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Understanding language vitality and endangerment: The iĂ?>“Â?iĂŠÂœvĂŠ9Ă•VÂ…ÂˆĂŠ UĂŠ ˆ}Ă•Ă€iĂŠ{°£x Yuchi is a Native American language spoken in Oklahoma. Thousands once spoke it in all domains or spaces of social interaction. Since the 1800s, however, Yuchi has declined as language shift occurred, and today it has been almost entirely replaced by English. Only a handful of Yuchi speakers remain. Language shift occurs when speakers of a language change their speech behavior— for example, by acquiring another language and altering the geography, or spaces, where their original language was used. Yuchi speakers not only learned English, but the spaces where English is used expanded as the spaces of Yuchi use contracted. The social pressures that cause language shift are complex. 1 Pressures at different scales affect language vitality and endangerment

National-scale pressures ( F!!v# Y$!#!" #"#!U.S. ( F!ver# ""  #% !$# $$"

Regional-scale pressures ( !"!# !# "" !" #! ( "## b$"" #!# ( Y$#! #% !$" "##'ed

Yuchi linguistic space

Local-scale pressures ( ###!" !#"Y$"###" ( Y$!## " &!""! $"!" Y$ ( $"#Y$ $&$! !#"

2 The result is language shift as Yuchi (orange) loses vitality and English (blue) grows dominant.

Pre-1830s—Yuchi language vitality Yuchi is the first language acquired and is used for all purposes—home, commerce, government, education, religion.

1830s–1940s—Yuchi language gradually becomes subordinate to English National and regional forces conďŹ ne Yuchi’s linguistic space while the spaces of English use expand.

3 The Yuchi attempt to revitalize their language.

Richard A. Grounds, a Yuchi/Seminole and Director of the Yuchi Language Project, works with today’s few elderly Yuchi speakers to preserve their language, customs, and traditions.

Since the 1950s—Yuchi language endangerment English dominates most linguistic spaces and Yuchi is no longer taught to children.

Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School