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QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER ISSUE 4 > 2012

UN PEACE MISSION LEADERSHIP ACHIEVING UNITY OF EFFORTS

Hydrocarbon discoveries in East Africa Why transparency matters

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Q > CONTENTS QUARTERLY

FEATURE ONE:

UN PEACE MISSION LEADERSHIP: Achieving Unity of Efforts | 3 Sukehiro Hasegawa, Hosei University, Japan

FEATURE TWO:

HYDROCARBON DISCOVERIES IN EAST AFRICA Why Transparency Matters | 7 Abdul Omar, Former World Bank EITI Regional Coordinator for Eastern and Southern Africa

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LEADERSHIP IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

K E Y NOT E SP E A KE R Margot Wallstrรถm, Former United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict; and Chair of the Board of Lund University In November 2007, Wallstrรถm became Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders Ministerial Initiative, a position previously held by former US Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright.

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up2date news & opinions

A new look for a new era Dr. Alistair Edgar, ACUNS

In place of any commentary from me, I want to give you the words of our designer responsible for helping the Board to decide on the new Council logo, and for our very professional and contemporary new-look Newsletter:

QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER Issue 4 > 2012

“We wanted something modern, something linear and concise, with a hint of symbolism tied in. The abstract shapes utilized in the design may suggest an open book and the graduated shadow below may further imply the turning of pages. As a unit, the logo is clear and instantly recognizable, but at the same time, we also wanted it to be sophisticated in its simplicity. The alternating colour of the shapes and typography adds a modern feel, moving beyond a singular, flat, detailed logo, and the stylized font holds a contemporary feel that gives a nod to trend, but won’t look dated over time.

Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS) Quarterly Newsletter is published four times a year with the support of the Department of Communications, Public Affairs & Marketing (CPAM) at Wilfrid Laurier University. AC U N S S E C R E TA R I AT Wilfrid Laurier University 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3C5

The choice of the Verlag font for the logo was based on the strength of its clean, angular lines and crisp modernity. The legibility and refined confidence of the font, particularly when utilizing upper case letters, works perfectly for headlines and subheadings throughout the visual identity as well as in the logo, in order to keep the look consistent. As a companion, the Officina font family, both serif and non-serif, provides an equally legible and very workable font that complements Verlag, while offering versatility in the assortment of weights and italics. Used in combination, both fonts preserve the overarching principle to hold to a refined visual style.

T > 226.772.3142 F > 226.772.3004 Publisher: Alistair Edgar, Executive Director, ACUNS Editor: Brenda Burns, Co-ordinator, ACUNS Contributing Writers: Sukehiro Hasegawa, Abdul Omar, Alistair Edgar, Brenda Burns

The colour palate has expanded upon the traditional ACUNS blue (pantone 300 for all colour aficionados) to include an equally strong green (pantone 369), that when used together creates a strong visual balancing act. Whether it may suggest earth and sky, environment and technology, grassroots development and academia, the clarity and vibrancy of the tones has a yin and yang appeal, that gives a deeper context to the growth within the organization and the direction in which it is heading.

Design: Dawn Wharnsby, CPAM Imagery: iStockphoto.com, ACUNS Send address changes and feedback to: E > admin@acuns.org T > 226.772.3142 We welcome and encourage your feedback. Opinions expressed in ACUNS Quarterly Newsletter do not necessarily reflect those of the editor, ACUNS or the host institution. © ACUNS 2012. All rights reserved.

We wanted something modern, something linear and concise, with a hint of symbolism tied in.

It is an honour to work with Dr. Edgar and Brenda in developing a new visual identity that honours and builds on the previous design. We hope that you enjoy it as much as we do, and as you become more familiar with the updated look, you feel it reflects the integrity and mandate of the Academic Council on the United Nations System. Stay tuned for many more pieces of the puzzle to roll out!”

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– Dawn Wharnsby, Designer Communications, Public Affairs and Marketing (CPAM), Wilfrid Laurier University

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UN PEACE MISSION LEADERSHIP FEATURE STORY > S U K E H I R O H A S E G AWA HOSEI UNIVERSITY, JAPAN

emphatic communication and negotiation clear strategy cooperation managerial expertise determination world realist fierce discipline knowledge passion for excellence love of humanity self-reliance accountability direct and effective communication respect diplomacy discretion humility honesty hard work impartial fair-minded consensus-builder focus orderly transition maker managerial capacity professionalism flexible preparedness foundation building tenacity courtesy


ACHIEVING unity OF

EFFORTS O

ver the period of the last twenty years, UN peacekeeping operations expanded in scope of coverage and transformed themselves into integrated complex multidimensional activities with an increasing emphasis on their links to building sustainable peace and stability. This transformation of UN peace operations has necessitated the mission leaders to seek to achieve a unity of efforts on three levels. On the first level, the mission leaders now need to maintain the unity of command, control and coordination of activities of not only all components of the UN mission, but also UN agencies operating in the country. Secondly, the mission leaders need also to work closely with partners and other stake holders outside of the UN system. Thirdly and most importantly, the mission leaders now are expected to sustain the credibility of UN operations in both the international community and the country in which the mission is based, and to enhance the national ownership and accountability of peace-building efforts. To perform their roles, UN peace mission leaders are required to exercise strategic, managerial and situational leadership. The most critical role of UN mission leaders, I found, is to develop a strategic vision and direction by interpreting the mandate of the Security Council and breaking it down into operational mission tasks, and then to implement them efficiently and effectively. The mission leaders need to bring together not only military, police and civilian components of the mission, but often also all UN funds, programmes and specialized agencies in the country of assignment. This is a daunting task as the agencies have their own mandates, headquarters and governing bodies. The leaders must then manage well the expectations of both the beneficiaries and stakeholders to strive for a common strategic goal. The leaders must understand the social structure, values and culture of the country or host community that the mission is sent to assist. Achieving the strategic goal and realizing a vision requires the participation and buy-in of not only the UN and other international actors, but also a wide range of national actors such as the national authorities and political leaders including the opposition, civil society, religious leaders and the academia. For this to happen, it is imperative for the mission leaders to develop the vision and manage the collaborative work of all stakeholders, i.e. all UN mission and agency staff, international partners and national actors. As the situation changes, so does the approach to meet the newly emerging requirements. In Timor-Leste, the United Nations organized five missions from 1999 to 2012 that received multifaceted mandates to carry out the various tasks required of the prevailing local conditions

emphatic communication and negotiation clear strategy cooperation managerial expertise determination world realist fierce discipline knowledge passion for excellence love of humanity self-reliance accountability direct and effective communication respect diplomacy discretion humility honesty hard work impartial fair-minded consensus-builder focus orderly transition maker managerial capacity professionalism flexible preparedness foundation building tenacity courtesy

FEATURE ONE

for achieving sustainable peace and stability. Seven mission leaders exercised their leadership in circumstances and under conditions that required different competencies and attributes. The first Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) was Ian Martin (UK) who headed the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) from May to November 1999 and administered the Popular Consultation. A human rights activist, Martin was the SecretaryGeneral of Amnesty International from 1986 to 1992. He believed in and focused his entire attention to empower the Timorese people to exercise their right of self-determination. When I was UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Rwanda in 1995 to 1996, Martin was Chief of the Human Rights Field Operation based in Kigali, Rwanda. He had both diplomatic skills and professional expertise that were appreciated by the host countries. He was later appointed SRSG and Head of the United Nations Mission to Nepal (UNMIN). With his remarkable skills for emphatic communication and negotiation, Martin has since become one of the few senior-most officials of the United Nations to act as special envoys of Secretaries-General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon. As Ian Martin once said, “The key responsibility of the SRSG is to set a clear strategy for the mission, to make sure that everyone understands it and is on board with it and that the different components of the mission cooperate in carrying out that strategy – rather than fight each other to pursue contradictory goals or even the same goal in contradictory or competitive ways. That’s really the SRSG’s job, but you are up against big cultural conflicts, between the military, police, electoral, [and] civilian public information types.”1 Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil) was not only the SRSG but also the transitional administrator of Timor-Leste from November 1999 to May 2002. He was a dynamic leader who was respected and admired for his commitment to the principles of the United Nations. Like many of us, he entered the United Nations young, and worked for the UN in many duty stations for more than 30 years. I recall meeting him in Dili in January 2000, and finding him courteous and at the same time determined to help the Timorese people in establishing their own state organs and institutions of governance. I never expected then that I was going to meet him again three years later in Geneva, myself being Deputy SRSG and him then High Commissioner for Human Rights. It was most tragic that he was killed on 19 August 2003 in Bagdad along with more than 20 other members of his staff. In my brief encounters with him, I felt as Samantha Power aptly described Sergio was a world realist as well as an acolyte who believed in Continued on next page >

1 Connie

Peck (ed.) On Being a Special Representative of the Secretary-General (Geneva: UNITAR, 2006), p.116.

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SRSGs “must be able to gain the respect and confidence of the receiving community and its leaders through discretion, humility, honesty, (and) hard work.” President Ramos-Horta, in his farewell speech for SRSG Atul Khare

Continued from previous page > the United Nations. He was also a fiercely disciplined UN official who had vast knowledge of how it worked in the UN system, but who also knew how to make others feel relaxed in social occasions.2 In my encounter with Sergio, what I sensed as the source of his leadership was his passion for excellence and his love of humanity. Kamalesh Sharma from India succeeded Sérgio de Mello in May 2002 when Timor-Leste regained its political independence. Since 1965, he had served in the Indian Foreign Service and became one of the seniormost diplomats who mastered the art of diplomacy. He was a reserved gentleman who nevertheless was direct and effective in communicating his views to his counterparts. His mission was to help the Timorese leaders become self-reliant and accountable to their people as well as to the international community. The Timorese leaders respected him for his integrity and impartiality. President Xanana Gusmão listened to SRSG Sharma. When there was a need for the Timorese leaders to show their unity in 2003, SRSG Sharma convinced the reluctant President to join other Timorese leaders in an independence celebration being held in a rural district. Upon completion of his assignment in Timor-Leste, Ambassador Sharma was appointed the Indian High Commissioner in London in 2004 and then the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth of Nations in 2008. It was his moral integrity that made him a strong and respected SRSG. Atul Khare (India) succeeded me as the SRSG for Timor-Leste and Head of the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) in December 2006. He first served as Chief of Staff and later as Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General with the United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) from June 2002 until its completion in May 2005. He then went back to the Indian Foreign Service and worked as Director of the Nehru Centre and Minister (Culture) of the High Commission of India in London for a little more than one year until November 2006 when he was called back by SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan to return to Timor-Leste, this time, as his Special Representative. Like Kamalesh Sharma, Khare started his career as an Indian diplomat in 1984. He had served in various capacities in the Indian Foreign Service, including as Deputy High Commissioner of India to Mauritius and Counselor at the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations in New York. As the Special Representative, he nurtured self-confidence and pride among the Timorese leaders who appreciated his care and understanding. Exerting his diplomatic and good offices skills, Atul assisted the leaders’ own efforts in overcoming a multitude of problems including the reintegration of internally displaced persons (IDPs) into communities, addressing the grievances of the “petitioners” - former members of the military who were dismissed after alleged discrimination by commanders - and dealing with the aftermath of armed attacks against the President and the Prime Minister in February 2008. As President Ramos-Horta said in his farewell speech for SRSG 2 Samantha 3 Speech

Ameerah Haq (Bangladesh), who was appointed by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as his SRSG for Tmor-Leste in December 2009, was an old friend of mine since both of us had worked for UNDP for more than thirty years. She served as UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in Laos (1991-1994) and Malaysia (1994-1997) just as I did in the same capacity in the South Pacific (1985-1987), Rwanda (1995-1996) and Timor-Leste (2002-2006). Ameerah moved up steadily in her career and served as Deputy Assistant Administrator and Deputy Director of the Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery at UNDP Headquarters in New York before she was appointed Deputy SRSG and UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Afghanistan in 2004, and then for Sudan three years later in 2007. In my association with Ameerah, I always felt she was clear in her mind and disciplined in her conduct. Her fairness and impartiality, and her determination to strengthen national capacity, gained much respect from the Timorese leaders. It was her excellent managerial capacity that made her successful in Afghanistan and Sudan before her appointment as the SRSG for Timor-Leste. Being a seasoned and skilled negotiator as well as a consensus-builder, she quickly built strong relations with the country’s leaders and shifted the country’s leaders’ focus towards long-term socioeconomic challenges. She prepared the country for an orderly transition and the departure of the UN mission in December 2012 by demonstrating her excellent managerial capability and “the thorough way in which your team is preparing for the departure of UNMIT and the necessary transition of the work of the international community.”4 Ameerah`s superb managerial capacity and fairness must have led SecretaryGeneral Ban Ki-moon to appoint her Under-Secretary-General for the Department of Field Support at UN Headquarters in June 2012. Finn Resuke-Nielsen served in Timor-Leste longer than any other SRSG. Before his recent appointment as Acting Special Representative of the Secretary-General in June 2012, he had served as Deputy SRSG of UNMIT since 2006, ably acting as the head of Mission filling the several months’ gap in 2006 following my departure and the arrival of Atul Khare. Like Ameerah, Finn also served as UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in Laos (2002 to 2004). Earlier, from 1999 to 2002, he was UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative in Timor-Leste and worked closely with then-SRSG Sergio de Mello. With more than 35 years of experience working at the UN and UNDP, and close to a decade of experience serving in Timor-Leste, he is well experienced and trusted by the Timorese leaders and, in my view, eminently qualified with his managerial competency and professional skills to complete the transition from a UN peacekeeping presence to a sustainable development assistance framework in Timor-Leste.

Power, Cashing the Flame: Sergio Vieira de Mello and the Fight to Save the World (London: Penguin Books, 2008).

Continued on page 10 >

delivered by President Jose Ramos-Horta at a farewell ceremony for SRSG Atul Khare on 9 December 2009.

4 Statement

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Atul Khare, SRSGs “must be able to gain the respect and confidence of the receiving community and its leaders through discretion, humility, honesty, (and) hard work. You have succeeded.”3

made on 22 February 2012 by Mr. Ioannis Vrailas, Deputy Head of the EU delegation to the Security Council.

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MEMBER PUBLICATIONS

MPub member publications

Commercial Usages, Customary Law and Lex Mercatoria in Latin America Cristián Gimenez Corte

SECRETARIAT STAFF

This book discusses the applicable law to international commercial contracts in Latin America, in particular with regard to the member states of the Mercosur. The book analyses the applicable sources of law, and tries to show how international commercial usages and customary law concur with national legislation and international conventions in providing a regulatory framework for international contracts. By doing this, the book also makes apparent the common and shared legal principles underlying all Latin American legal systems.

Alistair Edgar, Executive Director, ACUNS Associate Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University

The object of the book is familiar to the work of various United Nations agencies and commissions, including the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNICTRAL), the United Nations Conference in Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and also with the work of the Organization of American States (OAS).

T > 226.772.3167 F > 226.772.3004 E > aedgar@wlu.ca

Brenda Burns, Coordinator

More generally, the book studies areas of law such as Private International Law, Public International Law, International Commercial Law, and Procedural Law, which are directly linked to the concept of “rule of law,” which is one of the key principles underlying the very idea of the United Nations.

T > 226.772.3142 F > 226.772.3004 E > bburns@wlu.ca

Private Standards and Global Governance: Economic, Legal and Political Perspectives

AC U N S S E C R E TA R I AT Wilfrid Laurier University 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3C5

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Axel Marx, Miet Maertens, Johan Swinnen, Jan Wouters (Eds.) Private regulatory initiatives aim to govern supply chains across the globe according to a set of environmental, food safety and/or social standards. Until now, literature on the topic has been fragmented and divided by research fields. However, this book bridges these disciplinary and thematic research lines, bringing together an interdisciplinary group of leading scholars to identify key issues. The expert contributors assess the state-of-the-art with regard to private regulation of food, natural resources and labour conditions. They begin with an introduction to, and discussion of, several leading existing private standards, and go on to assess private food standards and their legitimacy and effectiveness in the context of the global trade regime.

2012-2013

Chair: Abiodun Williams, United States Institute for Peace

This multidisciplinary assessment of the scope and importance of private standards as a governance tool in a globalizing world will prove to be an enlightening read for a wide-ranging audience encompassing: academics, students, researchers, policymakers and analysts focusing on private forms of governance in several sectors including economics, law, politics, development, environment and agriculture.

Past Chair: Christer Jönsson, Lund University Vice Chairs: Roger Coate, Georgia College and State University Rama Mani, University of Oxford

Defending the Rights of Others: Presentations from a Symposium on Civil Courage Critical currents no. 9 August 2012

MEMBERS

This volume contains the presentations given at the Civil Courage in the International Arena seminar that took place at the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation on 10 June 2011. The seminar formed part of the activities to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the death of Dag Hammarskjöld. Attended by NGO activists, several of whom have harsh experience of what it means to show civil courage under duress, writers, diplomats and academics, the seminar had as its purpose exploration of the interpretation and practical expression of the concept of civil courage in today’s world with a view to strengthening ethical principles in the international arena. It is well known that ethical concerns were profoundly important to Dag Hammarskjöld, both as an individual and in his capacity as the foremost civil servant of the international community. This volume seeks to pay tribute to that abiding legacy.

Hugh Dugan, United Nations Mary Farrell, University of Greenwich Kirsten Haack, Northumbria University Sukehiro Hasegawa, Hosei University Lise Morjé Howard, Georgetown University Melissa Labonte, Fordham University Jan Wouters, University of Leuven

50 Years Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation

TO N O M I N AT E

Development dialogue no. 60, August 2012

> See our ad on page 9 to nominate

Do you want to know how the handful of staff members operating from the 1960s into the 1980s at The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation came to support and closely collaborate with people like Patrick van Rensburg, Juan Somavia, Ahmed Ben Salah, Manfred Max Neef, Pat Mooney, Graca Machel, Joseph Ki-Zerbo and many others? Or why they received a cheque for US$ 100,000 from the Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation Jan Pronk? - Put differently: how this small institution with a big name was able to turn the belief that “ideas matter” into action and visible results?

members for positions available on the Board as of June 2013.

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HYDROCARBON DISCOVERIES in EAST AFRICA FEATURE STORY > ABDUL OMAR FORMER WORLD BANK EITI REGIONAL COORDINATOR FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA


FEATURE TWO

Transparency pays

significant dividends to all key stakeholders, governments, companies and communities living in resource-rich areas.

An open and transparent government sends the message that it is ready to do business with the outside world.

E

ast Africa has become the new frontier of oil gas and exploration. Major gas discoveries in Mozambique and Tanzania as well as promising estimates for oil in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia (Puntland) place the region on the global energy map. The upside estimates for discovered gas stand around 100 trillion cubic feet, translating into 1 trillion dollars of monetary value. When the exports begin from five to seven years, Mozambique and Tanzania will receive billions of dollars of annual revenues from gas operations. The citizens of East African states with hydrocarbon discoveries are now presented with an unprecedented economic opportunity. However, the history of oil and gas extraction in the wider region is not a positive one for these citizens to look back upon. Tragically, hydrocarbon riches in Africa have been synonymous with corruption, violence, instability, dictatorship, poverty, mismanagement and economic underdevelopment. Hopefully, Africa’s new oil and gas producers can escape the tragedies that befell their counterparts on the continent. A key avenue for ensuring that history does not repeat itself in East Africa is advancing transparency in the governance of hydrocarbon resources. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) serves as an important tool for avoiding the possibility of a “resource curse” in East Africa. Launched in October 2002 at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa by former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the initiative seeks to shed light on company payments and government revenues from the extractive sector. Governments implementing the EITI must appoint a senior representative that leads the initiative; establish a multi-stakeholderholder group consisting of representatives from the government, industry and civil society; and produce an annual report complied by an independent third-party who reconciles company payments and government revenues from the extractive sector. Governments that fulfill the EITI’s transparency standards become compliant countries. Currently, thirty-six states implement the initiative across the globe, with twelve of these already achieving the compliant status The international community has actively been supporting transparency in the extractive sector in East Africa. Through a Multi-Donor Trust Fund, the World Bank has been providing financial and technical assistance to Tanzania and Mozambique, the only two states in the region that are currently implementing the EITI. Thanks to this support, the overall revenues from the extractive sector, including mining, has seen a remarkable growth. For instance, the Tanzanian government received US$300 million from the extractive sector in 2009/10, up almost three times from the reported revenues in the previous year. The Mozambican government collected US$40 million in 2009, an increase from US$ 7 million in 2008.

The EITI is a very useful initiative, but it needs to be coupled with other measures to advance transparency. Key among these is transparency on the contracts signed by governments and companies. At present, contracts on the extractive sector remain in the domain of secrecy. Unfortunately, the public is kept in the dark and does not know if the contracts signed contravene existing laws, including those relating to taxation. States in East Africa can perhaps follow the example of Liberia, a country with a brutal history linked to the exploitation of natural resources and which recently has legalized and puts all contracts involving the extractive sector in the public sphere. Equally important, governments need to make public all information on the expenditure of the revenues collected from the extractive sector. As depleting resources, hydrocarbons should be treated as strategic assets. Governments therefore not only should disclose the spending of revenues received from the sector, but also show that it is done in a manner that benefits current and future generations. In addition, government should treat revenues from the extractive sector distinct from those generated by other sectors of the economy such as providing services. Transparency pays significant dividends to all key stakeholders, governments, companies and communities living in resource-rich areas. An open and transparent government sends the message that it is ready to do business with the outside world. A direct relationship exists between the level of transparency and the amount of foreign direct investment that a government attracts, particularly in a capitalintensive sector such as the extraction of oil and gas. A transparent government also sends the message that it is accountable to its people, the owners of the hydrocarbon resources. Companies can benefit from pursuing transparency, particularly in their relationship with local communities. The relationship between extractive companies and communities is often characterized by mistrust that, in extreme cases, leads to public protests and armed violence. Companies can reverse this adversarial relationship by being transparent in their operations. At present, it is a common practice for extractive companies to showcase only a few token projects on corporate social responsibility such as building wells, school and local dispensary. Companies need to go beyond this by disclosing information on the value chain of their entire operation, from contract negotiation to environmental protection to payments to the host government and community. Communities often have little say in the extraction of their natural resources. In a transparent environment, communities would have access to useful and factual information that would allow them to engage companies and governments in a meaningful way. In this Continued on page 9 >

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2013 DISSERTATION AWARD CALL FOR APPLICATIONS

The ACUNS Dissertation Award recognizes students of extraordinary potential who are writing graduate-level dissertations on topics related to the United Nations system.

RESEARCH AWARD A P P L I C AT I O N P R O C E D U R E Eligible candidates may be citizens of any country and must be at the dissertation-writing stage of a Ph.D., J.S.D. or LL.M. level and engaged in the writing stage of their program.

A completed on-line application can be found at acuns.org and must include all of the following:

The Award is in the amount of $1,500 US. The winner is encouraged to attend and to present her/his research at the 2013 ACUNS Annual Meeting, and will receive an additional $500 reimbursement of costs after she/he does so.

> A dissertation proposal, a representative dissertation chapter, or a description of the research of no more than 25 pages in length; > A curriculum vitae;

The winner will be notified by February 15, 2013. Due to the large volume of applicants, the Secretariat will contact only the Award winner. Details of the winning research project will be posted on the ACUNS website after February 15, and if in attendance the winner will be introduced at the ACUNS Annual Meeting at Lund University, Sweden, June 17 – 19, 2013.

> Two letters of recommendation from the applicant’s doctoral advisor or a faculty member who knows his/her work. Recommendation letters can be uploaded online at: http://acuns.org/programsandissertati/

The winner is encouraged to submit some written product to Global Governance, though use of any materials remains at the discretion of the journal editorial team.

You will be notified by the online system when each recommendation letter is uploaded by your reference. Your application will not be considered if it is incomplete.

Applications must be received in full by Thursday, January 31, 2013. QUESTIONS? > Please contact the ACUNS Secretariat at bburns@wlu.ca

A C U N S S E C R E T A R I A T > Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 > T 226.772.3121 > F 226.772.3004

ACUNS.ORG

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BOARD NOMINATIONS

context, communities would be able to work with companies and government in a constructive manner. East Africa is at an economic crossroads, and transparency would play a key role in the region’s future outlook. If the hydrocarbon wealth is managed in a transparent manner, East Africa is poised to have a bright political and economic future. If the resource-rich governments in the region choose secrecy over transparency, the outcome is clear. As elsewhere in Africa, hydrocarbons would bring misery and upheaval, not prosperity and stability. Hopefully, East Africa can avoid a dark future associated with the exploitation of oil and gas.

Nominate or be nominated. AS OF JUNE 2013 multiple positions will be open on the ACUNS Board of Directors. ACUNS members are invited to nominate qualified individuals, including themselves, for these positions. Please send nominations with curriculum vitae, bio (300-500 words), and a short supporting statement outlining what the nominee will bring to ACUNS.

TO N O M I N ATE > All nominations should be sent to bburns@wlu.ca by March 31, 2013. Questions? Please email admin@acuns.org or call (1) 226.772.3121

* After working with Canada’s Department

A C U N S S E C R E T A R I A T > Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5

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ACUNS.ORG

of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Abdul Omar served as the World Bank’s EITI Regional Coordinator for Eastern and Southern Africa from June 2010 to June 2012. A graduate of Wilfrid Laurier University, he currently consults on governance, security and natural resources management.

S i g n u p f o r o u r E > U P D AT E b y b e c o m i n g a m e m b e r !


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MEMBER BENEFITS

The mission leaders in Timor-Leste had a central role in setting specific agenda and strategic goals to accomplish by building trust and collaborating with internal and external stakeholders. Engaging in continuous planning and preparedness exercises aimed at establishing varying responses to different hypothetical but possible scenarios, the senior management staff remained mentally prepared for eventualities, thereby allowing for more effective and adaptable responses. Even if the mission was unable to foresee and avoid all eventualities, such flexible approaches allowed key UN and international actors to turn unforeseen developments such as the crisis of April and May 2006 into an opportunity for building the foundation for lasting peace. Mutual confidence enabled SRSGs to undertake intimate consultations for helping to build peace and stability with key national leaders such as the President, the Prime Minister, the Speakers of the National Assembly and the leaders of the opposition political parties as well as key international stakeholders that included permanent members of the Security Council and the Core Group such as Australia, Indonesia and Portugal.

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The increasing engagement of UN missions in peace and nation building of Timor-Leste required professional exercise in, and insight into, not only conflict mediation but also human rights, rule of law, and capacity building of national institutions. In addition to substantive knowledge of development requirements, SRSGs were required to exercise managerial expertise in order to undertake the superior organizational performance of peacekeeping and peace-building missions. Moreover, based on my own experience as well as those of six other SRSGs, I find an increasing need for SRSGs who can gain the trust and confidence of national leaders so that they accept willingly the advice for transformation of not only the political system but also the mindset and mentality of people. The SRSGs who served in Timor-Leste show that the United Nations has carefully selected individuals with the critical attributes and competencies that were needed in respective phases of peace operations. I take pride in being one of the seven SRSGs that led the UN efforts over the past decade in Timor-Leste, which is now on its way to long term peace and stability after the period of conflict and fragility.

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Law, Hosei University, Tokyo. He served as Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Timor-Leste and as Head of the United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET), the United Nations Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL), and the United Nations Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) from May 2004 to September 2006.

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He served with the United Nations since 1969.

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2012

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ACUNS Newsletter No. 4, 2012  

ACUNS Newsletter, edition No. 4, 2012

ACUNS Newsletter No. 4, 2012  

ACUNS Newsletter, edition No. 4, 2012

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