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CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY 1 1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 2 1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems 2 1.3 Life Processes 7 1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits 7 1.5 Aging and Homeostasis 10 1.6 Anatomical Terms 10 1.7 Body Cavities 16 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY 25 2.1 Introduction to Chemistry 26 2.2 Chemical Compounds and Life Processes 33 CHAPTER 3 CELLS 48 3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell 49 3.2 The Plasma Membrane 50 3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 51 3.4 Cytoplasm 56 3.5 Nucleus 62 3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis 64 3.7 Somatic Cell Division 65 3.8 Cellular Diversity 69 3.9 Aging and Cells 69 CHAPTER 4 TISSUES 78 4.1 Types of Tissues 79 4.2 Epithelial Tissue 79 4.3 Connective Tissue 88


4.4 Membranes 96 4.5 Muscular Tissue 98 4.6 Nervous Tissue 98 4.7 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 98 4.8 Aging and Tissues 100 CHAPTER 5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 106 5.1 Skin 107 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 110 5.3 Functions of the Skin 114 5.4 Aging and the Integumentary System 115 CHAPTER 6 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 124 6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 125 6.2 Types of Bones 125 6.3 Structure of Bone 125 6.4 Bone Formation 129 6.5 Exercise and Bone Tissue 134 6.6 Divisions of the Skeletal System 135 6.7 Skull and Hyoid Bone 137 6.8 Vertebral Column 146 6.9 Thorax 153 6.10 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 154 6.11 Upper Limb 155 6.12 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 159 6.13 Lower Limb 160 6.14 Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons 167


6.15 Aging and the Skeletal System 167 CHAPTER 7 JOINTS 177 7.1 Classification of Joints 178 7.2 Fibrous Joints 178 7.3 Cartilaginous Joints 180 7.4 Synovial Joints 180 7.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 182 7.6 Types of Synovial Joints 186 7.7 Aging and Joints 191 CHAPTER 8 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 197 8.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 198 8.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 198 8.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle 202 8.4 Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 207 8.5 Control of Muscle Tension 209 8.6 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 211 8.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 211 8.8 Smooth Muscle Tissue 212 8.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 213 8.10 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement 214 8.11 Principal Skeletal Muscles 215 CHAPTER 9 NERVOUS TISSUE 252 9.1 Overview of the Nervous System 253 9.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 255 9.3 Action Potentials 259


9.4 Synaptic Transmission 262 CHAPTER 10 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, SPINAL NERVES, AND CRANIAL NERVES 271 10.1 Spinal Cord Structure 272 10.2 Spinal Nerves 275 10.3 Spinal Cord Functions 276 10.4 Brain 277 10.5 Cranial Nerves 292 10.6 Aging and the Nervous System 294 CHAPTER 11 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 301 11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 302 11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System 302 11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 307 CHAPTER 12 SOMATIC SENSES AND SPECIAL SENSES 314 12.1 Overview of Sensations 315 12.2 Somatic Senses 317 12.3 Special Senses 320 12.4 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 320 12.5 Gustation: Sense of Taste 321 12.6 Vision 323 12.7 Hearing and Equilibrium 331 CHAPTER 13 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 346 13.1 Introduction 347 13.2 Hormone Action 348 13.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 350 13.4 Thyroid Gland 355


13.5 Parathyroid Glands 357 13.6 Pancreatic Islets 358 13.7 Adrenal Glands 360 13.8 Ovaries and Testes 363 13.9 Pineal Gland 364 13.10 Other Hormones 365 13.11 The Stress Response 366 13.12 Aging and the Endocrine System 367 CHAPTER 14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD 377 14.1 Functions of Blood 378 14.2 Components of Whole Blood 378 14.3 Hemostasis 386 14.4 Blood Groups and Blood Types 389 CHAPTER 15 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: HEART 397 15.1 Structure and Organization of the Heart 398 15.2 Blood Flow and Blood Supply of the Heart 404 15.3 Conduction System of the Heart 406 15.4 Electrocardiogram 407 15.5 The Cardiac Cycle 408 15.6 Cardiac Output 409 15.7 Exercise and the Heart 412 CHAPTER 16 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION 420 16.1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 421 16.2 Blood Flow Through Blood Vessels 425 16.3 Circulatory Routes 428


16.4 Checking Circulation 446 16.5 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 447 CHAPTER 17 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY 454 17.1 Lymphatic System 456 17.2 Innate Immunity 459 17.3 Adaptive Immunity 463 17.4 Aging and the Immune System 473 CHAPTER 18 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 482 18.1 Organs of the Respiratory System 483 18.2 Pulmonary Ventilation 490 18.3 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 494 18.4 Transport of Respiratory Gases 497 18.5 Control of Respiration 499 18.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 502 18.7 Aging and the Respiratory System 503 CHAPTER 19 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 511 19.1 Overview of the Digestive System 512 19.2 Layers of the GI Tract and the Omentum 512 19.3 Mouth 515 19.4 Pharynx and Esophagus 518 19.5 Stomach 520 19.6 Pancreas 523 19.7 Liver and Gallbladder 524 19.8 Small Intestine 526 19.9 Large Intestine 532


19.10 Phases of Digestion 534 19.11 Aging and the Digestive System 536 CHAPTER 20 NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 545 20.1 Nutrients 546 20.2 Metabolism 551 20.3 Metabolism and Body Heat 557 CHAPTER 21 THE URINARY SYSTEM 566 21.1 Overview of the Urinary System 567 21.2 Structure of the Kidneys 568 21.3 Functions of the Nephron 572 21.4 Transportation, Storage, and Elimination of Urine 578 21.5 Aging and the Urinary System 581 CHAPTER 22 FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID–BASE BALANCE 588 22.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance 589 22.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 593 22.3 Acid–Base Balance 595 22.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance 598 CHAPTER 23 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 602 23.1 Male Reproductive System 603 23.2 Female Reproductive System 611 23.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 617 23.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 621 23.5 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 624 CHAPTER 24 DEVELOPMENT AND INHERITANCE 634 24.1 Embryonic Period 635


24.2 Fetal Period 644 24.3 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 647 24.4 Exercise and Pregnancy 648 24.5 Labor and Delivery 648 24.6 Lactation 649 24.7 Inheritance 651 Answers A-1 Glossary G-1 Credits C-1 Index I-1

Intro to the Human Body Table of Contents  

Intro to the Human Body Table of Contents