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WHAT A GEOGRAPHER SEES Economic and Sociocultural Transnationalism

I

When immigrants create political, social, or family-based ties that are rooted in the values and practices of their home country and community, they forge a kind of sociocultural transnationalism. Geographers can detect different kinds of transnationalism by tracking remittances and analyzing changes in the cultural landscape.

n Chapter 2 we learned that economic transnationalism or multinationalism involves the establishment of branch offices of a corporation in other countries. With respect to migration, however, economic transnationalism focuses on the financial and monetary connections between an immigrant and her or his home country. Top five remittance-sending countries

a. Leading remittance-sending countries In 2008, migrants sent approximately $433 billion in remittances, compared with $132 billion sent in 2000. The amounts that are remitted change frequently and decline in periods of economic recession. The United States and Russia are, respectively, the leading remittance-sending countries. (Source: World Bank, 2009.)

15.0

Germany

16.1

Saudi Arabia

19.0

Switzerland

26.1

Russia

47.2

United States 0.0

10.0

20.0 30.0 US$ (billion)

40.0

50.0

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b. Remittance inflows as a percentage of total exports Remittances are proportionally more important to the economies of developing countries and in several instances exceed the earnings from a country’s exports. (Source: World Bank, 2009.)

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Netherlands Antilles Dominica St. Vincent & the Grenadines Trinidad & Tobago

Cape Verde 0°

São Tomé & Príncipe

Seychelles Comoros Fiji

Remittance Inflows as a Percentage of All Exports

Vanuatu Tonga

More than 100% 20–75% 6–19% 1–5% Less than 1% No data

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the money, goods, or services sent by immigrants to their home countries. In other cases, however, transnationalism has influenced the cultural landscape (see What a Geographer Sees).

Europe As we have seen, Europe historically was a source of significant out-migration. Within the past 50 years, however, this pattern has been reversed, and Europe has been

86 CHAPTER 3 Population and Migration

transformed into a region of in-migration. This transformation began in the 1960s when countries such as Germany and France faced labor shortages. People were needed to fill jobs, and southern Europe, with high unemployment, could meet that need. These push and pull factors created a major south-to-north flow of migrants that lasted until 1974. Initially, most migrants moved from within Europe (Italy, Spain, and Greece), but subsequently Turkey, Morocco, and

Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School

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