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What a Geographer Sees highlights a concept or phenomenon that would stand out to geographers. Photos and figures are used to improve students’ understanding of the usefulness of a geographic perspective and to enable students to apply their observational skills to answer questions.

✓ THE PLANNER

WHAT A GEOGRAPHER SEES Qanats

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anats, also called karez, khettaras, or foggaras, have been used to manage water in about 50 countries or territories worldwide. They are usually constructed near the base of hills or in stream valleys. Water flows through a qanat entirely by gravity.

a. Global distribution of extant or historical Qanats Most of the qanats in use today are in the Middle East. (Source: Data from Salih, 2006; and Dale Lightfoot, personal communication, 2009.)

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c. From the air, qanats dot the landscape The openings of the qanat shafts, important for ventilation and access to the tunnel during construction and cleaning of the qanat, create distinctive cultural landscapes. These qanats are in western China.

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Qanat shafts Bedrock

Canal Fields

Aerial view

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d. Diminishing lifeline The Kunaflusa qanat in northern Iraq still provides water to the villagers, though the flow of water has diminished considerably. This change is mainly the result of other water withdrawals for agriculture from the same underground water source that feeds this qanat and of drought.

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b. A cross section showing the different parts of a qanat The photo shows a qanat channel in northern Iraq. Men are usually tasked with clearing the tunnel of vegetation and silt so that the water flow is not impeded.

Initial tap well Qanat shafts

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Think Critically 1. What social, political, or other factors might contribute to qanat abandonment? 2. What is a problem with using a modern political map (as in a.) to indicate the location of qanats?

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In each chapter, the Video Explorations feature, researched by Joy Adams of Humboldt State University, showcases one of more than 30 National Geographic videos from the award-winning NGS collection. The videos are linked to the text and provide visual context for key concepts, ideas, and terms addressed in the chapter.

Video Explorations Essaouira, Morocco Video

Think Critically questions encourage students to analyze the material and develop insights into essential concepts. Cultural Geographies of Local Knowledge 57

Where Geographers Click showcases a website that professionals use and encourages students to try out its tools.

Where Geographers CLICK As fishing opportunities in Essaouira decline, its economy is increasingly focused on tourism. http://www.natgeoeducationvideo.com/film/421/essaouira

Services

Human Development Reports http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/data/hd_map/

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Streaming videos are available to students in the context of WileyPLUS, and accompanying assignments can be graded online and added to the instructor gradebook.

This site provides a very good place to learn more about measures of human development. From here it is possible to view additional maps and access data for specific countries.

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Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  
Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School

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