t Within Christianity, Renewalism has grown very rapidly in the past few decades and has become a global phenomenon. Megachurches, such as this one, now rival mainline Protestant and Catholic churches for members.
Religion, Nature, and Landscape
t Religion provides another lens through which to explore
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nature-society relationships including religious ecology and geopiety. Geopiety includes the reverence people may have for the Earth as well as the place attachments they develop. Environmental stewardship positions people as responsible managers of the Earth and its resources.
t The visible imprint of religion on the landscape varies from place to place and from one religion to another. Religious structures provide visible clues about beliefs and practices in an area. Customs for disposing of the dead also vary by religion and give rise to deathscapes, shown here.
What a Geographer Sees
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animistic religion 130 atheistic 130 caste system 148 civil religion 131 cosmogony 130 diaspora 138 environmental stewardship 153
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ethnic religion 131 geopiety 152 Islamic traditionalism 148 jihad 149 megachurch 151 modernism 148 monotheistic 130 piety 131
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pilgrimage 144 polytheistic 130 religion 130 religious ecology 153 religious fundamentalism 148 Renewalism 150 ritual 131
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sacred space 142 sanctiﬁcation 146 secularization 148 sharia 149 syncretic religion 130 universalizing religion 131
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions 1. Describe a religious landscape in your hometown. Discuss the forces that created it. 2. Why is Protestantism much more fragmented than Roman Catholicism? Why has Islam experienced comparatively less fragmentation than Christianity? 3. Who are the Amish and Mennonites? Do some research to learn of their origins, diffusion, and way of life. 4. View the movie Bend It Like Beckham and discuss its representation of Sikhism. 5. Research and then discuss the geography of cremation globally and in the United States. 6. How has the religious symbolism on graves changed over time? Test your hypothesis by visiting a cemetery to gather some data. 7. Why has the celebration of Earth Day been more successful than the celebration of an Environmental Sabbath? 8. What parallels can be drawn between religious practices and proper treatment of the American ﬂag? Is this evidence of civil religion? Explain your reasoning.
9. Think about pilgrimage from the standpoint of spatial interaction. To what extent does the concept of distance decay apply? Discuss, giving speciﬁc examples. 10. Note that evidence of at least two different religious traditions is reﬂected in this photograph. What are they? Is this a religious landscape? Why or why not?
Critical and Creative Thinking Questions