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QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER ISSUE 1 > 2014

OLD STATES– NEW WORLD: FROM POWER POLITICS TO THE FORMATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

PLUS:

INDUSTRIALIZATION BASED ON THE COMMODITY SECTOR FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT Self-determined and directed towards the benefit of all?

Global and International Impacts of Corruption Recapping the Fifth Session of the Conference of the States Parties (COSP5)


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Q > CONTENTS QUARTERLY

FEATURE ONE:

OLD STATES – NEW WORLD: From power politics to the formation of the international community | 3 Wendelin Ettmayer Former Austrian Ambassador to Finland, Canada and at the Council of Europe

SPECIAL FEATURE:

GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL IMPACTS OF CORRUPTION Recapping the Fifth Session of the Conference of the States Parties (COSP5) | 5 Nanette Svenson Adjunct Professor, Tulane University and Consultant, International Development, Panama City

FEATURE TWO:

INDUSTRIALIZATION BASED ON THE COMMODITY SECTOR FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT Self-determined and directed towards the benefit of all? | 7 Koffi Kanga Centre d’Etudes Diplomatiques et Stratégiques (CEDS), Paris

AM14 AM14 PLENARY SESSIONS INCLUDE: >

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GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: ENGAGING NEW NORMS AND EMERGING CHALLENGES

Conflict Management Norms, State Interests and Civilian Protection Sustainable Development and Resilient Cities in the Post-2015 Agenda Local Ownership, Global Collective Action and Addressing Fragile States

Can the United Nations Survive ‘Patchwork Multilateralism’?

THURSDAY – SATURDAY

> June 19-21, 2014 Kadir Has University Istanbul, Turkey


WELCOME TO ACUNS

STARTING POINT

up2date news & opinions

Engaged and enthusiastic SECRETARIAT STAFF

Looking forward to the upcoming months of annual meetings, workshops and more opportunities to connect Dr. Alistair Edgar, ACUNS

Alistair Edgar Executive Director, ACUNS Associate Professor, Wilfrid Laurier University

Amina J. Mohammed, Special Advisor to the Secretary-General on Post-2015 Development Planning; H.E. Ahmet Üzümcü, Director-General of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who in December 2013 accepted the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the OPCW; Michael Moller, recently appointed as Acting Head of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG); Edward Mortimer, Distinguished Fellow at All Souls College, University of Oxford and former chief speechwriter and Director of Communications in the Executive Office of UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. These are four distinguished global figures who now have accepted invitations to join us at the 2014 ACUNS Annual Meeting at Kadir Has University, Istanbul.

T > 226.772.3167 E > aedgar@wlu.ca

Brenda Burns Co-ordinator T > 226.772.3142 F > 226.772.3004 E > bburns@wlu.ca

By the time that you are reading this opening paragraph, I hope that more leading (and emerging) practitioners and scholars also will have agreed to join us in Istanbul as plenary session speakers, special session panellists or in other roles. Our Turkish hosts are working with ACUNS to identify Turkish and regional speakers, as it is critical that we should be as engaged as possible also with their voices in addressing the overall theme of the AM14, and its plenary session themes – new conflict management norms, sustainable development and resilient cities in post-2015 development planning, local and global participation in addressing fragile states, and the challenges to the UN posed by ‘patchwork multilateralism’.

Andrew Koltun Administrative Assistant T > 226.772.3121 E > akoltun@acuns.org

AC U N S S E C R E TA R I AT Wilfrid Laurier University 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3C5

In addition, of course, ACUNS hopes that many of our current members will come to Istanbul to give papers, to participate in discussions, and to strengthen their relationships with each other in our global network; and that you will be joined by others who may just have discovered ACUNS as we hold our Annual Meeting for the first time in this dynamic city and country and this fascinating region.

BOARD MEMBERS

After Istanbul, our next ‘program stop’ is in July 2014 at The Hague Institute for Global Justice, where we will be holding the ACUNS-ASIL Summer Workshop on International Organization Studies (or more simply, SWIOS to those who have participated in the 8-day workshop program). This year, the workshop benefits from the very generous support of the Institute and its President, Abiodun Williams, known to all of us as Chair of ACUNS; and the continuing firm and invaluable support of the UN Office of Human Resources Management.

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Chair: Abiodun Williams The Hague Institute for Global Justice

Past Chair: Christer Jönsson Lund University

These two core signature programs always do much to define how we in the Secretariat office feel about our year, but they are not our only programs or activities. The now-annual ACUNS Vienna UN Conference took place in January 2014, hosted at UNODC, and was very well attended with the conference hall completely full for every plenary session presentation. Congratulations to the ACUNS Vienna team, led by Michael Platzer, for their efforts; and a special thank-you to Maria Idomir for her tremendous work as she now turns her attention to building a successful global career.

Vice Chairs: Roger Coate Georgia College and State University Melissa Labonte Fordham University

MEMBERS

Our quarterly New York Seminar series continues to bring leading experts in various fields together, and your Executive Director now is exploring opportunities to add more events in to New York working with some of the Permanent Missions and existing ACUNS institutional members based there. As this develops further, we will keep members updated.

Mary Farrell, University of Greenwich Kirsten Haack, Northumbria University Sukehiro Hasegawa, Hosei University

Last but not least – if you have not done so recently, please take a few minutes to look at the ACUNS web site at www.acuns.org. Investigate the three streams of Podcasts, explore the Book Reviews, and the Member Updates, possibly consider contributing to the UNSC Annotated Bibliography Project, and examine the Scholarly Library resources. Tell us what you think, and what you find (or what you hoped to find but could not!). Your comments and ideas, and other contributions, will help us to continue to improve the content, design, and usefulness of the site for everyone.

Lise Morjé Howard, Georgetown University Rama Mani, University of Oxford Nanette Svenson, Tulane University

A C U N S Q UA R T E R LY N E W S L E T T E R

Our Turkish hosts are working with ACUNS to identify Turkish and regional speakers, as it is critical that we should be as engaged as possible also with their voices in adressing the overall theme of the AM14 and its plenary session themes.

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OLD STATES – NEW WORLD: FEATURE STORY > W E N D E L I N E T T M AY E R FORMER AUSTRIAN AMBASSADOR TO FINLAND, CANADA AND AT THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE

AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY, we find ourselves confronted with many global challenges, such as natural disasters, environmental pollution, financial crises, civil wars, and massive human rights violations. However, there is one essential problem: nation states no longer are able to live up to these challenges and the “world state” does not exist. Many problems have global or transboundary dimensions, but the chief instrument available to address them is the same old state and its increasingly outmoded institutional expressions.

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FEATURE ONE

1. A DIVIDED WORLD: POWER POLITICS AND THE WELFARE STATE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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t the beginning of the 21st century, the world seems divided: some states pursue traditional foreign policies based on power politics, while others consider the advancement of their citizens’ welfare the primary goal of foreign policy actions. For hundreds of years, the goal of foreign policy was to maintain the sovereignty and power of the state. Being “great” from an historical point of view meant to conquer territory and expand one’s sphere of influence. The means to this end were Realpolitik and war; therefore, soldiers and diplomats often collaborated. By way of contrast, welfare considerations have taken on a much more central role for many governments. Their foreign policy goals focus on the well being of their citizens - pursuing a high standard of living and fighting poverty, hunger, and AIDS. World population growth and the global food supply are important topics on the agenda; international conferences often address issues such as development aid, the protection of the environment, human rights, the emancipation of women, and the well-being of children. International organizations and major conferences represent the tools to implement this kind of foreign policy; NGOs, the media, and multinational firms are the key players. Many international efforts today are moving in the direction of extending the model of the welfare state to an increasing number of states all over the world. As a result, the advancement of personal welfare is becoming an important principle and touchstone of legitimacy in international relations. Waging war in pursuit of narrow national interests has become an inconceivable notion for most, if not all, Western welfare states. Nowadays, the United States is the only Western nation to take the traditional approach to foreign policy, fighting wars and making peace (almost) at will. Elsewhere in Europe, Canada, and Australia, foreign policy has focused more consistently on “social welfare policies,” yielding important results which have changed people’s attitudes in a number of different ways: when Americans speak of security, be it John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, or Barack Obama, they refer to military security. In contrast, when Europeans speak of security, they mean social safety and their retirement pensions. When Americans engage in warfare, they still do it in the name of defending their national interests. Europeans, in contrast, carry out their military operations as “international peace missions” with the purpose of defending common values. In Europe, soldiers no longer serve to promote their own foreign policy interests. In America, the winner of an election is usually somebody who is able to make the country feel protected and strong, whereas in Austria and other European countries elections are won by whoever most convincingly promotes the benefits of the welfare state. According to the principles of the United Nations, peace and security are ensured by respecting the sovereignty and the independence of the member states. The promotion of common values, such as democracy, human rights, and the rule of law has become the basis of international peacemaking efforts. In this sense, even the concepts of a “responsibility to protect” and the “right to intervene” were developed in contrast to the principles of state sovereignty in order to ensure peace and security. In Europe, a new type of international organization came into being in the form of the Council of Europe, which is committed to

bringing about unity through common values. Most notably, citizens of the Council’s member states have been granted the right to file lawsuits in the supranational European Court for Human Rights. The citizens’ quest for personal welfare has thus clearly pushed the state’s pursuit of power into the background.

2. THE DIALECTICS OF GLOBALIZATION

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n the one hand, globalization certainly is a uniting force: the principles of a free market economy have been accepted broadly around the world; modern technologies facilitate the exchange of information and communication, and liberal democratic values have become almost universally appealing. At the same time, however, the process of globalization is causing divisions: it can result in strengthening nationalism, regionalism, and fundamentalism. Since the collapse of communism, liberal values and the principles of a free market economy have spread around the world: they proved to be more successful and to promote people’s welfare much more efficiently than dictatorships and centrally planned economies. Democracy, the privatization of enterprises, and the deregulation of the economy have become commonly accepted principles in many countries. Even though the democratic system has not always been successfully implemented, the democratic spirit in the form of democratic reforms or protests has spread all over the world. New technologies, ranging from the computer to the cell phone and the iPod, have further contributed to greater societal openness and a new form of universal connectedness. They have brought the world closer together as the markets and the media have developed their own dynamics. In spite of its positive forces, globalization has also strengthened some adverse developments. By being included in the global economic process, countries such as China, India, Russia, and Brazil have become more powerful and more nationalistic. We are moving towards a multipolar world, in which international political decisions and their implementation must be based on a much broader approach. Certain basic developments illustrate this trend: while the United States produced 60 % of the world economic output in the post-war era after 1945, nowadays all the Western nations taken together yield the same number; the West’s entire share of the world’s economic output will shrink to 38 % by 2025; and while Europe and North America accounted for 33 % of the world’s total population 100 years ago, those regions of the world currently only make up 17% of the global population. But globalization can also trigger divisive ideas and ideologies in some individuals. Consequently, even in the era of globalization, nationalism and in particular fundamentalism have gained impetus since some people reject Western values and follow a reactionary path. Attitudes we have long adopted in Europe, such as the separation of church and state, might meet with rejection in Islamic fundamentalist circles, where religion provides the basis for conducting everyday life. Continued on page 10 >

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The only way to fight corruption is by making a commitment to the implementation of accountability and transparency mechanisms, the fundamental building blocks for sustainable development.

SPECIAL FEATURE

GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL IMPACTS OF CORRUPTION: RECAPPING COSP5 The Fifth Session of the Conference of the States Parties (COSP5) to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), sponsored by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), was held in Panama City, Republic of Panama, during the week of November 25-29, 2013. In its resolution 55/61 of December 4, 2000, the United Nations General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, was necessary and decided to establish an ad hoc committee for the negotiation of such an instrument in Vienna at the headquarters of the UNODC. The UNCAC text was negotiated during seven sessions of the ad hoc committee from the beginning of 2002 until the end of 2003. The UNCAC was adopted officially in 2005 and is the only universal, legally binding anti-corruption instrument. It has been ratified by 168 states, more than four fifths of the UN members, and it obliges governments to prevent and criminalize corruption; to promote international cooperation; to recover stolen assets; and to improve technical assistance and information exchange in both the private and public sectors. Every two years the States Parties to the Convention meet to review implementation and exchange information and experiences related to improved approaches for confronting corruption. The UNCAC is driven by a Review Mechanism that has now trained 1,400 anti-corruption experts, helped 35 States amend their legislative framework, and led global discussion on promotion of good governance, transparency and accountability. The UNODC supports governments in the implementation of the UNCAC and provides technical assistance and training. UNODC has an online anti-corruption portal called “TRACK” (Tools and Resources for Anti-Corruption Knowledge), www.track.unodc.org. It has also established a partnership with the World Bank for the Stolen Assets Recovery (StAR) Initiative that facilitates systematic and timely recovery of assets stolen through corrupt acts. UNODC also conducts corruption/ integrity surveys

> NANETTE SVENSON ADJUNCT PROFESSOR, TULANE UNIVERSITY CONSULTANT, INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PANAMA CITY

and contributes to implementation of the 10th principle of the UN Global Compact, which claims “business should work against corruption in any form, including bribery and extortion.” With over 1,200 participants from public and private sector entities around the world, this Fifth Session of the Conference of the States Parties was the largest global anti-corruption gathering to date. In Panama City this November, representatives from the 168 States Parties to the UNCAC focused for a week on national and global impacts of corruption—the single biggest impediment to economic and social progress—and what countries are doing to combat it. The Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Yury Fedotov, Executive Director of UNODC, opened the conference stating that weak rule of law and lack of good governance has severely hindered progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and that the only way to fight corruption is by making a commitment to the implementation of accountability and transparency mechanisms, the fundamental building blocks for sustainable development. During the event, professionals from government offices, parliaments, inter-governmental organizations, civil society, the private sector and the media met to discuss how the UNCAC is currently being implemented worldwide and how actors can come together to better address issues of corruption. The plenary sessions of the conference were open to the media and portions were televised throughout the region and the world. The conference also catalyzed a number of special events in Panama City on topics related to reducing corruption. The full program is available on the UNODC website at www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/ CAC-COSP-session5-specialevents.html. Conference plenary sessions and panels covered a wide range of topics related to the pillar themes of the convention: prevention, criminalization, international cooperation, and asset recovery. These included discussions on anti-corruption and the post-2015 development agenda; the Institutional Integrity Initiative: the UNCAC

applied to the UN system; recovery of stolen assets; safeguarding against corruption in sports and major public events; public procurement systems; new tools introduced by UNODC, OECD and the World Bank; NATO’s building integrity program in defense; UN Global Compact public sector, private sector and civil society partnerships for transparency; the human rights case against corruption; and communication and education programs for the prevention of corruption. Regarding the last of these topics, two panels were of particular interest. The first, a special event on “Fighting Corruption through Education,” focused on how educational initiatives can be used effectively to combat and prevent corruption. Programs developed by universities, national governments and international organizations were highlighted by speakers from Hong Kong, Macedonia, Liberia and the US, mainly with regard to anti-corruption curricula offered through universities and national and international bar associations. The panelists emphasized how the introduction of such curricula can have a tangible impact on target audience behavior and mindsets, and they also explored some of the ongoing challenges to implementing and increasing the availability of anti-corruption education at all levels. The plenary discussion focused on how all actors including government, academia and civil society can work together to increase the breadth and raise the level of anti-corruption education worldwide. More on UNODC support of anti-corruption education can be accessed through UNCAC Article 13 Public education: The engagement of children and young people. The second initiative of educational interest was a side event presented by the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) on Anti-Corruption Training and Prevention. The International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA), is a pioneering international organization begun by the UNODC, the European Anti-Fraud Office, transparency in business as well as the implementation of the UNCAC. In this session, participants examined the tenets of the initiative and its five specific requests to governments from the private sector. Key themes included the following:

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MEMBER PUBLICATIONS

MPub

The Fight Against International Terrorism: On the Legality of the Use of Armed Force

Does peacekeeping reform military organizations? Can peacekeeping socialize soldiers to become more liberalized and civilianized? Does peacekeeping improve defense and foreign policy integration?

Eric Corthay | Helbing Lichtenhahn For several decades now the international community has been witnessing a number of military operations conducted in the specific context of the fight against international terrorism, whether it be in Lebanon, Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya or also Pakistan. The use of armed force by States in their international relations is not left at their sole discretion. On the contrary, the use of force is governed by the international law and in particular by the jus contra bellum which is a legal regime consisting of a basic principle – the prohibition of the use of force in international relations – and two confirmed and recognized exceptions that are the right of self-defence and the use of force authorized by the UN Security Council. This book tackles with academic rigor and conceptual accuracy most of the thorny and controversial questions which stem from the fight against international terrorism from the standpoint of Public International Law. Through an in-depth examination of doctrinal debates, actual State practice and international jurisprudence, the author analyses the legal framework in which States must remain in order for their operations to be lawful. He also clarifies key notions and critically examines important theories, such as the gravity of an armed attack, the substantial involvement of States in the acts of non-State actors, the theory of complicity, the doctrine of anticipatory self-defence, and the delegation by the Security Council of its Chapter VII powers, to mention a few.

The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper: Civil-Military Relations and the United Nations Arturo C. Sotomayor | John Hopkins University Press The Myth of the Democratic Peacekeeper re-evaluates how United Nations peacekeeping missions reform (or fail to reform) their participating members. It investigates how such missions affect military organizations and civil-military relations as countries transition to a more democratic system. Two-thirds of the UN’s peacekeepers come from developing nations, many of which are transitioning to democracy as well. The assumption is that these “blue helmet” peacekeepers learn not only to appreciate democratic principles through their mission work but also to develop an international outlook and new ideas about conflict prevention. Arturo C. Sotomayor debunks this myth, arguing that democratic practices don’t just “rub off” on UN peacekeepers. So what, if any, benefit accrues to these troops from emerging democracies? In this richly detailed study of a decade’s worth of research (2001–2010) on Argentine, Brazilian, and Uruguayan peacekeeping participation, Sotomayor draws upon international socialization theory and civil-military relations to understand how peacekeeping efforts impact participating armed forces. He asks three questions:

His evaluation of the three countries’ involvement in the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti reinforces his final analysis—that successful democratic transitions must include a military organization open to change and a civilian leadership that exercises its oversight responsibilities.

The Opening Up of International Organizations: Transnational Access in Global Governance Jonas Tallberg, Thomas Sommerer, Theresa Squatrito, and Christer Jönsson | Cambridge University Press Once the exclusive preserve of member states, international organizations have become increasingly open in recent decades. Now virtually all international organizations at some level involve NGOs, business actors and scientific experts in policy-making. This book offers the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of this development. Combining statistical analysis and in-depth case studies, it maps and explains the openness of international organizations across issue areas, policy functions and world regions from 1950 to 2010. Addressing the question of where, how and why international organizations offer transnational actors access to global policy-making, this book has implications for critical issues in world politics. When do states share authority with private actors? What drives the design of international organizations? How do activists and businesses influence global politics? Is civil society involvement a solution to democratic deficits in global governance?

The Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect W. Andy Knight, Frazer Egerton (Eds.) | Routledge This Handbook offers a comprehensive examination of the Responsibility to Protect norm in world politics, which aims to end mass atrocities against civilians. The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is amongst the most significant norms in global politics. As the authoritative guide to R2P, this edited volume gathers together the most respected and insightful voices to address key issues related to this emerging norm. The contributing authors do this over the course of three parts: • Part I: The Concept of R2P • Part II: Developing and Operationalising R2P • Part III: The view from Over Here This book will be of much interest to students of R2P, humanitarian intervention, genocide, human rights, international law, peace studies, international organisations, security studies and IR.

Towards the Dignity of Difference? Neither ‘End of History’ nor ‘Clash of Civilizations Mojtaba Mahdavi and W. Andy Knight (Eds.) | Ashgate

Continued from previous page > the Republic of Austria, and several other stakeholders. IACA aims to address gaps in knowledge and practice in the field of anti-corruption through educating and empowering professionals. IACA offers a broad training curriculum along with an executive Master in Anti-Corruption Studies that was launched last year—the only credential of its kind currently available. Students presently participating in the program were also involved in the presentation as well as in the plenary question-and-answer session. Additional information on the academy and its various programs is available on the IACA website, http://www.iaca.int. Panels related to corporate involvement were also widely attended, largely by private sector and civil society participants. Among the first of these, a UN Global Compact event entitled, Anti-Corruption and the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Call to Action to Governments from the Private Sector, discussed the Call to Action campaign recently launched by the UN Global Compact in collaboration with Transparency International and the World Bank Institute. Call to Action is a collective action initiative to support

The rise of popular social movements throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Europe and North America in 2011 challenged two hegemonic discourses of the post-Cold War era: Francis Fukuyama’s ‘The End of History’ and Samuel Huntington’s ‘The Clash of Civilizations.’ The quest for genuine democracy and social justice and the backlash against the neoliberal order is a common theme in the global mass protests in the West and the East. This is no less than a discursive paradigm shift, a new beginning to the history, a move towards new alternatives to the status quo. This book is about difference and dialogue; it embraces The Dignity of Difference and promotes dialogue. However, it also demonstrates the limits of dialogue as a useful and universal approach for resolving conflicts, particularly in cases involving asymmetric and unequal power relations. The distinguished group of authors suggests in this volume that there is a ‘third way’ of addressing global tensions - one that rejects the extremes of both universalism and particularism. This third way is a radical call for an epistemic shift in our understanding of ‘us-other’ and ‘good-evil’, a radical approach toward accommodating difference as well as embracing the plural concept of ‘the good’. The authors strengthen their alternative approach with a practical policy guide, by challenging existing policies that either exclude or assimilate other cultures, that wage the constructed ‘global war on terror,’ and that impose a western neo-liberal discourse on non-western societies. This important book will be essential reading for all those studying civilizations, globalization, foreign policy, peace and security studies, multiculturalism and ethnicity, regionalism, global governance and international political economy.

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COMMODITY EXPORTS

Each issue of the newsletter features an article by an upcoming scholar and/or practitioner (and ACUNS member). We look forward to engaging with many more upcoming contributors from around the world in forthcoming newsletters: if you are interested to do so, please contact us with a suggested topic and a short bio note.

FEATURE STORY > KO F F I K A N G A CENTRE D’ÉTUDES DIPLOMATIQUES ET STRATÉGIQUES (CEDS), PARIS

INDUSTRIALIZATION BASED ON THE COMMODITY SECTOR for AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT Since 2010, the Sub-Saharan economy was expected to grow more quickly than the emerging economies in eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Caribbean and Latin America, North Africa and the Middle East.

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FEATURE TWO

KOFFI KANGA holds a postgraduate degree in Global Communication from the Institut International de Communication de Paris in France and a Master’s degree in International Affairs from Ecole des Hautes Etudes Internationales to Paris where he became interested and began to specialize in energy and commodities. He is currently a PhD candidate in International Relations & Diplomacy at the Centre d’Études Diplomatiques et Stratégiques, Paris, and his research focuses on economic integration, commodities and industrialization for Africa’s development.

1 Africa’s economic performance and the commodity problematic Economic activity remained strong in Sub-Saharan Africa with more than 6 percent average per capita growth in 2012 and 2013, and some countries expected to reach 10 percent growth rates. Trade between Africa and the rest of the world grew by some 200 percent between 2000 and 2013. The total gross domestic product (GDP) in Africa in 2009 was valued at about US $1.4 trillion. That figure is similar to that of ASEAN, the grouping of 10 South-East Asian Countries including Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam. But, it is much smaller than that of developing Asia and developing Latin America. This is indicative of a lower level of output in total by the 54 African countries in comparison with that of other developing regions. The total GDP per capita percentage growth rate in developed countries was 2.5 percent in 2010, 1.4 percent in 2011 and 1.4 percent in 2012 while over the same period this indicator gave respectively 7.7 percent, 5.8 percent and 4.7 percent for the Africa continent. (UNCTADstats 2013) However, this economic performance has not translated into economic diversification, commensurate job growth or faster social development. The real development of Africa remains a concern. From 2010 to 2012, in Africa, the gross enrolment ratio in secondary school was 35.6 percent (AFDB statistics 2013). This compares very poorly with economic indicators in developed countries where – despite concerns over the effects of the global financial crisis on European and American economies - the ratio of unemployment was 8.2 percent in 2012 and at least 82 percent of young people aged 25-34 have graduated from secondary school (OECD database). Africa’s regional communities, as well as Africa on a global level, must find new mechanisms to boost the economy in a manner that will lead to more far-reaching development. The commodity sector constitutes the main source of income in most of the developing countries for their foreign exchange earnings, fiscal revenues, income growth, employment creation and livelihood for over 2 billion people. Africa has one of the more important reserves of commodities in the world with about 12 percent of the world’s oil reserve, 42 percent of gold reserves, 80-90 percent of chromium and platinum group metals. African countries’ economies are heavily dependent on commodities, but at the same time derive only a relatively low income from these products. More than half of the countries in Africa derive over 80 percent of their merchandise income from commodities. Paradoxically, revenue generation in certain sectors such as coffee can be up to 90 percent in the rich consuming countries and the remaining 10 percent in the

producing countries. Under current circumstances, therefore, the increase in commodity exports remains insufficient to lead African states to their emergence and development. That highlights the fact that Africa has yet to fully exploit its economic potential, and especially its control over the resources that are (or should be) the source of its growth. The big challenge for African countries and governments now is to design and implement effective policies to promote industrialization and economic transformation.

2 Five key points for industrialization and development of Africa making best use of commodities The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and African Union Commission (AUC) in “The Economic Report on Africa 2013 Making the Most of Africa’s Commodities: Industrializing for Growth, Jobs and Economic Transformation” offered important strategies to lead Africa toward greater development. In particular, the report focused on the following key recommendations:

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To speed up and deepen value addition of local production linkages to the commodity sector and promote its industrialization, African governments must work closely with all stakeholders including representatives of research and innovation institutions, to formulate and implement coherent and coordinated industrial policy;

With government support, African firms must be inserted in regional and global value chains to be globally competitive in the main success factors such as price, quality, lead time, dynamic capabilities and compliance with technical, private and environmental standards.

This measurement also would help African countries to reduce exposure to the risk of commodity price fluctuation;

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Accelerating African regionl economic integration is essential because regional markets may offer more opportunities than global markets. The entry into the regional value chain by indigenous firms can provide them with the chance to develop their capabilities both in international markets and in African markets while making the most of their local competitive advantages;

To improve market access, African countries still must seek to put in place new and deeper trade agreements with traditional and emerging partners. Because regional markets can be important to facilitate local production linkages both within and between African countries, governments have to negotiate regional trade arrangements and foster intra-African trade.

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AM14 details and updates

AM14

KEY NOTE SP EAKER

Ambassador Ahmet Üzümcü Director-General of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: ENGAGING NEW NORMS AND EMERGING CHALLENGES

SCHEDULED EVENT

and elsewhere. He has a thorough understanding of and considerable expertise in political-military affairs, disarmament and proliferation issues. In addition to his diplomatic experience, Ambassador Üzümcü served in an international capacity as a staff member of NATO’s Political Directorate from 1989 to 1994, where he contributed to work on NATO’s Partnership for Peace initiative in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War and travelled extensively in Eastern European countries and the former USSR. As Director-General, Ambassador Uzumcu accepted the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which was awarded for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.

H.E. Mr Ahmet Üzümcü was appointed Director-General of the OPCW in December 2009 by the 14th Session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention and began his term of office on 25 July 2010. Immediately prior to this appointment he served as the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Turkey to the United Nations Office at Geneva. Ambassador Üzümcü is a career diplomat with vast experience in multilateral diplomacy. During the past decade he has represented Turkey at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Council, the Conference on Disarmament, the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva. Ambassador Üzümcü chaired the Conference on Disarmament for four weeks in March 2008 and attended various disarmament-related meetings and conferences in Geneva, Brussels

Booking information, schedules and more information can be found online at

ACUNS ANNUAL MEETING CALL FOR PAPERS - WORKSHOP PANELS

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AM14 19-21 JUNE, 2014 Kadir Has University | Istanbul, Turkey

2014 ACUNS Annual Meeting offers an opportunity for scholars and practitioners to address a number of questions concerning the health and vitality of contemporary global governance. Across broad and critical themes of global conflict and security resolution, political economy, environment and sustainable development, justice and human rights, social affairs, and multilateral diplomacy, ACUNS members and others are invited to pose their own questions of power and knowledge, agency, architecture, accountability and responsiveness; of strengths, weaknesses, and continuing gaps in global leadership at different levels; of newly emerging or declining norms, practices, and instruments; of institutional and relational adaptation or stasis.

A P P L I C AT I O N P R OCEDU R E Submissions: To submit an individual proposal or a full panel proposal, you will be required to upload full contact information, the paper/panel title(s), abstract(s) of no more than 200 words, biographical note(s) of no more than 200 words, and biographical notes of no more than 250 words.

The full text of the Call for Papers is available at acuns.org/am2014

ANNUA L MEETING TH EM E

Global Governance: Engaging New Norms and Emerging Challenges The Academic Council on the United Nations System now is accepting workshop paper and panel proposals for presentation at the 2014 Annual Meeting. Proposals on the Annual Meeting theme – “Global Governance: Engaging New Norms and Emerging Challenges” – and on the subthemes and issues raised in the introductory note, in addition to other topics relating to the UN system and the broader mandate of the Council, will be considered. Current ACUNS members in good standing (including new or newly-renewed members) will be given priority consideration for their proposals, but non-members are welcome to submit proposals. NB In order to present at the AM14 workshops, Council membership will be required: this includes all persons participating in a full panel team proposal. The deadline for uploading your proposals is Monday, April 14, 2014. QUESTIONS? > Please contact the ACUNS Secretariat at admin@acuns.org or 226.772.3121. For general questions about the Council and its activities, please contact: Dr. Alistair D. Edgar, Executive Director, ACUNS, Wilfrid Laurier University T 226.772.3167 E aedgar@wlu.ca

Proposals:

Proposals will be accepted and evaluated, and panel spaces will be allotted, on a first-come rolling basis subsequent to the issuance of this Call. Once all panel spaces have been filled, a waiting list will be established for any subsequent proposals that are received.

Registration: Once your proposal is accepted you are required to register for the 2014 Annual Meeting at acuns.org/am2014

DEADLINE Registration Fees are available online EXTENSION at acuns.org We will be filling workshops on a rolling basis. Once all spaces are filled there will be a waiting list for spaces.

A C U N S S E C R E T A R I A T > Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 > T 226.772.3121 > F 226.772.3004

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GLOBAL AND INTERNATIONAL IMPACTS OF CORRUPTION

OLD STATES – NEW WORLD Continued from page 4 >

Continued from page 6 > a description of the Call to Action campaign and its intended impact; reasons for business calling on governments to integrate anti-corruption and good governance into the Post-2015 Development Agenda; implications for business and the added value of signing on to the Call to Action; and the integration of anti-corruption and good governance in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Speakers included representatives from the UN Global Compact, UNODC, the UN Office for Project Services, the World Bank Institute, Latham & Watkins law firm and Transparency International.

During the course of the weeklong conference, six resolutions and three decisions were passed on issues related to the private sector, education, and enhancing international cooperation. To raise awareness of this event, call attention to the anti-corruption issue and promote pertinent best practices, UNODC recently published a handbook, “The United Nations Convention against Corruption: A Strategy for Safeguarding against Corruption in Major Public Events,” which uses the UNCAC as the basis for promotion of accountability and transparency in large-scale public arenas. Relevant policies and practices include the adoption of specific legislation to support the issue; the creation of specialized agencies in charge of anti-corruption oversight; and the monitoring of funds flows, particularly for new constructions, infrastructure development and security operations. In 2015, the Conference of States Parties to the Convention will launch the second review cycle of the UNCAC at the Sixth Session of the Conference that will be held in Russia.

Another side event in the area of security featured the NATO Building Integrity Program in Defense. It presented the NATO effort to promote good practices and reduce risk of corruption in global defense and security activity. The panel of NATO and national representatives provided an overview of the corresponding NATO tools and activities, including various related to education and training. Plenary discussion focused on how this initiative’s tools have been used to strengthen transparency, accountability and integrity in the security sectors worldwide.

* Nanette Svenson has 20 years of professional experience in international development, academia and the private sector. She works as an Adjunct Professor of Florida State University and independent consultant for the United Nations and other organizations involved in capacity development, particularly of higher education. She is also a member of the ACUNS Board of Directors.

QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER Issue 1 > 2014 Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS) Quarterly Newsletter is published four times a year with the support of the Department of Communications, Public Affairs & Marketing (CPAM) at Wilfrid Laurier University.

INDUSTRIALIZATION BASED ON THE COMMODITY SECTOR FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT

AC U N S S E C R E TA R I AT Wilfrid Laurier University 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3C5

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T > 226.772.3142 F > 226.772.3004

Publisher: Alistair Edgar Executive Director, ACUNS Editor: Brenda Burns Co-ordinator, ACUNS Contributing Writers: Wendelin Ettmayer, Koffi Kanga, Nanette Svenson, Alistair Edgar, Brenda Burns Design: Dawn Wharnsby, CPAM

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Deficits of modern infrastructure (both hard such as transportation and communications, and soft such as business-friendly regulatory franeworks, and skilled labour) must be addressed through strategic investments undertaken in a wider context.

Industrialization led by the commodities sector is not the sole way of achieving African development, nor the development even of individual commodites-rich countries whose natural commodities reserves are not inexhaustible. And such commodities-based development as does take place, should be informed by a broad range of considerations including environmental sustainability and human security. But the commodities sector can and should provide much more opportunity for African states than it currently does, while African governments also must overcome their many political rivalries and differences in order to exercise greater influence on the shaping of the global economy.

Imagery: iStockphoto.com Send address changes and feedback to: Andrew Koltun, Administrative Assistant, ACUNS E > akoltun@acuns.org T > 226.772.3121 We welcome and encourage your feedback. Opinions expressed in ACUNS Quarterly Newsletter do not necessarily reflect those of the editor, ACUNS or the host institution. © ACUNS 2014. All rights reserved.

* Koffi Kanga is a PhD Candidate in International Relations & Diplomacy at the Centre d’Études Diplomatiques et Stratégiques, Paris

A C U N S Q UA R T E R LY N E W S L E T T E R

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ISSUE 1

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2014

3. WHAT IS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY?

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henever a natural disaster strikes, human rights are violated, or the need arises to restore peace in some corner of the world, much is said about the international community. The concept of the international community is a blend between an occasional reflection of reality and much wishful thinking. In this context, three problems arise: • it is not clear exactly who constitutes the international community • the international organizations that were created after World War II, including the United Nations, are outdated and in urgent need of reform; and • the United States as the leading nation of the international community too often acts unilaterally e.g. on matters relating to the protection of the environment or the International Criminal Court. The “international community” offers assistance, be it in the fight against hunger or HIV/AIDS, a crisis in Haiti, or a tsunami in Asia. In some cases, the international community has taken steps to protect peace and security from dictators, to stop civilian suffering, or to terminate civil wars. New standards have been introduced, albeit not always in a coherent way. Peacekeeping, peace-making, peace-building, and nation-building have become endeavors pursued by the international community, but there is still a significant discrepancy between theory and practice. What can be done to overcome the fact that national institutions are still the key players when it comes to solve global problems? • The system of international organizations must be updated: since the Spanish War of Succession (Utrecht, 1713), a new international order was established after every world conflict. This was not the case after the Cold War, however; the International Organizations established after the Second World War cannot live up to the new challenges anymore. • We need new, global political guidelines to tame the economic forces of globalization: as the welfare state has successfully used the dynamics of Manchester Capitalism in order to promote the welfare of the majority of people, global governance is necessary to align the dynamics of global capitalism with the overall wellbeing of citizens. • We have to say farewell to long-cherished notions, such as the national economy, national security, and national interests. They no longer exist. After all, even our national soccer teams now take a multinational approach. * Wendelin Ettmayer is the former Austrian Ambassador to Finland, Canada and at the Council of Europe

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ACUNS Newsletter, No. 1, 2014