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Creole language in Papua iÜÊՈ˜i>Ê UÊ Ê ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°££ The sign reads: “Work on road, all cars must stop when you see the red sign.” The name of Papua New Guinea’s creole language is Tok Pisin, literally Talk Pidgin, a reflection of the language’s pidgin origins. Some words are Polynesian in origin, others derive from the languages indigenous to Papua New Guinea, and still others reflect German and English influences—a result of colonization. Tok Pisin is now used for some governmental functions and in journalism.

change. When people who speak different languages come into conA language that tact and need to communicate, they combines vocabulary and/or grammatical might create a pidgin language. practices from two This process of creating a common or more languages language by people who do not share that have come in one is known as pidginization. Pidgin contact. languages typically have specialized and limited functions because they develop in response to particular circumstances. Pidgin languages demonstrate creative and adaptive linguistic mixing. They tend to be oral languages, though some can be written, and they are rarely the first language a person learns. Pidgin languages endure as long as the contact situations in which they emerged are sustained. For example, the pidgin language Tay Boi was used for communication between the French and the Vietnamese from the 1860s to the 1950s, when Vietnam was a French colony. What is Spanglish? There is little agreement among scholars about this. Some linguists consider Spanglish to be a pidgin language that has grown out of the contact between Spanish-speakers and English-speakers in the United States, in regions of Mexico adjacent to the United States border, and in Puerto Rico where Spanish and English are recognized locally as official languages. Words such as chatear (to chat), lonchear (to lunch), mapo (map), and cuora (quarter) illustrate the hybridization common in Spanglish. Other linguists contend that Spanglish is pidgin language

110 CHAPTER 4 Geographies of Language

a kind of code switching, or a linguistic technique in which a speaker alternates between languages during a single sentence or conversation; for example: La fiesta por mi abuelita es domingo, so I will arrive on Friday. (The party for my grandmother is Sunday, so I will arrive on Friday.) We take the position that code switching is a fundamental dimension of Spanglish, and as a result, Spanglish is not as specialized and limited as most pidgins. In this respect it might be useful to think of Spanglish as intermediary between a pidgin language and a creole language. This is not to say, however, that pidgins always devel- creole language A language that op into creoles because they don’t. develops from a pidgin Nevertheless, creolization describes language and is taught a process of linguistic change in as a first language. which the functions and use of a pidgin language expand. For example, Hawaiian Creole English, which formed during the early 20th century, is based on a pidgin language that was used by the ethnically and linguistically diverse population of Hawaii. This population included native Hawaiians, Americans, and immigrant Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese, many of whom worked on sugar and pineapple plantations. Contact among such linguistically diverse groups gave rise to Hawaiian Pigdin English, which was eventually taught to children as a first language. This practice helped to expand the language and extend its use beyond the immigrant communities, leading to the development of Hawaiian Creole English. In

Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  
Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School