knew the basic rules. Actually, basically the rule was spelled “mutual respect”. “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you”. We all felt the boss’s respect by his wages and housing arrangements, which was as good as most and better than some. This young workforce, 1950, were children of the depression years, who cut their wisdom teeth during World War II. Almost everyone expected to work for a living. This ranch was a good place to work. Our little family; cowboy, cook,

long yearling baby daughter, six month old male border collie, two bridle horses, one two rein horse, one hackamore horse, two snaffle bit colts (all ranch owned), the ranch milk cow and calf, and all of the personal household stuff; left the hills via stock truck, pickup and stock trailer, and the family car. We were settled at the home ranch in time to get ready for our first Christmas in Nevada. The home ranch felt more to me like living in town. You don’t feel very far from civilization when you can hear the train, the cookhouse come to eat bell, and various tractors, trucks and other motors. Looking out your living room window, you recognized the cookhouse, the bunkhouse and shop; not to mention a cluster of at least five other little dwellings. Since I have never done really well with the dark season, I was really pleased with the winter world of the ranch. Looking back those sixty six years, that ranch Christmas wasn’t a lot dif-

ferent than my childhood Christmases in Bruneau, Idaho. The owners were from California and they went there to family for Christmas. The ranch cook and her husband had been on the ranch for years, but they were from Bruneau. Two or three of the single buckaroos were from there too. The young buckaroo boss was a Bruneau fellow and we added one Bruneau and a Mountain Home background to the group. The other obvious in common fact was most of us were out of our teens but way short of thirty. We were way too young to know what we didn’t know. As kids, we had connected long winter evenings with popcorn and pinochle. At the home ranch there were enough folks with similar backgrounds to pick up that ritual. The houses were close enough together to bundle up and carry food and little folks to share an evening. Continues on Page 19



Year In Review An update on the top stories of last year By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – 2016 began with an unexpected 5-week siege in eastern Oregon bringing international attention to the Western public lands rancher. It ended with a polarizing Presidential election in November, and wild horses and precipitation continued as constant issues for the state. Here’s a recap of some of the top news events from the past year, plus updates on each story.

The Bundys make a stand On Jan. 2, brothers Ryan and Ammon Bundy participated in a rally in Burns, Oregon to support a local ranching family facing prison time. After the rally, they unexpectedly took over the nearby Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Dozens of their supporters joined them as they hunkered down in the gift shop building with supplies of guns and food to protest the government’s control of much of the land in Western America. The Bundys hail from a family ranch in southern Nevada, but they traveled north to show their support for Dwight and Steven Hammond. The Hammonds were convicted of arson and other crimes and were due to begin serving a second prison sentence in early January. The father-son duo peacefully reported to prison, but the Bundys’ armed takeover of the federal government building lasted 41 days and garnered much national and international media attention. The standoff eventually ended, but not before Arizona rancher and Bundy sympathizer LaVoy Finnicum

Bundy Ranch Facebook page

Cliven Bundy and sons Ammon and Ryan are currently jailed in southern Nevada awaiting a February trial for federal charges stemming from their 2014 standoff with federal agents at their Bunkerville-area ranch. Several others involved with the standoff were indicted and will face charges as well.

was fatally shot by federal agents. In March, many takeover participants were indicted on federal charges including occupying the refuge by force while using and carrying firearms. On Oct. 27, a 12-person jury found seven of the defendants not guilty. After a 6-week trial, Ammon and Ryan Bundy, Jeff Banta, Shawna Cox, David Fry, Kenneth Medenbach and Neil Wampler were acquitted of charges including possessing assault weapons inside a government building. Plenty of pictures depicting the defendants holding a variety of guns inside and around the Malheur Wildlife Refuge building are posted on the Internet. News of the acquittal broke much more quietly than news of the takeover. While the armed occupiers’ arrival in the remote eastern Oregon refuge incited a firestorm of social media posts and grabbed major headlines, their not guilty verdict generated only a few small news articles. Their acquittal only inspired a handful of their supporters to “dance in the street,” according to a news report. Some of the defendants, including


Ryan and Ammon Bundy, were transferred to jail in Clark County, Nevada, where they await trial relating to charges stemming from the 2014 standoff at their family’s ranch. Their father and the family ranch patriarch, Cliven Bundy, is also currently being held awaiting trial for charges stemming from their armed standoff with federal agents at the ranch in 2014.

Election Wrap-up Outsider Republican candidate Donald Trump pulled off one of the biggest upsets in modern American politics when he became the Presi-

dent-Elect last month. He defeated Democratic opponent Hillary Rodham Clinton, who many pollsters and citizens considered a shoo-in for the highest office in our country. Trump clinched the victory by receiving 290 electoral votes to Clinton’s 232. Along the way, he successfully flipped many blue states to red. While Trump won’t take office until January 20, 2017, many are predicting his administration will be business-friendly and are hopeful that he will repeal Obamacare. Trump did not take a strong stance on major agricultural issues during his campaign, and he was in the early stages of picking his cabinet at press time. Along with a Republican administration, this party also now has control of both the House and the Senate. Additionally, 31 of the states’ 50 governors are also now Republican. This campaign and election were exceptionally contentious and polarizing, but party unity on Capitol Hill and beyond will undoubtedly lead to some government changes in the next four years. Surprises were also in store after the votes were counted at the state level. Former Attorney General Catherine Cortez Masto defeated Representative Joe Heck (R) to fill the vacancy left by the retirement of Senator Harry Reid (D). In southern Nevada, political newcomer Jacky Rosen (D) defeated the better-known Danny Tarkanian (R ) to win an open seat in the state House of Representatives. Voters passed more stringent background checks for gun buyers when they approved a question asking if firearm transfers must always go through a licensed dealer. With the question on the ballot narrowly gaining approval, all gun purchases must now be completed with the seller, the buyer, and the firearm appearing in person before a licensed firearm dealer and the buyer passing a background check. Exemptions include temporary transfers (such as while hunting or trapping) and transfers between family members.

Owning up to one ounce of recreational marijuana is now legal in Nevada, with the 15% sales tax to be diverted toward funding the state’s chronically underfunded public school system. California and Massachusetts also approved similar measures this fall. Proponents say the new tax will raise $20 million annually, while critics say legalizing the drug is a danger to Nevada’s children.

Wild horse numbers increase Wild horse numbers have continued to swell relatively unchecked, continuing a steep upward trend in recent years. The number of horses on the range and in short- and long-term holding facilities currently exceeds 100,000. The total Appropriate Management Level (AML) for horses on all Horse Management Areas (HMAs) as mandated by the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 is about 27,000 animals. Due to budget constraints, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) did not conduct any helicopter gathers in Nevada during Fiscal Year 2016. Several bait-and-trap gathers resulted

in the removal of a handful of horses off the overcrowded rangelands, where the AML in some HMAs has reached astronomical proportions. In one HMA near Elko, the wild horse population is currently 700% over AML. After a meeting of the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Committee in Elko this September, the committee recommended that all excess and undoptable horses be gathered and euthanized. This immediately ignited a media firestorm, with the wild horse activists clamoring so loudly on social media sites, on their blogs and in press releases that the BLM quickly issued a statement reassuring the general public that mass euthanasia will not be utilized. The BLM began a new fiscal year in October, and in November they conducted a helicopter gather on the Owyhee Complex, located in both the Elko and Winnemucca BLM districts. This HMA has an AML of 483-0779 wild horses, and an August 2016 count showed a total of 3,067.

4 Annual All Breeds Bull Test Sale th




Continued on Page 18

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YEAR IN REVIEW Cont. from Page 17 Many of the mares gathered were treated with a fertility control vaccine and returned to the range. The gather was ongoing at press time, but approximately 300 horses had been removed from the range. At the end of last month, the gather crew had completed their work in the Elko District and moved onto the Winnemucca District.

Precipitation on the rise Discussing the weather and water are always safe topics of conversation, because everybody in ranch country cares about both. The water year begins on October 1 and ends on September 30, and last year’s water year filled Nevada’s rivers and reservoirs in a big way. Two months into the current water year, precipitation levels across the state appear to be off to a strong start. So far, the Pahrump area has seen the highest levels of precipitation compared to historical data averages kept by the California Nevada River Forecast Center. As of press time, Pahrump had received a whopping 435% of average to-date precipitation, which amounts to nearly a quarter of the area’s total for the entire water year. Imlay, Battle Mountain, Beowawe, Tuscarora, Elko, Jackpot and Odell Lake all received over 300% of the average to-date precipitation levels. For all of these areas, this amounts to roughly one quarter of the total moisture for the entire water year.

As a welcome change from recent years, only a tiny sliver of Nevada remains classified as a red zone by the US Drought Monitor. Most of the state is categorized in the less severe stages of dryness, and much of the eastern part is declared free of the drought.

Most other areas in Nevada had received adequate amounts of moisture as well. With the water year off to a strong start in many areas


of the state, hopefully 2017 will be one year closer to ending the drought that has plagued much of the West for the past several years. F


Homemade Taffy

Cont. from Page 15 The single fellows from the bunkhouse were often supper guests and folks can play three handed pinochle. The other advantage from our single bunkhouse buddies (raised in Bruneau), was they could and they would do occasional child care. Bruneau Valley menfolk have a long tradition of pride in their ability to care for little people. Looking back to that winter, one of the bonus features for the buckaroos was they were able to use the ranch shop in the evenings. I’m sure there were guidelines. They would gather at the shop to work on their personal gear or gifts. From the evenings at the shop, came some nice bits and spurs, fancy conchos, twisted hair mecates, and bridle chains of various patterns. There were sheets of silver available to inlay the bits and spurs and create conchos. The ranch encouraged the fellows to invest time and attention to their equipment. Not all of a buckaroo’s gear came from J.M. Capriola’s. Granted, each fellow’s Christmas list had some definite ideas from Cap’s. And usually that big gift was picked up on a trip to Elko in mid December and paid for some each month until the Elko County Fair in September. The wives big Christmas present might have come from a JC Penney’s or such catalog; something new to wear to the holiday dances. In Battle Mountain or Bruneau, in those years there were the usual fun country music dances. The daily routine of a week for the wives in that time looked pretty much like the set of seven flour sack dish

Ingredients: 2/3 C Hot Water 2 C Sugar 1/8 Tsp Cream of Tartar 1/4 C Butter 2 Tsp Vinegar (Apple or White) Directions: Mix well Boil over medium flame to hard ball stage. Pour into a buttered tray to cool. Cool until you can handle. Then pull until it is paper white. String it out on buttered wax paper. After it’s almost hard, cut into pieces and wrap in separate wax paper. towels we embroidered in the fall as a special Christmas gift for a dear friend or relative. Preparing for Christmas usually revolved around the kitchen. Either making gifts for someone’s kitchen, aprons, table clothes, pot holders, etc; or special treats from your kitchen to eat during the holidays. Fruit cakes were still high on the list of things to give and a person almost always received more than one version over the holidays. On the ranch we did quite a bit of helping each other with the Christmas preparation. Candy making and baby watching takes lots of hands on care. One part of Christmas treat preparing that could and did become a group activity was making popcorn balls or taffy. Now I remember why I have not made taffy for years. It really is a group activity. As young people, we actually had taffy pulls. The guys, husbands and bunkhouse bachelors, were a help with taffy making. Taffy like most candy making does

not always turn out right. We used to believe the weather had an influence on its success. I don’t know if that’s an old wife’s tale or a science supported fact. I can tell you this now and support if with personal experience, the

weather changes have a definite effect on joint pain. That’s likely something you didn’t care to know. But, maybe you’d like a recipe for making taffy? Good luck with that! Milly Hunt Porter F

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The Nation’s Original Cowboy Poetry and Music Festival JANUARY 30 - FEBRUARY 4, 2017 • ELKO, NEVADA The 33rd Gathering will honor the tradition of Western storytelling by celebrating first-hand stories, poetry, songs and films rooted in the values of the rural West. With Ian Tyson, Corb Lund, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott, Dave Stamey, Doris Daley, Don Edwards, Kristyn Harris, Cowboy Celtic, Waddie Mitchell, Brenn Hill, Paul Zarzyski, Trinity Seely, The Moth & many more! Artwork by Howard Post: Moving the Corrientes (2010)




Early History of Horses in North America - Part One By Heather Smith Thomas Special to the Rancher

Horses are not native to this continent; they were domesticated animals brought here by early explorers from Spain. The horse had prehistoric ancestors in North America, however. After the age of dinosaurs and other giant reptiles was past, small mammals began to appear, about 60 million years ago. One of these small mammals was Eohippus (the “dawn horse”), about the size of a fox, with four toes on his front feet and three on his hind feet. Fossils of these creatures from 55 million years ago have been found in the central plains of North America. Eohippus lived in North America and Europe at the same time because at that point North America, Greenland, the British Isles and northern Europe were connected—and this entire landmass had a tropical climate, with lots of leafy vegetation. Little Eohippus scuttled around in the forest, browsing on leaves with his short teeth. At first he had 44 teeth, which were in the process of changing from the sharp canine teeth of his early meat-eating ancestors (the horse and the dog share Drawings by Heather Smith Thomas

a common ancestor) to a front set for biting off foliage and a rear set for grinding it up. The early horse resembled his modern-day relative, the tapir, with his splayed toes and pads (like a dog’s foot). He was not as fleet as his modern descendants; he had to stay constantly alert to avoid the large predatory birds and other animals that sought to eat him. When frightened, he scurried to cover, much like a rabbit does today. His backbone was more arched than the modern horse, and the articulations between the vertebrae were much looser, especially in the lumbar region between the last rib and the point of the hip. Eohippus could make bending and twisting movements, and when running, he was much more flexible than most dogs. His skeletal structure enabled him to accelerate rapidly, since his hind legs were longer than his front legs (similar in posture to a rabbit). With his flexible backbone and ground-gripping toes, he could change direction quickly and fluidly, like a cat or rabbit; he could dodge swiftly around the trees and brush of his forest home. His splayed toes kept him from sinking into the mud in marshy areas. Continued on Page 22


LOOKING BACK EARLY HISTORY OF HORSES Cont. from Page 22 As time went on, however, the swamps and forests gave way to drier plains and Eohippus gradually changed. About 38 million years ago he evolved into Mesohippus-- as large as a collie dog, with bigger skull and brain, and only 3 toes on each foot. He inhabited brushy streambanks— still eating leaves. Fossils of Mesohippus have been found in South Dakota and northeastern Colorado, where the bare plains were laced with winding streams and wooded valleys. As the climate became even drier, bunch grasses appeared and spread, replacing some of the forests. Many of the browsing animals became extinct, unable to adapt to eating the more fibrous grass. But the little prehorse thrived and became a traveling grazer instead of a swamp animal that hid in the bushes. By then he was the size of a small donkey and had become what we call Merychippus—with longer, harder teeth that kept emerging up from his jaw so he could live a long life eating the abrasive grass without wearing his teeth out. When large open spaces first appear in the forests, several types of animals began to venture out of the woods. The first to develop proper teeth and gut for digesting grasses were the camels. They were also ahead of horses in straightening out their arched spines, limiting the movement of the backbone. They developed withers (creating a firmer anchor for the neck), and shortened and strengthened the lumbar vertebrae. This stabilized the hind legs attachment to the backbone. The horse made these adaptions also, enabling him to run faster in straight lines--for survival on the open prairies. About 22 million years ago one of the major branches of the horse family left the forests completely and

began living on the prairies, becoming a straight-line runner (rather than depending upon the ability to dodge around thick underbrush). This part of the family eventually streamlined its legs to just one toe. Now he could run faster and escape predators on the open prairie. His cannon bones


and pasterns became longer. He had also developed molars that were better suited for grinding. The vegetation in many regions had changed to grass, which contains silica and wears down teeth. The climate became drier and more seasonal, as the tropical zone receded

toward the equator. Grasses which had been scanty in earlier times suddenly flourished, went through rapid evolutionary changes, and spread all over the earth, replacing some of the forests. Now there were grassy plains instead of barren open spaces with little vegetation.

The early horse changed from a browser to a grazer, making significant changes in his teeth and digestion. As his teeth, backbone, and legs changed, so did his eyesight. Eyes became larger, and wider spaced at the sides of his head, so he could see the approach of predators on the wide horizons of the plains. This gave him excellent peripheral vision, so he could see what was happening all around him, and explains why modern horses often startle at things we humans cannot see. His physical evolution led to important behavioral adaptations that helped him survive. His keen senses and quick reactions enabled him to take advantage of his new physical abilities. His mental and emotional makeup make him quick to react to any stimuli. His first interaction with humans was as prey; our ancestors ate horses long before they tried to domesticate these fleet animals. But this final evolution took place in Asia. No fossil evidence of horses has been found in North America from the Pleistocene Epoch (the Great Ice Age) which began 2.5 million years ago. By then horses were flourishing in other parts of the world because they had travelled to Asia across the land bridge that attached Alaska and Siberia. Horses appeared on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Changes in conditions may have been what brought prehistoric horses back to North America after the Ice Age--about 600,000 years ago when the ice sheets were melting. As the ice receded, these areas became covered with grass. Fossils dating from about that time to about 8,000 B.C. have been found in many places in North America. But about 10,000 years ago (8,000 B.C.) the horses again vanished, along with several other species of large grass-eaters including camels.

A disappearance

No fossil evidence of horses has been found in North America from the Pleistocene Epoch (the Great Ice Age) which began 2.5 million years ago. By then horses were flourishing in other parts of the world because they had travelled to Asia across the land bridge that attached Alaska and Siberia. Horses appeared on all continents except Australia and Antarctica.

We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know why horse disappeared in both North and South America at that time but not in Asia, but some scientists think it might have been due to hunting pressure from the early tribes that came across the Asia-Alaska land bridge about 10,000 to 20,000 years ago and/or some epidemic disease or parasite. Another theory is excessive radiation from a super-nova or star explosion. There have been 7 super-novas in historic times that were intense enough to be seen in the daytime, and there were probably some in earlier times. Intense radiation could have changed the genetics of certain animal species, making them incapable of reproducing; the offspring may have been so mutant that they could not survive. Continues on Page 43



Ka-BOOM! Bomber pilots trained at West Wendover AF Base By Mike Popovitch Special to the Rancher

Most residents of Nevada and the rest of the country know that clandestine operations have taken place in our little corner of the world since the birth of the atomic age. From Area 51 to the Extra Terrestrial Highway, Nevada has had it’s share of strange happenings. A stop in Wendover brings us to the former Wendover Air Force Base which was an integral location for the training of WWII bomber pilots of the 509th Composite Group and their B-29 Super Fortresses. Eventually, those pilots would release their devastating atomic cargo on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, thus causing the Japanese to officially surrender on August 15, 1945 and bring an end to WWII on September 2, 1945. With so many lives lost and destruction of property, you would think that we had perfected the ultimate weapon, the atomic bomb. However, the Soviet Union began it’s own testing and detonated their first bomb in 1949, ushering in the nuclear arms race, forcing the US government to continue testing for many years to come. After the end of the war, further testing of atomic bombs took place in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1948. However, due to the distance from the New Mexico weapons designers, this location proved to be cumbersome. A new location was needed and by 1950, a site in Nevada was selected. Known as the Nevada Test Site, locat-

These are the remnants of Native American petroglyphs, located near Petroglyph Butte. Dozens of beautifully carved drawings dot the small canyon. From primitive writings in stone to thermonuclear devices, Nevada once again has a rich history!

ed 96 miles northwest of Las Vegas. It became the location of 928 atomic detonations between 1951 and 1992. In the early years of testing, one hundred above ground atmospheric tests were made before the Test Ban Treaty of 1963 which prohibited atmospheric, outer space, and underwater nuclear testing. The other 828 tests took place underground and in tunnels. In order to reduce damage to Las Vegas residents’ homes, the detonation sizes were limited.


By 1966, as the population of Las Vegas began to grow, a new test location was necessary after the Greeley detonation shook multi story buildings in Las Vegas, alarming citizens who wondered if their buildings could withstand further shaking and rolling from even larger future tests. Recognizing the risk, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) found a new location 65 northeast of Tonopah just east of the Hot Creek Range, about fifteen miles north of

Highway 6. Because of the remote area and lack of population, this new location would be known as the Central Nevada Supplemental Test Area. The Hot Creek Range was host to the Belmont-Tybo-Eureka stage line where coaches would stop at Moore’s Station for water and supplies. Moore’s Station was established in 1875 by the four Moore brothers who built a ranch and reservoir on the nearby creek. They eventually brought in fruit trees and created one of Nevada’s first orchards. Now under private ownership, the fruit trees in the orchard are still bearing fruit today. On January 19, 1968, the AEC detonated a nuclear device at CNS (Project Faultless), a few miles from Moore’s Station which had already been abandoned for many years. Because of the historic nature of the station, steel rods and heavy beams were attached to the main structure to prevent any damage. This blast was comparable to 1 million tons of TNT, much larger than the explosion at Hiroshima at 20,000 tons. Occurring at a depth of 3,275’, the blast extended in a circle of over 1,000’, violently heaving the ground upward 15’ and creating a steep chimney that collapsed upwards towards the surface. The collapsing chimney created a minor subsidence crater at the surface directly above the detonation. The pressure from the blast rammed the bedrock laterally and created two parallel faults close to a mile apart, each rupturing the surface for 3,400’, 15-100 feet wide and 3-23 feet deep, eventually settling 10’ below the surface of the surrounding desert. In nearby Currant, five miles away, residents claimed to have felt the shock wave for over a minute. Ninety miles away in Ely, homes shook and windows were broken at the high school. Residents of Eureka climbed to the top of Prospect Peak to witness the explosion which was over 60 miles away.

Project Faultless workers viewed the blast from Base Camp, NV, a military installation located on Highway 6, just East of the Warm Springs Junction and the E. T. Highway. Currently, Base Camp is home to about half a dozen Air Force personnel, a dozen buildings and a 7,200’ long runway. It is likely that this installation is support for Nellis Air Force Base outside of Las Vegas. Unlike it’s name, Project Faultless created one of the most unusual faulting patterns of any underground detonation. Although two more bore holes were drilled, further testing was discontinued at the site and future tests were relocated to Amchitka Island in Alaska. A plaque near the blast site is all that remains. A few miles north towards Moore’s Station lies many other plaques set in stone. F

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The facts on antibiotic guidance New directive only affects feed and water soluble compounds By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – By now, most folks involved in production agriculture are aware that government regulations regarding antibiotic administration will be changing in a big way on January 1. But, there is much confusion circulating as veterinarians, ranchers, farmers and journalists try to wade through the red tape and figure out exactly what is affected. In October, the Nevada Rancher printed an article that contained erroneous information. We stated that ALL antibiotics will now need a prescription from a licensed veterinarian to be distributed to producers. Fortunately for producers, that is incorrect; the directive about to take effect isn’t quite that stringent. Fully understanding the new directive issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is important for all involved in livestock production, including veterinarians, large-scale farmers and ranchers, backyard animal owners, and junior livestock exhibitors. Here’s the scoop on how things are about to change. Starting on the first day of 2017, producers will need a written prescription, called a Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD), to purchase and administer all feed and water soluble products containing antibiotics. Injectable forms of antibiotics can still be purchased over the counter without a vet’s written permission.

NEVADA LIVESTOCK VET SUPPLY LLC is a new business in Fallon Nevada, located at 131 Industrial Way. We are a new store but our roots go way back. Julie Ikonen has not only been in the vaccine and medicine business but also has experience with handling cattle and horses of her own, therefore having first hand experience with products and supplies. She has a very good reputation in Northern Nevada and is well known for being friendly and knowledgeable. Nevada Livestock Vet Supply is a fully stocked animal health store. We have vaccine for cattle and horses, as well as your companion animals, wormers, RX Pharmacy, supplies, Salt & Supplements. We can deliver to your door step, UPS and Drop Ship directly from our supplier. We believe the customer and his livestock deserve the utmost best customer service there is. We believe in keeping our staff educated and available for the customer and we believe in a good cup of coffee and conversation at the Sale Barn before the Wednesday sale at Nevada Livestock Marketing. Next time you are in Fallon, we invite you to come to our store and take a look around. You can count on us! 775-624-4996.

Continues on Page 28


NDA Director named chair of national animal agriculture committee SPARKS, Nev. – At their annual meeting in Lincoln, Neb. in September, the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture (NASDA) appointed Nevada Department of Agriculture (NDA) Director Jim Barbee as chair of its animal agriculture committee. The committee is charged with overseeing partnerships and policy recommendations related to animal health. “Animal agriculture is an important economic contributor to our state and one of Nevada’s oldest industries,” Director Barbee said. “I’m honored to lead the committee that will drive the national discussion on animal agriculture and animal health topics.”

The Nevada Department of Agriculture (NDA) promotes a business climate that is fair, economically viable and encourages a sustainable environment that serves to protect food, fiber and human health and safety through effective service and education. NDA includes the divisions of Administration, Animal Industry, Consumer Equitability, Food and Nutrition and Plant Industry. NASDA grows and enhances agriculture by forging partnerships and creating consensus to achieve sound policy outcomes between state departments of agriculture, the federal government and stakeholders. F


ANTIBIOTICS Cont. from Page 27 The guidance is intended to prevent overuse of antibiotics in livestock production, which can allegedly lead to the creation of a “super bug” in human infections that is resistant to antibiotic treatment. According to the new guidance, which is part of the Animal Drug Availability Act of 1996, vets can only write VFDs to producers who are located in the same state in which they are licensed to practice vet medicine. This will be particularly challenging for Nevada, as there is a currently a shortage of large-animal vets. With a small number of vets covering a large area and often serving clients in neighboring states, new vet-patient relationships will need to formed to comply with the directive. In order to write a prescription, a vet will need to have an established and valid relationship with the producer beforehand. This includes a physical visit to observe and diagnose the animals, plus the credentials to diagnose that type of animal. Technically, a small animal vet can write a VFD for a large animal operation, but they must be able to prove they are qualified to make the diagnosis if they are investigated later. Records must be kept by the producer, vet, and distributor for two years on all VFDs. Nevada State Veterinarian JJ Goicoechea predicts some vets will face regulatory discipline that could include loss of licensure due to noncompliance with these complex and stringent regulations. “I promise you,” he said during a seminar on this topic at the Farm Bureau Convention in Elko last month. As with most government regulations designed to make citizens’ lives easier and more streamlined, there is a plethora of fine print that accom-

pany the directive. Once a vet writes a VFD, it is valid only for a defined period of time. This varies with the specific product, but it can’t exceed six months from the date of issuance. There is also a set amount of time the feed or water soluble compound can be fed to the livestock, and a new VFD is needed if the first one expires before the feed it was issued with is fully consumed. So, if a producer has a load of medicated feed that is purchased with a valid VFD from a licensed dealer and he still has some left after six months, he must obtain another VFD to legally feed the remaining, already-authorized feed to his livestock. “This is going to cost more money to those that are trying to comply,” said Goicoechea. While injectable antibiotics such as penicillin and Draxxin will still be available without a VFD, many commonly used medicated consumable products will now only be available with a written prescription. Medicated milk replacer and medicated supplements often fed to newly weaned calves can only be obtained with a VFD. Not to left out of changing government regulations, retailers will also need to take extra measures to comply. Feed mills and distributors must register with the FDA thirty days prior to change in business. As of press time, no feed mills in the state of Nevada had registered with the FDA. Goicoechea is optimistic that the regulations will ease in the future. “I really believe science will evolve and we will see a softening in these regulations,” he said. If any relief comes for the livestock industry, it will take years, though. For the immediate future, producers, veterinarians and feed distributors will need to educate themselves and comply with the new guidance. F

Nevada Beef Council

News & Notes

Growing U.S. Beef Demand in Foreign Markets


ith the holiday season in full swing, Nevadans (and Americans in general) are busy preparing for their Christmas dinners and holiday get-togethers, planning feasts of prime rib, cross rib roast, and yes, possibly meals involving other proteins. But we won’t go there.

While we at home are planning out our beefy holiday meals, the Beef Checkoff Program is working diligently with certain foreign markets to ensure U.S. beef remains center of the plate in key places across the globe. Foreign marketing, as defined in the Beef Promotion & Research Act, means promotion, research, consumer information and industry information conducted in foreign markets. This includes checkoff-funded market development and promotional programs worldwide. To give you a sense of what’s involved in such efforts, here are a few checkoff-funded projects that focused on different aspects of cooking with or marketing beef in various countries. Hosting Uzbek’s ‘Days of American Steak’ — The checkoff funds an ongoing “Days of American Steak” event in the Uzbekistan capital city of Tashkent, promoting sales of alternative U.S. beef cuts in a market that imports mostly U.S. primals. Uzbekistan is a country of 30 million people and was once considered an untapped market for U.S. beef, but the educational seminars and workshops funded by the checkoff have helped make alternative cuts there more popular, especially across the hotel, restaurant and foodservice sector. Days of American Steak is part of the efforts to create increased demand in the region for a greater variety of U.S. beef cuts and grades, and to expand the number of food-

Beautiful, American-style barbecue is a delicous temptation at home – but is transformed into exotic cuisine overseas. The Beef Checkoff Program is working to promote US beef in their dishes, and to help train local chefs and home cooks to create American-style meat dishes.

service and retail outlets there selling U.S. beef and veal. Making Money with U.S. Beef — Increased prices for popular beef cuts in Taiwan has led buyers to look for substitutes, but they need guidance on buying and cooking new items. As part of an ongoing effort make U.S. beef a key component of Taiwan’s food culture, the beef checkoff has worked for years to gain loyalty among key buyers and identify new market players. Efforts concentrate on the safety, variety, profitability and superior quality of U.S. beef, emphasizing first and foremost the safety of the product, and then its value and versatility. Building on a popular consumer event held last year, the checkoff recently funded a U.S. beef bowl and barbecue seminar to demonstrate use of economical U.S. cuts in Taiwanese fare. Showcasing Texas-Style Barbecue — Japanese and Taiwanese consum-

ers love Texan barbecue, but they think it’s difficult to make. That’s why the beef checkoff has been promoting barbecue events, like recent seminars funded by the Texas Beef Council to highlight various cuts and cooking methods. Japan and Taiwan are among the top-performing markets for U.S. beef, and these events include presentations to importers, retailers and food media. The goal is to encourage expansion of U.S. beef as a substitute for Japanese and other imported beef in growing, underdeveloped market segments by conveying the consistent supply, safety, quality and versatility of U.S. beef. “The Japanese really like the taste of American barbecue, but one hurdle to it really catching on is that they think it is difficult to prepare,” said Greg Hanes, assistant vice president of international marketing and programs for the U.S. Meat Export

Federation (USMEF), a contractor to the Beef Checkoff Program. “We are working to dispel that belief with the ‘Urban BBQ’ image and explaining that preparing American-style barbecue is really fun and easy.” Encouraging Future Chefs to Use U.S. Beef — A recent checkoff-funded seminar in Queretaro, Mexico led culinary students at the Culinary School of the University Mondragon in a U.S. beef-cutting and cooking demonstration. The effort was designed to encourage future chefs to choose U.S. beef when they begin working in Mexico’s restaurant, hotel and foodservice industries. The seminar included a cutting demonstration – with student participation – of the U.S. beef primal shoulder clod by meat consultant Luis Pachuca, who explained the attributes of U.S. beef and offered students looks at cuts including the flat iron, heart clod, teres major (petite tender) and ranch steak. On behalf of the checkoff, Chef Emilio Carranza also offered recipe and cooking suggestions for some of the cuts presented, and prepared a chicharron using U.S. ribeye for a tasting by students. To learn more about these exciting efforts abroad, as well as all the things your beef checkoff are doing here stateside, visit www.mybeefcheckoff. org today.

A Closing Note The Nevada Beef Council staff and board would like to wish all the hard-working, dedicated ranchers and beef producers a wonderful holiday season and a successful year ahead. As you gather with your loved ones this Christmas (in between feeding and checking cows), please know how grateful we are for all you do to produce nutritious, safe and delicious beef. Thank you. F


Modern Times,

Old Methods


Basics of cowboying remain the same By Jolyn Young The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – Technology and government regulations have surely changed the way ranch work gets done in the 21st century, but there are some methods from days gone by that continue to be mainstays of cowboy work. Animals like horses and cattle are still governed by nature’s laws and their own instincts, and a cowboy must know their behaviors and body language to do his job well. Using gear made of timeless materials such as leather, silver and rawhide is also essential to a working buckaroo. They might pack smartphones in their shirt pocket, but a good hand must still be able to accurately count cattle through a gate and savvy enough to either ride a bucking horse or talk a horse out of bucking. In decades past, a buckaroo likely wore shorter chinks while riding a cranky cavvy horse. His hat brim was probably turned up more, and his boots had taller tops and higher heels. A person can roughly date a photo by assessing the style of clothing. But some things haven’t changed: Cowboys use horses to take care of cows. Take a look at the photos on these pages and see if you can determine which ones were taken at the end of the last century and which ones were taken in 2016. Then check the key to see how you did and to learn who is in each picture and where it was taken.

Heading and heeling calves for branding is a longstanding and highly prized tradition on many Great Basin ranches. Many buckaroos believe that roping calves this way, rather than simply heeling and dragging to the fire, makes better horses and better ropers.

Adults and kids alike enjoy showing horses at the Elko County Fair. Here, a pair of buckaroos sit horseback in the arena.




This cowboy holds the rope tight on a calf at the fire while another cowboy rides through the herd with a calf on the end of his rope.

6 5 Horseshoeing sometimes turns into a two-man (or one man and one woman) job. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s often helpful to have a horse holder to help keep a nervous animal more calm. At right,buckaroos, horses, cows and sagebrush. Some things never change. Below, with few trees available and the presence of a stock trailer unreliable, ranch horses must be hobble broke. These three trusty steeds wait patiently for their riders to finish working the ground, fixing a fence, eating lunch, taking a short nap, or whatever other task cowboys perform while their horses are hobbled.

1: Shawn Biggs and Cole Stremler rope a calf at a Spanish Ranch branding in 2016.t 2: 2016 3: Shawn Biggs, 2016 4: Larry Schutte and his son John sit horseback in an arena at the Elko County Fairgrounds on September 3, 1986. 5: Charlene Romeo and Denny Larsen, April, 1984 6: No ID; photo from the Museum archives.

Answer Key




Moisture-damaged or spoiled forage can sometimes poison cattle By Heather Smith Thomas Special to the Rancher

Ranchers in the arid west generally welcome any moisture that comes our way, to help water our fields and pastures--since we generally have more problems with drought than with too much water. Sometimes Mother Nature throws a curve ball, however, and gives us too much of a good thing, and forage crops get excessive rain before or during harvest (in the windrow, or on the bales before they are stacked). Moisture can lead to mold growth, and some molds can be harmful. The terms fungi and mold are often used interchangeably, but mold is actually a type of fungi. There are many thousands of species of mold, but they are most likely to grow and become a problem when there is water damage, high humidity, or dampness. Molds produce and release millions of spores that are small enough to be carried by air, water, or insects. They can also produce toxic agents known as mycotoxins. Spores and mycotoxins can have negative effects on human or animal health. Excessive moisture is the main reason for mold growth on plants or in a bale of hay. Some molds are harmless, while others produce dangerous toxins (mycotoxins). Even some of

Cattle fed straight from the bale during winter not only leave less waste, but they’re eating good dry hay, instead of forage that might have been wet by snow or rain.

the non-toxic molds can cause respiratory problems if the hay is quite moldy and the air is filled with mold “dust” and spores when the cattle root and shake the hay around. There are about 100 different fungi that grow on crops or stored feed that can produce toxins. Presence or absence of visible mold (or its color) does not necessarily mean the plant or harvested feed will be toxic, however. Whether or not mold

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causes problems may also depend on moisture and temperature. Most mycotoxin poisonings are associated with stored grains and other concentrate rations such as corn, silage, cottonseed, but a few can also occur in hay and straw. Physical damage to the corn or grain, coupled with moisture, can readily lead to invasion by mold. The main effects of aflatoxins in grain are due to liver damage. Some forage molds (in hay, silage, or straw) may cause abortion in pregnant cows. Moldy straw (baled damp, or rained on after baling) eaten by pregnant cows has been implicated in birth of weak and deformed calves. Some of the affected calves may have congenital spinal stenosis (pressure on the spinal cord from a narrowing of the vertebral column) with hind leg paralysis. Some of the calves have shortened legs, laxity in the joints, and deformed front legs. Cows eating moldy straw in some situations may lose weight and slough

off some of their hair and in some instances may die. Moisture on top of a big bale or on a hay stack can produce many types

Moldy Sweet Clover Hay Sweet clover, a forage legume, is not a problem for cattle while it is green and growing, but can become toxic when damaged or spoiled in hay or silage. When the plant molds, a toxin is produced that interferes with blood clotting. Eating large amounts of moldy sweet clover may cause swellings on the body and the animal walks with a stiff gait. Poisoning generally occurs after the animal has been eating the toxic silage or hay for at least 2 weeks. Pulse rate becomes fast and weak, and death is due to internal bleeding. Animals suffering from mild sweet clover poisoning may bleed to death from small wounds, dehorning, or castrating. F

Mushrooms on hay – Seven years ago we had a warm, wet fall in our area, and then a fair amount of snow periodically that melted on top of our haystacks. Most of our stacks were not covered, and the excess moisture soaked in. Conditions were ideal for fungal growth, and the moist stacks had a prolific crop of mushrooms growing on top of them. We didn’t think much about it until late winter when we were feeding that hay. Several cows in our herd got sick when we were feeding that particular hay. One of them got very ill a couple days before she calved, and was so miserable and uncomfortable (like a colicky horse) that we thought she was in labor. We brought her into the calving barn, but then realized she had a belly ache, not labor pains. She wouldn’t eat, and was passing very small amounts of loose manure and kicking at her belly. She had a digestive tract problem, so we gave her Banamine (to ease the gut cramps), and antibiotics. She was miserable for several days, but calved ok and then gradually recovered.

of mold or fungi under the right conditions, including mushrooms, which are just a larger and more complex type of fungus. Some mushrooms are edible, but some are toxic and can cause digestive problems and poisoning—for humans or cattle. Stored hay and straw should be protected from excessive moisture, set on a dry base that doesn’t wick moisture up into the bottom bales, and the stack should be under a shed or tarp. Otherwise the top and bottom bales are often damaged/ruined by moisture and generally mold. If unprotected hay gets a lot of winter snow that later melts—seeping down into the bales—the mold damage may go through several layers of bales. If a tarp has a hole in it, the moisture that collects on top of the tarp may run down and saturate all

Not long after that, a couple of cows that had already calved showed the same colicky symptoms. They recovered without treatment, but a third cow was so ill that we brought her and her calf into a small pen and gave her Banamine to ease her pain (she was rolling and thrashing around on the ground, in misery) and later gave her mineral oil by stomach tube to try to help move the toxic material on through her gut. She eventually recovered. Another cow was a little off feed one morning when we fed the cows, and a few hours later when we went back to check on her, she was dead. It looked like she’d just dropped dead, with no signs of struggle. We raised her orphaned calf on a bottle. We were puzzled by these mysterious illnesses, and our vet was puzzled, but suspected something toxic in the hay. Those cows had been getting some of the top bales from the stack that had the mushroom growth. We tried to find some samples of the mushrooms to send in for testing, but by that time there wasn’t much left to find. F

the bales beneath that leak. It pays to keep hay under a good cover, or to shovel off the snow after a winter storm. Some mold-damaged crops (if cattle are grazing crop aftermath) may cause problems for cattle. Any crop that has been ruined by excessive moisture may tend to harbor molds, some of which are toxic to grazing animals. Some types of pasture forage including clover and Bermuda grass may cause photosensitization if they develop molds that contain toxins that damage the liver. Extended wet periods (that lead to mold growth on plants) followed by hot sunny days may leave the plants toxic to livestock, and they may retain their toxicity even after being cut as hay. Continues on Page 34


SPOILED HAY Cont. from Page 33 Photosensitization is generally a spring or summer/fall problem for cattle on pasture eating certain plants, but in some situations this problem may occur during winter, after cattle are fed the toxic hay.

Botulism can be devastating to herd Botulism is an occasional risk when hay contains bodies of dead animals or when silage is improperly fermented, allowing growth of certain bacteria. This disease also sometimes occurs when cattle eat haylage or large bales bagged for haylage, under certain conditions. Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum and occurs in cattle only rarely but it can be devastating. Toxins produced by these bacteria are some of the most potent poisons known. The bacteria form spores that can live in soil a long time, being resistant to heat, boiling water, light, drying and radiation. These spores are common in any environment but need warmth, alkaline conditions and low or no oxygen to germinate. Once they germinate they release neurotoxins. These bacteria can be found in decomposing bodies of animals, especially in an airless environment, as when small animals like rabbits, mice, snakes, etc. are baled in hay. The powerful toxins released by germinating spores build up in the decomposing animal and leak out into the surrounding feed. On occasion the disease may also be transmitted via contamination of open wounds with the bacterial spores. Botulism can also occur when cattle eat spoiled silage--whenever the pH of silage rises above 4.6--or when large round bales are baled green and put into silage bags for fermentation and then get tears or punctures in the bags that allow air to enter and cause improper fermentation. Botulism can also occur in some situations in baled alfalfa or alfalfa cubes. Symptoms are easy to see. When cattle eat the contaminated feed or

Best practice: Cover it! Though a pole barn or shed might seem like an unnecessary investment, it can pay dividends by protecting your hay crop from mold, mildew and other spoilage.

become infected in any other way, they become weak and develop paralysis (unable to get up), followed by death in 1 to 3 days. It only takes one bite of bad feed to cause severe illness, with muscles becoming weak and paralyzed. Once the respiratory muscles are affected the animal canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

34 â&#x20AC;&#x201A; THE NEVADA RANCHER â&#x20AC;&#x201C; DECEMBER 2016

breathe. One way to tell if a cow is suffering from botulism is to pull on her tongue, extending it out of her mouth. A normal cow will immediately pull her tongue back, but a cow with botulism usually has trouble retracting it back into her mouth. If you try this, however, use a protec-

tive glove so no saliva will touch your hand, since this symptom may also be typical of rabies. There is no effective treatment for botulism. There is a vaccine for horses, but since the disease is uncommon in cattle, there is no vaccine for cattle. F


Grazing forages after frost bring dangers We have had a few, light scattered frosts in the area that have generated some questions about forage use after a frost. When plants freeze, changes occur rapidly in their metabolism and composition that can be toxic to livestock. Two problems need to be considered – prussic acid poisoning and bloat. However, many of these problems can be prevented, or at least minimized with proper management. Some summer-annual grasses contain cyanogenic glucosides, which are converted to prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when the plants are damaged by frost. The concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides vary among plant species: sorghum contains the highest concentrations, followed by sorghum-sudangrass crosses, and sudangrass contains the lowest concentrations. Pearl millet is virtually free of cyanogenic glucosides. The concentrations of these compounds are highest in immature plants and decrease as plants mature. Leaves also contain much higher concentrations than do stems. Plants growing under high nitrogen levels or in phosphorus or potassium deficient soils will be more likely to have high cyanide potential. Under normal circumstances the cyanogenic glycosides and the enzymes are held in different locations within the plant cell and don’t come into contact with each other. However, when plant cells are ruptured after being frozen, chopped, wilted or crushed, those cell barriers are broken and cyanide can rapidly form. Cyanide is a gas and it will volatilize and leave the plant tissue but it takes some time, thus the recommendation is do not allow livestock to graze frost damaged forages until several days (3-4 days) have passed. Generally this refers to a hard frost. In the case of light frosts where the temperature is greater than 280 F, there are publications that say to wait 2 weeks until grazing. The highest concentration of prussic acid is found in the leaves of immature plants (less than 18-24 inches tall) while stalks of mature plants (greater than 30 inches tall) contain the lowest concentration. When animals consume forage with high levels of cyanide-producing compounds, prussic acid is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it binds hemoglobin and interferes with oxygen transfer. Prussic acid acts rapidly, frequently killing animals by asphyxiation within minutes. Symptoms include excess salivation, difficult breathing, staggering,

convulsions, and collapse. Ruminants are more susceptible than other species because cud chewing and rumen bacteria increase the release of cyanide. Precautions when grazing or green chopping sorghum species this fall: • Grazing should be avoided on nights when frost is likely. High levels of prussic acid are produced within hours after a frost on susceptible species. • Following a killing frost, avoid grazing suspect forages until the plants are dry. Wait at least 5 to 7 days to allow the released cyanide to dissipate. • Following a non-killing frost, grazing should not resume until 5 to 7 days after a killing frost. • Following a frost, do not graze wilted plants or plants with young tillers. • Frost-damaged annual sorghum grasses can be made into hay with little or no risk of cyanide toxicity. • Normal silage making allows a majority of the cyanide to dissipate from frost damaged annual sorghum grasses. Delay feeding suspect silage for 6 to 8 weeks after ensiling. Be careful when working in the feed room, around silos and inside silos. Cyanide is heavier than air and will migrate downward as it is released from silage. Make sure ventilation is adequate. • Suspect silages should be sent to a lab and analyzed for cyanide content before feeding. • Cattle that must be grazed on sorghum pastures that have not been totally killed should have access to another type of hay, have full rumens before turning in on the field, and should be watched closely for the first few hours after turn in. If signs of labored breathing, such as would be found in asphyxiation, are noted, remove the cattle immediately. Call your local veterinarian for immediate help for those animals that are affected. Occasionally there are questions about grazing alfalfa after a frost. Pasture bloat should be a concern to cow-calf operators and stocker operators as we experience the first frost. Frothy bloat, or

legume bloat, is the most common type of pasture bloat. It results from the formation of a stable foam in the rumen that minimizes the animal’s ability to expel rumen gases. Consumption of forages containing high levels of soluble protein (such as alfalfa, winter wheat, and white clover) can contribute to stable foam production. Cattle suffering from bloat swell rapidly on the left side and can die within an hour. Cattle may exhibit early signs of discomfort by kicking at their sides or stomping their feet before going down. Grazing alfalfa following a killing frost can still cause bloat if the alfalfa remains green and succulent. The incidence of bloat declines as the alfalfa dries. At least one week is usually required to dehydrate or dry down frost-killed alfalfa before the risk of bloat is significantly reduced. There are several recommendations to reduce the incidence of bloat, especially on pastures that have a high percentage of legume species: • In general, if pastures contains over 50 percent grass, there will be minimal danger of bloat. If pastures contain more than 50% legume, be prepared to use bloat control measures. • Bloat can be reduced by supplementing grass hay to cattle grazing bloat provoking pasture. Significant amounts of hay must be consumed for this to be effective. • Allow cattle to graze legume pasture continuously rather than removing them during the day or at night to reduce the risk of bloat. • The risk of bloat will be reduced by waiting until the dew is off the alfalfa before placing cattle into a new pasture. Moving cattle that have full rumens to new pasture in the afternoon reduces the predisposition of cattle to bloat. • The stage of legume maturity is an important factor in preventing pasture bloat. Bloat potency is highest in young vegetative plants and decreases progressively as the plants mature. • To treat bloat, there are oral compounds that will break down the stable foam in the rumen. In subacute cases, a rubber hose can be used as a stomach tube to relieve the accumulation of gases. A trocar should be used as a last resort on acute cases. Contact your veterinarian as soon as possible to treat advanced bloat. F Source: Frost-Damaged Forages Can Be Deadly, Ron Lemenager and Keith Johnson, Beef and Forage Extension Specialists Purdue University Forage Management Considerations After Frost, Rory Lewandowski, OSU Extension Educator


EVENTS OF NOTE  McDermitt’s Hyland Wilkinson gives the crowd a taste of why he took home the All Around Cowboy prize in 2016. Michael Michaelsen photo

‘Wilder than the Rest’ WSRRA brings barnstormer finals back to Winnemucca Ranch Rodeo finals bring together teams from around North America By Jolyn Young

progress and some common sources of frustration.

The Nevada Rancher

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – The Western States Ranch Rodeo Association (WSRRA) year-end Finals rodeo has become the fall event to wrap up the ranch rodeo season in the Winnemucca area. As the association has grown over the past seven years, so has the membership and number of spectators. Rancher writer Jolyn Young sat down with lifelong roper Kyndall Tibbits, who is also a WSRRA contestant and Finals qualifier, to chat about the association’s

JY: What are your favorite aspects about the Finals? KT: I love the vendors. It really is fun to be there. You get to see all your friends, you get to meet new people. I think the judges do a spectacular job. The judges and the flaggers, they’re always fair and they always pay attention to the little things that a lot of judges would maybe just blow off. They’re sticklers for everybody, which makes a big


difference. It brings a lot of people, a lot of diverse styles. There are the flat hats, the buckaroo style ropers, and the team ropers. You can tell the horsemen from the team ropers. I just think it’s fun to watch everybody, all the different levels of talent. There’s a lot of nice horseflesh around there. I’ve always appreciated the way that you can qualify allows some teams that maybe wouldn’t normally qualify can go and be there and compete with the better teams. You always have your same

Photo by Mary Williams Hyde,

World Champion Open Ranch Rodeo Team: Eiguren Ranch from Nevada. Members: Teo Maestrejuan, Richard Eiguren, Shawn Lequerica and Brian Grenke. top five or ten teams that always qualify. I have some friends that they always go together and they always have fun – that’s just their trip of the year.

JY: How does the Finals compare to other ranch rodeos? KT: It’s completely different. The Finals is a lot bigger production, and it’s ran a lot slower than the ranch rodeos. It’s hard to run it super fast because there’s so many teams. I feel it can be better in a lot of ways. I wish they didn’t baby the women as much. At the qualifier, most of the time the women rope four head just like the men in the branding. In the ranch rodeo Finals we only rope two head instead of four. I understand they’re trying to make it easy for the women – but at that point when you’re at the Finals, you want to compete against the best to be the best.

JY: What are the qualifiers like? KT: They’re fun, because they’re short. You get

done faster and you don’t have to wait a long time in between each event. The fees are a lot less, so it’s easier to go. Our team usually goes to three or four of them to kind of get in the groove and make sure we’ve got all our kinks worked out.

JY: What are some of the gear rules at the Finals? KT: You can’t use tie-downs, you can’t use rubber on your horn. You can use just about any type of bridle that you want. Some of the qualifiers used to have a show horse event, like they do at the Finals. Most other rodeos just have a roping event.

JY: What’s your most comfortable roping style? KT: It’s not too different from the Finals. It’s pretty much the same. We all use slick horns. Most everyone who cowboys for a living, they don’t use tie-downs. In Arizona, it’s more the team ropers who go to a ranch rodeo who use tie downs. So

it’s a little harder for them. Down there, you can use rubber and the bronc riding is one-handed, you can’t double grab.

JY: Do you have any constructive criticism for the Finals organizers? KT: I definitely didn’t like the mini broncs, as a mother. Any time we’ve ever seen mini broncs, they set up panels to make the pen a little smaller so those horses can’t get to running off with those kids in a big arena. If I could change something in the way that the Finals is ran, I don’t like the points system. A couple years ago when we won it, we ran away with it. We won the long-go by a long ways, then we won four out of six events in the short go, and we only won [the World Title] by one point. We beat all the men in the team roping, we were fast in every event, but we only won by one point. I think a team should be able to run away with it if they can. F


7th Annual Western States Ranch Rodeo Association National Finals Rodeo By Naomi Loomis WSRRA Representative

The most successful ever seventh-annual Western States Ranch Rodeo Association National Finals Rodeo was held November 3 - November 6 at the Winnemucca Events Complex in Winnemucca, Nevada. Teams came from thirteen western states including far away states like Nebraska and Wyoming plus, new this year, two teams from Canada. Established in 2010, the WSRRA has experienced incredible growth, each year growing in number of events and members. The association currently has more than 700 members. Throughout 2016, WSRRA sanctioned more than 48 open ranch rodeos, 22 women’s ranch rodeos, 25 women’s steer stoppings and over 100 ranch bronc riding events. The top open and women’s teams from each of the ranch rodeos, and the top 15 women’s steer stoppers, and top 15 ranch bronc riders competed for cash and prizes at the National Finals. Prizes included Gist buckles, custom made gear made by Ricardo’s Saddlery and Mincer Silversmiths, John and Kristen Mincer, halters, stirrups by Weber Stirrups, and custom made hats donated by Chaz Mitchell Hatz. The Nationals Finals kicked off Thursday with the women’s long go team events, the opening of the Christmas Buckaroo Trade Show and jack pot roping events. The jackpot roping winners were Gary Grockett and Jesse Jolly in the Big Loop, Gene Harry and Daxton Jim

Michael Michaelsen photo

Teams have to work quickly but with a lot of trust during the trailer loading competition.

in the team roping and Kyndall Tibbits in the steer stopping. Friday, November 3, one member of each open team started the day showing off their highly skilled ranch horses in a working ranch contest. Then the teams competed in long go events of load & tie and team roping. The evening’s performance featured “Tough Enough to Wear Pink” theme. Grand Marshal, Governor Jim Gibbons from Nevada, made an exciting grand entrance in a refurbished horse-drawn stagecoach. If that wasn’t enough, the first two rounds of the Professional Wild Horse Racers Association (PWHRA) national finals got everyone’s blood pumping! Rodeo clown, Tuffy Gessling entertained the crowd with his rope tricks and laughs. Joining us for the first time was J and R Rodeo with mini bareback horses for kids ages 6- 14. In between specialty acts, WSRRA Ranch Bronc riders and open and women’s teams showed their talents


in featured performances. Saturday morning started with three rounds of Women’s Steer Stopping, followed by open team long go’s of sort & rope doctoring, and team branding. Later in the day WSRRA National Sponsors, the Boot Barn, sponsored a dummy roping contest and a stick horse barrel race for the kids. Gist Buckles were given as prizes. The second annual Great Basin Gathering; music, poetry and trading gear was a spotlighted event. Afternoon rodeo action featured jackpot family branding won by Tyler Miller, Tub Blanthorne, Bea Lee and Will Knight. As the sun was going down, the second evening performance started. This performance was full of Wild West action and western traditions. Featured performances of more of the open and women’s teams, along with two rounds each of PWHRA and WSRRA ranch bronc riding kept the

arena dust stirred up and the crowd’s excitement high! Performances by Tuffy Gessling and R and R Rodeo, mini barebacks lived up the evening’s experience. Saturday ended with year-end and long go awards at The Winners at Winners WSRRA awards party, followed by dancing to music by the Jeff Palmer Band, both hosted by the Winners Inn & Casino. Sunday, November 6th, WSRRA held Cowboy Church by Bo and Kathy Lowe it was well attended. After Cowboy Church, WSRRA held the short go of the national finals for the open and women’s divisions and the final rounds of PWHRA wild horse racing and WSRRA ranch bronc riding. At the end of the afternoon, champions were crowned with Gist Silver buckles, homemade headstall by Ricardo’s Saddlery with Mincer Silversmith WSRRA conchos and silver stirrups by Weber Stirrups were handed out.

Photo by Mary Williams Hyde,

World Champion Women’s Ranch Rodeo Team: Miller Livestock from Nevada. Members: Carmen Buckingham, Katie McFarlane, Kayla Tiegs and Bailey Bachman. Congratulations to all the contestants not just the winners. First time visitors to the event were totally impressed with the quality of the competition and the stock. A huge thank you to all the office help, chute help, announcers, judges, vendors, stock contractors, and particularly Hot Creek Ranch, owned by Bobbi and Dave Murphey, who supplied nearly 250 top quality Corriente cattle for the event. The WSRRA wouldn’t be around without the help of our sponsors and major supporters which include: Winnemucca WVCA Board, Ram Trucks/Ram Rodeo, Boot Barn, Performix Nutrition, Les Schwab Tires, 8 Seconds Whiskey, Twisted X Boots, Gouveia Ranches, Working Ranch Magazine, Mary Williams Hyde/ Buckaroo Country, Rodeo News, Yeti, Big Bend Trailers and Chaz Mitchell Hatz, and host hotels, Winnemucca Inn and Winners Inn Casino. F

WSRRA NATIONAL FINALS WINNERS CIRCLE The 2016 Western States Ranch Rodeo World Champions are as followed: World Champion Women’s Steer Stopper: Chelsea Hoff Rookie Steer Stopper of the Year: Courtney Medley World Champion Open Ranch Rodeo Team: Eiguren Ranch from Nevada. Members: Teo Maestrejuan, Richard Eiguren, Shawn Lequerica, Brian Grenke World Champion Women’s Ranch Rodeo Team: Miller Livestock from Nevada. Members: Carmen Buckingham, Katie McFarlane, Kayla Tiegs and Bailey Bachman World Champion Ranch Bronc Rider: Justin Quint WSRRA ROOKIE of the YEAR: Braxton Adams WSRRA ROOKIE of the Finals: Aaron Mercer

ALL AROUND COWGIRL: Tierani Brusett ALL AROUND COWBOY: Hyland Wilkinson TOP HAND COWGIRL: Carmen Buckingham TOP HAND COWBOY: Richard Eiguren ALL AROUND RANCH HORSE – OPEN: Richard Eiguren from the Eiguren Ranch Team ALL AROUND RANCH HORSE – WOMENS: Bailey Bidwell from the Diamond Y STOCK CONTRACTOR OF THE YEAR: Gene King, King Rodeo PRODUCER OF THE YEAR: Shane Flanigan BRONC OF THE YEAR SELECTED BY JUDGES: #200 Paddle Foot owned by Gene King, King Rodeo PICK UP MEN OF THE YEAR: Jess Jones HIGH AVERAGE CONTRACTOR OF THE YEAR (Based on top 5 Horses): Gene King, King Rodeo


PEOPLE  WE KNOW    Winnemucca rodeo queen to compete for Miss Rodeo America By Cheryl Upshaw The Nevada Rancher

A smiling young woman with a big hat and a bigger heart will represent both her state and her hometown hopes to take home a national prize. Jasmyne Herrera, 19-year-old rodeo queen from Winnemucca is heading to Las Vegas to compete for Miss Rodeo America Pageant held in late November. Herrera already holds the title Miss Rodeo Nevada, which was awarded to her on May 6 in Las Vegas. The accomplishment required a great deal of study in addition to her in-arena horse work and modeling. Herrera is required to know all of the top rodeo stars, their salaries, the top animals, as well as common horse diseases and treatments. Herrera previously rode English and competed in dressage “quite competitively”. She made it to championships for four years in a row. Herrera was approached by local teacher Michelle Pasquale while working at Boot Barn, who encouraged Herrera to try rodeo and became her coach. “I’d actually never rodeo-ed before. So this is all brand new. I had to learn how to ride again because Western [riding] is just totally different,” she said. Herrera has had her horse, a 13-year-old mare named Fluffy, for about a year and a half. “I’ve been all over the United States, just promoting the sport of rodeo for Nevada Professional Rodeo,” Herrera said. She went on to say her favorite part of the work was meeting new people and introducing many of them to the sport of rodeo. “It’s a whole new family,” Herrera said, “They take you in and make sure you’re comfortable with

Miss Rodeo Nevada Jasmyne Herrera and her horse, Fluffy.

everything… They do a lot to bring in kids, and... they really involve the community. I really enjoy it a lot.” She described the “best experience ever” to the Sun. “At each professional rodeo, they do a special rodeo, just before the rodeo performance,” Herrera said. The special rodeos give those with disabilities and special needs a chance to participate in events like wagon and pony rides and dummy roping. One participant in the special rodeo at Cheyenne Frontier Days was a little boy named Maverick. He was four years old and had been diagnosed with a terminal brain tumor. After speaking with Maverick and his mother, Herrera worked with the Make-A-Wish Foundation to help Maverick meet his favorite bull-rider. Two-time World Champion


Bull Rider Sage Kimzey surprised Maverick. “That was definitely my favorite part about being a queen,” Herrera said, “Most inspirational thing ever, in my whole life.” She said that Ken Tipton was designing her chaps for the Miss Rodeo America pageant, and that the local Boot Barn had done all of her hats. Her saddle was donated by Mine Rite Technology. Herrera is proud to call Winnemucca her home. “The City of Winnemucca has been behind me like no other,” she said. She was born and raised in the city and graduated from Lowry High School in 2014. She currently attends Great Basin College for Geothermal Engineering. She is the oldest of four siblings, and says her parents have been very supportive of her. F

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11 must-read profitability tips from Burke Teichert [Editor’s note: This story was originally published in BEEF Magazine, and is republished here with permission. Read Rancher Staff Writer Jolyn Young’s work in BEEF as part of an ongoing story swap.] By Burke Teichert BEEF Magazine Columnist


ver my many years in the ranching business, I’ve seen a variety of different approaches to ranching and a variety and range of profitability. Here are a few thoughts accumulated over the years on what makes a ranch profitable:

There are only a few ranchers with good enough accounting systems to tell them what their profit was in any given year. An income tax report base on cash accounting will not tell you. While most of you should be on cash accounting, you should add a few pieces to that to know if your operation was profitable or not. Assuming that you only have a livestock operation and that all feed produced is for your livestock, you may subtract direct costs, overheads and livestock purchases from total revenues and think you have net profit. But what if your herd increased or decreased in size? You need to take that into account. What about feed inventories? Is your hay inventory bigger or smaller than a year ago? However, if you have reduced your debt and increased the size of your cowherd over the last five or

more years, you have been profitable unless you have subsidized the ranch business from your family living funds—either by paying yourself and family members less than your time should be worth or by using funds from off-farm activities. Now there is nothing wrong with building a business that way as long as the economic growth of the business is greater than the amount of the subsidy. I frequently run into people who have established nice ranch businesses by investing into the ranch some of their own labor or proceeds from off-ranch jobs or investments. Overheads are almost always the low-hanging fruit. Our tendency to have stuff that we don’t need (which rusts, rots and depreciates) reduces our profit. Stocking rate is the biggest determinate of profit. It is improved by better land and grazing management and by selecting cows to fit a low-input environment which typically means cows with less size, less milk and more heterosis. This redefined cow leads to the next biggest determinate of profit— herd fertility. Profit per acre is far more important than profit per cow. Profit per cow can be so deceiving because of different size, milking ability, fertility, and survivability of the cows you have compared with what might be optimum or most profitable on your ranch. The ratio of yearlings to cows and herd turnover rate may need to be adjusted, which can further distort the usefulness of “profit per cow” as


a whole ranch profit indicator. Profit is usually enhanced by putting the pounds in more and smaller packages and then selling each pound for more money. Profit per acre is usually improved by increasing the stocking rate. This comes from improving land productivity and/or changing the cow. True efficiency is total herd efficiency, not per-cow efficiency. True efficiency is measured by the total receipts from the herd and the direct cost of running the herd. Total sales receipts are driven by number of cows, number of calves or yearlings sold, how early in the calving season the calves were born, calf and yearling growth rates and the prices received for each class of animal sold. Costs will be less if you have cows that fit your environment, require little fed feed, graze a lot and don’t require much of your attention to stay healthy and inside the pasture. Rarely do I see research using wholeherd simulations to compare scenarios where stocking rates by age class or cow size would be different. As a result, I am very careful in how I use the information. Finding balance between maternal, health, survivability, growth and carcass traits is very important. For those who buy replacement cows (I hope not heifers), it is easy. You simply use a high-growth bull with excellent carcass EPDs and sell all the calves. I believe that most small ranches should be doing that. They can find a larger ranch that is doing a good job of fitting cows to the environment and taking advantage of heterosis and buy a few replacement cows every year. You can see that I have a certain disdain for purchasing bred heifers. Why? Because they have the two most difficult years of their lives immediately ahead of them. You are moving them to a new location and new management. There will be more fallout as a result of calf death loss (dry cows) and failure to rebreed in those years. If you cull opens and dries, the

probability of a six-year-old cow having four more calves is greater than the probability of a two-yearold having four more calves. And, if you are buying replacements, why do you want to calve heifers? If you want to calve heifers, you should make your own from your own cows or purchased heifer calves. Those who raise their own replacements have a more difficult job. They need to recognize that more growth, size and milk will result in reductions in herd fertility and stocking rate. It may also be difficult to achieve high quality carcasses along with satisfactory levels of heterosis. Heterosis is so economically important that you can take a little reduction, if necessary, in carcass quality. With careful selection of breeds and bulls within the breeds, you can achieve good levels of heterosis and produce good grading carcasses. Too many people view milk as a maternal trait. I view it as “anti-maternal.” “Maternal” is fertility, maternal calving ease, good mothering instinct and survivability. The rancher who develops good cows adapted to a low-input environment, sized right with moderate milking ability and with good hybrid vigor will soon have a high percentage of his/her cows calving in the first 30 days of calving. This rancher can sell a few cows to the rancher who wants to buy replacements, use a terminal cross bull and sell all the calves. Strategic supplementation of protein and minerals can be very cost-effective for the rancher who has aligned the calving season to take best advantage of the fresh green growth that occurs each year. A little protein, properly timed, to help cattle digest the old, yellow or brown, dry grass that we expect them to eat during a significant portion of the year can be very helpful to calf health and lifetime productivity and to the rebreeding rates in the cow herd. Recreational feeding can cost a lot of money. Make sure you know when and how much to feed. F

EARLY HISTORY OF HORSES Cont. from Page 23 This might explain the earlier sudden disappearance of the dinosaurs and maybe the disappearance of horses and camels in this hemisphere 10,000 years ago. Radiation is responsible for many mutations (aiding evolution) but excessive radiation could wipe out an entire species by changing the chromosomes and genes too much. At any rate, the world would have been without horses except for the earlier migrations into Eurasia and Africa, where the line of development continued—producing our modern horse, zebra and donkey. Today’s horse is descended from ancestors in north central Asia. Near the end of the Ice Age, prehistoric humans were hunting horses for food, as we’ve seen from remains of horse bones at camping/ cooking sites. In caves in France, prehistoric hunters painted pictures of the animals they pursued, and these give good descriptions of wild horses at that period--about 18,000 B.C. Those pictures show dark red horses with black legs, mane, tail and ears, and light-colored horses with dark spots. Tribes of hunters, living in villages along the wooded fringes of prairies in Europe and Asia used horses for food, and eventually domesticated dogs for hunting. Later they caught and domesticated horses. There were several sub-types in different regions, such as the large heavy horses in northern/western Europe that were the forerunners of today’s draft horses (and stocky smaller versions in the British Isles that became ponies), and the lighter, fleeter horses of North Africa that were forerunners of the Arabian. Early tribes domesticated their local variety of horses and traded them around, and also began to selectively breed them to be better suited for certain purposes—draft, riding, racing, pack ponies, etc. Thus our domestic types and “breeds” came into existence as horse were bartered and interbred. Starting from different initial types, horses soon became even more diversified as peo-

ple bred them for various purposes. Spanish horses were first to arrive in North America in historic times, but these were descendants of North African Arabian-type horses. The original horses in what is now Spain were small and stocky, used by the Greek and Phoenician colonists of that region (in about 1000 B.C.) for pulling carts and chariots rather than for riding. Then the horse breeding was influenced by the Romans who ruled the area for several centuries, then the German tribes, and the horse was used for war as well as a beast of burden. The early Spanish war horse was a big, heavy horse, like those developed in Germany, France and Britain for carrying knights in armor. Then when the Visigoths conquered the region, they bred sturdy easy-gaited horses for comfortable riding. In the 8th century, the Muslims (Moors) invaded Spain, mounted on agile little desert horses of Arabian and Barb breeding. The Spanish knights on their heavy ponderous horses were no match for them. The Moors ruled Spain for several centuries until the Spanish adapted the Arab style of riding, weapons, and battle tactics, using the agile Arabian-type horses. After throwing off Muslim rule, Spain improved the quality and athletic ability of her horses by importing more of the hot-blooded desert horses to cross with their larger native stock. It was these cross-bred Spanish horses that were brought to the New World, and some of them became the first free-roaming feral horses in southwestern America. Soon after Columbus discovered America, other Spanish explorers and adventurers sailed to the New World and many of them brought horses. But it took at least 150 more years before feral herds sprang up in North America. Columbus brought the first horses to the Island of Santa Domingo in 1493 on his second voyage, to use as seed stock for the ranching colonies he intended to establish. The Spanish explorers and conquerors always rode stallions, but on this voyage the Spanish king decreed that 10 mares be brought along to establish breeding stock on the island. In the next few years, royal and

privately owned Spanish ranches sprang up on several islands in the West Indies, and they were soon raising horses. Diego Velazquez brought horses to Cuba in 1511 and by 1519 Cuba furnished the 16 horses for the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Over the next few decades the West Indian Islands supplied horses for Mexico, Florida and South America as Spanish exploration and conquest gained momentum. Ponce de Leon took horses from Cuba or Puerto Rico to the coast of Florida in 1521. Cortez took horses on his famous expedition that discovered the Aztec civilization in 1519. Peter Mendoza took horses to South America in 1535. During the early years of Spanish exploration, horses were sent on nearly every ship that left Spain. De Soto took 237 horses to Florida in 1539. These went on his expedition to the Middle West in 1542, but they didn’t survive. They were butchered for food by the survivors of the expedition or killed by Indians. Coronado took horses on his big trek in 1539 and lost many of them to Indians. The whole reason for bringing horses to the New World to explore was because of a myth that began in the 8th century after the Moors invaded Spain. A Spanish bishop supposedly fled from the Moors over the western sea and set up the Seven Cities of Ciepola. So when Columbus discovered the New World, Spanish explorers came searching for the Seven Cities. The legend grew after a Spanish missionary traveled north of the early Spanish settlements into what is now Mexico and asked the Indians about the Seven Cities. The Indians were very obliging and helpful, and the missionary returned with news of cities where there was lots of gold, and the cities paved with precious stones. This is why Coronado set out in 1539 with a large expedition of 250 horsemen to try to find those cities. They turned out to be just Indian pueblos, but Coronado didn’t give up the search and he looked from California to Kansas before he turned back. Some people assume that wild horse herds in the western U.S. originated from strays from these early expeditions, but that idea is a myth.

De Soto’s party reached the Texas plains, heading back to Mexico overland after De Soto died of fever near the Mississippi river in 1542. They failed to make it that direction and came back to the river to build boats. They started down the river in boats with 22 horses, which was all they had left from the original 237. They killed those 22 horses one by one for food until only 5 or 6 were left, and they turned those loose when they reached the mouth of the river. Legend has it that those became the ancestors of vast herds of wild horses on the Texas plains (if they could have made it back to Texas through hundreds of miles of swamps and deserts, eluding predators along the way. But one of the Spaniards in that party later mentioned that Indians came out of the bushes and shot those horses full of arrows before the boat went around the first bend of the river. Even if any of them had survived, they could not have reproduced, because there were no mares among them. Coronado’s horses didn’t fare any better. He took more horses to begin with, but lost many of them to Indian arrows, starvation and sickness. Only two of the horses on that expedition were mares; the rest were stallions. Even if any of these had strayed, none survived. Spanish explorers and buffalo hunters from the later Santa Fe settlements did not find any wild horses. Before the horse could even begin to survive in North America, the Indians in the Southwest had to learn about the horse and figure out that this was a useful animal to ride—rather than an enemy to kill or food to kill and eat. The Indians were terrified by the first horses they saw, often thinking that the horse and rider were one creature. After their horrific treatment by the Spanish, many Indians considered the Spanish horses their enemies also. Until the Indians learned how to use the horses themselves, any stray horses in the New World had no chance for survival. But the Indians did eventually learn how to use horses, and 200 years after Coronado, the Southwestern Indians were mounted and stealing horses from the settlers.F


CLASSIFIED ADS SMITH VALLEY GARAGE Wellington, Nevada (775) 465-2287

MASON VALLEY EQUIPMENT Yerington, Nevada (775) 463-2442


1995 Ford NH 8770 Tractor, ..... Call

2016 Case IH Magnum 380 Row Trac, 24” tracks, CVT 315 pto hp ................................ CALL 2016 Case IH Farmall 110 U 93 hp, CAB, MFD ............................................................... CALL Case IH Magnum 240, 205hp, CVT trans, front & rear duals, loaded, 840 hrs ................... CALL 2015 Case IH Magnum 310 CVT 265 PTO hp, 200 hrs. ...................................................... CALL 2015 CASE IH Maxxum 115MC 95PTO hp ................................................................... CALL Massey Ferguson 2660 w/loader, 340 hrs, 70 hp, cab MFD w/ pallet fork ...................... $37,500 2010 Case IH Magnum 210, CVT, 180 HP, 3850 hrs., duals ........................................... $78,800


2013 New Holland H8040, ..... Call

Windrowers Case IH 8860HP, 16ft. nice unit ............................................................................................... Available Case IH 8840 16ft. newer header .............................................................................................. $16,000 NEW WR9870 & WR9860 Razor Bar HDR ........................................................................... IN STOCK Hesston 8400, 16ft. Good Tires ................................................................................................. $17,000 Hesston MF, WR 9760 w/ 700 HR5 9195, Razor Bar, HDR. ...................................................... $85,000

Tractors 2015 MF GC 1705,1715, 1710, 1720 compact tractors 4wd loaders, STARTING AT $12,800 2015 MF 1844S 3-string baler, NV Customers Discount ............................................................ $62,000 2016 Hesston MF1734, 3 x 9 trans. ........................................................................................... $19,200 1990 MF 231, w/ MF 232 Ldr., 2wd ...............................................................................................$6,800 2016 Hesston MF 1734 3x9 trans .............................................................................................. $19,200 1995 NH 8870 4WD Tractor Cab, AC, CD Player, PS Trans ...................................................... $38,000 2003 NH 4WD Tractor ................................................................................................................ $41,000

Small Balers

2016 MF 1838 2-string baler, with Full Warranty ............................................................. NEW $26,155

Big Balers 1998 NH 595, 4x4 baler, low bales ........................................................REDUCED PRICE $19,500 2009 NH Big Baler, 9080 3x4 baler w/ application kit. really clean............................................. $47,500 NEW 2015 MF 2270 3 x 4 baler ..............................................................................HUGE DISCOUNT 2005 Challanger LB34, same as 4790 IN OUR SHOP ..........................................CALL FOR PRICE

2015 MF2270 3x4s get yours before they are gone Special Factory Discount Call Today! Rakes (3) Sitrex pro17 wheel rake, 29’ rake width, high capacity, hydr funct, ............................ NEW $25,000 Darf tv13 12-wheel rake new tines manual opening consignment ...........REDUCED PRICE $3,500 1981 Allen 789 hydr driven 10’ basket rake shop rebuilt ...............................................................$3,750 H&S HDII overhead 17 wheel (new), ready to go, 3 LEFT IN STOCK ....................................... $27,000 12 ft., Towner disc, rebuilt, cleaners, s/n 515302C356 ..................................................................$9,500


2013 MacDon M205, w/ 16 ft. rotary head 750 hrs.. GPS ............................................... $95,354 2008 MacDon M200SP Windrower, 16ft. hdr., rotary, 2585 hrs. Field Ready!..................$57,500 Kuhn SR112 Wheel Rakes (1) left ...................................................................$4,200 2016 MacDon M205 w/R85 Rotary Header, dual direction, Suspended cab, Tier . 3 ............NEW 12 & 14 ft. TIDENBERG Feedlot Scrapers ........................................................................... CALL Great Plains 28 ft Harrow Cart w/ 5/8 Blankets ................................................................$21,772 Jay Lor 41000 vertical mixer, 900 cu. ft. New conveyor on discharge .............................. $46,500 Parma 15 ft. double roller, hyd. lift, gooseneck hitch ........................................................ $19,096 Case IH 530C, Ecolotiger, one pass tillage, 5 shanks ......................................................$41,556 Kuhn GA4321 Single rotary rake ...........................................................................................NEW Case IH WD2104 Windrower, 16’ rotary header, GPS ready, 210hp, 25mph ...................... CALL Twinstar 2027 Basket Rake, 101/2 baskets, Very Good Condition................................... $10,500 Darf 1017 Wheel Rake, full hydraulics, Gooseneck Hitch.................................................$29,830 Rowse Ultimate 16, Wheel Rake w/ hydraulic valve .........................................................$33,204

Fallon Livestock Exchange Fallon, Nevada

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Breakers (Fat Cows)

109-135 116-126

124-130 109-115

105-120 97-102

105-121 Np test

108-116 No test

Boning (Med. Flesh) Cutters (Lean)

97.50-102 91-100

Slaughter Cattle 58-62 Butcher Bulls 60-65 Shelly Bulls 45-55 Feeder Bulls

Top cow: 1680# (avg. 64) Shelly Cutters (Thin) Top 10 cows: 1500# (avg. 61) Oct. 11, 2016 sale; volume: 367. Feeder cattle sold slower, on the same kind and quality depending on flesh and fill.


Stock Cattle by Weight

Cattlemen’s Livestock Marketing Galt, Calif.

Shasta Livestock Auction Yard, Cottonwood, Calif.

Treasure Valley Livestock Caldwell, Idaho

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb. #2 quality No test No test

500-600 lb. #1 quality 100-125 95-110

600-700 lb. #1 quality 100-107 90-108


Slaughter Cattle 700-800 lb. #1 quality 90-106 60-100

800+ lb. #1 quality No test 60-100

Boner Cows


Breaker Cows Cutter Cows

47-55 38-47



Slaughter Cattle 55-59 Bulls


Pairs: 65-78

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Breaker Cows

No test No test

No test No test

105-119 90-106

No test 85-92

98-108 84-98

Boning Cows Cutter Cows

No test 92-96

50-54 35-49

Pairs: Too few Oct. 21, 2016; volume 700. Compared to last week: Slaughter cows and bulls mostly steady. On feeders, heifers outnumber steers 2-1. No big pen lots of any one category. Market may be stabilizing. Off lots and singles $20 - $40 below top.

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight (Friday Sale) 400-500 lb. 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb. 700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Cows 1700# +

119 avg. No test

97 avg. 95.25 avg.

80.25 avg. 67.25 avg.

Cows 1400-1700# Cows 1100-1400#

54-63 avg. 54-63 avg.

Cows 800 – 1000#

51-60 avg.

83.75 avg. 86.75 avg.

85.25 avg. 83.75 avg.

62-71 avg

Bulls 14001800#

59-71 avg.

Bulls 10001400# Results from Oct. 15 Beef cattle sale (held each Friday) and Oct. 11 butcher cows / bulls sale (held each Monday). No volumes reported for either sale. Notes: 1901 E. Chicago, Caldwell, Idaho, (208) 459-7475, (800) 788-4429,

53-59 avg.








Fleshy Cows

Slaughter Cattle 68 avg. Bulls (High Yield) 56 avg. Bulls (Thinner)








Medium Yield

48 avg.

Low Yield

50 avg.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

86 avg. 80 avg.

Slaughter Cattle (Monday sale) 58 avg. Bulls 1800#+

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

High Yield

75-78 70-75

Results from Oct. 17, 2016; volume: 396. Notes: Beef sale every Monday. P.O. Box 29/3457 S.W. Hwy 97/Madras, Ore. 97741/

Stock Cattle by Weight

Producers Livestock, Salina, Utah

50-60 60-70

Oct. 19, 2016; volume 502. Compared to last week: Slaughter cattle were steady. Feeder cattle in all weight classes were lower.

300-400 lb.

Central Oregon Livestock Auction, Madras, Ore.

400-500 lb. #2 quality 60-100 100-150

Cutting Bulls


Steers Heifers

Slaughter Cattle

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

500-600 lb.

600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.













Heiferettes: No Test

Commercial/Utility Cows


Cutting Bulls


Slaughter Bulls


Pairs: No test

Oct. 18, 2016; volume: 1824. The figures on this report are computer generated from “The Hottest Sale in the West” at Producers Livestock in Salina, UT. Notes: For great service contact the Salina Producers Auction at (435) 529-7437. For current market information call toll free 1-888-287-1702.

Producers Livestock, Vale, Ore.

Steers Heifers

300-400 lb.

400-500 lb.

Stock Cattle by Weight 500-600 lb. 600-700 lb.

700-800 lb.

800+ lb.

Butcher Cows – bulk

Slaughter Cattle 54-62 Butcher Bulls

125-135 110-118

110-133 94-113

100-113 95-103

89-105 87-92

98-100 85-95

Shelly Cows


Heiferettes: 75-90

90-107 89-94

Top Bull

49-64 68

Young pairs:$1300-$1475

Oct. 19, 2016; volume: 1035. Notes: 90%of feeder steer calves were under 800#; 75% of feeder heifers were under 800#. The future continue to rally and die, leaving buyers with no real confidence. Weaned calves were preferred. Questions about the market and/or to consign, call Producers Livestock, Vale Oregon, at (541) 473-3136



Bottari & Associates Realty

ALLIE BEAR REAL ESTATE Specializing in Hunting, Ranching and Horse Properties

Paul D. Bottari, Broker E-mail: • Bus. 775-752-3040 • Res. 775-752-3809 Fax 775-752-3021 • 122 8th Street • P.O. Box 368 • Wells, NV 89835

Diamond Valley Farm/Ranch Great farm with 6 pivots, 3 in alfalfa, 1 in wheat and 2 in fescue and garrison that pasture approx. 400 hd from May to November. Recanzone Ranch - Subdivision potential! For the investor, the property consists of 9 parcels, all contiguous, if someone wanted to split the property. Neat ranch in Paradise Valley. 900+ acres, 300 AUMs, right near town. Original sandstone house. Easy access to Hinkey Summit & surrounding mountains with excellent hunting opportunities. Includes barn, outbuildings & corrals. Howell Ranch Elevation 5,420 to 5,730 ft., 5,900+ deeded acres with 1,073.00 AUMs BLM. 1,200 tons average hay production. 80 acres of ditch irrigation meadows. 2 new 100-acre Reinke pivots. Concrete bunk feedlot (47 bunks, 8 feet long). 3 calving barns, with stalls, corrals, 80” x40” shop (1/3 heated), gazebo w/roasting pit, and 2 railroad car storage sheds. 4 Houses with lawns and established trees. Clear Creek Ranch Year around cattle ranch approx. 10,000 deeded acres, 6 pivots and with 11-month BLM permit. Only 15 miles from Winnemucca, NV. Starr Valley Pasture 1,104 pasture acres with water rights, fully fenced. Private access on gravel/dirt approx. 3 miles from Starr Valley County Road. The East and West Fork of Boulder Creek and the spring all run through the property. Lamoille View Ranch E. Mountain View Drive, Lamoille, 49+ Acres with Water Rights. 5 bed, 3.5 bath, 3 car garage, mother-in-law quarters with 2 bed, 1 bath, separate entrance, barn, 2 stalls, tack room, hay storage, new Dressage Arena, 3 pastures, hay production of 40 ton on good water year.


Each Office Independently Owned and Operated

Ranch properties now available through Bottari and Associates Realty Clover Valley Farm: 566 Deeded acres with 249 irrigated acres. Three pivots, one full and two partials. On US Hwy 93 approx. 15 miles South of Wells, NV. Price: $825,000. Moll Farm: Diamond Valley farm with old water rights! 251 acres of which 215 acres are under irrigation. Two homes and other outbuildings. Two center pivots. Price: $895,000. Ruby Valley Ranch: 622 acres at the foot of the Ruby Mountains. Water rights on spring and creeks for approx. 200 acres plus underground irrigation permits to irrigate one 125 acre center pivot. On paved highway near the Y to US Hwy 93. Price: $950,000. Ruby Valley 315 Acre Parcel: approx. 1/2 mile off the paved highway with legal access reserved. Fenced on 3 sides. Enough underground water rights through permit to irrigate 2-125 acre pivots. Price: $250,000. Lamoille: 80 acres with approx. 54 acres of surface water rights out of Rabbit Creek. Some years have produced a hundred ton of hay according to the lessee. Good building sites on higher ground with good access road and power. Price: $450,000.

4R Ranch Located in beautiful Paradise Valley, NV. Very simple ranch to operate. Turn the cattle out for the winter Nov. 1 and come back to the ranch in July. 3 Homes, feedlot, shop, barn and scale.

Rim Rock Ranch: 640 acres at the foot of the Pequop Mountains. Fenced and crossfenced. Home is modern manufactured home on foundation. Off Grid power. Great views and scenic setting. Price: $410,000.

View Complete listings at

For additional information on these properties go to:

775-738-8535 • 775-777-6416 Allie Bear, Broker/Realtor Dawn Mitton, Broker/Realtor


Reaching Rural Markets with Dedicated Content It may be called The Nevada Rancher, but the editorial coverage doesn’t stop at the Nevada border. Agriculture and Ranching are major industries throughout the West, and the editorial content of The Rancher reflects that broad-based audience. The Rancher features stories about new techniques, emerging issues, lobbying efforts, rules, regulations and of course, features and events surrounding livestock and rodeo — all gathered from Nevada and the surrounding states. This wide-reaching coverage means more readers find more content that pertains to them — and our advertisers agree!

Oldest Independent Livestock Monthly in Nevada

Your source for ag and ranching news in Nevada and beyond! Part of the Winnemucca Publishing Family 1022 S. Grass Valley Rd., Winnemucca, Nev. • (775) 623-5011 •


While our home may be Nevada, the editorial content of The Rancher is of interest to the entire Western agricultural region.

Get the most up-to-date market reports by visiting these websites NEVADA Fallon Livestock Exchange Sale every Tuesday 2055 Trento Ln., Fallon, Nevada Office: (775) 867-2020 Fax: (775) 867-2021 Website: www.fallonlivestock. com F

Nevada Livestock Marketing LLC Sale every Wednesday 1025 North Allen Road, Fallon, Nevada Office: (775) 423-7760 Fax: (775) 423-1813 F

Superior Livestock Auction Load-lots of cattle sold via satellite and the Internet Northern Nevada Representative Allie Bear (775) 738-8534

CALIFORNIA Shasta Livestock Auction Yard Sale every Friday Cottonwood, California Office: (530) 347-3793 Fax: (530) 347-0329

Cattlemen’s Livestock Market Sale every Wednesday 12495 E. Stockton Blvd., Galt, California Office: (209) 745-1515 F

Turlock Livestock Auction Yard Sale every Tuesday 10430 N. Lander Ave., Turlock, California Office: (209) 634-4326 Fax: (209) 634-4396

IDAHO Burley Livestock Auction, LLC Sale every Thursday 1100 Occidental Avenue, Burley, Idaho Office: (208) 678-9411

Treasure Valley Livestock Auction Beef sale every Friday; General sale every other Saturday 1901 E. Chicago, Caldwell, Idaho Office: (208) 459-7475; (800) 788-4429 F

Twin Falls Livestock Commission Co. Beef sale every Wednesday; General sale every Saturday 630 Commercial Ave., Twin Falls, Idaho Office: (208) 733-7474 Fax: (208) 734-2955


Producers Livestock Marketing Assn. 11 South 100 West, Jerome, Idaho Office: (208) 324-4345 Cattle auction every Tuesday; dairy auction every-other Wednesday

OREGON Eugene Livestock Auction, Inc. Sale every Saturday 92380 Hwy 99, Junction City, Oregon Office: (800)288-6217 Website:

Producers Livestock Marketing Sale every Wednesday P.O. Box 67, Vale, Oregon Office: (541) 473-3136 F

Central Oregon Livestock Auction Sale Every Monday 3457 S.W. Hwy. 97 Madras, Oregon Office: (541) 475-3851 www.centraloregonlivestock

UTAH Producers Livestock Marketing Assn. Highway 89 South, Salina, Utah Office: (435) 529-7437 Cattle auction every Tuesday; hog and sheep auctions first and third Monday

WESTERN REGION Western Video Market Satellite video auctions



December 2, 2016 December 16, 2016 January 11 - 13, 2016 January 16, 2016


WAtch AnD biD live eveRy WeDnesDAy:


Wishes You A And A


Join Us Ringside at Galt winter sale schedule

special Feeder sale – Wednesday, December 14 customer Appreciation lunch & sale – Wednesday, December 21 closed for the holidays – no sale on December 28 & January 4 special Feeder sale & First sale of 2017 – Wednesday, January 11


Jake Parnell .................... 916-662-1298 George Gookin................. 209-482-1648 Mark Fischer ................... 209-768-6522 Rex Whittle ...................... 209-996-6994 Joe Gates ........................ 707-694-3063 Abel Jimenez ................... 209-401-2515 Jason Dailey .................... 916-439-7761

12495 stockton blvd., Galt, cA 95632

Office ............................... 209-745-1515 Fax ................................... 209-745-1582 Website

Nevada Rancher Magazine Dec 2016  

The Nevada Rancher Magazine covers agriculture and ranching in northern Nevada and the rural West.

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