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Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine

A Practical Guide for Researchers and Clinicians Mary Christopher & Karen Young


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Wiley-Blackwell Journals in Veterinary Medicine 401-405

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AnAtomiA HistologiA EmbryologiA

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Companion Animal

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Anatomia Histologia

The Journal for the Veterinar y Surgeon in General Practice www.ukvet.co.uk

Volume 15 No 3 April2010

Embryologia

401-405

401-405

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Edited by:

Fred sinowatz robert Henry Paul simoens

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online version is available at cience.wiley.com/journal/ahe

World Association of Veterinary Anatomists Association Mondiale des Anatomistes Vétérinaires Weltvereinigung der Veterinäranatomen Asociación Mundial de Anatomistas Veterinarios

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C. J.Wang; B. M.Tas;T. Glindemann; K. Mueller; A. Schiborra; P. Schoenbach; M. Gierus; F.Taube; A. Susenbeth Rotational and continuous grazing of sheep in the Inner Mongolian steppe of China

253-262

T. Mushtaq; M. Sarwar; G. Ahmad; M. A. Mirza;T. Ahmad; M. Athar; M. M. H. Mushtaq; U. Noreen Influence of pre-press solvent-extracted cottonseed meal supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance,digestibility,carcass and immunity responses of broiler chickens

263-270

H. Fetoui; M. Garoui; N. Zeghal Protein restriction in pregnant- and lactating rats-induced oxidative stress and hypohomocysteinaemia in their offspring

271-276

C. L. Fan; X.Y. Han; Z. R. Xu; L. J.Wang; L. R. Shi Effects of β-glucanase and xylanase supplementation on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activities of weaned piglets fed a barley-based diet

CONTENTS SCIENTIFIC PAPERS

AND

Volume 20 • Number 2 • April 2010

264

207

Multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir in horses and ponies: B. Garré, K. Baert, H. Nauwynck, P. Deprez, P. De Backer & S. Croubels

213

Pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in dogs after oral administration of cimetidine tablets: G. Le Traon, S. Burgaud & L. J. I. Horspool

219

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration of orbifloxacin in Korean Hanwoo cattle: G. Elias, J.-S. Lee, M.-H. Hwang, Y.-S. Park, K.-H. Cho, Y.-H. Kim & S.-C. Park

Characterization of bradykinin-induced endothelium-independent contraction in equine basilar artery: D. Ueno, A. Yabuki, T. Obi, M. Shiraishi, A. Nishio & A. Miyamoto Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in Kentucky: L. Dirikolu, W. E. Woods, J. Boyles J, A. F. Lehner, J. D. Harkins, M. Fisher, D. J. Schaeffer & T. Tobin Detection, quantifications and pharmacokinetics of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril®) in cattle: L. Dirikolu, R. Yohn, E. F. Garrett, T. Chakkath & D. C. Ferguson

289

Kinetics and residues after intraperitoneal procaine penicillin G administration in lactating dairy cows: A. L. Chicoine, J. O. Boison, S. Parker, C. Clark & P. M. Dowling

229

Dispositions and residue depletion of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in muscle tissue of giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ): A. Poapolathep, U. Jermnak, A. Chareonsan, C. Sakulthaew, N. Klangkaew, T. Sukasem & S. Kumagai

235

Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after single dose intravenous and oral administration to alpacas: H. M. Chan, S. H. Duran, P. H. Walz & W. R. Ravis

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS 296

Pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in male camels (Camelus dromedarius): A. Goudah

Influence of administration route on the biotransformation of amoxicillin in the pig: T. Reyns, S. De Boever, S. Schauvliege, F. Gasthuys, G. Meissonnier, I. Oswald, P. De Backer & S. Croubels

300

Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of lidocaine in cattle after intranasal administration during rhinotracheobronchoscopy: A. M. Dadak, S. Franz, W. Jäger, A. Tichy, W. Baumgartner & M. Mosing

303

Animal safety report on intravaginal progesterone controlled internal drug releasing devices in sheep and goats: J. D. Rowe, L. A. Tell & D. C. Wagner

306

Pharmacokinetic behaviour of perphenazine in sheep after intramuscular administration of a long-acting formulation: C. Pedernera-Romano, J. L. Ruiz-De-La-Torre, G. Castells, X. Manteca & C. Cristòfol

In this issue:

Amiodarone Toxicity in Dobermans 241

Canine Hepatitis

271

280

Tissue Doppler in Maine Coon Cats 249 Bioavailability of veterinary drugs in vivo and in silico: T. Grabowski & J. J. Jaroszewski Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim Cryopreservation of 258 Canine Platelets

following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration in ostriches (Struthio camelus):

Adjuvant Pamidronate for E. A.Osteosarcoma Abu-Basha, R. Gehring, T. M. Hantash, A. F. Al-Shunnaq & N. M. Idkaidek Bone Pain Calprotectin in Equine Laminitis Streptococcus zooepidemicus in Alpacas

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Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Including veterinary toxicology An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacology in Veterinary Medicine Edited by Jim Riviere and Johanna Fink-Gremmels

THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF:

ISSN 0140-7783 (paper)

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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics is covered in Current Contents (AB & ES), Science Citation Index, Index Medicus, Index Veterinarius, FO:VM, SIIC Data Bases

Vol. 23, No. 1

Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care Society American College of Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care European Veterinary Emergency & Critical Care Society

Platelet activation in IMHA Feline paediatrics0OSTSURGERYINCLUDINGDENTALPROCEDURES s#HRONICILLNESSLIKEDIABETESORRENALDISEASE oncology Myelography or MR imaging? s'ERIATRICPATIENTS

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245-252

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volume 32

N. M. Soren;V. R. B. Sastry; S. K. Saha; U. D.Wankhade; M. H. Lade; A. Kumar Performance of growing lambs fed processed karanj (Pongamia glabra) oil seed cake as partial protein supplement to soybean meal

O F

Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

J O U R N A L O F Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

237-244

van der Werf, J. H. J. ht and wool production

Official journal of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition American Academy of Veterinary Nutrition

Effect of several doses of zeolite A on feed intake,energy metabolism and on mineral metabolism in dairy cows around calving

Page 1

January/February 2009 • Vol. 23, No. 1 J O U R N A L

[ volume 32 | number 3 | june 2009 ]

JOURNAL OF VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE

221-236

Journal of

Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

Veterinary Emergency Critical Care

Volume 20 • Number 2 • April 2010 • Pages 167–282

209-220

Subject Editors Georg Erhardt, Gießen S.Van Weyenberg; J. Buyse; G. P. J. Janssens Ignacy Misztal, Athens is associated with an enhanced glucose Increased plasma leptin through L-carnitine supplementation tolerance in healthy ponies Lawrence R. Schaeffer, Guelph J. Hummel; K.-H. Südekum; D. Bayer; S. Ortmann;W. J. Streich; J.-M. Hatt; M. Clauss Physical characteristics of reticuloruminal contentsHenner of oxen in relation to forage type and time after Simianer, Göttingen feeding H. Grabherr; M. Spolders; M. Fürll; G. Flachowsky Julius van der Werf, Armidale

The Official Jour nal of the BSAVA and WSAVA

Volume 51 (6), June 2010 pages 293–358

203-208

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Executive Editor Asko Mäki-Tanila, Jokioinen

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JOURNAL OF SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE

April 2009 • Volume 93 (2) • 141–276

JOURNAL OF

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

B. D. Lambert; C. M. Dobson; N. M. Cherry; M. G. Sanderford Chemical form of dietary L-Carnitine affects plasma but not tissue Carnitine concentrations in male Sprague–Dawley rats

N.T. Len;T.T.T. Hong; B. Ogle; J. E. Lindberg Comparison of total tract digestibility,development of visceral organs and digestive tract of Mong cai and Yorkshire x Landrace piglets fed diets with different fibre sources E. S´liwa; P. Dobrowolski; M. R.Tatara;T. Piersiak; A. Siwicki; E. Rokita; S. G. Pierzynowski Alpha-ketoglutarate protects the liver of piglets exposed during prenatal life to chronic excess of dexamethasone from metabolic and structural changes

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F. Bovera; S. D’Urso; C. D. Meo; R.Tudisco; A. Nizza A model to assess the use of caecal and faecal inocula to study fermentability of nutrients in rabbit

A. O. Ani; A. U. Okorie Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean (Ricinus communis L) meal

165-173

192-202

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Abstracts

157-164

April 2009 • Volume 93 (2) • 141–276

141-146 147-156

effects(3) of short exercise on plasma free amino acids in standardbred trotters June 2008 • VolumeThe125 • intensive 145–216

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April 2009 • Volume 93 (2) • 141–276

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June 2008 • Volume 125 (3) • 145–216

Mäntysaari, E. A. ers in Finnish Yorkshire

Cover Background Image © Getty Images

Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics

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Brazilian Association of Veterinary Oncology

Contents

1. Procedures In the Adult Horse 2. Procedures in the Neonatal Foal 3. Hospital Design and Organisation 4. Anaesthesia 5. Nutritional Management of the Hospitalised Horse 6. Common Treatments 7. Common Problems Encountered in the Hospitalised Horse 8. Monitoring and Treating the Coagulation System 9. Monitoring and Treating the Cardiovascular System 10. Monitoring and Treating the Respiratory System 11. Monitoring and Treating the Gastrointestinal System 12. Monitoring and Treating the Liver 13. Monitoring and Treating the Urogenital System 14. Monitoring and Treating the Neurological System 15. Monitoring and Treating Common Musculoskeletal Problems in Hospitalised Horses 16. Management of Horses with Problems of the Integument 17. Monitoring and Treatment of Eyes 18. Physiotherapy

W I L E Y- B L A C K W E L L

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Kevin Corley and Jennifer Stephen are both based at Anglesey Lodge Equine Hospital, Republic of Ireland. Kevin was formerly a Lecturer in Equine Medicine and Critical Care, and Head of the Neonatal Foal Intensive Care Programme, at the Royal Veterinary College, London. He is an RCVS Recognised Specialist in Equine Medicine (Internal Medicine) and diplomate of both the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. He is widely published in equine internal medicine and critical care, and has spoken at a range of international conferences.

Front Cover

The Official Journal of the Veterinary Cancer Society Japanese Veterinary Cancer Society European Society of Veterinary Oncology British Veterinary Oncology Study Group

Edited by K. W. Clarke and P. Pascoe

Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (top left), cytologic (top right) and histologic (bottom left) images of canine meningioma. The images were graciously provided by Drs Eric Wisner, Mary Christopher and Stephen Griffey, University of California, Davis.

Brazilian Association of Veterinary Oncology

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European College of Veterinary Dermatology American Academy of Veterinary Dermatology Chapter of Veterinary Dermatology of the Australian College of Veterinary

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL http://www.interscience.wiley.com /journal/vde

Scientists Canadian Academy of Veterinary

Dermatology

Editor in Chief AIDEN FOSTER

BCR-ABL translocation in canine CMoL

Co-Editors KAREN MORIELLO TIM NUTTALL LLUÍS FERRER

Don’t miss this opportunity:

Species-optimized ELISA for canine insulin Cytologic LN patterns in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis

IN THIS ISSUE

World-renowned Speakers Exceptional Roundtable Topics Informative Poster Displays Industry Exhibitors Lively Receptions

Paraneoplastic leukocytosis and renal carcinoma in a dog

Evidence-based veterinary dermatology Interventions for atopic dermatitis in dogs Canine atopic dermatitis diagnosis Hydrolysates in dogs with skin food reactions

In addition, Portland is “foot friendly” and was recently named among the Top 10 American Walking Cities by Walking Magazine.

Low-dose rCaIFN-g in canine AD EFF1001 therapy in atopic dogs Storage mites grown on dog food Quality of life and canine AD Effect of a steroid spray on intradermal testing

For additional details, consult the website

Volume 40 | Number 1 | March 2011

Transmission electron microscopy studies of AD TEWL in house dust mite-sensitized atopic beagle dogs

www.navdf.org

Best Big City

An International Journal of Clinical and Investigative Ophthalmology

Extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the equine orbit: six cases

Ocular disease associated with canine herpesvirus-1 outbreak in a closed dog colony

M A R Y

Phytopica™ in canine atopic dermatitis Storage mites and canine atopic dermatitis

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V O L U M E

T O R R E N C E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ORIGINAL ARTICLES U. GONLUGUR, S. OZCELIK, T. E. GONLUGUR, S. ARICI, A. CELIKSOZ, S. ELAGOZ, R. CEVIT The Retrospective Annual Surgical Incidence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sivas, Turkey

209—214

A. FRANCO, S. LOVARI, G. CORDARO, P. DI MATTEO, L. SORBARA, M. IURESCIA, V. DONATI, C. BUCCELLA, A. BATTISTI Prevalence and Concentration of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Adult Sheep at Slaughter from Italy

215—220

L. NISHI, M. L. BAESSO, R. G. SANTANA, P. FREGADOLLI, D. L. M. FALAVIGNA, A. L. FALAVIGNA-GUILHERME Investigation of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a Public Water-Treatment System

221—228

E. P. MORATO, L. LEOMIL, L. BEUTIN, G. KRAUSE, R. A. MOURA, A. F. PESTANA DE CASTRO Domestic Cats Constitute a Natural Reservoir of Human Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Types

229—237

K. PEDERSEN, A.-M. LASSEN-NIELSEN, S. NORDENTOFT, A. S. HAMMER Serovars of Salmonella from captive reptiles

238—242

M. V. PALMER, T. C. THACKER, W. R. WATERS Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strains Danish and Pasteur in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Experimentally Challenged with Mycobacterium bovis

243—251

Special Issue: The Canine Stifle Joint

Fatty acids and canine mononuclear cells Predispositions in canine atopy

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Zoonoses AND PUBLIC HEALTH E D I T O R :

M A RY

T O R R E N C E

The Official Journal of SHORT COMMUNICATION the american college of veterinary surgeons

The official journal of the following organizations:

S. SOUSA, G. THOMPSON, E. SILVA, L. FREIRE, D. LOPES,

andJ.the european college of veterinary surgeons M. CORREIA DA COSTA, A. CASTRO, J. CARVALHEIRA,

American College of Veterinary Radiology www.acvr.org

European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging www.vet.gla.ac.uk/EVDI/evdi.html

European Association of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging www.vet.gla.ac.uk/EVDI/evdi.html

N. CANADA Determination of the More Adequate Modified Agglutination Test Cut-off for Serodiagnosis E C V S of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sheep

O

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The cornea of Guinea pig: structural and functional studies

E D I T O R :

OPEAN

Feline entropion: a case series of fifty affected animals (2003–2008)

october 2010

veterinary AND PUBLIC HEALTH surgery

JUNE 2009 • 209-256

Immunohistochemical detection of NOD1 and NOD2 in the healthy murine and canine eye

Zoonoses volume 39, number 8

VOLUME 50 • NUMBER 2 MARCH/APRIL 2009

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound

EUR

The canine lens – cataract and lens luxation

Dermatology

ISSN 0959–4493 (paper) ISSN 1365–3164 (online)

Veterinary Dermatology

Asian Society of Veterinary

Blood smear interpretation by ER personnel

VOL. 56 (5) •

Feeding behaviours

European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists American Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology European Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology Canadian Association of Veterinary Ophthalmology International Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology Italian Society of Veterinary Ophthalmology British Association of Veterinary Ophthalmologists Latin American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists The German Eye Panel – DOK Veterinary Ophthalmology Chapter, Australian College of Veterinary Scientists SFEROV: Société Française d’Etudes et de Recherches en Ophtalmologie Vétérinaire

Veterinary Ophthalmology

VOLUME 50 • NUMBER 2 • MARCH/APRIL 2009 • PAGES 135–242

Managing the difficult diabetic patient

The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists

American College of Veterinary

Z O O N O S E S A N D P U B L I C H E A LT H

Veterinary Ophthalmology Volume 12 Number 4 2009 205–276

January 2011 • Volume 26

Volume 12 Number 4 2009

Dermatology

Page 1

VETERINARY RADIOLOGY & ULTRASOUND

ISSN 1463-5216 (paper) ISSN 1463-5224 (online)

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The Official Journal of the: European Society of Veterinary

Dermatology

Oxidant and antioxidant profiles in ewes with pregnancy toxemia

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Running rabbit clinics

B. E. Powers and D. A. Kamstock F. Y. Schulman, T. P. Lipscomb, D. A. Gamble, D. Kamstock, C. Halsey and B. Powers

Cryptococcosis

Editors David Argyle David Vail

S

About the editors

The official journal of Efficacy of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for non-resectable canine the Association of Veterinary221 Anaesthetists subcutaneous haemangiosarcoma the American College of Veterinary J. L.Anesthesiologists Wiley, K. A. Rook, C. A. Clifford, T. P. Gregor and K. U. Sorenmo the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia Letter to the Editor the International of Pain Management Indexed/abstracted by: CAB Veterinary Academy 234 Letters to the editor and rebuttal regarding the paper recently published in theCAB Veterinary Society Abstracts and Health, Technician Anaesthesia Veterinary and Comparative Oncology, `Feline intestinal sclerosing mast and the Service Academy of Veterinary Technician Chemical Abstracts cell tumour: 50Anaesthetists cases (1997–2008) 2010; 8: 72–79’ by C. H. C. Halsey,

An International Journal of Laboratory Medicine

IN THIS ISSUE:

N

Reflecting the substantial trend in recent years to treat horses in a hospital rather than in the field, this book provides all you need to know whether you have facilities to treat one or one hundred horses.

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) enhances mast cell tumour chemotherapy and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity in vitro and has single-agent activity against spontaneously occurring canine mast cell tumours E. K. Malone, K. M. Rassnick, J. J. Wakshlag, D. S. Russell, R. Al-Sarraf, D. M. Ruslander, C. S. Johnson and D. L. Trump

International Veterinary Radiology Association www.acvr.org/ivra/index.html

Y SURGEO

Fluid therapy – choices, amounts and pitfalls Anaesthesia – equipment, techniques and post-operative care including analgesia

Outcome and toxicity associated with a dose-intensified, maintenance-free CHOP-based chemotherapy protocol in canine lymphoma: 130 cases K. Sorenmo, B. Overley, E. Krick, T. Ferrara, A. LaBlanc and F. Shofer

209

Volume 21 Number 1 February 2010

252—256

AR

Therapeutic drugs used in horses and their doses Nutrition for hospital patients, including TPN and PPN

Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for the treatment of canine lymphoma: a randomized, placebo-controlled study J. C. Lori, T. J. Stein and D. H. Thamm

196

Veterinary Clinical Pathology

Veterinary Dermatology Volume 21 Number 1 February 2010

Designing and setting up an equine hospital Biosecurity

6/18/09

European Society of Veterinary Oncology British Veterinary Oncology Study Group

E D I T O R - I N - C H I E F : PA U L K I T C H I N G

Advanced skills including mechanical ventilation, lung biopsy and cardiac output measurement

188

The Official Journal of the Veterinary Cancer Society

Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

Volume 40 | Number 1 | March 2011 | Pages 1–116

Coverage includes:

Pathology and Viral Distributions of the Porcinophilic Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Strain (O/Taiwan/97) in Experimentally Infected Pigs

Editors David Argyle David Vail

Japanese Veterinary Cancer Society

Emerging Diseases

An Investigation into the First Outbreak of African Swine Fever in the Republic of Mauritius 189 Lee, S.-H., Jong, M.-H., Huang, T.-S., Lin, Y.-L., Wong, M.-L., Liu, C.-I. & Chang, T.-J.

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Transboundary and Basic skills including physical examination, blood collection, and bandaging

178 Lubisi, B. A., Dwarka, R. M., Meenowa, D. & Jaumally, R.

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Veterinary Clinical Pathology

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Bluetongue Virus Detection by Real-Time RT-PCR in Culicoides Captured During the 2006 Epizootic in Belgium and Development of an Internal Control

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170 Vanbinst, T., Vandenbussche, F., Vandemeulebroucke, E., De Leeuw, I., Deblauwe, I., De Deken, G., Madder, M., Haubruge, E., Losson, B. & De Clercq, K.

N U M B E R

Volume 36 • Number 4 • July 2009

JUNE 2009 • 157-202

Recent Spread of a New Strain (A-Iran-05) of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Type A in the Middle East

The must-have resource drawing together all aspects of hospital care of the horse and specialist techniques in equine medicine. Written by a team of over 30 international experts working at the cutting edge of equine medicine and surgery. The emphasis is on practical, easy-to-access information, with a sound basis in evidence based medicine and full references for further enquiry. The Equine Hospital Manual covers the range of procedures used on hospitalized adult horses and foals from the simple to the advanced. The book is liberally illustrated with photographs and line drawings.

Volume 8 • Number 3 September 2010

Pages 163–242

VOL. 56 (5) •

157 Knowles, N. J., Nazem Shirazi, M. H., Wadsworth, J., Swabey, K. G., Stirling, J. M., Statham, R. J., Li, Y., Hutchings, G. H., Ferris, N. P., Parlak, Ü., Özyörük, F., Sumption, K. J., King, D. P. & Paton, D. J.

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Edited by Kevin Corley and Jennifer Stephen

Publication Date: June 2008 Price: UK: £69.99 US: $139.99

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Volume 8 • Number 3 • September 2010

EVDO I T LOUR :M ME A R5Y 6 T O• R R N E NUCM E

THE EQUINE HOSPITAL MANUAL

Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia

Emerging Diseases

NEW FROM WILEY-BLACKWELL

Total-pages:

Veterinary and Comparative Oncology

T R A NS BO U ND A RY A ND EMER G I NG D I S EA S ES

Transboundary and

12/28/2009

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Contents Volume 36 and • Number 4 • July 2009 • ISSN: 1467-2987 Veterinary Review Article Comparativeinterscience.wiley.com/journal/vaa 163 PET/CT today and tomorrow in veterinary cancer diagnosis and monitoring: fundamentals, early results and future perspectives Oncology J. Lawrence, E. Rohren and J. Provenzale

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Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound is indexed by the National Library of Medicine with citations appearing in Medline

© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

BVNA

www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/vsu Print ISSN: 1863-1959 Online ISSN: 1863-2378

An online version is available at interscience.wiley.com/journal/zph

wileyonlinelibrary.com/ subject/veterinary


CONTENTS 1.

INTRODUCTION ....................................................2

2.

A GOOD MANUSCRIPT STARTS WITH GOOD SCIENCE.....................................................3 Developing a research question ..............................3 Study design and data analysis ...............................3 Anticipating potential problems and future applications .............................................................4 Reporting guidelines ...............................................4

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Determining authorship ..........................................9 Guidelines for authors ........................................... 10 Organizing and writing your manuscript (AIMRaD) .............................................................. 10 Title and key words .......................................... 11 Abstract............................................................ 11 Introduction ...................................................... 11 Materials and methods .................................... 11 Results ............................................................. 12 Discussion........................................................ 12 References ....................................................... 13 Tables and figures ............................................ 13 Appendices and supplemental material ........... 14 Acknowledgments and disclosures ................. 14 6.

PUBLICATION ETHICS ........................................22 Inappropriate reproduction of original work ..........22 Plagiarism.........................................................22 Duplicate (redundant) publication.....................22 Copyright..........................................................22 Research integrity: fabrication or falsification of data and images ....................................................22 Disclosure and transparency .................................23 Ethical use of animals in research .........................23

SELECTING A JOURNAL ......................................6

WRITING YOUR ARTICLE ......................................9

UNDERSTANDING THE PEER REVIEW AND EDITORIAL PROCESSES .....................................20 Purpose and types of peer review ........................20 Responding to reviewer comments ......................20 Working with journal editors .................................20 Handling a negative decision ................................21 After acceptance: editing and page proofs ...........21 After publication ....................................................21

Journal aims and scope ..........................................6 The target audience ................................................6 Indexing and accessibility .......................................6 Impact factor and related metrics ...........................7 Time to publication..................................................7 Publication costs .....................................................7 5.

SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT ...................18 First impressions count! .......................................18 Online submission ................................................18 Submitting digital images ......................................18 Cover letters and corresponding authors ..............18

TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES.........................5 Full-length original research articles ........................5 Brief communications and technical reports ...........5 Case reports............................................................5 Review articles ........................................................5 Letters to the editor ................................................5 Research abstracts..................................................5

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THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING ......24

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SELECTED RESOURCES .....................................24

WRITING (IN ENGLISH) FOR READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION .............................................. 16 Be concise and precise ......................................... 16 Choose your voice................................................. 16 Tense, grammar, and punctuation ......................... 16 Pre-review for language ........................................ 17

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1. INTRODUCTION Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine is designed to help residents, graduate students, and early-career faculty in veterinary medicine gain independence and confidence in writing and publishing scientific articles. Writing and publishing, the final steps in the scientific method, take place within the global community of authors, reviewers, editors, and readers. By explaining your work to others in the public forum of a peer-reviewed international journal, your research becomes part of the scientific record and contributes to the advancement of knowledge. Despite its essential role in the research enterprise, scientific writing rarely is taught explicitly in veterinary or graduate curricula. Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine is intended to help fill this gap by helping you plan, organize, write, submit, and publish your work. Why publish? Your research and clinical observations are important. In addition to disseminating knowledge, scientific articles promote thought and debate, change practice, and stimulate future research. In academia, publication is essential for career advancement because it documents research quality, productivity, and accountability. Scientific articles also assign credit for the first publication of original results. If your work remains unpublished, who will know that you did it? How are writing and publishing in veterinary medicine different than in other disciplines? In many ways they’re not; however, Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine aims to add relevance to existing resources by using examples from clinical and diagnostic veterinary research, focusing on veterinary journals, and emphasizing terminology and professional practices pertinent to veterinary medicine. It is important to remember that English is the primary language of science. This can present a barrier for authors in many parts of the world, but writing well in English is a challenge faced by native and non-native speakers alike. We cannot over-emphasize the importance of submitting a well-written manuscript, and we offer guidance on writing in a clear and understandable style. We hope this publication will enhance your writing experience and lead to articles that reflect your experience as a writer and a veterinarian. We gratefully acknowledge the valuable role mentors and peers have played in our own writing and publishing and hope Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine contributes in an important way to yours.

Mary Christopher University of California–Davis Karen Young University of Wisconsin–Madison

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2. A GOOD MANUSCRIPT STARTS WITH GOOD SCIENCE The rationale and hypothesis, study design and data analysis, anticipated results, and strengths and limitations of a research study roughly parallel the introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of a manuscript. Thus, from the conception of a project the framework for a manuscript is born. The effort spent in planning a study or clinical report is the best investment you can make in laying the groundwork for reporting: a well-written manuscript cannot compensate for poor study design or conclusions not supported by the evidence. As you plan your study, eye it critically through the lens of a future peer reviewer, and make adjustments accordingly.

Developing a Research Question A research study usually is initiated in the form of a question: Why does hemolysis occur? Is this new anthelminthic effective? Which surgical procedure is better for correcting patellar luxation? Research questions are stimulated by clinical experience, discussions with colleagues, a reading of the literature, and previous research findings. Learning to ask questions means learning to think critically and creatively, to question assumptions, and to develop the scientific curiosity to probe deeper. A good research question should have a strong rationale or justification for pursuit: it should fill a gap in existing knowledge, be relevant and important, and for many research studies lead to a hypothesis that can be tested. Familiarity with the literature is essential to avoid simply repeating work without expanding, challenging,

or improving it. A hypothesis forms the cornerstone of a research study; it is what you postulate to be true. Specific aims define the exact steps you will take to gather information that will prove or disprove the hypothesis.

Study Design and Data Analysis Your study design must be appropriate for answering the research question. Prospective, retrospective, and descriptive study designs, as well as randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and other types of studies, approach a problem in different ways; each has strengths and limitations. • Will your study involve clinical patients or experimental animals? In either instance, institutional approval processes for the ethical and humane use of animals in research is essential. • How will variables such as time, treatment, and underlying disease be handled, and what is the necessary sample size? Consult a statistician on appropriate statistical methods and do a power analysis to estimate sample size. • What types of specimens and measurements will you use, and are the analytical methods valid and precise? Consult methodology experts to find out. Once your draft is completed, ask your colleagues for additional input and ideas and for help in identifying any potential flaws. Now is the time to adjust your study design!

Planning a Study

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Anticipating Potential Problems and Future Applications Although the results of a study cannot be predicted, anticipating potential outcomes and problems to the extent possible will help you develop contingency plans and procedures to address them prior to beginning the study. For example, if you plan to enroll 50 horses in a prospective study over a one-year period, what will you do if this number falls short and how will your analysis be affected? What is the expected or potential impact on the results of using serum samples that have been stored frozen for a year? All studies have limitations, but it is important to ensure the limitations will not substantially affect the quality and interpretation of results or the validity of the conclusions. On the positive side, keep in mind the strengths of your study and how the expected outcomes could have practical applications for veterinary practice and important implications for animal and human health.

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Reporting Guidelines Consult reporting guidelines prior to beginning your study. This will help ensure that the planning and implementation of your study design include key elements that are essential in the reporting process. Reporting guidelines include checklists, flowcharts, and procedures developed by panels of experts to help document and validate certain types of studies. Reporting guidelines that may be relevant to veterinary research include: • CONSORT for clinical trials • REFLECT for clinical trials involving food animals • STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy • ARRIVE for studies involving animal experimentation With the exception of REFLECT, reporting guidelines were developed for medical research, and only a few veterinary journals have formally adopted them. However, the key principles are relevant and the guidelines serve as a template and valuable reminder of what constitutes accurate, unbiased, and complete reporting.

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3. TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES Original peer-reviewed research and clinical observations can be communicated in full-length articles, brief communications, and case reports. Journals also publish review articles, editorials, letters, consensus papers, research abstracts, and special features that may or may not be peer-reviewed. Not all journals define articles in the same way, so check your target journal for guidance. • Full-length original research articles follow a standard format that is the prototype for scientific writing. Although length may vary, original articles should have a clear major focus and contribute substantive new information. Don’t divide your study into many small papers that fragment the literature, making interpretation of the study’s overall importance more difficult for readers. • Brief communications describe limited or preliminary original research and are appropriate when the amount of new information does not warrant a full-length article, for example, to convey the results of a pilot study. Because they are short, brief communications are typically less structured than full-length articles. Technical reports call attention to a focused method, software program, or other technical application or procedure. • Case reports describe a single case or series of cases. They document rare, unique, or previously unreported conditions or findings, novel diagnostic or therapeutic approaches, or new disease patterns. They sometimes include in vitro investigations but are less structured than research articles. Some journals no longer publish case reports because they have limited utility and are cited less often than original articles. However, a welldocumented case can be useful to those in clinical practice and can help hone clinical investigative skills.

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• Review articles use comprehensive analysis and the citation of original research to critically synthesize and organize knowledge on a contemporary topic. A good review conveys the current status of research in a field and stimulates new ways of thinking about a subject. Systematic reviews use a defined objective approach to search and assess the literature on a single research question, sometimes through meta-analysis, and are important in evidence-based medicine. • Letters to the editor are written in response to a previously published article or may report an observation or raise an issue relevant to readers; most editors-in-chief welcome them. Letters are indexed and citable and provide an important public forum for discussion of divergent views. Editors reserve the right to publish or reject a letter based on content and professional presentation. • Research abstracts summarize data from oral or poster presentations at a scientific meeting. Abstracts sometimes are peer-reviewed and are an important way to share new results. Research described in an abstract is considered preliminary work intended for eventual publication as a research article (although this does not always occur). A research study often is part of a graduate student thesis or dissertation. Because dissertations usually have limited distribution, publication of peer-reviewed journal articles based on dissertation research is an important way to disseminate your findings. In fact, at many universities a dissertation consists of a series of individual manuscripts or published articles.

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4. SELECTING A JOURNAL To guide the approach, format, and style of your manuscript, select a journal before you begin to write. The large number of veterinary journals gives you plenty of options. Publishing in a variety of journals demonstrates the relevance of your work to different audiences and disciplines as well as your ability to work with different journals and editors.

Journal Aims and Scope To ensure a journal is a good fit, check its aims and scope, browse recent content, contact the editor if needed, and keep in mind that the title of a journal is not always a clear indicator of its focus. Manuscripts deemed out-of-scope are usually rejected immediately. Veterinary journals can have a broad scope, e.g., “to advance veterinary medical knowledge” (Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine), or a narrow scope, such as the animal eye (Veterinary Ophthalmology); others define scope by defining their audience, e.g., veterinary practitioners.

The Target Audience Identify your target audience by choosing either a general or a specialty journal. The appropriate audience depends on the main message or angle of your manuscript. For example, a study of the diagnostic evaluation of alopecia would be appropriate for a small animal practice journal, whereas a study of immunohistochemical features of the canine hair cycle would be more suited to a dermatology journal. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Veterinary Record, and Australian Veterinary Journal are examples of general journals that publish on an array of topics and serve diverse veterinary constituencies. Many veterinary research journals, such as Veterinary Research Communications, Veterinary Research, and BMC Veterinary Research, are also general in scope. Veterinary specialty journals may be species-specific (e.g., Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Equine Veterinary Journal) or discipline-specific (e.g., Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, Veterinary Parasitology, Veterinary Surgery). Specialty journals published by associations, societies, or colleges support their membership and define their community by publishing articles and reports of interest to the group and by serving as both a vehicle for trainee publication and a resource for trainees

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preparing for certifying examinations. Specialty journals might permit the use of discipline-specific terminology or provide reporting guidelines to set the standard for their discipline. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, for example, has guidelines on how to report studies on determining reference intervals and on laboratory method comparisons. For some manuscripts, a journal published in a specific geographic region or in a language other than English will reach the audience most in need of the information. For example, a study on the prevalence of a parasitic disease in cats in São Paolo would be highly relevant to Brazilian veterinarians and more accessible to them in a journal such as Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária (Brazilian Journal of Parasitology), which publishes in both Portuguese and English. Keep in mind that the readership or audience of a journal consists largely of its subscribers or those who receive it as part of their membership in an organization; they might browse the table of contents and read your article even when it is not directly related to their area of interest. The readership or audience of an individual article includes scientists and health professionals working in the same research area; they typically find your article by key word database searches.

Indexing and Accessibility The more widely a journal is indexed online, the more accessible it is to readers, giving authors a wider audience for their work and potentially increasing citations. Some indexes (Google Scholar and Index Copernicus, for instance) are open to virtually all journals; others (including MEDLINE/PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB International) are controlled for standards of journal quality. Citation indexes, e.g., ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS, are also quality-controlled. Regional indexers (e.g., African Journals Online, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region, Index Medicus for Latin America, and the Excellence in Research for Australia Initiative) facilitate access to veterinary journals that might otherwise be difficult to find. Online publication, which is now standard for most veterinary journals, greatly increases access to your article. Abstracts are usually freely available online, but access to the full article requires either an individual or institutional subscription or open access.

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Open access journals – or individual articles – are available free online to all readers and are a strong trend in the publishing industry. No-fee open access journals are usually subsidized by an institution or government agency; some raise revenue from advertising or society membership. Fee-based open access (often called the “golden road”) requires payment from the author for publication; payment could be through an employer or through a research grant. “Green road” open access is based on self-archiving in a university or disciplinespecific repository or in an archive such as PubMed Central. The latter is an initiative of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that requires archiving of all NIH-funded studies, regardless of the journal in which they are published. Many subscription-based journals provide open access to articles after a specified embargo period (usually one year). Like subscription-based journals, open access publications vary in quality; authors should carefully consider their benefits and drawbacks before targeting them.

The SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) is an emerging competitor to the ISI impact factor. It, too, measures citations per article, but it uses the SCOPUS database (published by Elsevier), not the ISI database. Keep in mind – metrics can measure the overall influence of a journal but they do not necessarily correlate with the quality of the journal, individual articles, or authors. We encourage you to consider these statistics as only one factor among many when deciding where to publish a manuscript.

Time to Publication

Many publishers provide free or reduced rate journal subscriptions to developing countries through participation in the HINARI, INASP, and AGORA projects.

With electronic communication and online publishing, the time from submission to publication has decreased for most journals. Some journals publish the date a manuscript was received and accepted, which gives you an idea of the peer-review time frame. Online publication preceding print publication significantly reduces the time from acceptance to publication. Although not a feature of most veterinary journals, accelerated review and rapid publication are offered by journals in highly competitive fields.

Impact Factor and Related Metrics

Publication Costs

The Impact Factor is a widely used numeric indicator of the citation rate of articles in a journal. The annual impact factor measures the frequency with which an article in a journal has been cited on average during the previous two years. Impact factors are calculated for journals chosen for inclusion in the Thomson Reuters ISI database and are published in Journal Citation Reports. Impact factors vary widely by discipline and directly reflect the size and activity of its research community (the veterinary research community is relatively small). Citation rates also are affected by article type, self-citations, and other variables; most journals acquire the majority of their citations from just a few articles.

Publishing a peer-reviewed, edited, formatted article in print and online is an expensive process. Some veterinary journals recoup this cost by charging a handling fee when a manuscript is submitted; others have page charges or charges for color plates. Some journals offer the option of publishing color only online, without cost. Journals such as the Journal of Wildlife Diseases offer members in their society lower or no publication costs. For open access journals, authors are sometimes responsible for supporting the cost of publication through submission and publication fees that can be substantial, but may be waived for authors in low-income countries.

The EigenFactor, another evaluation method, uses the same data as the impact factor, but over a longer (5-year) window of time and, unlike the impact factor, does not include self-citations.

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Table 1. Factors to consider in selecting a journal Is the topic of your manuscript within the scope of the journal? Who is your target audience? • General practitioners? • Clinical specialists? • Researchers? Will your article be accessible to a broad audience? • Is the journal indexed? Where? • Is the journal published online? • Does your target audience read English? • Does your article appeal to a broad geographic audience? Is the journal well respected in its field? • Who are the editorial board members? • Who else publishes in the journal? Does the journal publish high-quality images, tables, and text? What are the journal’s metrics? • Does it have an impact factor? • Where does it rank among similar journals? What is the time from submission to acceptance? Are there publication costs involved? What publication services does the journal offer?

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5. WRITING YOUR ARTICLE There is no single best approach to writing. It requires focus, time, and discipline and is best done when you are actively engaged in the study or soon after the project is completed. Find a quiet or otherwise conducive environment and remember that even the best writers must revise their work many times. Your initial goal is to complete a rough draft of the entire manuscript; revision comes later. At the beginning of the process, set aside blocks of 3-4 hours to immerse yourself in writing, resources, and analysis. Early preparation of the figures and tables will help you identify and focus on the main findings. Once you’ve begun, maintain your momentum and progress by dedicating 3045 minutes each day to writing.

Determining Authorship It is best to determine authorship and author order at the time the study is planned and before it is conducted. To account for changes in contributions, author order should be revisited both before and after the manuscript is written. All authors have a role in drafting and editing the manuscript and must indicate their approval and accept responsibility for the final version submitted for publication. Make sure co-authors agree with the main focus of the manuscript and the selected target journal. Ensure author names are spelled accurately, and use middle initials to facilitate database searches. Include

degrees and certifications only if the journal requires them. Author affiliation (department and institution) should be that at the time the work was done; some journals also publish current affiliations if they have changed. According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), an author is “someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions” to the study conception and design or data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, and who takes responsibility for at least part of the work. Don’t dilute your contribution by including authors whose contributions are insignificant or nonexistent. Simply acquiring funds or overseeing the laboratory or study group does not warrant authorship; nor should authorship be used to reward friends or family members or to acknowledge those in positions of power. “Guest” and “gift” authorship, whereby an individual is included as an author but did not contribute substantively to the work, is unacceptable. Equally unacceptable is the omission or exclusion of an individual whose contribution warrants authorship, so-called “ghost” authorship. No single formula for authorship applies to all situations, so consult an experienced mentor. With the exception of the first author, who is the person primarily responsible for the study and the writing, there are no explicit guidelines regarding author order. The last

Writing a Manuscript

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author is often, but not always, the mentor of the first author. Some journals recommend that authors be listed in order of decreasing contribution to the study and the writing; others require a description of the contribution of each author upon submission of the manuscript. Some medical journals publish these contributorships together with the article and also identify one or more authors as guarantors of the integrity of the work described in the article. This practice is not widespread in veterinary journals, but it can be expected in the future as editors work to promote accountability and ethical authorship practices. Contributions that do not warrant authorship can be recognized in the acknowledgments section of a manuscript. An acknowledgment is appropriate, for example, for a veterinarian who referred a case (without contributing substantively to the report or study) or for purely technical support, support from a department chair, or assistance in writing the manuscript.

Guidelines for Authors Read your target journal’s guidelines or instructions for authors before you begin to write and follow them closely; failure to explicitly follow the guidelines will at best delay processing of your manuscript and at worst lead to rejection. Author guidelines usually include: • technical specifications such as article types, formatting, word limits, and reference style • a description of the peer-review process • editorial policies, such as ethical requirements for animal use and policies on duplicate publication Some journals provide guidelines on writing, statistical analysis, and nomenclature. Guidelines vary considerably from journal to journal; check the most current version and consult a recent issue of the journal to see examples of format and content.

Organizing and Writing Your Manuscript (AIMRaD) Scientific manuscripts are organized in a similar and consistent manner, with minor variations depending on the journal, discipline, and type of article. AIMRaD is the acronym for the major sequential sections of a research manuscript:

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• Abstract • Introduction • Materials and methods • Results • Discussion Although review articles and case reports use different formats, most articles have the same beginning elements (title, authors, and key words) and end with acknowledgments, disclosures, references, tables, figure captions, and figures. Begin by preparing an outline of the manuscript using the AIMRaD headers. Some writers find it helpful to simply write the way they speak or would tell a story, revising the wording later. Although you don’t need to write your entire article in the order in which it will finally appear, writing the abstract first provides scaffolding for the main points of your study. As outlined by AIMRaD, the Methods are factual reporting and therefore are usually easiest to write next. Follow with the Results and then the Introduction, ending with the Discussion, which is best written after completing the other sections. Include references as you write, using temporary notations or an automated reference manager. Once you complete the draft, give it to a faculty advisor or experienced colleague for review and feedback. Use subsequent revisions to incorporate their suggestions and to polish the draft. Ensure that: • information is complete • facts and figures are accurate • references are correct • terminology is consistent • the parts of the manuscript form a coherent whole Send the revised manuscript to your co-authors for review and give them a deadline to respond (and a reasonable extension if needed); timely cooperation is an essential part of authorship. Manuscripts usually undergo multiple revisions! Before finalizing your manuscript, proofread it carefully and make all necessary corrections to spelling, grammar, punctuation, and format, checking again the guidelines for authors. Send the final version to all of your co-authors when you submit the manuscript for publication.

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Title and key words Together with the abstract, the title is the most frequently read part of your article and is often used for database searches. Readers also use the title to decide whether to read an article, so it should capture their attention. Titles should be accurate, informative, succinct, and representative (not misleading). Titles can be indicative of the nature of the study (e.g., “The effect of treatment on metabolic acidosis in small ruminants”), or they can be informative and deliver the message of the study (e.g., “Rapid treatment decreases mortality in small ruminants with metabolic acidosis”). Be descriptive, use specific terms, and avoid abbreviations and proprietary names. Some journals request a short title (running title) to use in the page header of the article. The judicious selection of four to six key words that differ from the words in the title is important because they guide indexers and publisher search engines. Some journals also require a list of abbreviations at the beginning of the manuscript.

Abstract The abstract is the most accessible, functional, and widely read part of an article. Therefore, a well-written abstract is critical for accurately conveying the most important aspects of your research; it should stand alone and provide context as well as results. Abstracts are typically 250-350 words in length, with strict word limits enforced by the journal editor. Structured abstracts use headers, such as Background, Objectives/ Hypothesis, Methods, Results, and Conclusions or Clinical Importance, to subdivide the content and mirror the major sections of the manuscript; unstructured abstracts are usually a single paragraph. Even if not required by your target journal, structure gives shape to an abstract and helps ensure you remember to include all the necessary and important information. By organizing information in a recognizable pattern, a structured abstract also helps readers and reviewers understand your work. At a minimum, abstracts should include one or two sentences of background that set the context and rationale for the study; the purpose or objectives of the study; a brief description of methods; a summary of the main results, including data and probabilities (specific statistical tests need not be listed); and one or two sentences that summarize the main conclusions and implications (never simply state, “This will be

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discussed”). Abstracts for case reports should begin with salient information about the animal(s), methods used in the investigation, the findings, and the novel information gained. Abstracts should primarily reflect the new work and findings in the article; therefore, the results are the most important part, followed by methods. Don’t summarize the literature or cite references; rather, use the background and conclusions to frame the findings in a broader context. Be sure to revise your abstract as you revise your paper to ensure the data and text are consistent.

Introduction The introduction should be succinct (approximately two paragraphs), conveying to the reader why the subject is important and briefly describing what information is known. Do not provide a comprehensive review of the literature, but do state clearly the rationale for your study along with your hypothesis or research question and specific objectives. For example, if your study is on treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats, the background briefly conveys the importance of this disease and its detrimental effects on cats, the problems associated with current treatment options, and the rationale for evaluating a new one. Your hypothesis is that the new treatment will be as effective as the old one and will prevent the complications. Your objectives might be to compare the effectiveness of the new treatment with current medications in a cohort of hyperthyroid cats, using serum T4 concentration as an indicator of effectiveness, and platelet counts as an indicator of treatment-associated thrombocytopenia. After stating the objectives, add a sentence summarizing how this particular approach will help fill the gaps in information previously stated. Do not summarize the study findings here.

Materials and methods This section should describe the study methods in logical order and in sufficient detail to allow the study to be reproduced by others. For readers working in your same research area, this can be the most important section. In addition to study design and analytical methods, statistical methods and statements regarding ethical animal use should be included in this section. Clearly define your study as either prospective (planned prior to data collection) or retrospective (planned after data collection) and the specific type (e.g., randomized clinical trial, cohort study). When relevant, indicate

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whether reporting guidelines have been followed; consider using a flow chart to define your steps. Specify where and when the study was conducted. It is insufficient to simply cite another study to rationalize study design, as not all published studies are properly designed; rather, the design should be based on the hypothesis and objectives of your study.

should be defined. If pertinent, describe how data were tested for normality, what tests were applied, and how statistical significance (the alpha value) was defined. Include appropriate indicators of variance and uncertainty, including confidence intervals.

Describe your sample population and patient selection. When using client-owned animals, state the method and site of animal accrual or sample selection and provide inclusion and exclusion criteria; clearly define groups. If pertinent, describe explicitly how selection was randomized. State the time period (month/year to month/year) in which the study was conducted. Be sure to include all factors pertinent to the study, such as breed, age, sex, and body weight. If “healthy” animals were used as a control population, describe clearly how health status was determined. If wildlife populations are used, indicate their location, the methods of capture and restraint, and the necessary permits and agency approvals that were obtained. Specify clearly the ways in which animals were used and housed and the institutional, national, or international guidelines that were followed to ensure humane and ethical animal care.

The Results include a brief description in the text of the major findings, and the clear and concise presentation of data in tables and figures. Organize the sections of the results logically and in parallel with the methods.

Provide all details of sample collection, handling, and analysis. For example: • Studies involving blood sampling should describe the timing, fasting status, venipuncture site, volume collected, tube used, storage (duration and temperature), and methods and units of analysis. • Imaging studies should provide details about image acquisition, orientation, and sequence. • Therapeutic studies should provide drug dosages, frequency, and route(s) of administration. • Studies using scoring systems or subjective measures should clearly define the system and indicate who performed the scoring, their qualifications (if relevant), and whether they were blinded to other information in the study. Don’t describe standard or unmodified methods in detail; cite references instead. Provide the brand, manufacturer, and source of all instruments, products, medications, and reagents according to journal style. Describe in detail methods of statistical analysis as well as the software programs used to analyze the data (citing references as needed); statistical terms and variables

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Results

For quantitative data, report only the number of digits provided by the measuring device as an indicator of its precision (an additional digit can be added to the SD or SEM). For example, hematocrit is measured to one decimal place, whereas ALT activity is measured to the nearest whole number. Do not report data solely as percentages; be sure the numbers from which the percentages were derived are included. Use of conventional or SI units should follow author guidelines. Statistical significance should be reported using the actual P value for individual comparisons (or < for multiple comparisons). P values need not be reported for post-hoc tests (following ANOVA, for instance), but you should indicate which groups differ. Where multiple statistical tests are used, it is useful to refer to the statistical test used following the P value. Tables and figures (see below) group data visually and help emphasize important features of the data. Don’t repeat the data in the text or directly refer to a figure or table. For example, instead of stating. “Figure 1 shows the articular fracture”, state “The articular fracture was characterized by a crescent-shaped lucency (Figure 1)”. Make sure all tables and figures are cited in the proper order.

Discussion In this final section you discuss your results in the context of the study objectives and the literature, and draw conclusions or generalize your results to other populations. Most studies are not perfect; they encounter obstacles, either anticipated or unforeseen. To the extent your data are still valid and important, public recognition of the limitations helps the reader understand the usefulness of your study. In comparing your work with other studies, include citations only to relevant literature; don’t cite every paper on the topic. Avoid speculation and don’t simply restate your results or information already

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presented in the introduction. Focus on the strengths and limitations of your study and comment on any unusual or unexpected findings. Suggest directions for future research based on the outcomes of your study.

browsing your article will focus on the tables and figures to extract key information about your article. Therefore, tables and figures should be self-explanatory and stand on their own without reference to the text.

The discussion section is often the most difficult to write, in part because the format and content are highly studydependent. The first paragraph should encapsulate the most important and new findings of the study or case and should indicate whether your hypothesis was correct and your objectives were achieved. The last paragraph should state the main conclusions and implications drawn from your findings. The paragraphs in the middle can parallel the order of the results or lead from the most to the least important finding in the study, using a new paragraph for each discussion point. Always begin paragraphs with the most important sentence and follow with supporting sentences.

A table should convey only one or two main points and its title should contain sufficient information to describe the content. Footnotes (according to the journal’s style) can be used to define abbreviations and provide information about data, groups, and statistical analysis. Verify significant digits and ensure percentages add up to 100%. Always include measures of variance, such as SD and confidence intervals. In laying out your tables, keep horizontal lines to a minimum and avoid vertical lines.

References To provide an evidence-based context for your work, references should be relevant, accurate, and focused on the primary literature. Be sure to use the journal’s reference style for citing references in the text and for the bibliography itself. For articles published in another language, include the original title but follow it with a bracketed English translation of the title. You are responsible for the accuracy of all references, both the citation details and the information being attributed to that citation. Don’t propagate citation errors found in other papers (there are many) and don’t cite a reference based only on the abstract or because it was referenced in another paper. Minimize citation of nonpeer-reviewed sources such as book chapters, review articles, and proceedings; they can include unverified or anecdotal information. Cite only the most recent edition of textbooks and avoid citing abstracts except for very recent studies, as they contain limited information and only preliminary results. If you obtained critical information through a personal communication, identify the individual by name and affiliation and obtain his or her permission to be cited.

Tables and figures Select the optimal way to present your data; simple data might be best reported in the text, whereas comprehensive or more complicated data can often be presented most effectively in graphic displays. Readers

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Plots and graphs also should include appropriate measures of variance, e.g., error bars, as well as appropriate scales to avoid distorting the data. Unless color is essential, the figure should be black on a white background. For accurate readability, label axes using a sans-serif font, such as Helvetica or Arial. Simple and uncluttered figures convey your message more effectively than do complex ones. Make sure details of all images are large and clear enough to be visible when the figure is reduced to one-column width. Images should be representative and include an internal scale marker. Histologic sections should be oriented properly (e.g., skin biopsies should have the epidermis at the top); images of parasites should appear on a white background. Be certain the magnification is adequate to portray the features of interest. Add arrows or other indicators to facilitate understanding. Sharp focus and clear labels are essential; label multi-part figures clearly (e.g., A, B, …) and ensure that each part is described in the caption. Crop images to omit extraneous space and emphasize key points, but don’t alter or crop them in ways that would convey false information. List the figure captions together on a separate page at the end of your text document. Begin each caption with a title stating what the graph, plot, or image conveys, e.g., “Bland-Altman plot of RBC counts obtained from two hematology analyzers” or “Helical computed tomography images of T11 from the mid-vertebral body”, followed by a brief description of the findings in the figure. Abbreviations or symbols used in the figure should be defined and pertinent statistical information provided. For microscopic images, indicate the tissue, type of preparation (e.g., imprint), species (if not obvious from the article), a brief description of what the image shows,

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and the stain, including the chromagen for immunostains. In the absence of a scale marker, specify the final magnification or the objective lens for photomicrographs.

Appendices and supplemental material Some journals permit inclusion of supplemental online materials (text, tables, figures, videos, appendices), allowing you to include information of interest to select readers while keeping your printed article succinct. For example, videos of procedures, such as echocardiography, may be supplemental to an article in Veterinary Cardiology. The supporting materials are reviewed along with the manuscript, but you are responsible for their content and functionality.

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Acknowledgments and disclosures In addition to acknowledging the names and affiliations of individuals who contributed to the study, all sources of funding, gifts, and donated materials and equipment should be acknowledged, including the reference numbers of grants. Many journals also require a separate disclosure statement at the end of the article. This usually includes any financial or other relationships on the part of the authors with organizations, corporations, or other entities that are related to the subject or content of the study. In some cases, additional affiliations not directly related to the study, such as paid service in a speakers bureau, are included. If you have no competing interests, be sure to state that.

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Table 2. Manuscript organization pitfalls and how to avoid them Problem

Solution

The specific aims are not addressed in the methods or results.

All specific aims indicated in the introduction should lead to a description of the methods and the results for that aim.

Methods and results are provided that do not match the specific aims of the study.

All methods and results should be linked to one or more of the specific aims of the study.

Methods and results don’t match.

For every method there should be a result and for every result there should be a method; they should be in complete agreement.

Results are described in methods.

Whenever a method is described, the outcomes should be considered as results. Example: When a method for the selection of cases is described, the number of cases included in the study is a result. Example: When an assay is being developed as part of a study, the methods used to evaluate the assay are included in the methods section, whereas the results of the evaluation are included in the results section.

Methods are included in the results.

Don’t repeat methods or introduce new methods in the results.

The same results are presented both in the text and in figures or tables.

Don’t repeat specific data in the text if they are already present in a figure or table. Instead, summarize the data in the text and refer to the figure or table.

Interpretations are made in the results.

Report data dispassionately. Avoid using terms like “only”, “nearly”, “excellent,” or “poor.” Simply report the findings and leave the interpretation for your discussion.

Introductory material is repeated in the discussion.

Don’t repeat your reasons for doing the study in the discussion; you’ve already described these in the introduction. Focus on the results and what they mean.

Results are repeated in the discussion.

Avoid repeating statements of results in the discussion; rather, think ahead to what you want to say about particular results – were they unanticipated? confirmatory? limited by sample size or analytical methodology? In general, don’t cite tables or figures in the discussion.

New results are included in the discussion.

Do not introduce new data in the discussion. A new table or figure should be included in the discussion only when it involves the literature being discussed, such as a table summarizing published findings in relation to the findings in your study.

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6. WRITING (IN ENGLISH) FOR READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION Scientific articles differ from creative writing: they are intended to effectively communicate the results of a research study, which itself follows certain guidelines. Thus, the writing in scientific articles must be clear and orderly, using accurate terms and language that ensure readability and comprehension. Don’t assume your audience is informed on the topic; be explicit so readers don’t need to infer your meaning. Don’t hesitate to consult an English grammar reference when you are uncertain about correct usage. To detect errors and unclear phrases, experienced writers highly recommend that you read your manuscript aloud before finalizing it. For similar reasons, have a colleague unfamiliar with the study read your article and provide input on clarity and comprehension.

Be Concise and Precise Write simple sentences that convey a single thought, and for readability keep paragraphs short. Delete unnecessary words and omit repetitious words and phrases. For example, revise “is known to be present” to “is present” and “was found to improve” to “improved”. Choose simple words to convey concepts, e.g., “used” rather than “employed” and “had” rather than “exhibited.” Understand the difference between similar words (e.g., parameter vs. variable, comprise vs. compose, maximum vs. optimum) and choose the correct one. When time is involved, describe changes as “increased” or “decreased”; otherwise report results as “higher” or “lower”. Your goal is to communicate effectively, so avoid the use of jargon that some readers may not understand. If you submit your article to Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, your primary audience may understand a phrase like “low attenuation focus in the liver,” but it may not be clear to a generalist or non-specialist. Avoid shortcuts, such as “the cytospin was stained” instead of “the cytocentrifuged sample was stained.” Always avoid slang, clichés, figures of speech, and idioms that are used in spoken language but are not appropriate in a scientific article.

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Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and limited to standard abbreviations or those necessary to shorten long, often repeated phrases. Although two-letter abbreviations may be used, three-letter abbreviations are easier to read and are less likely to cause confusion.

Choose Your Voice Most scientific articles are written in the passive voice the majority of the time; for example, “The tubes were vortexed” rather than, “We vortexed the tubes.” However, many editors now are easing restrictions on the active voice, which helps bring the writing to life and can improve readability. For example, in the discussion section you could write: “We found that fewer than 50% of carcinomas were papillary.” However, for now, try to limit use of the active voice to sentences where it is awkward to use a passive voice.

Tense, Grammar, and Punctuation A scientific article describes work that has been completed. Therefore, the past tense should be used when referring to the work done in the study. The present tense is often used for statements referring to generally accepted knowledge, for example: “Malignant melanomas are usually metastatic.” The present tense also may be used to convey general conclusions from the study that are more broadly applicable, such as, “Based on the results of this study, vaccination is an effective method of control for pink-eye in cattle.” Avoid indiscriminate capitalization and keep punctuation to the minimum needed for readability and comprehension. Capitalization rules for breeds vary among veterinary journals, but many use the official American Kennel Club spelling for dog breeds. To ensure clarity, place a comma before the “and” in the last item in a series; if the phrases themselves contain commas, use semicolons to separate the phrases.

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Table 3. Common usage errors in writing

Common grammatical errors: • Match singular and plural subjects with singular and plural verbs, respectively. (Note: “data” takes a plural verb, as in “data are…”) • Avoid using nouns as adjectives, e.g., use “feline” diseases rather than “cat” diseases. • Use which and that correctly: “that” defines the noun before it and is almost always the correct word. • Use to and with appropriately for comparisons – “to” asserts a similarity, as in “tumor x compares to tumor y in its metastatic potential”, whereas “with” asserts both similarities and differences, as in “response to treatment x was compared with response to treatment y”, and is the most common usage in scientific articles.

Pre-review for Language If English is not your native language, ask a native English-speaker to critically review your manuscript prior to submission. It’s worth the investment in time and money. In our experience, one of the most common reasons for immediate rejection of a manuscript is unclear writing because of language. If your work merits publication, it merits close and detailed attention by a native English-speaker. Some journals offer services for non-native English writers. Check the journal homepage for resources.

Common errors in terminology: • Use animals or animal patient, not patient. • Use clinical signs, not symptoms. (Symptoms are sensations felt and reported by human patients.) • Use subclinical, not asymptomatic.

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7. SUBMITTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT First Impressions Count! To increase the likelihood that your manuscript proceeds to peer review, ensure it is complete, correctly formatted, well-written and organized, and free of spelling and language errors before you submit it. (Use your computer’s grammar and spell-check functions. They aren’t foolproof, but they are a useful first step in your proofreading process.) Your manuscript may have scientific merit, but if the first impression suggests a lack of attention to detail, its scientific credibility and readability are undermined and it might be rejected or viewed more critically. Editors must prioritize submissions and will prefer to use a reviewer’s time more effectively on carefully prepared manuscripts. The entire manuscript should be double-spaced, including references and figure legends. Many journals require continuous line numbering to facilitate reference to specific lines in the manuscript. Place tables and figures in separate files or at the end of the document, not within the text. Attention to these details and to the author guidelines before you submit your manuscript demonstrates that you understand the process (as well as the science) and that you value the time of the editors and reviewers.

Online Submission Most journals have online, or at least e-mail, submission processes and no longer require a paper copy. The online submission process can sometimes take more time than you expect – perhaps one to two hours. It requires setting up log-in and password access, entering data into defined fields, and uploading electronic files. Prepare for this by having everything ready, including the institutional affiliations and email addresses of your co-authors, all manuscript files in the required formats, and a good Internet connection. Online submissions can be saved while in progress, but by completing the submission in one or two sessions you can avoid having to relearn the process. When emailing a submission, know the size limit for files and ask for verification of receipt.

submission systems, a PDF of the manuscript is created that merges the text, table, and figure files into a single file. Problems in creating this PDF may be encountered if files are corrupted or when older versions of software are used. Use the “Help” feature for assistance in troubleshooting the online submission system. If you wish to include a previously published table or figure in your article, permission must be requested and obtained from the original publisher. Forward these permissions as well as verification of personal communications to the journal editor.

Submitting Digital Images “Art work,” including drawings, graphs, images, and photomicrographs, should be submitted as digital files. High-resolution TIFF files are preferred for publication, but JPEG, PowerPoint, and Excel files are often acceptable for the review process as long as high-resolution files are available for publication. Color and half-tone images should be acquired at a minimum of 300 pixels per inch (ppi) and line art at 1200 ppi for optimal print resolution (resolution cannot be increased once an image has been acquired). Images should be in grayscale (black and white) unless color is essential for interpretation. Color images must be in CMYK mode for print publication; unfortunately, CMYK is not as rich a palette as RGB, especially in the purple spectrum, and images may require adjustment by you or technical assistants.

Cover Letters and Corresponding Authors A brief cover letter to the editor may be used to provide required statements about authorship and original publication and to request consideration for publication. A brief description of the context and importance of your work, novel findings, and appropriateness for the scope and readership of the journal is also helpful, especially if this is not obvious from the title or abstract of your manuscript. Indicate the corresponding author and contact information on the title page of the manuscript and in your cover letter.

The guidelines for authors will indicate the types of acceptable files. For text and table files, Microsoft Word is often used, but some journals accept rich text format (RTF) or other types of text formats. In most online

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Table 4. A checklist for submission of your manuscript.* Documents and other information: • Cover letter with a brief description of the work and its impact • Signed copyright transfer agreement (some journals collect the form after acceptance) • Completed conflict of interest form • All author names, affiliations, and contact information, including email addresses • Name of contact author† • Names and contact information of preferred or non-preferred reviewers (optional) Verifications: • Author contributions warrant authorship. • All authors have approved the manuscript. • The manuscript has not been submitted for consideration by another journal. • Previous publication of the work in abstract or other form is disclosed (some journals require copies). • All conflicts of interest have been disclosed for all authors. • Pertinent ethical guidelines have been followed. Manuscript: • Manuscript is double-spaced, has continuous line numbers, and is in correct file format. • Article type matches one of the article types for the journal. • Title is descriptive and succinct; a short running title is provided. • Author order is correct; author names and affiliations are complete and correct. • Corresponding author is identified on the title page of the manuscript and contact information is provided.† • Key words are listed and do not duplicate words in the title. • Abstract is complete and succinct, of appropriate length, and formatted (structured or unstructured) correctly. • Format of text (headers, length) is correct for article type. • A statement of compliance with guidelines for use of animals is included in the Methods section (if applicable). • Text has been carefully proofread for spelling and grammatical errors. • Text has been carefully proofread by a native English-speaker (if applicable). • In-text citations of references are correctly formatted, e.g., superscripted numbers, author names in parentheses, etc. • Acknowledgments section provides name(s) and affiliation(s) of individuals and all sources of support. • References in bibliography are correctly cited and formatted. • Tables are correctly formatted and stand alone without reference to the text. • Figure captions are complete and stand alone. • Figure files are in correct format, e.g., TIFF, and of appropriate resolution. Supplementary materials: • Supplementary material for review purposes only (optional) • Supplementary material for online publication (optional) *Formats for submission vary, so follow the guidelines for your target journal exactly. †You should designate a contact author and a corresponding author (often the same person). A contact author handles all communication about the manuscript as it moves through the peer-review, revision, and production processes, including the copyright transfer and disclosure forms. The corresponding author has overall responsibility for the manuscript and is indicated on the title page and in the published article. Contact information is published for the corresponding author so readers can request reprints or ask questions about the article after publication.

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8. UNDERSTANDING THE PEER REVIEW AND EDITORIAL PROCESSES Purpose and Types of Peer Review Peer review provides editors with an independent assessment of the quality, validity, and importance of a manuscript. It is not a perfect system, but it is the best process we have to help editors evaluate and prioritize manuscripts. Peer review also helps authors improve the quality of their manuscripts through constructive advice on study design, data analysis and presentation, writing, and other aspects of the manuscript’s contents. A well-defined and rigorous system of peer review demonstrates that an article has undergone critical evaluation and passed muster with knowledgeable experts. Peer review in veterinary journals is usually single-blinded, meaning the reviewers know the identity of the author(s), but the identity of the reviewers is not revealed. Some veterinary journals, such as the Journal of Small Animal Practice, use double-blinded peer review, meaning the reviewers are also blinded to the identity of the authors and their institutions. A double-blinded system requires that information identifying the authors be removed from the manuscript. Table 5. What do reviewers look for? • • • • • • • •

Is the information important? Is the material original? Are the rationale, methods, and data valid? Are the conclusions reasonable? Is the writing clear? Are the tables and figures appropriate? Are the references up-to-date and relevant? Is the content appropriate for the journal’s readers?

The peer-review process works best when it is prompt, constructive, and focused on the major aspects of the study and manuscript. Peer review in veterinary medicine almost always relies on volunteer experts in the field who expend considerable time and effort reviewing a manuscript. If you indicated preferred and non-preferred reviewers when you submitted your paper, editors will consider those suggestions along with other options to achieve an objective and balanced review. Depending on the complexity of the subject, the need for statistical review, and the similarity or disparateness of initial reviews, two to four peer reviewers will usually evaluate a manuscript. Reviewers are advisory to the editor, who makes the final decision. Editors will often qualify concerns raised by reviewers and add points that were missed. Thus, peer

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review is multilayered and involves several individuals, rendering it a sometimes time-consuming or inefficient process that can take several weeks to months (four to eight weeks is typical). But peer review is usually fair and results in an improved manuscript.

Responding to Reviewer Comments Scrutiny of your work by peers can be intimidating! Realize that it is extremely rare for a manuscript to be accepted as initially submitted and keep in mind that no study is perfect—there is always room for improvement. That said, receiving a long list of comments from reviewers can be disheartening. If you set them aside for a few days before responding, you will be able to judge them more objectively and will probably realize that some good points were raised. You should write a clear and complete response to all of the reviewers’ major and minor points. In a separate response document or cover letter, indicate whether you made the changes requested, describe the changes made, and specify where in the manuscript the changes can be found (line and page number). If the revisions are few, highlight or track them in the manuscript file; if there are many changes, tracking can be distracting to reviewers. These two steps – providing an itemized description of your responses and indicating your revisions in the manuscript file – will permit reviewers and editors to evaluate your responses quickly and accurately. You should seriously consider making all of the suggested changes, but if there are points with which you strongly disagree, provide a rebuttal and include your reasons. Always respond in a professional and nonconfrontational manner, even if you feel a reviewer was unnecessarily harsh. Find out if there is a deadline for the revision and keep in mind that a request for revision is not a guarantee of acceptance.

Working with Journal Editors The editor-in-chief is usually assisted by associate editors, section editors, or other subeditors. You will interact with one or more of these editors many times during the submission, review, and publication processes. Be proactive in your communications; pay attention to which editor is signing correspondence, and don’t hesitate to contact that individual by telephone or email when you have questions or are seeking advice about any aspect of the process. The editor-in-chief has the “big picture” view of the journal’s multiple missions and bears

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responsibility for all final decisions. Therefore, when deciding whether and when to publish your manuscript, the editor will consider not only recommendations from reviewers and subeditors, but also the relevance of your article, its timeliness, its educational value, the balance of themes and types of articles, competing viewpoints, and emerging topics that define the journal.

Handling a Negative Decision Rejection is always disappointing, but it need not be demoralizing. As with reviewer comments, put the decision letter on hold for a few days and then focus objectively on the reason for rejection, not on your emotional response. Some journals reject a very high number of submissions – often well over half! Common reasons for manuscript rejection include the following: • the manuscript does not adhere to basic author guidelines • the topic is not within scope • there are fatal flaws in the study design • the study fails to provide sufficient new information A rejection is a final decision; don’t revise and send your manuscript back to the same journal without first discussing this with the editor. If you feel strongly that the criticisms can be addressed, consider an appeal. Perhaps the reviewers failed to understand the main concept or relevance of your article or appeared to have a bias that was disadvantageous to you. The editor reserves the right to uphold the rejection or rescind it, and a willingness to reconsider a decision carries no guarantee of a change in that decision. If you decide to revise your manuscript and submit it to another journal, you should: • address previous reviewer comments • prepare a new cover letter

is usually the point at which various forms are due (e.g., copyright transfer forms) and your manuscript is edited for publication. Editing can be technical or substantive, involving the need for additional revisions in wording and terminology, figures and tables, organization, and references. These means more work for you, but take heart: these additional efforts will result in a more readable and higher quality manuscript. Once you submit the necessary forms and complete your final revisions, your manuscript enters the production process. Some journals publish unformatted or preliminary versions of an accepted manuscript immediately after acceptance, but most veterinary journals first send the manuscript to the publisher for copyediting and layout. Copyediting can result in additional (usually minor) changes and corrections. Once the article has been formatted, the corresponding author and the editor will receive page proofs (usually in PDF format) that show how the final manuscript will appear in print. Be sure to read the instructions that accompany the proofs. This is your final opportunity to correct mistakes, including potential errors introduced during copyediting, but it’s not the time to introduce new data, text, tables, or figures. If you need more time to correct the proofs, contact the editor or publisher immediately. Paper reprints usually must be ordered at this time. Once you and the editor have approved the proofs, your article is ready for publication. The online publication of your article, which often occurs ahead of print publication, is considered the official version of record (it is assigned a DOI [digital object identifier], is indexed, and can be cited by others). Journals that are published solely online usually publish articles in the order they are finalized; for journals with a print version, editors may compile articles in the order in which they were submitted or might choose to group them in an issue with related or complementary articles.

• write a new abstract • update the literature search and references

After Publication

• reformat the manuscript according to the new journal’s instructions for authors

Your article’s journey does not end with publication. Many post-publication options are available that promote and track your article and its citation by others, provide free access to you and your co-authors, and permit you to provide free access to a limited number of colleagues. You can post it in an institutional repository or link it to your faculty webpage. The publisher might include your article in a future themed “virtual issue” and will be able to track how often your paper is downloaded and by whom.

After Acceptance: Editing and Page Proofs Congratulations – your manuscript is accepted for publication! Check the acceptance notice carefully to find out the next steps. Many authors believe the publication process ends with acceptance; not so! This

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9. PUBLICATION ETHICS The scientific enterprise, including writing and publication, is built on a system of trust among readers, authors, editors, reviewers, and publishers. Ethical principles and editorial policies help establish and uphold this trust. In veterinary journals, ethical issues fall into four major categories: • inappropriate reproduction of original work • research integrity • disclosure and transparency • animal use Although ethical policies and practices vary among countries and institutions, most veterinary journals adhere to strict international standards. The ICMJE provides guidelines for ethical considerations in the conduct and reporting of research.

Inappropriate Reproduction of Original Work Original work should be published only once. Journals will not usually consider a manuscript if it has been submitted or published elsewhere; this ensures the information has a clear and single source and citation. It is unacceptable to submit your manuscript to more than one journal. It also is unacceptable to publish someone else’s work as your own (plagiarism), to publish all or part of the same work in more than one journal (duplicate publication), and to use copyrighted information without appropriate permission. Plagiarism is the misrepresentation of someone else’s work as your own. It is unacceptable to use another person’s data, figures, tables, or text without clear and appropriate attribution. Sentences, paragraphs, sections, and even unique words or phrases taken from previously published work should not be used without modification or direct quotation. Rather, you must read and understand the work and then paraphrase it in different terms. In an environment where cutting and pasting is easy and information is readily available online, plagiarism has intensified. To address concerns about plagiarism, some journals use specialized software that identifies duplicative text. Published work that is subsequently found to have been plagiarized is retracted by the journal and the author’s institution may be notified of the occurrence. Duplicate (redundant) publication is the re-use of your own data or text in more than one publication. Most, if not all, veterinary journals will consider only work that

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has not been published elsewhere. What constitutes permissible previous publication differs among journals; editors may request a copy of the previously published work, such as a proceedings paper, and consider its distribution, the amount of overlap, and the nature of the differences. Re-publication of an article in a different language might be acceptable if the source and citation of the original article are clearly noted. Some veterinary journals strictly limit previous publication to a 250-350 word abstract. Thus, before publishing your work in any form, whether in print or online, be sure to first check the guidelines for your target journal to ensure you don’t preclude consideration of your manuscript. Reviewers and editors often recognize duplicate publication during the review process, and the same software used to detect plagiarism can detect dual publication. If an article is found to be duplicative after publication, a formal process exists for retracting the redundant article and correcting the literature. Copyright is the right to copy and distribute a published article. Copyright originates with the creator of the work – you, the author. When your manuscript is accepted for publication, the publisher of the journal typically requires that you to sign a form to transfer copyright to the publisher or to the society that owns the journal. Copyright gives the holder the right to manage the use, reproduction, and distribution of an article; those who wish to do so must request permission and ensure the work is attributed to the copyright holder. “Fair use” of an article, such as placing it in an institutional repository, sending reprints to colleagues, and including the article in personal teaching materials, is acceptable without permission. Some journals permit the copyright to remain with the authors.

Research Integrity: Fabrication or Falsification of Data and Images Although manipulation or misrepresentation of data is clearly unethical, we too often read or hear about a prominent scientist under investigation for doing just that. Journals expect your reporting of a clinical or experimental study, including data, figures, and references, to be honest and accurate. Editors are obligated to investigate allegations of potential fraud and, if verified, may retract the published article and inform the author’s institution.

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The routine use of digital images and the potential to change or manipulate them using photo-processing software has led to stricter guidelines about what is acceptable. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity (ORI), images can be manipulated only when the entire image is affected, altering the overall size or color balance, for example. However, details within the image, such as a cell, structure, or band within a gel, should not be modified separately, as this is ‘creational’ information consistent with the manufacture of data. If you have any questions as to what changes are acceptable, consult the ORI website or the editor.

Disclosure and Transparency Most journals require authors to disclose relevant financial, legal, and personal affiliations, benefits, and competing interests. Depending on the journal, you are responsible for disclosing these in the manuscript, in a cover letter, or in a disclosure form. All or some of these disclosures may accompany the published article. Full disclosure includes: • sources of funding, donations, and support from companies, foundations, and government agencies for the study being reported • author associations with commercial entities in the general area related to the work, including paid presentations or continuing education supported by a drug company • nonfinancial relationships (such as being a board member) The objectivity and credibility of a research article rely on open and transparent disclosure. For example, knowing an author owns substantial stock in the pharmaceutical company that manufactures the drug being evaluated in a study might affect your critical assessment of the findings, especially if they are favorable. Disclosure does not imply or assert that bias has occurred; rather, it provides information to readers and those involved in the review and publication process that helps them understand the relationships that could have a bearing on the information being reported. Even the perception of a conflict of interest can damage both a journal’s credibility and your own.

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Disclosure and transparency guidelines also apply to reviewers and editors. Reviewers are expected to disclose potential conflicts of interest before agreeing to review a manuscript, and editors must recuse themselves from decisions involving articles in which they have had a role or where there is a potential for bias. Editorial decisions about manuscripts must be independent of political or financial interference from publishers, executive boards, and advertisers.

Ethical Use of Animals in Research The health and welfare of animals is the guiding principle of the veterinary profession. In addition to laboratory animals, veterinary researchers often study client-owned animals, including companion animals, horses, birds, and livestock, and publicly owned animals, such as zoo and wildlife populations and animals in shelters. When writing a journal article, it is important to convey clearly the steps taken to ensure the ethical and humane treatment of all animals used in the study. National and international guidelines, such as the National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, define the welfare of laboratory animals. The recent ARRIVE reporting guidelines emphasize the importance of reporting key information in the methods and results sections to help readers understand why and how animals were used. A recent consensus statement by the International Association of Veterinary Editors provides author guidelines for veterinary journals that publish studies involving animals, including client-owned animals. These various guidelines help address institutional, cultural, and disciplinary differences in the perceived ethical use of animals in research. Detailed reporting of animal use and of the guidelines and standards followed provides the information necessary for reviewers, editors, and readers to ensure that ethical guidelines have been followed. Journals published in some countries, including the United Kingdom, have especially stringent guidelines for animal use that must be considered at the time a research study is being planned, as authors will be held to such guidelines when a manuscript is considered for publication.

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10. THE FUTURE OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING Ways of writing, evaluating, publishing, and accessing scientific articles and journals continue to evolve. New forms of data-sharing are being explored; open access publication is still in its infancy and not universally accepted, but it has led to numerous new publishing ventures. Although most, if not all, veterinary journals rely on traditional peer review to ensure the quality and credibility of published articles, new models based on the emerging collaborative nature of public commenting are becoming more common. Metrics for rating the quality of articles and journals also continue to be developed and challenged, while at the

same time institutions are increasingly focused on these numerical measures. Search engines, such as Google Scholar, enhance the “intelligent” retrieval of information, and ongoing efforts to increase the visibility of nonEnglish language journals are underway. As these and other changes occur, your ability to publish high-quality scientific articles will continue to depend on well-planned research, organized and well-written manuscripts, effective peer evaluation, and ethical integrity. We hope Writing for Publication in Veterinary Medicine will help guide you in this process as you build your professional career.

11. SELECTED RESOURCES Scientific Writing Manuals Day RA, Gastel B. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 6th ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press; 2006. Lang T, Secic M. How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 2006. Cargill M, O’Connor P. Writing Scientific Research Articles: Strategy and Steps. Chichester, UK: WileyBlackwell; 2009.

English Grammar, Style, and Usage Manuals Sabin WA. The Gregg Reference Manual. Tribute edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. Strunk W Jr, White EB.The Elements of Style. 4th ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 2000.

Reporting Guidelines CONSORT: Transparent Reporting of Trials. http://www. consort-statement.org/. Accessed May 13, 2011. REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety). http:// www.reflect-statement.org. Accessed January 22, 2011. Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al. Toward complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: The STARD initiative. Clin Chem. 2003;49:1-6.

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Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG. Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:1-5.

Websites International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. http://www.icmje.org. Accessed January 22, 2011. International Association of Veterinary Editors. http://www.veteditors.org. Accessed January 22, 2011. Author Aid. Supporting developing country researchers in publishing their work. http://www.authoraid.info/. Accessed April 6, 2011. COPE: Committee on Publication Ethics. http://publicationethics.org/. Accessed June 8, 2011. Equator Network. The resource centre for good reporting of health research studies. http://www.equator-network. org/. Accessed April 6, 2011. Office of Research Integrity. Guidelines for best practices in image processing. http://ori.hhs.gov/education/ products/RIandImages/guidelines/list.html. Accessed April 6, 2011. Texas A&M University Writing Center. Reading aloud. Available at: http://writingcenter.tamu.edu/teachingwriting/instruction/reading-aloud. Accessed January 22, 2011.

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Vet Writing for Publication Booklet