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Wiley Communications Technology Journals


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featured inside include: Proportionally fair scheduler for heterogeneous wireless systems by Daniel Calabuig, Jose F. Monserrat and NarcĂ­s Cardona An optimal energy-efficient clustering method in wireless sensor networks using multi-objective genetic algorithm by Ali Peiravi, Habib Rajabi Mashhadi, S. Hamed Javadi Trust modeling for message relay control and local action decision making in VANETs by Jie Zhang, Chen Chen, Robin Cohen A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches by Hoang T. Dinh, Chonho Lee, Dusit Niyato, Ping Wang Network reachability based IP prefix hijacking detection by Seong-Cheol Hong, Hongtaek Ju, James Won-Ki Hong A survey of architectures and scenarios in satellite-based wireless sensor networks: system design aspects by E. Ferro et al


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Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies Editor-in-Chief:

Mischa Dohler, King’s College, London, UK

Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index)

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Formerly known as European Transactions on Telecommunications, the new title and scope of this online only journal reflects a shift in focus that places it firmly at the forefront of research in advancing telecommunications technologies. The full new title of Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies: Smart Grids, Green Communications, Machine-to-Machine, New Developments highlights its forward-thinking approach and the journal’s determination to provide readers with cutting edge articles, particularly in the following themes: • Emerging Telecommunication Paradigms

• Ubiquitous Computing

• Disruptive Access Technologies

• Business and Policy Issues

• Novel Networking Systems

• Trust, Security and Privacy • Multi-Carrier Transmission, LTE & LTE-Advanced

Click on the ‘Special issues’ link on the homepage for information on special issues such as:

• Machine-to-Machine: An Emerging Communication Paradigm • Quality of Experience in Wireless Multimedia Systems

Editor Profile

Mischa Dohler is Chair Professor in Wireless Communications at King’s College London, UK, having previously led the Intelligent Energy [IQe] group at CTTC in Barcelona, with focus on Smart Grids and Green Radios, working on wireless sensor, machine-to-machine, femto, cooperative, cognitive and docitive networks. He is Distinguished lecturer of IEEE Comsoc. From June 2005 to February 2008, he was Senior Research Expert in the R&D division of France Telecom, France. From September 2003 to June 2005, he was lecturer at King’s College London, UK. At that time, he was also London Technology Network Business Fellow receiving Anglo-Saxon business training, as well as Student Representative of the IEEE UKRI Section and member of the Student Activity Committee of IEEE Region 8 (Europe, Africa, Middle-East and Russia). He obtained his PhD in Telecommunications from King’s College London, UK, in 2003, his Diploma in Electrical Engineering from Dresden University of Technology, Germany, in 2000, and his MSc degree in Telecommunications from King’s College London, UK, in 1999. Prior to Telecommunications, he studied Physics in Moscow. He has won various competitions in Mathematics and Physics, and participated in the 3rd round of the International Physics Olympics for Germany. In the framework of the Mobile VCE, he has pioneered research on distributed cooperative space-time encoded communication systems, dating back to December 1999. He has published more than 140 technical journal and conference papers at a citation h-index of 25 and citation g-index of 52, holds 13 patents, authored, co-edited and contributed to 19 books, has given 25 international short-courses, and participated in standardisation activities. He has been TPC member and co-chair of various conferences, such as technical chair of IEEE PIMRC 2008 held in Cannes, France. He is EiC of ETT and is/has been holding various editorial positions for numerous IEEE and non-IEEE journals. He is Senior Member of the IEEE. He is fluent in 6 languages. Supporting Mischa is a truly International Editorial board including representatives from USA, Asia, Australasia and Europe.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Proportionally fair scheduler for heterogeneous wireless systems Daniel Calabuig, Jose F. Monserrat and NarcĂ­s Cardona The proportional fair allocation depends firstly upon the priority weights given to users and secondly upon the proportional distribution of resources according to these weights. This distribution is trivial in single-technology systems but remains unresolved for heterogeneous wireless systems. This letter addresses this allocation problem not paying attention to the weights calculation, because this issue has been widely studied in the past. The novel proportionally fair scheduler for heterogeneous wireless systems (PFS-H) is based on linear programming and allocates any arbitrary resource quantity to users that are simultaneously served by several technologies. Given a priority list, the solution of the optimisation problem divides users and technologies into clusters to perform the fairest allocation of resources among users while maximising its usage. Results show that the PFS-H improves fairness up to 60% as compared with a single-technology policy.

Digital compensation of transmitter leakage in FDD zero-IF receivers A. Frotzscher and G. Fettweis Transmitter leakage (TxL) has a significant impact on the performance of frequency division duplex devices using zero-IF receivers and thus requires a suitable compensation. In contrast to analog approaches, digital TxL compensation approaches can easily be reconfigured and therefore are highly attractive for multiband mobile devices. In this contribution, we present a system model, describing the TxL impact on the received digital baseband signal. Furthermore, we show analytically that TxL causes an additional, irreversible signal-to-noise loss due to the quantisation in the analog-to-digital converter, which limits the applicability of a digital TxL compensation. However, this signal-to-noise ratio loss remains negligibly small as long as the TxL interference does not exceed significantly the desired received signal. For TxL to be compensated digitally, the TxL channel needs be estimated. In this work, we present two TxL channel estimation approaches suitable for frequency flat and frequency selective channels. It is shown that the usage of these approaches mitigates effectively the TxL impact on the system performance. Thus, the system designer can allow much stronger TxL, which significantly relaxes the requirements on the transmitter–receiver isolation of the duplexer and the linearity of the analog receiver frontend.

Study of the potential energy savings in Ethernet by combining Energy Efficient Ethernet and Adaptive Link Rate P. Reviriego, J.A. Maestro, J.A. HernĂĄndez and D. Larrabeiti The Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) standard (IEEE 802.3az) has introduced some modifications to existing Ethernet standards with the aim of improving energy efficiency in the transmission of data frames. The adopted mechanism is to use different power modes of operation such that a device can be put into a lowpower mode when there is no data to transmit and awake it very quickly upon frame arrival. This is expected to reduce energy consumption significantly, especially on low-loaded links. An alternative to EEE, known as Adaptive Link Rate (ALR), was also proposed to improve energy efficiency in Ethernet by dynamically changing the link speed at different traffic loads. ALR reduces the energy consumption because the lower the link speed, the less energy is consumed. However, this option is no longer considered in the EEE standard process. In this work, the potential energy savings of combining both EEE and ALR are explored. The results show that such a combination can further improve the already efficient EEE standard given the different power overheads associated with transitions between the active and idle power modes at different link speeds. This conclusion provides a clear motivation to investigate the combination of EEE and ALR more in detail in further developments.

International Journal of Communication Systems Editor-in-Chief:

Mohammad S. Obaidat, Monmouth University, USA Editor – Asia and The Pacific:

Hsiao-Hwa Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Impact Factor:


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Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ©Thomson Reuters

The International Journal of Communication Systems provides a forum for R&D, open to researchers from all types of institutions and organisations worldwide, aimed at the increasingly important area of communication technology. The journal’s emphasis is particularly on the issues impacting behaviour at the system, service and management levels. Published twelve times a year, it provides coverage of advances that have a significant potential to impact the immense technical and commercial opportunities in the communications sector. The International Journal of Communication Systems strives to select a balance of contributions that promotes technical innovation allied to practical relevance across the range of system types and issues; addressing both public communication systems (Telecommunication, mobile, Internet, and Cable TV) and private systems (Intranets, enterprise networks, LANs, MANs, WANs).

Editor Profile

Professor Mohammad S. Obaidat (Fellow of IEEE and Fellow of SCS) is an internationally well-known academic/researcher/ scientist. Since 1997, Professor Obaidat has been the Journal’s Editor-in-Chief. He has chaired numerous international conferences and given numerous keynote speeches all over the world. He also served as an advisor to many international conferences, journals and organizations. He received his PhD and M.S. degrees in Computer Engineering with a minor in Computer Science from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Prof. Obaidat is currently a full Professor of Computer Science at Monmouth University, NJ, USA. Among his previous positions are Chair of the Department of Computer Science and Director of the Graduate Program at Monmouth University. Between 2004-2005, he served as the Advisor to the President of Philadelphia University. He has received extensive research funding and has published over 10 books and over 500 refereed technical articles. His papers and books are very highly cited. His research interests are: telecommunications and networking systems, wireless communications and networks, security of networks information and computer systems, security of e-based systems, performance evaluation of computer systems, algorithms and network, modeling and simulation, adaptive learning and speech processing, among others. Prof. Obaidat is a distinguished speaker/lecturer of ACM and SCS. He also served between 1995-1998 as IEEE Computer Society Distinguished Speaker. Between 1995-1998, he also served as an ABET/CSAB program evaluator. Between 2009-2011, he served as the President of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International, SCS. He also served as the Senior Vice President of SCS. He received many awards including the best paper award in the IEEE AICCSA 2009 international conference. He also received the best paper award for one of his papers accepted in IEEE GLOBECOM 2009 conference and 2011 IEEE DCNET 2011. Dr. Obaidat received very recently the SCS prestigious McLeod Founder’s Award in recognition of his outstanding technical and professional contributions to modeling and simulation. He received in Dec 2010, the IEEE ComSoc- GLOBECOM 2010 Outstanding Leadership Award for his outstanding leadership of CSSMA 2010. In 2011, he received the outstanding leadership award for his efforts in chairing the 2011 IEEE iThings conference. Recently, Prof. Obaidat has been awarded a Nokia Research Fellowship and the distinguished Fulbright Scholar Award. He has given numerous keynote speeches at international conferences all over the world. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a Fellow of the SCS. For more information on Prof. Obaidat; see:

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. An optimal energy-efficient clustering method in wireless sensor networks using multi-objective genetic algorithm Ali Peiravi, Habib Rajabi Mashhadi, S. Hamed Javadi In this study, an optimal method of clustering homogeneous wireless sensor networks using a multiobjective two-nested genetic algorithm is presented. The top level algorithm is a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) whose goal is to obtain clustering schemes in which the network lifetime is optimized for different delay values. The low level GA is used in each cluster in order to get the most efficient topology for data transmission from sensor nodes to the cluster head. The presented clustering method is not restrictive, whereas existing intelligent clustering methods impose certain conditions such as performing two-tiered clustering. A random deployed model is used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. In addition, a comparison is made between the presented algorithm other GA-based clustering methods and the Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy protocol. The results obtained indicate that using the proposed method, the network’s lifetime would be extended much more than it would be when using the other methods.

Increasing end-to-end fairness over IEEE 802.11e-based wireless mesh networks Abdelhafid Abouaissa, Mohamed-el-Amine Brahmia, Pascal Lorenz In this paper, we discuss the issue of fairness in the IEEE802.11e over wireless mesh networks. Fairness is an important factor that we have to achieve before talking about QoS. Inspired by social networks approximations, and to achieve fairness and provide QoS by regulating heterogeneous traffic, we extended the original IEEE802.11e protocol by introducing a new algorithm based on the ‘token bucket’ concept. We also treat the problem of exposed/hidden nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed approach offers better performance than the IEEE802.11e one.

Operation reduced low-density parity-check decoding algorithms for low power communication systems Chia-Yu Lin, Shu-Cheng Chou, Mong-Kai Ku Decoding operation reduction algorithms on min-sum layered low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders are proposed in this paper. Our algorithm freezes selected operations in high reliable nodes to reduce power while preserving error correcting performance. Both memory accesses and active node switching activities can be reduced. A novel node refresh mechanism reactivates frozen nodes to minimize coding gain degradation. We propose three decoding operation reduction algorithm variations to trade-off complexity and operation reduction for LDPC decoders with different degrees of parallelism and memory requirement. Simulation results show that the number of LDPC decoding operations is reduced across all SNR ranges. The decoding convergence speed is not affected. Hardware architecture and FPGA implementation for IEEE 802.16e LDPC codes are presented.

Security and Communication Networks Editor-in-Chief:

Hsiao-Hwa Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Co-Editor-in-Chief:

Hamid R. Sharif, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA Senior Editor:

Impact Factor:


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Norman C. Beaulieu, University of Alberta, Canada Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ©Thomson Reuters

Looking for topical papers? Click on ‘Special Issues’ on the journal homepage

Security and Communication Networks is an international journal publishing original research and review papers on security and cryptographic mechanisms applied to all types of information and communication networks, including wired, wireless and optical transmission platforms. The journal provides a prestigious forum for the R&D community in academia and industry working at the inter-disciplinary nexus of next generation communications technologies with physical and upper layer network security implementations. Answering the highly practical and commercial importance of network security R&D, submissions of applications-oriented papers describing case studies and simulations are encouraged as well as research analysis-type papers. Exchange of novel ideas through Security and Communication Networks (SCN) articles will play a key role in the next generation of communication technologies, amongst international researchers from Asia to Africa to Europe to North and South America . . . SCN is one of the leaders in the exchange of innovative ideas and new technologies among scientists and professional in industry and academia. SCN acts as a bridge among international researchers for the exchange of scientific discoveries in contributing to the security and communication network field.The Journal articles go through extensive reviews by international experts in one of the shortest review cycles. The SCN editorial board consists of well-known experts and distinguished scholars from around the world. SCN articles are well referenced and the have become foundations for in-depth research activities in this area. – Dr. Hamid Sharif, Co-Editor-in-Chief

Editor Profile

Hsiao-Hwa Chen ( is currently a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. He obtained his BSc and MSc degrees from Zhejiang University, China, and a PhD degree from the University of Oulu, Finland, in 1982, 1985 and 1991, respectively. Currently, he is the founding Editor-in-Chief of Wiley’s Security and Communication Networks Journal. He is a Fellow of IEEE, a Fellow of the IET and a Fellow of BCS.

Co-Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Hamid Sharif is the Charles J. Vranek Distinguished Professor of the College of Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is also Director of the Advanced Telecommunications Engineering Laboratory (TEL) at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Sharif has published a large number of research articles in international journals and conferences and has been the recipient of a number of best papers and research activities. Dr. Sharif has coordinated many large research projects funded by major research agencies in the US. Dr. Sharif is serving as an editor for several international journals and has contributed to the IEEE in many roles including the elected Chair of the Nebraska Section, elected Chair of the Nebraska Computer Chapter, elected Chair of the Nebraska Communication Chapter, and the Chapter Coordinator for the IEEE Region 4 in the US.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Trust modeling for message relay control and local action decision making in VANETs Jie Zhang, Chen Chen, Robin Cohen In this paper, we present a trust-modeling framework for message propagation and evaluation in vehicular ad hoc networks. In the framework, peers share information regarding road condition or safety, and others provide opinions about whether the information can be trusted. More specifically, our trust-based message propagation model collects and propagates peers’ opinions in an efficient, secure, and scalable way by dynamically controlling information dissemination. The trust-based message evaluation model allows peers to derive a local action decision about whether to follow the information by evaluating the information in a distributed and collaborative fashion while taking into account others’ opinions. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed trust-modeling framework promotes network scalability and system effectiveness, which are the two essentially important factors for the popularization of vehicular ad hoc networks, in information propagation and evaluation under the pervasive presence of false information. In particular, we clarify how our relay control serves to decrease the number of inappropriate actions taken on the basis of malicious information and enables honest peers to produce a greater number of deliveries within the network.

What you see predicts what you get—lightweight agent-based malware detection Wei Wang, Ilona Murynets, Jeffrey Bickford, Christopher Van Wart, Gang Xu Because of the always connected nature of mobile devices, as well as the unique interfaces they expose, such as short message service (SMS), multimedia messaging service (MMS), and Bluetooth, classes of mobile malware tend to propagate using means unseen in the desktop world. In this paper, we propose a lightweight malware detection system on mobile devices to detect, analyze, and predict malware propagating via SMS and MMS messages. We deploy agents in the form of hidden contacts on the device to capture messages sent from malicious applications. Once captured, messages can be further analyzed to identify a message signature as well as potentially a signature for the malicious application itself. By feeding the observed messages over time to a latent space model, the system can estimate the current dynamics and predict the future state of malware propagation within the mobility network. One distinct feature of our system is that it is lightweight and suitable for wide deployment. The system shows a good performance even when only 10% of mobile devices are equipped with three agents on each device. Moreover, the model is generic and independent of malware propagation schemes. We prototype the system on the Android platform in a universal mobile telecommunications system laboratory network to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying agents on mobile devices as well as collecting and blocking malware-carrying messages within the mobility network. We also show that the proposed latent space model estimates the state of malware propagation accurately, regardless of the propagation scheme.

Secure multicast key protocol for electronic mail systems with providing perfect forward secrecy Hsing-Chung Chen Electronic mail (e-mail) systems are widely used in the Internet. A user usually needs to send an e-mail to a group of users. In this paper, a secure multicast key protocol for e-mail systems with providing perfect forward secrecy is proposed to ensure confidentiality and authentication of this kind of e-mail system. The protocol employs the Chinese Remainder Theorem, RSA public key cryptosystems, and one-way hash functions. The protocol can save redundant key materials used for the e-mails. Via the security analysis, the protocol can satisfy the security requirements. In addition, we analyze the computation complexity of the protocol. The result showed that the protocol can save the computation cost for each e-mail sender.

Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Editor-in-Chief:

Mohsen Guizani, Qatar University Senior Editor:

Hamid Aghvami, Kings College, London, UK Editor Europe:

Michele Zorzi, University of Padova, Italy Editor Asia and The Pacific: Impact Factor:


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Hsiao-Hwa Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ©Thomson Reuters

Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing is committed to publishing high-quality papers that advance the state-of-the-art and practical applications of wireless communications and mobile computing. Presenting comprehensive coverage of this fast moving field, the journal provides the R&D communities working in academia and the telecommunications and networking industries with a forum for sharing research and ideas. The convergence of wireless communications and mobile computing is bringing together two areas of immense growth and innovation. This is reflected throughout the journal by strongly focusing on new trends, developments, emerging technologies and new industrial standards. Under the guidance of an international editorial and advisory board drawn from academia and industry, this high quality, peer-reviewed journal provides leading edge coverage of the opportunities and challenges driving the research and development of mobile communication systems. Theoretical research contributions, applied contributions, and tutorial / survey manuscripts are welcome.The subjects covered by this journal include all topics of wireless communications, mobile computing, networking and information networks. WCMC strives to be the best in the field with its fast reviewing process. We plan to take it to the next level of excellence during its second decade. The journal has a bright future as the research area of WC and MC will grow further in the years to come. – Professor Mohsen Guizani, Editor-in-Chief

Editor Profile

Professor Mohsen Guizani is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. He is currently a Professor and the Associate Vice President for Graduate Studies at Qatar University. He was the Chair of the CS Department at Western Michigan University from 2002 to 2006 and Chair of the CS Department at University of West Florida from 1999 to 2002. He also served in academic positions at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, University of Colorado-Boulder, Syracuse University and Kuwait University. His research interests include Computer Networks, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, and Optical Networking. He is the author of 7 books and more than 270 publications in refereed journals and conferences. He guest edited a number of special issues in IEEE Journals and Magazines. He also served as member, Chair, and General Chair of a number of conferences. Professor Guizani served as the Chair of IEEE ComSoc WTC and Chair of TAOS ComSoc Technical Committees. He was an IEEE Computer Society Distinguished Lecturer from 2003 to 2005. Professor Guizani is an IEEE Fellow and a senior member of ACM.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. A survey of mobile cloud computing: architecture, applications, and approaches Hoang T. Dinh, Chonho Lee, Dusit Niyato, Ping Wang Together with an explosive growth of the mobile applications and emerging of cloud computing concept, mobile cloud computing (MCC) has been introduced to be a potential technology for mobile services. MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment and overcomes obstacles related to the performance (e.g., battery life, storage, and bandwidth), environment (e.g., heterogeneity, scalability, and availability), and security (e.g., reliability and privacy) discussed in mobile computing. This paper gives a survey of MCC, which helps general readers have an overview of the MCC including the definition, architecture, and applications. The issues, existing solutions, and approaches are presented. In addition, the future research directions of MCC are discussed.

A study on one-dimensional k-coverage problem in wireless sensor networks Lei Li, Baoxian Zhang, Jun Zheng In this paper, we study the one-dimensional coverage problem in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and consider a network deployed along a one-dimensional line according to a Poisson distribution. We analyze three important parameters that are related to the problem, i.e., expected k-coverage proportion, full k-coverage probability, and partial k-coverage probability, and derive mathematical models that describe the relationships between the node density in the network and these parameters. The purpose is to calculate or estimate the node density required for achieving a given coverage probability, which is useful in the deployment of a onedimensional network for many applications. We first analyze the expected k-coverage proportion, then analyze the full k-coverage probability for k = 1 and the lower bound to the full k-coverage probability for k > 1, and finally analyze the partial k-coverage probability for k = 1 and give a brief discussion of the partial k-coverage probability for k > 1. The mathematical models are validated through simulation.

Dynamic fractional frequency reuse (D-FFR) for multicell OFDMA networks using a graph framework Ronald Y. Chang, Zhifeng Tao, Jinyun Zhang, C.-C. Jay Kuo A graph-based framework is proposed in this paper to implement dynamic fractional frequency reuse (D-FFR) in a multicell Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) network. FFR is a promising resource-allocation technique that can effectively mitigate intercell interference (ICI) in OFDMA networks. The proposed D-FFR scheme enhances the conventional FFR by enabling adaptive spectral sharing as per cell-load conditions. Such adaptation has significant benefits in practical systems where traffic loads in different cells are usually unequal and time-varying. The dynamic adaptation is accomplished via a graph framework in which the resourceallocation problem is solved in two phases: (1) constructing an interference graph that matches the specific realization of FFR and the network topology and (2) coloring the graph by use of a heuristic algorithm. Various realizations of FFR can easily be incorporated in the framework by manipulating the first phase. The performance improvement enabled by the proposed D-FFR scheme is demonstrated by computer simulation for a 19-cell network with equal and unequal cell loads. In the unequal-load scenario, the proposed D-FFR scheme offers significant performance improvement in terms of cell throughput and service rate as compared to conventional FFR and previous interference management schemes.

International Journal of Network Management Editor-in-Chief:

James Won-Ki Hong, POSTECH, Korea Associate Editor-in-Chief:

Aiko Pras, University of Twente, Netherlands Editor:

Guy Pujolle, Université Paris 6, France Impact Factor:


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Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ©Thomson Reuters

Looking for topical papers? Click on ‘Special Issues’ on the journal homepage

Modern computer networks and communication systems are increasing in size, scope, and heterogeneity. The promise of a single end-to-end technology has not been realized and likely never will occur. The decreasing cost of bandwidth is increasing the possible applications of computer networks and communication systems to entirely new domains. Problems in integrating heterogeneous wired and wireless technologies, ensuring security and quality of service, and reliably operating large-scale systems including cloud computing have all emerged as important topics, alongside network measurement, SDN and openflow. The one constant is the need for meeting the challenges within network management. The International Journal of Network Management is the forum for researchers, developers, and practitioners to present their work to an international audience. The journal is dedicated to the dissemination of information which will enable improved management, operation, and maintenance of computer networks and communication systems. Topic areas for the journal are largely defined by the taxonomy for network and service management developed by IFIP WG6.6, together with IEEE-CNOM, the IRTF-NMRG and the Emanics Network of Excellence. Q: What do you look for in a paper? A: Papers submitted to IJNM should clearly identify which management problem is being solved. In many cases papers describe a technical solution without a convincing reasoning that the solution indeed solves a realmanagement problem. IJNM papers should compare - and discuss the pros and cons of - the proposed solution against the state of the art. Verification / validation of obtained results is crucial. – Professor Aiko Pras, Associate Editor-in-Chief

Editor Profile

Professor James Won-Ki Hong is Head and Professor of the Division of IT Convergence Engineering and Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at POSTECH in Pohang, Republic of Korea. He was General Co-Chair, IEEE NOMS 2010, and he now serves as IEEE Comsoc Director of Online Content. His research specialities are in the broad areas of Internet Traffic Monitoring & Analysis, Future Internet, Autonomic Network and Service Management, Application of Autonomics. You can find out more information about Professor Hong’s work here: Aiko Pras is an Associate Professor in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Twente, the Netherlands, where he is leading the Design and Analysis of Communication Systems Group (DACS). He received a Ph.D. degree from the same university for his thesis titled “Network Management Architectures”. His research interests include network management technologies, network monitoring and measurements, network security and web services. He has been the research leader in the European Network of Excellence on Management of the Internet and Complex Services (EMANICS), and has participated in many European and Dutch research projects, as member, evaluator and as reviewer. He has contributed to research and standardization activities as a founding member of the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) Network Management Research Group (NMRG) and as RFC author. He is chairing the IFIP Working Group 6.6 on “Management of Networks and Distributed Systems”, is editor of the IEEE Communications Magazine series on “Network & Service Management”, Associate Editor-inChief of the International Journal of Network Management (IJNM) and Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (TNSM), and Editorial Advisory Board member for the Journal of Network and Systems Management (JNSM). He is Steering Committee member of the IFIP/IEEE NOMS and IM Symposia (NISC), Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM), AIMS, E2EMon, as well as the EUNICE Consortium. He was/is (Technical Program) Co-Chair of several conferences, including DSOM’01, IM’05, EUNICE’07, TMA’09, AIMS’09 and Manweek’09.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Network reachability based IP prefix hijacking detection Seong-Cheol Hong, Hongtaek Ju, James Won-Ki Hong IP prefix hijacking is a major threat to the security of the Internet routing system owing to the lack of authoritative prefix ownership information. Despite many efforts to design IP prefix hijack detection schemes, no existing design satisfies all the critical requirements of a truly effective system, i.e. to be real-time, deployable, and robust. In this paper, we present a novel approach that detects IP prefix hijacking in the current Internet environment. The focus of this work is on maintaining the Border Gateway Protocol routing infrastructure and not relying on mutual cooperation to ensure ease of deployment. In addition, we look at fingerprinting two autonomous systems that have the same IP prefix to distinguish hijacking events from legitimate routing updates. This paper proposes a practical and deployable IP prefix hijacking detection algorithm with live hosts on the Internet.

Multi-step solution for QoS management in wireless mesh networks Abolghasem (Hamid) Asgari, Edward V. Stansfield Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) as community- and city-wide type networks are required to extend their capability to offer real-time multimedia services. While technologies exist to support quality of service (QoS) at node level, we propose here a network-wide multi-step solution to manage and offer QoS across a WMN. From a provider perspective, the provisioning and fulfillment of QoS-based services fall under the realms of service management, network and traffic engineering functions. We describe the relevant functions required to design, implement and operate a WMN for providing a qualitative QoS to end-users. Our proposed solution considers network planning aspects, including node placement, node clustering and frequency assignments, route discovery between ingress–egress points and appropriate QoS provisioning across the network. Route-level QoS provisioning is defined as the process of allocating resources to the nodes along the identified routes to meet a priori known aggregated traffic demands in order to satisfy the QoS requirements for different types of application. Simulation and experimental tests are conducted to validate the correct behavior of processes/algorithms and to access the solution in achieving QoS for aggregate user traffic.

Heterogeneous uncoordinated deployment of WLANs: an evolving problem for current and future Wi-Fi access Murad Abusubaih This article addresses the problem of uncoordinated heterogeneous deployment of 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs). It is expected that such deployments by different WLAN owners and WiFi providers will become a challenging problem that limits the network performance and quality of service of wireless users. We present results of a real case study that show a need for coordination among WLAN devices in order to avoid current and future problems. We provide potential solution directions. A special focus is given to channel assignment and coordinated channel access problems. Our results show that a new paradigm for designing WLAN devices seems to be crucial.

International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking Chief Editor:

Barry G. Evans, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) Impact Factor:

©Thomson Reuters


The premier learned journal covering satellite communications and networking, IJSCN publishes papers that report innovation in the subject, covering topics such as broadcast systems, navigation systems, networks, hybrid systems, equipment - earth stations / terminals, payloads, launchers and components, planning and operations, performance analysis, interoperability, propagation and interference, enabling technologies -coding / modulation / signal processing, mobile / broadcast / navigation / fixed services, service provision, marketing,economics and business aspects, standards and regulation, network protocols. Satellite communication systems are embracing some very interesting new areas such as Ka band and higher frequencies, emergency and disaster systems, new constellations such as O3b, becoming part of 5G mobile systems and components of interplanetary communications. Submissions to the journal need to cover satellite communications or satellite networking and make a new and significant contribution to the field, with some theoretical analysis or simulation of the topic. They should not be of conference nature, reporting on a current topic without in-depth treatment. The journal does, however, publish papers describing and evaluating new systems. Collections of papers on a new or hot topic that could form a special issue will be considered. – Professor Barry G. Evans, Chief Editor

Recent ‘state-of-the-art’ special issues: •

Channel Modelling and Propagation Impairment Simulation Activities Within the SatNEx Project (Vol. 29, issue 1)

Hybrid/Integrated Satellite-Terrestrial Networks (Vol. 29, issue 3)

Emergency Telecommunications via Satellites (Vol. 29, issue 5)

Editor Profile

Professor Barry G. Evans was until recently Director of the Centre for Communication Systems Research at the University of Surrey and Pro-Vice-Chancellor for research and enterprise. CCSR has research collaboration with India, Japan, Korea and the US and is a major player in the UK’s Mobile Virtual Centre of Excellence. Professor Evans still leads the satellite research at Surrey and has over 30 years’ experience in satellite communications and – in addition to being the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking– is a UK Space TNAB Board member and Chairman of the Steering Board of the EU Satellite Network of Excellence in Satellite Communications. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Dual polarization MIMO in LMS broadcasting systems: Possible benefits and challenges Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou, Martin Zamkotsian, Panayotis Cottis The benefits of employing dual polarization in wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems are only recently becoming apparent due to the continuous measurement and modeling efforts by the terrestrial research community. Land mobile satellite (LMS) broadcasting systems exhibit distinct channel, system and geometrical characteristics and are subjected to stringent spatial limitations compared to terrestrial wireless. Therefore, it remains to be investigated which operating conditions favor the joint instead of the independent encoding/decoding over the two polarizations of satellite beams. After outlining the relevant progress made in wireless dual polarization MIMO systems, the present work carries out a thorough comparison between the joint and independent encoding/decoding approaches in typical single-satellite LMS systems exploiting state-of-the-art building blocks. This comparative analysis investigates both the capacity and error performance under a fair framework between systems occupying the same resources. Since the same analytical tools are used for both terrestrial and satellite dual polarization systems, the present paper may also serve as an analytical bridge between the two.

Improving satellite services with cooperative communications Beatrice Paillassa, BenoĂŽt Escrig, Riadh Dhaou, Marie-Laure Boucheret, Caroline Bes This paper proposes new transmission schemes for the delivery of satellite services. In the proposed scenarios, mobile terminals are allowed to forward the signal received from the satellite. This scheme provides spatial diversity just like MIMO transmission schemes. Moreover, the coverage area is extended because masked terminals have an additional opportunity to get the service from neighboring terminals. We use the paradigm of cooperative communications to compare the advantages and limitations of several scenarios in hybrid terrestrial/satellite systems. In particular, we study the following basic transmission scheme: in a first time slot, the satellite sends its signal and, in a second time slot, mobile terrestrial terminals are relaying the satellite signal. An analysis framework is proposed and applied to this cooperation scenario at the destination terminal. The framework is modeling the cooperation process and clearly separates the control part from the data user part. The paper outlines the importance of the control part by evaluating the relay selection policy on a basic hybrid satellite/ad hoc system.

Link adaptation for Ka band low Earth orbit Earth Observation systems: A realistic performance assessment Nikolaos Toptsidis, Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou, Massimo Bertinelli In this paper, a proposal is sketched for realizing high data rate downlinks in next-generation Ka band low Earth orbit (LEO) Earth Observation (EO) systems. The work aims at realistically assessing the throughput advantage stemming from link adaptation strategies—embraced by most wireless and satellite communication standards—compared with non-adaptive transmission, which is the approach followed in conventional X band EO systems. The transmission strategies examined include constant, (static and dynamic) variable, and adaptive flavors of coding and modulation, each representing a different performance/system complexity trade-off. Practicality is pursued to the extent possible by incorporating state-of-the-art orbital, ground station, spacecraft, propagation, physical layer, and system implementation characteristics. The results manifest that under particular conditions, link adaptation offers throughput improvements of up to 100% against non-adaptive transmission schemes in Ka band LEO EO systems.

International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering Editor-in-Chief:

Inder J. Bahl Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ©Thomson Reuters

Impact Factor:


International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering provides a common forum for the dissemination of research and development results in the areas of computer-aided design and engineering of RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave components, circuits, subsystems, and antennas. The journal is intended to be a single source of valuable information for all engineers and technicians, RF/microwave/mm-wave CAD tool vendors, researchers in industry, government and academia, professors and students, and systems engineers involved in RF/microwave/mm-wave technology. Multidisciplinary in scope, the journal publishes peer-reviewed articles and short papers on topics that include, but are not limited to. . . Computer-Aided Modeling Computer-Aided Analysis Computer-Aided Optimization Software and Manufacturing Techniques Computer-Aided Measurements Measurements Interfaced with CAD Systems In addition, the scope of the journal includes features such as software reviews, RF/microwave/mm-wave CAD related news, including brief reviews of CAD papers published elsewhere and a “Letters to the Editor” section.

Editor Profile

Inder J. Bahl received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India in 1975. Dr. Bahl has over 40 years of experience working in the microwave field. Dr. Bahl researched and managed products including microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits, printed antennas, phased array antennas, millimeter wave antennas and medical and industrial applications of microwaves. He joined the ITT Gallium Arsenide Technology Center in 1981 and launched numerous microwave and millimeter wave GaAs IC products for commercial and military applications. At Cobham (formerly ITT GTC/Tyco Electronics), he continued working on GaAs ICs as a Distinguished Fellow of Technology until he retired in 2010. Through his research publications and books he is well recognized worldwide in the microwave field. Dr. Bahl is the author/co-author of over 160 research papers. He authored/co-authored 15 books and holds 17 patents. He is an IEEE Life Fellow and a member of the Electromagnetic Academy.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Tri-band microstrip patch antennas Taha Imeci, Nesem Keskin Two different tri-band microstrip patch antenna designs are presented. Antennas are designed and simulated using the commercial simulation Sonnet Suites [(Sonnet Software, version: 12.56 www. (2009)] and simulated results are compared against measurements in detail. Target application of the first design is radar systems in IEEE 802.11, wireless communications in wireless local area network and worldwide interoperability for microwave access bands. The second tri-resonance antenna is designed to operate in the 9–13 GHz band and comparisons between simulations and measurements are presented. Results show three resonance frequencies at which design presented herein achieves return loss better than 30 dB with the maximum 10 dB return loss bandwidth of 4%. Resonance frequencies are 9.52, 10.66, and 12.60 GHz, which meets the design specification of covering the X-band. A detailed parametric study of the geometry, dielectric thickness, and dielectric constant is also provided.

Quasi-TEM approach of coupled-microstrip lines and its application to the analysis of microstrip filters Fei Xiao, Martin Norgren, Sailing He In this article, the quasi-TEM approach is successfully used to analyze coupled-microstrip lines of finite length, which are usually used for the coupling between the source/load and resonators in microstrip filters. First, an orthogonal expansion method is used to extract the per-length inductance and capacitance matrices. The authors then obtain the impedance matrix or admittance matrix, which relates the voltages and currents at both ends of coupled-microstrip lines. To verify our theory, an example is presented, i.e., a Y-shaped dual-mode bandpass microstrip filter, for which, the equivalent circuit model based on the quasi-TEM analysis of coupled-microstrip lines is accurately set up. The approach in this article is applicable to planar microstrip lines with arbitrary number of conductors, under the quasi-TEM assumption.

Metamaterials: Definitions, properties, applications, and FDTD-based modeling and simulation (Invited paper) Filiberto Bilotti, Levent Sevgi In this article, we review definition, origin, terminology, fundamental properties, design concepts and procedures, basic applications, modeling, and numerical simulation of metamaterials. It is shown that metamaterial origin can be easily understood by placing metamaterials in the more general context of artificial electromagnetic materials and of the efforts performed by the scientific community working in complex materials to mimic and overcome the properties of natural materials. The basic properties of some classes of metamaterials as well as the related limitations are reviewed and discussed. A new application-oriented definition of metamaterials is given in terms of a functionalizing layer placed in between the traditional concepts of materials and devices. Metamaterial applications and the design steps of metamaterial-based and metamaterial-inspired components are also discussed, with particular emphasis on the numerical simulation of ideal metamaterials through available solvers. In this frame, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling and simulation of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials are deeply discussed. The recently introduced virtual MTM-FDTD tool is used to simulate the interaction between the electromagnetic field and metamaterials and show some metamaterial effects, such as beam focusing, existence of negative refractive angle, and so forth, through various examples in different scenarios.

Microwave and Optical Technology Letters Editor-in-Chief:

Kai Chang, Texas A&M University, USA

Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) Impact Factor:

©Thomson Reuters


Microwave and Optical Technology Letters provides quick publication (3 to 6 month turnaround) of the most recent findings and achievements in high frequency technology, from RF to optical spectrum. The journal publishes original short papers and letters on theoretical, applied, and system results in the following areas: • RF, Microwave, and Millimeter Waves • Antennas and Propagation • Submillimeter-Wave and Infrared Technology • Optical Engineering

Microwave and Optical Technology Letters is one of the most highly accessed journals, FACT with 800+ articles downloaded per day . . . around 300,000 per year.

Editor Profile

Dr. Kai Chang serves as Director of Electromagnetics and Microwaves Laboratory of Texas A&M University. From 1981 to 1985, Dr. Chang worked for the TRW Electronics and Defense, Redondo Beach, CA, as a Section Head, developing state-ofthe-art millimeter-wave integrated circuits and subsystems including mixers, VCOs, transmitters, amplifiers, modulators, up-converters, switches, multipliers, receivers, and transceivers. He joined the Electrical Engineering Department of Texas A&M University in August 1985 as an Associate Professor and was promoted to a Professor in 1988. From 1990 to 2006, he was appointed Raytheon E-Systems Endowed Professor of Electrical Engineering. Dr. Chang is an industry renowned scientist best known for his pioneering work in Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Circuits and Devices, Microwave Integrated Circuits, Antennas and Phased Arrays, Active Antennas and Power Combining, Microwave Power Transmission, Wireless Communications, Microwave Systems, Microwave-Optical Interactions, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid-State Oscillators, Amplifiers, Transmitters, and Receivers. He is the Holder of the Texas Instruments Endowed Chair. Dr. Chang has been Member of Advisory Board of Advanced Defense Technologies, Inc. since February 15, 2011. Dr. Chang received the B.S.E.E. degree from the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, the M.S. degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Ph.D. degree from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1970, 1972, and 1976, respectively.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation Reports® Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. A broadband antenna using the modified ground plane with a complementary split ring resonator for 5-GHz WLAN band-notched performance Jangyeol Kim, Nam Kim, Seungwoo Lee In this article, a new configuration of a broadband antenna is proposed.The designed antenna is an elliptical monopole antenna with a complementary split ring resonator structure that is inserted in the ground plane for rejecting the 5-GHz WLAN band (5.15–5.35 and 5.725–5.825 GHz). In addition, impedance matching technique implemented by rectangular slot applied to the ground plane is suggested. The technique can be an effective method to achieve the wider bandwidth. The designed antenna shows that a VSWR less than 2 was satisfied with a resonant frequency in the range of 2.67–12 GHz.

WWAN/LTE printed slot antenna for tablet computer application Kin-Lu Wong, Wun-Jian Lin A printed slot antenna comprising two quarter-wavelength slots of different lengths and a halfwavelength slot for eight-band wireless wide area network/long term evolution operation in the tablet computer is presented. The two quarter-wavelength slots are open slots or monopole slots, and the half-wavelength slot is aligned in-between the two quarter-wavelength slots. The three slots are excited using a two-strip feedline which is printed on the opposite surface of the printed slots. The proposed three-slot configuration can lead to two wide operating bands, with the lower one covering the 704–960 MHz band and the upper one covering the 1710–2690 MHz band. Good radiation efficiency for frequencies over the operating bands is obtained. The simulated body specific absorption rate values of the antenna in the bottom face, landscape and portrait orientations to the flat phantom in the body specific absorption rate testing model also meet the limit of 1.6 W/kg for 1-g tissue. Details of the results are presented.

Small-size multiband planar antenna for LTE700/2300/2500 operation in the tablet computer Kin-Lu Wong, Chao-An Lyu, Liang-Che Chou A small-size multiband planar antenna can be obtained using a long parasitic shorted strip and a monopole feed encircled by the same. Such a configuration can lead to a small antenna size for multiband operation, and a promising design with a small size of 12 × 35 mm2 for covering three-band LTE700/2300/2500 operation (704–787/2300–2400/2500–2690 MHz bands) in the tablet computer is presented. The antenna is easy to fabricate on one surface of an FR4 substrate and is composed of an inverted-L strip as the monopole feed and a long parasitic shorted strip encircling the inverted-L monopole. The long shorted strip is parasitically excited to generate a 0.25-wavelength resonant mode at about 750 MHz to cover the LTE700 operation, while the inverted-L monopole generates a 0.25-wavelength resonant mode at about 2.5 GHz to cover the LTE2300/2500 operation. Details of the proposed antenna are described. Radiation characteristics of the antenna and its body specific absorption rate results for tablet computer applications are also presented.

Radio Science Editor-in-Chief:

Paul S. Cannon, QinetiQ, University of Birmingham, UK

Impact Factor:

Indexed in many services, including ISI Journal Citation Reports (Science Citation Index) ŠThomson Reuters


Radio Science carries original scientific contributions on all aspects of electromagnetic phenomena related to physical problems. These contributions can include propagation through and interaction of electromagnetic waves with geophysical media, biological media, plasmas, and man-made structures. Coverage includes, but is not limited to, the application of electromagnetic techniques to remote sensing of the Earth and its environment, telecommunications, signals and systems, the ionosphere, and radio astronomy. All frequencies (including optical) are considered.

Published on behalf of the American Geophysical Union


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Editor Profile

Professor Paul Cannon, FREng is the Director of the Poynting Institute at the University of Birmingham and was previously a Senior Fellow at QinetiQ (Malvern). He is a leading figure in Radio Science and Systems, being interested in a wide range of radio propagation and radio environment problems and how they impact communications, radar and navigation systems. As a scientist (originally) and as a research engineer (latterly) Paul seeks novel, but real world, solutions to challenging problems.

*2013 Release of Journal Citation ReportsÂŽ Source: Thomson Reuters 2012 Citation Data

Top Pick papers - read them in full ONLINE If you have a smartphone or tablet, you can instantly access the FREE full text article by scanning the code. Alternatively, you can type the URL. Time-reversal techniques for MISO and MIMO wireless communication systems Ahmed E. Fouda, Fernando L. Teixeira, Mehmet E. Yavuz We consider the application of different time-reversal (TR) signal processing and beamforming techniques to multiple-input single-output (MISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Conventional TR beamforming provides spatial focusing at the intended receiver; however, it does not yield perfect channel equalization. Time-reversed pilot can be normalized to provide perfect equalization at the expense of power level. This equalization is particularly important for high data rates where the bit error rate performance is dominated by internal noise due to intersymbol interference. To increase physical layer covertness, TR beamforming is combined with the multiple-signal-classification (MUSIC) technique to produce null fields at eavesdroppers. This technique is also applied to MIMO setups to eliminate interuser interference and hence increase system capacity. Differential TR is used to obtain and update pilot signals for passive moving receivers, i.e., those that cannot (or do not) transmit pilot signals. Time-reversed differential backscattered signal is able to provide satisfactory spatial and temporal focusing at the moving receiver.

An iterative semi-analytical technique solving the boundary value problem of transmission through an anisotropic wedge Constantinos A. Valagiannopoulos, Constantin R. Simovski An iterative technique imitating the physical mechanism of transmission through an anisotropic prism is introduced, analyzed and tested. The solution is obtained by treating the boundary value problem along one boundary of the device at a time, as if the other is extended to infinite. This approximation makes the proposed method more suitable for small wedge angles. However, comprehensive numerical checks concerning the accuracy and the convergence speed of the method are performed with satisfying results. Several geometrical configurations with various constituent materials have been considered and certain conclusions for the operational features of the corresponding devices have been obtained.

High-precision measurements of ionospheric TEC gradients with the Very Large Array VHF system J. F. Helmboldt, T. J. W. Lazio, H. T. Intema, K. F. Dymond We have used a relatively long, contiguous VHF observation of a bright cosmic radio source (Cygnus A) with the Very Large Array (VLA) to demonstrate the capability of this instrument to study the ionosphere. This interferometer, and others like it, can observe ionospheric total electron content (TEC) fluctuations on a much wider range of scales than is possible with many other instruments. We have shown that with a bright source, the VLA can measure differential TEC values between pairs of antennas (δTEC) with a precision of 3 × 10−4 TECU. Here, we detail the data reduction and processing techniques used to achieve this level of precision. In addition, we demonstrate techniques for exploiting these high-precision δTEC measurements to compute the TEC gradient observed by the array as well as small-scale fluctuations within the TEC gradient surface. A companion paper details specialized spectral analysis techniques used to characterize the properties of wave-like fluctuations within this data.


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