Page 106

English is used for communication at sea or in the air and dominates in the areas of science, medicine, technology, and international business. Every day around the world hundreds of millions of people whose first language is not English use English to communicate. Could English eventually become a universal language through ongoing globalization? According to most experts, probably not, for two important reasons: First, as we learned in Chapter 2, globalizing forces can generate different local outcomes. The global diffusion of English provides a good example of this effect (ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°£Ó). A second reason we will likely not witness the development of English as a universal language involves the spaces or domains of language use and the nature of human identity. Although English prevails in certain spaces, for example, as a language of commerce and medicine, the number of people who learn English as a second or third language exceeds the number of people who learn it as their first language. This suggests that there are spaces—households and local communities, for example—that are more resistant to the diffusion of English. Moreover, some people neither want to nor desire to speak English, preferring instead to use their first language. Nevertheless, globalization and the growth of English and other languages as very large languages are altering the geography of linguistic diversity, a topic we discuss in the next section.

Papua New Guinea, one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world, Tok Pisin has emerged as a creole language that is now learned by many children as their first language (ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°££).

Lingua Francas As we have discussed, contact among people who speak different languages can result in the emergence and use of a pidgin language. Another option lingua franca A is to identify a lingua franca. The language that is Hausa language is a lingua franca used to facilitate used in northern Nigeria, Niger, trade or business and neighboring regions of West between people Africa. Swahili is a lingua franca who speak different spoken in the East African counlanguages. tries of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Burundi. Russian is still used as a lingua franca in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and a few other former Soviet republics. However, it is not clear how long this will last since most of these countries have identified other languages as their official languages, and some have even discouraged the use of Russian through de-Russification policies. Today there is a growing consensus that English has become a global lingua franca. Consider the prevalent use of English in certain international contexts. For example,

˜}ˆÃ…ʈ˜Ê}œL>Ê>˜`ʏœV>ÊVœ˜ÌiÝÌÊ ÊUÊ ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°£Ó No other language has the international standing or the global reach of English. Although this diagram shows the influence of American and British English on the global spread of the language, there is not a single version of English. Rather, the varieties of English that exist are highly localized. So, for example, Nigerian English differs from Pakistani English. 90°

120°

150°

30°

60°

30°

90°

60°

120°

150°

ENGLISH

AMERICAN USA

BRITISH

CANADA

60°

ANGLOPHONE

FRANCOPHONE

IRELAND SCOTLAND ENGLAND WALES

USA

MALTA S NE

MIDLAND

PI

IP

30°

IL

GIBRALTAR

NORTHERN

SOUTHERN

PH

PAKISTAN HAWAII CARIBBEAN

BANGLADESH

HONG KONG

INDIA

PUERTO RICO

PHILIPPINES. GUYANA

SRI LANKA

WEST LIBERIA AFRICA

MALAYSIA SINGAPORE

0° EAST AFRICA

SEYCHELLES

PAPUA NEW GUINEA PACIFIC IS.

ST HELENA AUSTRALIA 30°

SOUTH AFRICA

0 0

2000 2000

4000 Miles

4000 Kilometers

FALKLANDS

NEW ZEALAND

111

Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School

Advertisement