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FORMAS DISCUSIVAS DEL INGLES

WILSON’S PORTFOLIO SEMESTER 6

TOLIMA’S UNIVERSITY IBAGUE 2014


UNIT 1 AVOIDING REPETITION DESCRIBING NATIONALITIES BRITOSH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH MISSING WORDS OUT 1. Complete the sentences with an auxiliary verb o r a modal verb. Make the verb form negative where necessary. 1. I tried to repair my car, but I couldn’t. I didn’t have the right tools. 2. “You look awful. Why don’t you see a doctor?” “I have He just gave me some pills and told me to take things easy.” 3. “It’s a long journey. Take care on the motorway.” “Don’t worry. We will “


4. I meet you sister last night. She thought we’d met before, but we hadn’t 5.” have you read this report?” “No I haven’t, but I am going to.” 6. The weather forecast said that it might rain this afternoon. If it does, we’ll have to call off the tennis. 7. My car is being mended at the moment. If it wasn’t, I’d give you a lift. Sorry. 8. I’m so glad you told sue exactly what you thought of her, because if you haven’t, I certainly would have! 9. I got that job I applied for, I was delighted. I really didn’t think I would. 10. “Come on, John! It’s time you were getting up!” “I am! I’ll be down in a second.” 11. “I’ll think I give Bob a ring.” “You should. You haven’t been in touch with him for ages.” 12. I went to a party last night, but I wish I hadn’t. It was awful. 13. My boyfriend insists on doing all the cooking, but I wish he wouldn’t -it’s inedible! 14. “Aren’t you going to Portugal for your holidays?” “Well, we might but we are still not sure” 15. “Andy got drunk at Anne’s party and started insulting everyone.” “He would! That’s so typical. He’s always doing that.”


SYNONYMS IN CONTEXT 5. Complete the sentences with a synonym of the word in italics. Change the word class where necessary, as in the first example. 1. I don’t trust this government. I have no faith in them whatsoever. 2. She is not only a skilled painter; she is also a proficient piano player. 3. You’ve manage to persuade me. You argument is most compelling. 4. Advertisements are not allowed to lie, but they fool us in subtle ways. 5. Chess is a game of tactics, you have to plan your strategy well in advance. 6. The doctor read my notes carefully, then gave me a rigorous examination. 7. He has an annoying habit of always being late. It really frustrates me. 8. it’s very important that you don’t tell anyone. In fact, it’s vital. 9. Skiing can be dangerous, but I like to take a few risks. 10. She wasn’t scared at all by the dog, but I was frightened.


REDUCE INFINITIVES 4. Write the responses, using the verb in brackets and a reduce infinitive. 1. A. can you come around for a meal tonight? B. thanks very much. I’d love to. (Love) 2. A. did you post my letter? B. oh, I’m really sorry. I forgot to. (Forget) 3. A. I can’t take you to the airport after all. Sorry. B. but you agreed to! (Agree) 4. A. was john surprised when he won? B. he certainly was. He didn’t expect to. (Not expect) 5. A. why did you slam the door in my face? B. it was an accident. I really didn’t mean to. (Not mean) 6. A. you’ll able to enjoy yourself when the exams finish. B. Don’t worry. I intend to! (Intend)


DESCRIBING NATIONALITIES

Complete the chart. Use a dictionary if necessary

COUNTRY

ADJECTIVE

PERSON

PEOPLE

LANGUAGE(S)

Britain

British

A britón

The British

English, Welsh, Gaelic

Scotland

Scottish

A scot

The ‘Scottish

English/Gaelic

France

French

A Frenchman

Frenchmen

French/Breton/Basque

Belgium

Belgian

A Belgian

The Belgians

Flemish/French

The Netherlands/ Holland

Dutch

A Dutchman

Dutchmen

Dutch

Denmark

Danish

A Dane

Danes

Danish

Sweden

Swedish

A Swede

The Swedes

Swedish

Poland

Polish

A pole

The Poles

polish

Turkey

Turkish

A Turk

The Turks

Turkish

Spain

Spanish

A Spaniard

Spaniards

Switzerland

Swiss

A Swiss

The Swiss

Spanish/Galician/Basque/ Catalonian/ Castilian German/French/Italian/romance

Argentina

Argentinean

An Argentinean

The Argentineans

Spanish

Peru

Peruvian

A Peruvian

The Peruvians

Spanish

Iceland

Icelandic

An Icelander

The Icelanders

Icelandic

New Zealand

New Zealand

A new Zealander

The new Zealanders

English

Afghani

An afghan

The afghans

Farsi/Pashto

Afghanistan


UNIT 2 PHRASAL VERVBS TENSE REVIEW SOUND AND SPELLING 1. complte the four sentences, using each phrasal verb twice in a suitable form. Give away/give up 1.”Guess how old I am.” “I give up. You´ll have to tell me.” 2.They’re giving away a free CD with next month’s magazine. 3. He tried to disguise himself, but I nkew it was him. His voice gave him away. 4. He handed his gun to the police officer and gave himself up. Work out/work up 5. I can’t work out how to start this machine. 6. She is working herself up into a terrible state abiout the exam next week.


7.All this phisical works makes you work up an appetite. 8. I keep fit by working out regularly at the gym. Put down/put up 9. Stay with us. We can easily put you up. 10. Let me put that date down in my diary or I’ll forget it. 11. The shop has just put up all its prices. 12. He has a way of always putting me down, and I fell so foolish Get on with/get up to 13. The kids are very quiet. I wonder what they’re getting up to. 14. What page did we get up to in the last lesson? 15. How do you get on with your husband’s family? 16. How did you all get on with last night’s homework? Go down with/go in for 17. I can’t understand why people go in for a career in politics. 18. I keep sneezing. I think I’m going down with a cold. 19. Her last novel went down badly with the critics. 20. Our family goes in for big celebrations at christmas.


3. Complete the sentences with a verb and a particle. Get(2) Work Hold Go

make wear settle hand lie keep

Through away(2) on Into up back Around over off in

1. My daughter spends the whole day lying around in front of the tally. 2. Keep away from me. I’ve got a cold. 3. You told the teacher I cheated! I’ll get you back for that! Just wait! 4. My tooth started hurting as the effects of the painkiller wore off. 5. We’re off hold on tight! 6. Go over your homework carefully before you hand it in. 7. The students were very quiet, working away on their computers. 8. My son’s a total mystery to me. I can’t get through to him at all. 9. You didn’t believe what he said, did you he made the whole thing up. 10. Have you settled into your new flat yet?


TENSE REVIEW


UNIT 5 WASY OF ADDING EMPHASIS PROVERBS AND POETRY GETTING EMOTIONAL


MATCH THE SYNONYIMS

Bizarre-----------------------------------------------weird Random---------------------------------------------haphazard Stunning--------------------------------------------striking Guts---------------------------------------------------courage Bashfully--------------------------------------------shyly Dumbstruck----------------------------------------lost for words Blush-------------------------------------------------go red Mates-------------------------------------------------pals Alleyway---------------------------------narrow path between buildings Retrieve----------------------------------------------fetch


1. Find similar sentences to these in your article. How exactly do they differ? What is the effect of the differences? Compare answer with a partner from the other group. Article A 1. I’ll never forget holding him for the first time. Holding him for the first time is something I’ll never forget. 2. I loved Tina’s personality. The thing I loved about Tina was her personality. 3. We either make a serious commitment or knock it on the head. What we do is either make a serious commitment or knock it on the head. 4. I wanted nothing more. There was nothing I wanted more. Article B 1. I think you have to build your own destiny. What I think is that you have to build your own destiny. 2. I remember seeing this very striking girl. What I remember is seeing this very striking girl. 3. I went straight to the local florist. What I did was go straight to the local florist. 4. Finally I found the courage to ask her out. Finally, I did find the courage to ask her out.


1. Match a line to make proverbs

Love is-----------------------------------------blind The course of true love--------------------never did run smooth All the world love----------------------------a lover Cold hands------------------------------------warm heart All’s fair in love-------------------------------and war Hell hath no fury like------------------------a woman scorned The way to a man’s heart is---------------through his stomach Marry in haste---------------------------------repent at leisure Better to have loved and lost than-------never to have love at all A little of what you fancy does------------you good Absence makes----------------------------- the heart grow fonder Familiarity breeds----------------------------contempt


UNIT 6 DISTANCING THE FACTS NOUNS FORMED FROM PHRASAL VERBS RESPONDIN TO NEWS


Passive constructions Rewrite these sentences, beginning with the words in italics.

1. It is reported that international criminal Jimmy Rosendale is living in Ireland. The international criminal Jimmy Rosendale is reported to be living in Ireland 2. People believe that he is the head of a gang of bank robbers. He is believed to be the head of a gang of bank robbers. 3. Everyone knows that the gang has carried out a series of robberies. The gang is known to have carried out a series of robberies. 4. It is supposed that they have escaped with over 1 millions of pounds. They are supposed to have escaped with 1 millions of pounds. 5. It is thought that they are targeting banks in small provincial towns. They are thought to be targeting banks in small provincial towns. 6. They say Jimmy Rosendale is wanted for questioning by police in five countries. Jimmy Rosendale is said to be wanted for questioning by police in five countries. 7. We understand he escaped from police custody by bribing a warder He is understood to have escaped from police custody by bribing a warder. 8. It is assumed that he has been involved in criminal activities all his life. He is assumed to have been involved in criminal activities all his life.


9. People presumed that he has learned his trade from his father. He is presumed to have learnt his trade from his father. 10. It is alleged that his father was the mastermind behind the 2001 gold bullion robbery. His father is alleged to be the mastermind behind the 2001 gold bullion robbery.

Seem and appear Change the sentences 1. It seems the weather is changing The weather is seems to be changing 2. It appears that we have missed the train We appear to have missed the train 3. Peter appeared to have been attacked by a bull (it) It appears that Peter has been attacked by a bull 4. He seemed to have survived the ordeal. (It) It seems that he has survived the ordeal 5. It would seem that the government has changed its policy The government would seems to have changed its policy 6. It appears that they are worried about losing the next election. They appear to be worried about losing the next election.


Nouns formed from phrasal verbs 1. Complete the sentences with a compound nouns started with the word given. Use the definitions to help you.

0ut 1. The final result of an election, or negotiations, when no one knows what to expect we are all waiting for the outcome of the meeting. 2. A set of clothes worn together she bought a new outfit for the wedding. 3. What is expected to happen in future the outlook for tomorrow’s weather is bleak, I’m afraid. 4. A shop or company through which products are sold. The body shop has retail outlet in major cities throughout the world. Take 5. A meal you buy in a restaurant to eat at home. Shall we eat out or get a takeaway? 6. Getting control of a company by buying most of its shares business sections of a newspaper are full of a company mergers and takeovers.


Down 7. Failure or ruin following success she had a great career, but hard drugs were her downfall. 8. A lot of rain that falls fast and heavily I got soaked in yesterday’s downpour. 9. Information obtained from the internet, usually free for free download, click here. Break 10. New and successful development there have been great breakthroughs in organ transplants in the last 20 years. 11. A serious mental illness after his mother died, Paul suffered a complete nervous breakdown. Use up at the end of these four words. 12. Ending a marriage Sarah was very depressed after the breakup of her marriage to Tony. 13. Something use to support if the main one fails at the end of a day’s writing, I make a copy of my work on disk as a backup. 14. A situation in which a lot of changes are made there’s been a big shakeup at work. They’ve fired six managers and introduced new working practices. 15. A way of organizing or arranging something I don’t understand the political setup in the states. Their elections seem to last for years.


Responding to news Match the statements and responses. Sometimes there is more than are possible answer. 1. Guess what! I won 5 million pounds on the lottery! You’re kidding! Really? That’s amazing! 2. My grandfather died last week oh, no! I’m sorry to hear that. You were very close, weren’t you? 3. One of my students told me I was a lousy teacher what a cheek! I hope you told him where to get off. 4. Here we are! Home at least. Thank goodness for that! I thought we’d never make it. 5. I’m broke since I bought all those designer clothes. Though. It’s your own fault. Serves you right. 6. Have you heard that Jim’s leaving to go to another job? Good riddance. He was always useless. 7. I missed the last bus and had to walk home. I didn’t get home till midnight. What a drag! You must have been really fed up. 8. When I get a job, I’m going to be millionaire. I’ll have three houses and ten cars. In your dreams. Fat chance you have of being able to afford a caravan and a bike. 9. I’m going on holiday to Barbados for two weeks with my girlfriend. Nice one! Can I come too? 10. My six-year-old daughter painted me a picture for father’s Day. Bless her! Isn’t that sweet? 11. I’m fed up with revising. Let’s go out for a beer. Now you’re talking! A cold beer’d go down a treat.


UNIT 8 METAPHORS AND IDIOMS REAL AND UNREAL TENSE USAGE SOFTENING THE MESSAGE Metaphors and idioms


Real and unreal tense usage Would

1. Which use of would is expressed in these sentences? 1. My car wouldn’t start this morning. I had to get the bus (Refusal on a past occasion.) 2. When I was a kid, I’d get up at 7:00 and take the dog for a walk. (Past habits) 3. in Paris Charles Met Penny, who he would marry five years later. (Future in the past) 4. Whenever we had time, we’d go windsurfing. Those were the days! (Past habit) 5. When he was first going out with Jacky, he’d buy her presents all the time. (Past habit) 6. So he took the job, did he? I knew he’d change his mind. (Future in the past)


7. I asked him why he’d lied, but he wouldn’t tell me. (Refusal on a past occasion) 8. sorry about the noise. I didn’t think you’d hear it. (Future in the past). Past tense to express unreality These sentences all have verbs in the past simple. Which ones refer to real past time? 1. Suppose we called him Mickey? 2. He would become nostalgic when he told stories about his upbringing. 3. I couldn’t swim until I was fourteen. 4. If I could afford it, I’d buy it. 5. Isn’t it time we had a break? 6. My childhood was poor. If we had any money, it went to pay debts. 7. He behaves as if he owned the place. 8. I wish you didn’t have to go.


These sentences all have verbs in the past perfect. Which ones refer to real past time? 1. I wish you hadn’t said that. It was cruel. 2. I knew I’d seen her before. 3. Had he known the truth, he would have acted more cautiously. 4. She apologized, saying she hadn’t had time to phone me. 5. I’d rather you’d kept the news to yourself, but it’s too late now. 6. They looked as though they’d had a good time.

Softening the message

Rephrase these sentences so that they sound softer. Use the words in brackets. 1. I want to use your phone. (Mind) Would you mind if I use your phone? 2. Don’t paint the wall red. (If I…you) If I were you, I wouldn’t paint the wall red 3. We should go in my car. (Better) Wouldn’t it be better if we went in my car? 4. Ring back later. (Possible/Possibly) Would it be possible for you to ring back later? 5. We should phone to say we’ll be late. (Don’t…) Don’t you think we should phone to say we’ll be late? 6. Give me a lift to the station. (Hoping) I was hoping you might give me a lift to the station. 7. She’s French. (Think/thought)


I would think she’s French. 8. Would you like to come to the cinema with me? (Wondering) I was wondering if you’d like to come to the cinema with me? 9. Fill in this form, please. (Mind) Would you mind filling in this form? 10. It’ll rain this afternoon. (Surprised) I wouldn’t be surprised if it rained this afternoon. 11. I’m going for a walk. Anyone interested? (Thinking) I was thinking of going for a walk. Anyone interested? 12. I’ve popped in to see if you need anything. (Thought) I just thought I’d pop into see if you needed anything. 13. it’s a bad idea. (Say/said) I’d say it’s a bad idea. 14. Apologize to her. (‘d have said…best idea) I’d have said that apologizing to her would be the best idea. 15. I gave her a present. She didn’t say thank you. (You’d have thought) I gave her a present. You’d have thought she could have said thank you.


UNIT 11 RELATIVES AND PARTICIPLES COMPOUND NOUNS AND AJECTIVES IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS

DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSSES


Participle clauses reduce relative clauses Present participle R.C. the man who is driving the car is a friend of mine. P.C. the man driving the car is a friend of mine. R.C. Lorries that come over the bridge have to be careful of the wind. P.C. Lorries coming over the bridge have to be careful of the wind. R.C. who was the girl who was wearing the red dress? P.C. who was the girl wearing the red dress? R.C. students who hand in their essays late will lose ten marks. P.C. students handing in their essays late will lose ten marks. Past participle R.C. we read the email that had been sent by the manager. P.C. we read the email sent by the manager. R.C. this vase, which was made in china in the 14th century, is very valuable. P.C. this vase made in china in the 14th century is very valuable.


Compound nouns and adjectives

Compound nouns Sun roofsunstroke Raindroprainfallrainstormwindfall-sow capsnowdriftsnowdropsnowfallsnowflakesnow ploughsnowstormiceberg-ice cap. Adjectives Sun burntsundrenchedsuntannedrain soakedrain sweptwindblownwindsweptsnowcappedice capped


ADDITIONAL MATERIAL


DESCRIPTIVE ESSEAY NARRATIVE ESSAY


First descriptive essay draft


Second descriptive essay draft


Final descriptive essay A WONDERFUL PLACE TO BE For thousands of years people have been looking for a place to themselves in which they can be alone with their own thoughts without worries and distractions. Somewhere that provides solitude to clear your mind and you´ll be able to be one with the nature, with the whole creation of God. Gratefully I believe I have all ready found it: my backyard. It is to me a magic place because it is filled of trees. Most of them are orange trees which provides me with the most tasty oranges and became the home of too many animals like birds flying across the sky singing all the time on the branches, squirrels which are always hiding from me, besides the shadows given by them, these trees are a way to reduce and refresh the temperature in summer days. The flowers make a rainbow of the entire home and fill the garden of a particular smell that takes you into a state of happiness and comfort. The grass soft and tender which looks like a green thick carpet turns in a comfortable bed in which you can lay to have a lovely sight of the stars and heaven setting up an atmosphere of being in some other place than the earth, that’s the greatness of the sky. This bonny garden is a place in which I can find myself. It has a smell of grass perhaps soil or maybe a mixture of both. The air is not only fresh but clean that makes me feel like if I were in paradise, it is so peaceful. The roses with a stunning red colour and large flowers in front of the garden create a unique landscape which delights your eyes. When I want to be alone, when all the pressure is released and when I want to be a little bit closer to heaven this is the place I´m always going to. A magic garden in which you can find peace with all the energy that transmits through the belongings that are over there. Some nights I lose myself watching the sky looking for a shooting star that makes me realize the splendor of the universe and looking all this greatness I can find answers to my prayers. Every day when the day comes to the end there is only one thing I want to do: spend time with my family in my gorgeous garden. I believe in paradise because I’ve been there… in my own precious and magic garden of Eden.


First narration essay draft


Final narration essay The day Adolf Hitler was almost killed

Since 1938 a lot of attempts to kill Hitler by Germans who disapproved the politics of the dictator were made, but all of those finished in failure. The most important and closer to reach his final objective was the Valkyrie operation. This is the story of one of those trials to put end to one of the most infamous war that human race have ever lived. During the Second World War more than six millions of Jewish people were killed by the third Reich under the command of Adolf Hitler, but not all of the Germans agreed with the Nazi movement, like Colonel Claus Von Staufenbberg one of the most important heads in the Nazi army who believed that the first country invaded by Nazi Germany was Germany itself and therefore the only way to stopped that madness was by killing the Fuhrer. The conspiracy team leaded by Staufenbberg was against the third Reich because all of them had those strong feelings of shame to the eyes of the entire world; they had this terrible sorrow of how their beloved Germany would go down in history. In 1944 Staufenbberg supported with a bunch of German officers started up the Valkyrie operation, a plan designed by the German army to prevent an uprising from the people who were against the Reich or a several civil chaos, but due to the convenient position of Staufenbberg in the German army they turned the plan to their own ambitions which were to kill the fhurer and to take the control of all the troops in order to bargain an armistice with the allies army and therefore with the whole world.


On July 20 1944 Staufenbberg was called to a meeting with Hitler; providing the opportunity to kill him. Staufenbberg set up a blast inside his suitcase and left it the closer possible to the Fhurer, immediately Staufenbberg left the room and waited for the detonation but he didn´t count that one of the assistants stumbled with the suitcase and moved it to a further position of the Fhurer in the same room. Staufenbberg in a security position heard the explosion and launched the Valkyrie operation; he took the control of the army and the entire communication commanders, everybody in the German army was confused and in sorrow because the suddenly death of their fhurer. The whole operation lasted only seven hours form 12 pm to 7 pm; time in which Adolf Hitler was enough conscious to tell all the troops he was alive and the Valkyrie operation was a scam. At midnight Staufenbberg and the plot team was caught, they were executed for treason against the third Reich, but if they had succeeded maybe the world would be different. Despite most of the German nation was right with the third Reich not everybody was a Nazi and not everybody was a murder. Like Staufenbberg, there were a lot of real patriots who put their homeland before to the particular interests of their head commander, Adolf Hitler.

- Wilson GarcĂ­a -


TEST UNIT 2-8-1-6


READINGS


PANDORA’S BOX Once up a time, a long time ago, there were two brothers named Epimetheus and Prometheus. They were good gods. They had good hearts. They were good friends. One day, Prometheus got in trouble with Zeus. Because he had a kind heart, Prometheus gave man fire. Zeus was furious. Zeus had announced that man did not deserve fire. Prometheus had ignored him. As punishment, Zeus chained Prometheus to a rock for many years. Then Zeus went after his brother, the gentle, kind-hearted Epimetheus. Zeus ordered the gods' handyman, the maker of things - Hephaestus - to make Zeus a daughter. Hephaestus made a woman out of clay, a beautiful woman. He brought her to life, and then brought her to Zeus. Zeus named his lovely new daughter Pandora. Zeus knew that Epimetheus was lonely. Zeus gave Pandora in marriage to the good hearted Epimetheus. Zeus gave the newlyweds a gift. Some say it was a jar. Some say it was a box. Whatever it was, it was locked. It came with a note. The note said: DO NOT OPEN." Attached to the note was a key. It was all very curious. You can guess what happened next. It was Pandora whose curiosity got the better of her. One day, she used the key to open the box. As she raised the lid, out flew all the bad things in the world today - envy, sickness, hate, disease. Pandora slammed the lid closed, but it was too late. Epimetheus heard her weeping. He came running. Pandora opened the lid to show him it was empty. Quickly, before she could slam the lid shut, one tiny bug flew out. He gave Pandora a big buggy smile in thanks for his freedom and flew away. That tiny bug was named Hope. And Hope made all the difference in the world.


A THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS The Arabian Nights (The Thousand and One Nights, or The Thousand Nights and One Night) is a collection of Arabic short stories. The story starts with a king, Shahzaman, whose wife has committed adultery with a kitchen boy. He kills both of them and declares that he shall leave immediately for his brother’s kingdom in India. Shahzaman gets to the palace of his brother, Shahrayar. While he is in his brother’s home, he grows sickly and pale because of his internal demons. He is king but he cannot protect or keep what is his. His brother invites him on a hunt, but he declines, staying in the palace with his grief. Then he witnesses his brother’s wife, paramours, and concubines fraternizing with the black slave boys. He realizes that his misfortune is not uncommon, and he “finds consolations in his own affliction and forgets his grief.” After Shahrayar gets back from the hunt, Shahzaman eventually tells him about his wife, and he would like to see this with his own eyes. They sneak out, under the guise of another hunt, but go back into the city to catch his wife with the black slave. Realizing the truth of the matter, the brothers decide to go on a journey. On this journey, they cross the path of a demon’s wife, who commands them to sleep with her, bringing her total to one hundred men she has slept with while entrapped in the horrible marriage of the demon. She showed the brothers that a woman’s cunning will get her what she wants. They travel back to their cities, and Shahrayar has a plan in mind to outwit a woman’s cunning wiles. When Shahrayar returns he puts his wife to death, then he orders his vizier to find a daughter of a prince. He marries her, and then kills her the next morning, before any harm can befall him. Shahrayar continues this for many days, until the people call for a plague upon the head of their king. However, the vizier has two daughters. Shahrazad has been well educated and is knowledgeable. With a plan in mind, she requests that her father marry her to the king. Her father, the vizier, tells her the story of the donkey and the ox, stating that her miscalculation will be the end of her. Then when she insists to be wed to the king, he threatens with the story of the Merchant and His Wife to beat her. She still requests. The vizier goes before the king, telling him that his daughter would like to marry him. They are wed, and that night Shahrazad requests that she say good bye to her sister before her death in the morning. The king agrees and sends for Dinarzad, who requests a story from her sister before she sleeps. With the king’s permission she starts the story of the Merchant and the Demon, but does not finish due to sunrise and sleep. As morning overtakes her, her audience is intrigued by her story. She states “What is this compared with what I shall tell you tomorrow night if the king spares me and lets me live?” Due to his curiosity, she is not put to death, but the next night continues the story. She does this for one thousand and one nights. At the end, the king accepts her as his queen, having learned many lessons about life from her stories.


THE MILKMAID AND HER PAIL Patty the Milkmaid was going to market carrying her milk in a Pail on her head. As she went along she began calculating what she would do with the money she would get for the milk. "I'll buy some fowls from Farmer Brown," said she, "and they will lay eggs each morning, which I will sell to the parson's wife. With the money that I get from the sale of these eggs I'll buy myself a new dimity frock and a chip hat; and when I go to market, won't all the young men come up and speak to me! Polly Shaw will be that jealous; but I don't care. I shall just look at her and toss my head like this. As she spoke she tossed her head back, the Pail fell off it, and all the milk was spilt. So she had to go home and tell her mother what had occurred.


PECOS BILL Surely you’ve heard tell of Pecos Bill. He was a cowboy down in Texas. He was about the bravest cowboy that ever lived. I seen with my own eyes the time Bill used two rattlesnakes as a lasso. And then there was the time Bill shot all the stars out of the sky— all of ’em accept the Lone Star that is. But my favorite Pecos Bill story is the one about the time he rode a tornado. You see, there wasn’t a horse in the world that was too wild for him. So it’s not surprising that one day, Bill decided he wanted to ride a tornado—and not just any tornado. No, sir. Bill waited for the biggest, the mightiest, and the most terrifying tornado ever born from the clouds. It was so big that folks on the moon could see it swirling. It picked up elephants from Africa and whales from the Pacific Ocean. But that didn’t scare Bill. He just reached up and grabbed that tornado out of the sky. He threw it down to the ground and hopped right on. That tornado whirled and swirled and wiggled and wagged like an alligator with its tail on fire. Bill hung right on. It sucked up Lake Michigan and dumped the water into the Grand Canyon. Bill hung right on. At last, that tornado got tired. It stopped its whirling, and Bill fell off. He fell so hard that the ground sank. Folk’s call that spot Death Valley. Now, most people would be pretty banged up by such a fall. Not Bill, though. He was as happy as a bear in honey. Lots of folks heard about Bill’s tornado ride, no doubt. That’s where they got the idea for rodeos. Of course, nobody but Bill ever rode a tornado. Most cowboys just ride broncos. NARTIN LUTHER KING DAY Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., an influential American civil rights leader. He is most well-known for his campaigns to end racial segregation on public transport and for racial equality in the United States.


What do people do? Martin Luther King Day is a relatively new federal holiday and there are few long standing traditions. It is seen as a day to promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of their background. Some educational establishments mark the day by teaching their pupils or students about the work of Martin Luther King and the struggle against racial segregation and racism. In recent years, federal legislation has encouraged Americans to give some of their time on this day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Martin Luther King Day, also known as Martin Luther King’s birthday and Martin Luther King Jr Day, is combined with other days in different states. For example, it is combined with Civil Rights Day in Arizona and New Hampshire, while it is observed together with Human Rights Day in Idaho. It is also a day that is combined with Robert E. Lee’s birthday in some states. The day is known as Wyoming Equality Day in the state of Wyoming.

Public life Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday, but has slightly different names in some states. Non-essential Government departments are closed, as are many corporations. Some schools and colleges close but others stay open and teach their students about the life and work of Martin Luther King. Small companies, such as grocery stores and restaurants tend to be open, although a growing number are choosing to close on this day. Some compensate by opening on Washington's Birthday instead. Recent federal legislation encourages Americans to give some of their time on Martin Luther King Day as volunteers in citizen action groups. Public transit systems may or may not operate on their regular schedule.


LABOR DAY

Labor Day is annually held on the first Monday of September. It was originally organized to celebrate various labor associations' strengths of and contributions to the United States economy. It is largely a day of rest in modern times. Many people mark Labor Day as the end of the summer season and a last chance to make trips or hold outdoor events.

What do people do? Labor Day is a day of rest or the last chance for many people to go on trips before the summer ends. For students, it is the last chance to organize parties before school starts again. In some neighborhoods, people organize fireworks displays, barbecues and public arts or sports events. The football season starts on or around Labor Day and many teams play their first game of the year during Labor Day weekend. Traditionally, people did not wear white clothes, particularly shoes, after Labor Day. However, this custom is slowly dying out. More and more people now wear white all year round, rather than just in the summer. Similarly, it is the custom to wear a straw cowboy hat from Memorial Day until Labor Day, then a felt one until Memorial Day comes around again. May 1 is Lei Day in Hawaii, where celebrations include lei-making competitions, concerts, as well as giving and receiving leis to friends and family. Public life

Labor Day is a federal holiday. All Government offices, schools and organizations and many businesses are closed. Some public celebrations, such as fireworks displays, picnics and barbecues, are organized, but they are usually low key events. For many teams, it is the start of the football season. As it is the last chance for many people to take summer trips, there may be some congestion on highways and at airports. Public transit systems do not usually operate on their regular timetables.


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