c06SouthAsia.indd Page 11 30/10/14 2:11 PM f-392
Who Are South Asians?
Islamabad Jammu Kandahar
Amritsar Jalandhar Lahore Chandigarh Ludhiana Multan Saharanpur
Lhasa Xigazê Meerut Ghaziabad New Delhi Faridabad Kathmandu Thimphu Agra Lucknow Jaipur Dispur Jodhpur Guwahati Gwalior Kanpur Patna Bhagalpur Kota Allahabad Varanasi Rajshahi
Gulf of Oman
Population Per sq. mi.
250 and over 100–249 50–99 25–49 5–24 Less than 5
650 and over 250–649 128–249 63–127 13–62 Less than 13
Over 5,000,000 2,000,000–5,000,000 1,000,000–2,000,000 250,000–1,000,000 Under 250,000
Nay Pyi Taw Chiang Mai
Bay of Bengal
Pondicherry Coimbatore Tiruchchirappalli
(Statistics reﬂect metropolitan areas.)
Per sq. km
Thiruvananthapuram Kandy Colombo
0 400 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection
IN DIAN OCE AN
FIGURE 6.10 Population density of South Asia. People are primarily clustered in major cities, along the Ganges and Indus Rivers, and in coastal areas of South Asia.
The organization or arrangement of an ancient city reveals what the people and their culture valued and how their land use, art, engineering, and architecture represented their cultural values. In Mesopotamia and the Nile River Valley, researchers can clearly identify the leadership class by how the city was distinctly divided into zones that each had a certain purpose, known as the city’s functional zonation. In the Nile River Valley, elaborate structures such as pyramids where leaders were buried with riches beyond imagination point clearly to the leaders of society and also to the thousands of slaves who built the structures. In Mesopotamia, temples called ziggurats stood at the center of cities as a home for gods. Marking the connection between the leadership class (who took their domain from
gods) and the agricultural surplus, storehouses for the agricultural surplus were located adjacent to the ziggurats in ancient Mesopotamia. The Indus civilization, which ﬂourished from 2900 BCE to 1900 BCE, was a contemporary of the Nile civilization in Egypt and the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (Figure 6.11). The Indus civilization was different from civilizations in the Nile and Mesopotamia in two remarkable ways: First, the Indus cities have no palaces or temples, no obvious signs of who was in the leadership class (presuming there was a leadership class), and second, the Indus civilization was enormous. It included over 2,000 towns and up to 5 million people over a land area twice the size of civilizations in the Nile Valley or Mesopotamia.
Understanding World Regional Geography, 1st Edition