Contents

VOLUME I

Modern Mechanics

Chapter

3 The Fundamental

Interactions   00

3.1 THE FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS  00

Chapter

1 Interactions and Motion   1

1.1 KINDS OF MATTER  1 1.2 DETECTING INTERACTIONS  3 1.3 NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION  00 1.4 OTHER INDICATORS OF INTERACTION  00 1.5 DESCRIBING THE 3D WORLD: VECTORS  00 1.6 SI UNITS  00 1.7 VELOCITY  00 1.8 MOMENTUM  00 1.9 CHANGE OF MOMENTUM  00 1.10 *THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY  00 1.11 *UPDATING POSITION AT HIGH SPEED  00 S U M M A R Y   00 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   00 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   00

Chapter

2 The Momentum Principle   48

3.2 THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE  00 3.3 APPROXIMATE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE NEAR THE EARTH’S SURFACE  00 3.4 RECIPROCITY  00 3.5 PREDICTING MOTION OF GRAVITATIONALLY INTERACTING OBJECTS  00 3.6 THE ELECTRIC FORCE  00 3.7 THE STRONG INTERACTION  00 3.8 NEWTON AND EINSTEIN  00 3.9 PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS  00 3.10 DETERMINISM  00 3.11 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM  00 3.12 THE MULTIPARTICLE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  00 3.13 COLLISIONS: NEGLIGIBLE EXTERNAL FORCES  00 3.14 POINTS AND SPHERES  00 3.15 MEASURING THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT G  00 S U M M A R Y   00 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   00 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   00

2.1 SYSTEM AND SURROUNDIN  48 2.2 THE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  50 2.3 APPLYING THE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  00

Chapter

4 Contact Interactions   000

2.4 MOMENTUM CHANGE WITH CHANGING FORCE  00

4.1 TARZAN AND THE VINE  000

2.5 ITERATIVE PREDICTION OF MOTION  00

4.2 A MODEL OF A SOLID: BALLS CONNECTED BY SPRINGS  000

2.6 SPECIAL CASE: CONSTANT FORCE  00 2.7 ESTIMATING INTERACTION TIMES  00

4.3 TENSION FORCES  000

2.8 PHYSICAL MODELS  00

4.4 LENGTH OF AN INTERATOMIC BOND  000

2.9 *DERIVATION: SPECIAL CASE AVERAGE VELOCITY  00

4.5 THE STIFFNESS OF AN INTERATOMIC BOND  000 4.6 STRESS, STRAIN, AND YOUNG’S MODULUS  000

2.10 *INERTIAL FRAMES  00

4.7 COMPRESSION (NORMAL) FORCES  000

2.11 *MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS  00

4.8 FRICTION  000

S U M M A R Y  00 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   00 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   00

4.9 SPEED OF SOUND IN A SOLID AND INTERATOMIC BOND STIFFNESS  000 4.10 DERIVATIVE FORM OF THE MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  000

xvii

xviii Contents 4.11 ANALYTICAL SOLUTION: SPRING–MASS SYSTEM  000 4.12 ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR SPEED OF SOUND  000

Contents S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

4.13 CONTACT FORCES DUE TO GASES  000 4.14 *A VERTICAL SPRING–MASS SYSTEM  000 4.15 *GENERAL SOLUTION FOR THE MASS–SPRING SYSTEM  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

5 Rate of Change

Momentum   000

5.1 IDENTIFYING FORCES ON A SYSTEM  000 5.2 MOMENTUM NOT CHANGING (STATICS)  000 5.3 FINDING THE RATE OF CHANGE OF MOMENTUM  000 5.4 CURVING MOTION  000 5.5 RATE OF CHANGE OF DIRECTION  000 5.6 WHY DOES THE VINE BREAK?  000 5.7 PROBLEM SOLVING  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

6 The Energy Principle   000

6.1 THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE  000 6.2 THE SIMPLEST SYSTEM: A SINGLE PARTICLE  000 6.3 WORK: MECHANICAL ENERGY TRANSFER  000 6.4 UPDATE FORM OF THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE  000 6.5 CHANGE OF REST ENERGY  000 6.6 PROOF OF THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE FOR A PARTICLE  000 6.7 WORK DONE BY A NONCONSTANT FORCE  000 6.8 POTENTIAL ENERGY IN MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEMS  000 6.9 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.10 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.11 PLOTTING ENERGY vs. SEPARATION  000 6.12 APPLYING GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.13 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY NEAR THE EARTH’S SURFACE  000 6.14 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.15 THE MASS OF A MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM  000 6.16 REFLECTION: WHY ENERGY?  000 6.17 IDENTIFYING INITIAL AND FINAL STATES  000

Chapter

7 Internal Energy   000

7.1 POTENTIAL ENERGY OF MACROSCOPIC SPRINGS  000 7.2 POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A PAIR OF NEUTRAL ATOMS  000 7.3 PATH INDEPENDENCE OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 7.4 INTERNAL ENERGY AND THERMAL ENERGY  000 7.5 ENERGY TRANSFER DUE TO A TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE  000 7.6 REFLECTION: FORMS OF ENERGY  000 7.7 POWER: ENERGY PER UNIT TIME  000 7.8 OPEN AND CLOSED SYSTEMS  000 7.9 THE CHOICE OF SYSTEM AFFECTS ENERGY ACCOUNTING  000 7.10 ENERGY DISSIPATION  000 7.11 POTENTIAL ENERGY AND “CONSERVATIVE” FORCES  000 7.12 *RESONANCE  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

8 Energy Quantization   000

8.1 PHOTONS  000

12.5 WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

12.6 SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF A SOLID  000

Chapter

10 Collisions   000

10.1 INTERNAL INTERACTIONS IN COLLISIONS  000 10.2 ELASTIC AND INELASTIC COLLISIONS  000 10.3 A HEAD-ON COLLISION OF EQUAL MASSES  000

12.7 THE BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION  000 12.8 THE BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION IN A GAS  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

13 Gases and Engines   000

10.4 HEAD-ON COLLISIONS BETWEEN UNEQUAL MASSES  000

13.1 GASES, SOLIDS, AND LIQUIDS  000

10.5 FRAME OF REFERENCE  000

13.3 MEAN FREE PATH  000

10.6 SCATTERING: COLLISIONS IN 2-D AND 3-D  000 10.7 DISCOVERING THE NUCLEUS INSIDE ATOMS  000 10.8 *DISTRIBUTION OF SCATTERING ANGLES  000 10.9 RELATIVISTIC MOMENTUM AND ENERGY  000 10.10 INELASTIC COLLISIONS AND QUANTIZED ENERGY  000 10.11 COLLISIONS IN OTHER REFERENCE FRAMES  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

11 Angular Momentum   000

11.1 TRANSLATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000 11.2 ROTATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000

13.2 GAS LEAKS THROUGH A HOLE  000 13.4 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE  000 13.5 ENERGY TRANSFERS  000 13.6 FUNDAMENTAL LIMITATIONS ON EFFICIENCY  000 13.7 A MAXIMALLY EFFICIENT PROCESS  000 13.8 *WHY DON’T WE ATTAIN THE THEORETICAL EFFICIENCY?  000 13.9 *APPLICATION: A RANDOM WALK  000 13.10 *DERIVATION: MAXIMUM-POWER EFFICIENCY  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

VOLUME II

8.6 OTHER ENERGY LEVELS  000

11.6 THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICS  000

8.7 COMPARISON OF ENERGY LEVEL SPACINGS  000

Electric and Magnetic Interactions Chapter 14 Electric Field   000

11.7 SYSTEMS WITH ZERO TORQUE  000

8.8 *CASE STUDY: HOW A LASER WORKS  000

14.1 NEW CONCEPTS  000

11.8 SYSTEMS WITH NONZERO TORQUES  000

8.9 *WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT  000

14.2 ELECTRIC CHARGE AND FORCE  000

11.9 PREDICTING POSITIONS WHEN THERE IS ROTATION  000

14.3 THE CONCEPT OF “ELECTRIC FIELD”  000

11.10 ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTIZATION  000

14.5 SUPERPOSITION OF ELECTRIC FIELDS  000

8.2 ELECTRONIC ENERGY LEVELS  000 8.3 THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE  000 8.4 VIBRATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS  000 8.5 ROTATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

9 Multiparticle Systems   000

9.1 THE MOTION OF THE CENTER OF MASS  000 9.2 SEPARATION OF MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM ENERGY  000 9.3 ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY  000 9.4 THE “POINT PARTICLE SYSTEM”  000

6.18 *A PUZZLE  000

9.5 ANALYZING POINT PARTICLE AND REAL SYSTEMS  000

6.19 *GRADIENT OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000

9.6 *MODELING FRICTION IN DETAIL  000

6.20 *INTEGRALS AND ANTIDERIVATIVES  000

9.7 *A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR DRY FRICTION  000

6.21 *APPROXIMATION FOR KINETIC ENERGY  000

9.8 *DERIVATION: KINETIC ENERGY OF A MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM  000

6.22 *FINDING THE FORMULA FOR PARTICLE ENERGY  000

EQUATION  000

9.9 *DERIVATION: THE POINT PARTICLE ENERGY

11.3 TRANSLATIONAL PLUS ROTATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000 11.4 THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  000 11.5 MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEMS  000

11.11 *GYROSCOPES  000 11.12 *MORE COMPLEX ROTATIONAL SITUATIONS  000 11.13 *RATE OF CHANGE OF A ROTATING VECTOR  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapters

12 Entropy: Limits on the

14.4 THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF A POINT CHARGE  000 14.6 THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF A DIPOLE  000 14.7 CHOICE OF SYSTEM  000 14.8 IS ELECTRIC FIELD REAL?  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

15 Electric Fields and

Possible   000

Matter   000

12.1 STATISTICAL ISSUES  000

15.1 CHARGED PARTICLES IN MATTER  000

12.2 A STATISTICAL MODEL OF SOLIDS  000 12.3 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM OF BLOCKS IN CONTACT  000 12.4 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS  000

xix

15.2 HOW INSULATORS BECOME CHARGED  000 15.3 POLARIZATION  000 15.4 POLARIZATION OF INSULATORS  000 15.5 POLARIZATION OF CONDUCTORS  000

xviii Contents 4.11 ANALYTICAL SOLUTION: SPRING–MASS SYSTEM  000 4.12 ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR SPEED OF SOUND  000

Contents S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

4.13 CONTACT FORCES DUE TO GASES  000 4.14 *A VERTICAL SPRING–MASS SYSTEM  000 4.15 *GENERAL SOLUTION FOR THE MASS–SPRING SYSTEM  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

5 Rate of Change

Momentum   000

5.1 IDENTIFYING FORCES ON A SYSTEM  000 5.2 MOMENTUM NOT CHANGING (STATICS)  000 5.3 FINDING THE RATE OF CHANGE OF MOMENTUM  000 5.4 CURVING MOTION  000 5.5 RATE OF CHANGE OF DIRECTION  000 5.6 WHY DOES THE VINE BREAK?  000 5.7 PROBLEM SOLVING  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

6 The Energy Principle   000

6.1 THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE  000 6.2 THE SIMPLEST SYSTEM: A SINGLE PARTICLE  000 6.3 WORK: MECHANICAL ENERGY TRANSFER  000 6.4 UPDATE FORM OF THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE  000 6.5 CHANGE OF REST ENERGY  000 6.6 PROOF OF THE ENERGY PRINCIPLE FOR A PARTICLE  000 6.7 WORK DONE BY A NONCONSTANT FORCE  000 6.8 POTENTIAL ENERGY IN MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEMS  000 6.9 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.10 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.11 PLOTTING ENERGY vs. SEPARATION  000 6.12 APPLYING GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.13 GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY NEAR THE EARTH’S SURFACE  000 6.14 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 6.15 THE MASS OF A MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM  000 6.16 REFLECTION: WHY ENERGY?  000 6.17 IDENTIFYING INITIAL AND FINAL STATES  000

Chapter

7 Internal Energy   000

7.1 POTENTIAL ENERGY OF MACROSCOPIC SPRINGS  000 7.2 POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A PAIR OF NEUTRAL ATOMS  000 7.3 PATH INDEPENDENCE OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 7.4 INTERNAL ENERGY AND THERMAL ENERGY  000 7.5 ENERGY TRANSFER DUE TO A TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE  000 7.6 REFLECTION: FORMS OF ENERGY  000 7.7 POWER: ENERGY PER UNIT TIME  000 7.8 OPEN AND CLOSED SYSTEMS  000 7.9 THE CHOICE OF SYSTEM AFFECTS ENERGY ACCOUNTING  000 7.10 ENERGY DISSIPATION  000 7.11 POTENTIAL ENERGY AND “CONSERVATIVE” FORCES  000 7.12 *RESONANCE  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

8 Energy Quantization   000

8.1 PHOTONS  000

12.5 WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

12.6 SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF A SOLID  000

Chapter

10 Collisions   000

10.1 INTERNAL INTERACTIONS IN COLLISIONS  000 10.2 ELASTIC AND INELASTIC COLLISIONS  000 10.3 A HEAD-ON COLLISION OF EQUAL MASSES  000

12.7 THE BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION  000 12.8 THE BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION IN A GAS  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

13 Gases and Engines   000

10.4 HEAD-ON COLLISIONS BETWEEN UNEQUAL MASSES  000

13.1 GASES, SOLIDS, AND LIQUIDS  000

10.5 FRAME OF REFERENCE  000

13.3 MEAN FREE PATH  000

10.6 SCATTERING: COLLISIONS IN 2-D AND 3-D  000 10.7 DISCOVERING THE NUCLEUS INSIDE ATOMS  000 10.8 *DISTRIBUTION OF SCATTERING ANGLES  000 10.9 RELATIVISTIC MOMENTUM AND ENERGY  000 10.10 INELASTIC COLLISIONS AND QUANTIZED ENERGY  000 10.11 COLLISIONS IN OTHER REFERENCE FRAMES  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

11 Angular Momentum   000

11.1 TRANSLATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000 11.2 ROTATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000

13.2 GAS LEAKS THROUGH A HOLE  000 13.4 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE  000 13.5 ENERGY TRANSFERS  000 13.6 FUNDAMENTAL LIMITATIONS ON EFFICIENCY  000 13.7 A MAXIMALLY EFFICIENT PROCESS  000 13.8 *WHY DON’T WE ATTAIN THE THEORETICAL EFFICIENCY?  000 13.9 *APPLICATION: A RANDOM WALK  000 13.10 *DERIVATION: MAXIMUM-POWER EFFICIENCY  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

VOLUME II

8.6 OTHER ENERGY LEVELS  000

11.6 THREE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICS  000

8.7 COMPARISON OF ENERGY LEVEL SPACINGS  000

Electric and Magnetic Interactions Chapter 14 Electric Field   000

11.7 SYSTEMS WITH ZERO TORQUE  000

8.8 *CASE STUDY: HOW A LASER WORKS  000

14.1 NEW CONCEPTS  000

11.8 SYSTEMS WITH NONZERO TORQUES  000

8.9 *WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT  000

14.2 ELECTRIC CHARGE AND FORCE  000

11.9 PREDICTING POSITIONS WHEN THERE IS ROTATION  000

14.3 THE CONCEPT OF “ELECTRIC FIELD”  000

11.10 ANGULAR MOMENTUM QUANTIZATION  000

14.5 SUPERPOSITION OF ELECTRIC FIELDS  000

8.2 ELECTRONIC ENERGY LEVELS  000 8.3 THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE  000 8.4 VIBRATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS  000 8.5 ROTATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

9 Multiparticle Systems   000

9.1 THE MOTION OF THE CENTER OF MASS  000 9.2 SEPARATION OF MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM ENERGY  000 9.3 ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY  000 9.4 THE “POINT PARTICLE SYSTEM”  000

6.18 *A PUZZLE  000

9.5 ANALYZING POINT PARTICLE AND REAL SYSTEMS  000

6.19 *GRADIENT OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000

9.6 *MODELING FRICTION IN DETAIL  000

6.20 *INTEGRALS AND ANTIDERIVATIVES  000

9.7 *A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR DRY FRICTION  000

6.21 *APPROXIMATION FOR KINETIC ENERGY  000

9.8 *DERIVATION: KINETIC ENERGY OF A MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEM  000

6.22 *FINDING THE FORMULA FOR PARTICLE ENERGY  000

EQUATION  000

9.9 *DERIVATION: THE POINT PARTICLE ENERGY

11.3 TRANSLATIONAL PLUS ROTATIONAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM  000 11.4 THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE  000 11.5 MULTIPARTICLE SYSTEMS  000

11.11 *GYROSCOPES  000 11.12 *MORE COMPLEX ROTATIONAL SITUATIONS  000 11.13 *RATE OF CHANGE OF A ROTATING VECTOR  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapters

12 Entropy: Limits on the

14.4 THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF A POINT CHARGE  000 14.6 THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF A DIPOLE  000 14.7 CHOICE OF SYSTEM  000 14.8 IS ELECTRIC FIELD REAL?  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

15 Electric Fields and

Possible   000

Matter   000

12.1 STATISTICAL ISSUES  000

15.1 CHARGED PARTICLES IN MATTER  000

12.2 A STATISTICAL MODEL OF SOLIDS  000 12.3 THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM OF BLOCKS IN CONTACT  000 12.4 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS  000

xix

15.2 HOW INSULATORS BECOME CHARGED  000 15.3 POLARIZATION  000 15.4 POLARIZATION OF INSULATORS  000 15.5 POLARIZATION OF CONDUCTORS  000

xx Contents

Contents

15.6 A MODEL OF A METAL  000

18.3 BIOT-SAVART LAW: SINGLEMOVING CHARGE  000

15.7 CHARGING AND DISCHARGING  000

18.4 RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS  000

15.8 WHENTHE FIELD CONCEPT IS LESS USEFUL  000

18.5 ELECTRON CURRENT&CONVENTIONAL CURRENT  000

S U M M A RY BASIC EXPERIMENTS ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

18.6 THE BIOT-SAVART LAW FOR CURRENTS  000

21 Magnetic Force   000

18.7 THEMAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS  000

Chapter

18.8 A CIRCULAR LOOP OF WIRE  000

21.1 MAGNETIC FORCE ON AMOVING CHARGE  000

18.9 MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENT  000 18.10 THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF A BAR MAGNET  000

21.2 MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CURRENT-CARRYING WIRE  000

18.11 THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE OFMAGNETS  000

21.3 COMBINING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES  000 21.4 THE HALL EFFECT  000

16.1 OVERVIEW  000

18.12 *ESTIMATE OF ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF AN ELECTRON IN AN ATOM  000

16.2 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED THIN ROD  000

18.13 *MAGNETIC FIELD OF A SOLENOID  000

16.3 PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING ELECTRIC FIELD  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

16 Electric Field of Distributed

Charges   000

16.4 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED THIN RING  000 16.5 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED DISK  000 16.6 TWOUNIFORMLY CHARGED DISKS: A CAPACITOR  000 16.7 A SPHERICAL SHELL OF CHARGE  000 16.8 A SOLID SPHERE CHARGED THROUGHOUT ITS VOLUME  000 16.9 INFINITESIMALS AND INTEGRALS IN SCIENCE  000 16.10 *UNIFORM THIN ROD AT AN ARBITRARY LOCATION  000

21.5 MOTIONAL EMF  000 21.6 MAGNETIC FORCE IN MOVING REFERENCE FRAME  000 21.7 MAGNETIC TORQUE  000 21.8 POTENTIAL ENERGY FOR A MAGNETIC DIPOLE  000 21.9 MOTORS AND GENERATORS  000 21.10 *CASE STUDY: SPARKS IN AIR  000 21.11 *RELATIVISTIC FIELD TRANSFORMATIONS  000

Chapter

19 Electric Field and

Circuits   000

19.1 OVERVIEW  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

19.2 CURRENT IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF A CIRCUIT  000

Chapter

22 Patterns of Field in

xxi

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

24 Electromagnetic

24.1 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 24.2 FIELDS TRAVELING THROUGH SPACE  000 24.3 ACCELERATED CHARGES PRODUCE RADIATION  000 24.4 SINUSOIDAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION  000 24.5 ENERGY AND MOMENTUMIN RADIATION  000 24.6 EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON MATTER  000 24.7 *DIFFERENTIAL FORM OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 24.9 REFRACTION: BENDING OF LIGHT  000 24.10 LENSES  000 24.11 IMAGE FORMATION  000 24.12 *THE FIELD OF AN ACCELERATED CHARGE  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

25 Waves and Particles   000

16.11 *INTEGRATINGTHE SPHERICAL SHELL  000

19.3 ELECTRIC FIELD AND CURRENT  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

19.4 WHAT CHARGES MAKE THE ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE WIRES?  000

Space   000

25.1 WAVE PHENOMENA  000

19.5 CONNECTING A CIRCUIT: THE INITIAL TRANSIENT  000

22.1 PATTERNS OF ELECTRIC FIELD:GAUSS’S LAW  000 22.2 DEFINITION OF “ELECTRIC FLUX”  000

25.3 THEWAVEMODELvs. THE PARTICLE MODEL OF LIGHT  000

19.6 FEEDBACK  000

22.3 GAUSS’S LAW  000

25.4 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF THE WAVE MODEL  000

19.7 SURFACE CHARGE AND RESISTORS  000

22.4 REASONING FROM GAUSS’S LAW  000

25.5 ANGULAR RESOLUTION  000

19.8 ENERGY IN A CIRCUIT  000

22.5 GAUSS’S LAWFOR MAGNETISM  000

25.6 STANDING WAVES  000

19.9 APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY  000

22.6 PATTERNS OFMAGNETIC FIELD: AMPERE’S LAW  000

19.10 DETECTING SURFACE CHARGE  000

22.7 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000

25.7 *DERIVATION:TWOSLITS ARE LIKETWO SOURCES  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

22.8 *THE DIFFERENTIAL FORM OF GAUSS’S LAW  000

Chapter

17 Electric Potential   000

17.1 A REVIEW OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 17.2 SYSTEMS OF CHARGED OBJECTS  000 17.3 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN A UNIFORM FIELD  000 17.4 SIGN OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE  000 17.5 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN A NONUNIFORM FIELD  000 17.6 PATH INDEPENDENCE  000 17.7 THE POTENTIAL AT ONE LOCATION  000 17.8 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN AN INSULATOR  000 17.9 ENERGY DENSITY AND ELECTRIC FIELD  000

Chapter

20 Circuit Elements   000

17.10 *POTENTIAL OF DISTRIBUTED CHARGES  000

20.1 CAPACITORS  000

17.11 *INTEGRATINGTHE SPHERICAL SHELL  000

20.2 RESISTORS  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

20.3 WORK AND POWER IN A CIRCUIT  000

Chapter

18 Magnetic Field   000

20.4 BATTERIES  000 20.5 AMMETERS, VOLTMETERS, AND OHMMETERS  000 20.6 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AN RC CIRCUIT  000 20.7 REFLECTION: THEMACRO-MICRO CONNECTION  000 20.8 *WHAT ARE AC AND DC?  000

18.1 ELECTRON CURRENT  000

20.9 *ELECTRONS IN METALS  000

18.2 DETECTING MAGNETIC FIELDS  000

20.10 *A COMPLICATED RESISTIVE CIRCUIT  000

22.9 *THE DIFFERENTIALFORM OF AMPERE’S LAW  000 22.10 *SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

23.1 CURLY ELECTRIC FIELDS  000 23.2 FARADAY’S LAW  000 23.3 FARADAY’S LAW AND MOTIONAL EMF  000 23.4 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 23.5 SUPERCONDUCTORS  000 23.6 INDUCTANCE  000 23.7 *SOME PECULIAR CIRCUITS  000 23.8 *THE DIFFERENTIALFORM OF FARADAY’S LAW  000 23.9 *LENZ’S RULE  000

25.2 MULTI-SOURCE INTERFERENCE: DIFFRACTION  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Index   000

xx Contents

Contents

15.6 A MODEL OF A METAL  000

18.3 BIOT-SAVART LAW: SINGLEMOVING CHARGE  000

15.7 CHARGING AND DISCHARGING  000

18.4 RELATIVISTIC EFFECTS  000

15.8 WHENTHE FIELD CONCEPT IS LESS USEFUL  000

18.5 ELECTRON CURRENT&CONVENTIONAL CURRENT  000

S U M M A RY BASIC EXPERIMENTS ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS EXERCISES AND PROBLEMS ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

18.6 THE BIOT-SAVART LAW FOR CURRENTS  000

21 Magnetic Force   000

18.7 THEMAGNETIC FIELD OF CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS  000

Chapter

18.8 A CIRCULAR LOOP OF WIRE  000

21.1 MAGNETIC FORCE ON AMOVING CHARGE  000

18.9 MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENT  000 18.10 THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF A BAR MAGNET  000

21.2 MAGNETIC FORCE ON A CURRENT-CARRYING WIRE  000

18.11 THE ATOMIC STRUCTURE OFMAGNETS  000

21.3 COMBINING ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES  000 21.4 THE HALL EFFECT  000

16.1 OVERVIEW  000

18.12 *ESTIMATE OF ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF AN ELECTRON IN AN ATOM  000

16.2 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED THIN ROD  000

18.13 *MAGNETIC FIELD OF A SOLENOID  000

16.3 PROCEDURE FOR CALCULATING ELECTRIC FIELD  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

16 Electric Field of Distributed

Charges   000

16.4 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED THIN RING  000 16.5 A UNIFORMLY CHARGED DISK  000 16.6 TWOUNIFORMLY CHARGED DISKS: A CAPACITOR  000 16.7 A SPHERICAL SHELL OF CHARGE  000 16.8 A SOLID SPHERE CHARGED THROUGHOUT ITS VOLUME  000 16.9 INFINITESIMALS AND INTEGRALS IN SCIENCE  000 16.10 *UNIFORM THIN ROD AT AN ARBITRARY LOCATION  000

21.5 MOTIONAL EMF  000 21.6 MAGNETIC FORCE IN MOVING REFERENCE FRAME  000 21.7 MAGNETIC TORQUE  000 21.8 POTENTIAL ENERGY FOR A MAGNETIC DIPOLE  000 21.9 MOTORS AND GENERATORS  000 21.10 *CASE STUDY: SPARKS IN AIR  000 21.11 *RELATIVISTIC FIELD TRANSFORMATIONS  000

Chapter

19 Electric Field and

Circuits   000

19.1 OVERVIEW  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

19.2 CURRENT IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF A CIRCUIT  000

Chapter

22 Patterns of Field in

xxi

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

24 Electromagnetic

24.1 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 24.2 FIELDS TRAVELING THROUGH SPACE  000 24.3 ACCELERATED CHARGES PRODUCE RADIATION  000 24.4 SINUSOIDAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION  000 24.5 ENERGY AND MOMENTUMIN RADIATION  000 24.6 EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON MATTER  000 24.7 *DIFFERENTIAL FORM OF MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 24.9 REFRACTION: BENDING OF LIGHT  000 24.10 LENSES  000 24.11 IMAGE FORMATION  000 24.12 *THE FIELD OF AN ACCELERATED CHARGE  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

25 Waves and Particles   000

16.11 *INTEGRATINGTHE SPHERICAL SHELL  000

19.3 ELECTRIC FIELD AND CURRENT  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

19.4 WHAT CHARGES MAKE THE ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE WIRES?  000

Space   000

25.1 WAVE PHENOMENA  000

19.5 CONNECTING A CIRCUIT: THE INITIAL TRANSIENT  000

22.1 PATTERNS OF ELECTRIC FIELD:GAUSS’S LAW  000 22.2 DEFINITION OF “ELECTRIC FLUX”  000

25.3 THEWAVEMODELvs. THE PARTICLE MODEL OF LIGHT  000

19.6 FEEDBACK  000

22.3 GAUSS’S LAW  000

25.4 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF THE WAVE MODEL  000

19.7 SURFACE CHARGE AND RESISTORS  000

22.4 REASONING FROM GAUSS’S LAW  000

25.5 ANGULAR RESOLUTION  000

19.8 ENERGY IN A CIRCUIT  000

22.5 GAUSS’S LAWFOR MAGNETISM  000

25.6 STANDING WAVES  000

19.9 APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY  000

22.6 PATTERNS OFMAGNETIC FIELD: AMPERE’S LAW  000

19.10 DETECTING SURFACE CHARGE  000

22.7 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000

25.7 *DERIVATION:TWOSLITS ARE LIKETWO SOURCES  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X P E R I M E N T S   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

22.8 *THE DIFFERENTIAL FORM OF GAUSS’S LAW  000

Chapter

17 Electric Potential   000

17.1 A REVIEW OF POTENTIAL ENERGY  000 17.2 SYSTEMS OF CHARGED OBJECTS  000 17.3 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN A UNIFORM FIELD  000 17.4 SIGN OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE  000 17.5 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN A NONUNIFORM FIELD  000 17.6 PATH INDEPENDENCE  000 17.7 THE POTENTIAL AT ONE LOCATION  000 17.8 POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE IN AN INSULATOR  000 17.9 ENERGY DENSITY AND ELECTRIC FIELD  000

Chapter

20 Circuit Elements   000

17.10 *POTENTIAL OF DISTRIBUTED CHARGES  000

20.1 CAPACITORS  000

17.11 *INTEGRATINGTHE SPHERICAL SHELL  000

20.2 RESISTORS  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

20.3 WORK AND POWER IN A CIRCUIT  000

Chapter

18 Magnetic Field   000

20.4 BATTERIES  000 20.5 AMMETERS, VOLTMETERS, AND OHMMETERS  000 20.6 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AN RC CIRCUIT  000 20.7 REFLECTION: THEMACRO-MICRO CONNECTION  000 20.8 *WHAT ARE AC AND DC?  000

18.1 ELECTRON CURRENT  000

20.9 *ELECTRONS IN METALS  000

18.2 DETECTING MAGNETIC FIELDS  000

20.10 *A COMPLICATED RESISTIVE CIRCUIT  000

22.9 *THE DIFFERENTIALFORM OF AMPERE’S LAW  000 22.10 *SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES  000 S U M M A R Y   000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Chapter

23.1 CURLY ELECTRIC FIELDS  000 23.2 FARADAY’S LAW  000 23.3 FARADAY’S LAW AND MOTIONAL EMF  000 23.4 MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS  000 23.5 SUPERCONDUCTORS  000 23.6 INDUCTANCE  000 23.7 *SOME PECULIAR CIRCUITS  000 23.8 *THE DIFFERENTIALFORM OF FARADAY’S LAW  000 23.9 *LENZ’S RULE  000

25.2 MULTI-SOURCE INTERFERENCE: DIFFRACTION  000

S U M M A R Y  000 E X E R C I S E S A N D P R O B L E M S   000 A N S W E R S T O E X E R C I S E S   000

Index   000