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ˆ˜}ՈÃ̈VÊLœÀÀœÜˆ˜}Ê ÊUÊ ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°£ä Contact among speakers of different languages commonly results in linguistic borrowing.

a. Selected loanwords and their origins The list includes direct loans (e.g., luau) and indirect loans (e.g., hammock, which entered Spanish and French and then English). Loanwords

Language

FJORD SKI

.ORWEGIAN

BEEF NAIVE

&RENCH

BANDIT DUET

)TALIAN

PENINSULA ULTIMATE

,ATIN

LANDSCAPE CRUISE

$UTCH

GLEN SLOGAN

3COTTISH'AELIC

HAMMOCK HURRICANE

#ARIB

DUNGAREES JUNGLE

(INDI

CARAVAN CANDY

0ERSIAN

GIRAFFE SOFA

!RABIC

CATAMARAN CURRY

4AMIL

UKULELE LUAU

(AWAIIAN

BOOMERANG KOALA

$HARUK!USTRALIAN!BORIGINAL

WOK HOISIN

#ANTONESE

KARAOKE TSUNAMI

*APANESE

COLA

4EMNE7EST!FRICA

OKRA

)GBO7EST!FRICA

International political and economic institutions such as the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) can also influence linguistic dominance. Languages gain status from being selected as official languages for organizations. The UN, for example, recognizes six official languages—English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Chinese. To avoid favoring one language over another, the EU recognizes 23 official languages, and all EU documents must be produced in each of these languages.

Language Dynamics Languages change over time and from one place to another. As noted at the start of this chapter, snowboarders have developed a specialized vocabulary for their sport. New technologies and innovations frequently stimulate vocabulary change as words are invented to express new concepts or to name new things (e.g., blog or spam), but they can also enable new ways of using language, such as texting.

b. The diffusion of ethnic food items, such as fajitas, often contributes to linguistic borrowing.

c. The Japanese word karaoke has been borrowed into English as well as Mandarin Chinese. When pronounced, the Chinese symbols sound like karaoke.

Often, vocabulary change occurs when one linguistic community borrows words from another language. These borrowed words are called loanwords (ˆ}ÕÀiÊ{°£ä).

loanword A word that originates in one language and is incorporated into the vocabulary of another language.

Pidgin and Creole Languages One of the most significant forces affecting language change is human mobility or migration. Mobility can fragment linguistic communities, paving the way for new language usages to develop. The emergence of American English, Australian English, and South African English as distinct from British English provides a good example of this facet of language change. Just as geographic separation can create conditions favorable for linguistic change, contact between members of different speech communities can also result in language Language Diffusion and Globalization

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Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  
Greiner visualizing human geography chapters 2-5  

Chapters for Manual High School

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