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THE

ART

OF

F E E B ING

Sample Chapte r

T T U C ____ _ _ _ _ _ ____

_

der n U i r Ka

ly

A MEAT PROFESSIONAL’S GUIDE TO BUTCHERING AND MERCHANDISING


PRAISE FOR THE ART OF BEEF CUTTING “Kari Underly and The Art of Beef Cutting throw open the door to a world that has been closed to all but a few. This book is an invaluable addition to any cook’s library and offers something for everyone from professional chefs to consumers. It is detailed and thorough and brings me much joy to know that anyone can share Kari’s wisdom and experience with this amazing resource!” — David Varley, Corporate Chef, Michael Mina Group

“The Art of Beef Cutting by Kari Underly is a significant contribution to beef butchery where there is currently almost no complete guide for chefs, meat cutters, or culinary students to use as a resource. Even though my knowledge is beyond the average chef and food writer, I have had difficulty learning where specific beef cuts came from and how to produce them myself. This book will be invaluable for me and anyone else with similar inclination.” — Bruce Aidells, Coauthor, The Complete Meat Cookbook

“Kari Underly has created a book to showcase the art and craft of beef cutting. What a rich treasure of clear photos, easy instructions, and creative tips. This book will be a superb resource for meat enthusiasts of all abilities. It’s like having an entire college course at your fingertips!” — Chris R. Calkins, PhD, Nebraska Beef Industry Professor of Animal Science

“A subject near and dear to my heart, The Art of Beef Cutting beautifully shows the passion and finesse behind something that is so often overlooked in our modern world. Not only is this book informative, it also inspires anyone who reads it to become his or her own butcher.” — Kevin Gillespie, Executive Chef and Co-owner, Woodfire Grill

“A straightforward, comprehensive manual suitable for amateurs and professionals alike. Kari’s style is easy to read and extremely instructive.” — Michael Strauss, Past President, North American Meat Processors Association

“Well organized and packed with helpful photos, this book takes the mystery out of beef cutting. Kari’s expertise and gift for teaching make this a book that all culinary students and professionals should add to their libraries.” — Christopher Koetke,Vice President, Laureate International Universities Center of Excellence in Culinary Arts; Executive Director, School of Culinary Arts, Kendall College

“Kari Underly’s The Art of Beef Cutting should be mandatory reading in all professional cooking schools. It is very clear, simple, and organized— a must for any chef or butcher who wants to fully utilize primal cuts of beef and maximize food cost.” — Ariane Daguin, Owner, D’Artagnan

“A very encompassing, well written, in-depth training tool for foodservice, culinary arts, and retail application. The inclusion of numerous detailed illustrations will prove to be indispensable for the novice student.” — Phil Plummer, Director of Meat and Seafood, Martin’s Super Markets


CONTENTS vii FOREWORD 1 INTRODUCTION 5 CHAPTER ONE: BEEF BASICS: FACTS AND FUNDAMENTALS 19 CHAPTER TWO: UNDERSTANDING YOUR TOOLS 27 CHAPTER THREE: MASTERING CUTTING TECHNIQUES 49 CHAPTER FOUR: BEEF CUTTING — BASICS AND BEYOND 53 CHUCK 71 RIB 83 LOIN 99 SIRLOIN 113 ROUND 131 BRISKET, SHANK, PLATE, AND FLANK 147 CHAPTER FIVE: EXPLORING GROUND BEEF 157 CHAPTER SIX: CUTTING FOR PROFIT 169 CHAPTER SEVEN: FLAVOR OVERVIEW, COOKING TIPS, AND SAFE HANDLING 181 CHAPTER EIGHT: INJURY PREVENTION STRATEGIES 191 APPENDIX, SOURCES AND CREDITS, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 217 GENERAL INDEX 230 PRIMAL, SUBPRIMAL, CUTS INDEX


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INTRODUCTION Once, meat-cutting artistry was passed directly from a master to an apprentice. But as the industry evolved from hanging beef in the ’60s, to boxed beef in the ’70s, to today’s laborfriendly offerings, the availability of highly skilled butchers greatly diminished. So did the art of beef cutting. Unfortunately today, there are no official meat-training schools in operation, no apprenticeship programs (unless you are lucky enough to enjoy a company-sponsored program), no official industry beef merchandising program, no product knowledge—you get the idea. Plus, many businesses do not have the time or money to invest in the complexities of beef cutting and merchandising. This book was designed to fill the gap with step-by-step instructions, quick reference charts, insightful merchandising help, and flavorful commentary. How you use this tool depends on where you are at this stage of your career. This book can serve as a great reference and training aide for new employees; butcher apprentices; grocery store executives; culinary, animal, or meat science students; chefs; club store junkies; and even proactive consumers and foodies. CULINARY STUDENTS

Few colleges and universities offer a complete course in beef cutting, although a thorough understanding of it helps in many career paths. As a student majoring in culinary arts, The Art of Beef Cutting is an excellent textbook or supplement to any program of study. Not only will this book give you the “big picture” of cutting beef, it also provides valuable detailed information on cattle anatomy and muscle characteristics to help future chefs understand where final cuts of beef originate and how to marry cuts with the best cooking methods. See Mastering Cutting Techniques, Beef Cutting—Basics and Beyond,


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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

and the Flavor Overview sections to add new depth to your curriculum or to discover fresh ingredients and cooking methods for beef. MEAT DEPARTMENT AND PRACTICAL GUIDE

Employee turnover is the number one reason we have lost talented meat craftsmen in the meat departments of local and national grocery stores. Keep this guide in your department and use it as a training tool for new hires and as a building block to help your staff gain more confidence in beef knowledge. Along with few industry training options, there is a lack of industry-supported meat merchandising certification programs. With its helpful charts and merchandising information, this book can build your staff’s knowledge. Once you navigate around the anatomical nomenclature, learn the subprimal names, and understand the labor costs and cut-specific promotions, you’ll be well versed in the art of meat cutting and have a clear understanding of the primals and subprimals. Take the initiative and create a training class with new hires to demonstrate everyday cutting techniques and introduce specialty cuts. Test your staff on cut knowledge, where the cut originates, and how to add value with specialty cut techniques. Help your cutters become masters at their art, as well as leaders in customer service. Then when employees are approached by customers about a certain cut, your cutters will have the expertise to answer those questions, build confidence with customers, and retain key patronage.


INTRODUCTION

3

MEAT CATEGORY BUYER

Ready to take your meat knowledge to the next level? Move beyond cuts and into the subprimal level with this book. The Art of Beef Cutting can help you identify subprimals to purchase during key peak seasons, calculate labor costs, and what cuts you will generate from each subprimal. Armed with this in-depth knowledge you’ll be on your way to saving your department

Look for these icons throughout the book to expand your beef-cutting knowledge even further with Kari’s insider tips and tricks.

money, improving efficiency, and bringing your customers a superior selection. FOODSERVICE OPERATORS’ REFERENCE

For small foodservice operators, this tool can help maximize the purchasing investment at the

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local club store or distributor. You’ll see how to add new items to the menu to attract new customers, find new uses for everyday subprimals, add shelf life to cuts, and increase your profits. The Art of Beef Cutting is a one-stop business course in meat merchandising. For chefs and restaurant owners, one of the most mysterious categories is fresh beef. This tool will help answer questions and provide valuable information. When you learn more about beef,

To challenge your skills and add excitement to your menu (or meat case), try Kari’s specialty cutting techniques found in Chapter Four: Beef Cutting.

you’ll know the right cut for the job and increase profits. CLUB STORE SHOPPER

Large families, regular consumers, at-home meat connoisseurs, and even small foodservice operators enjoy the club store experience. Who doesn’t like a super-sized good deal? At these stores, customers can now purchase many steak-ready subprimals, but what’s the next step?

Did you know…

Kari includes interesting facts to help you deepen your beef-cutting and merchandising knowledge.

This book will show you with simple cut instructions how to save money on your food bill or feed a large family. FOOD ENTHUSIASTS

Want to bring a professional flair to your home chef skills? This book adds the perfect ingredient. Explore the Flavor Overview chapter for interesting beef pairings and cooking methods, or challenge your skills by following the how-to steps in Beef Cutting—Basics and Beyond and generate restaurant-styles cuts at home for a lot less money.

Kari’s Quick Tips

Look for Kari’s insightful advice and shortcuts throughout this book.


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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

FROM CARCASS TO CUT

To fully understand and appreciate where beef comes from, you have to start with a whole carcass. A carcass is two matched sides containing the forequarter and hindquarter. A side of beef is simply half a carcass, split down the back.

A side of beef is sometimes sold in a forequarter or hindquarter format. This just means that a side of beef has been cut into two sections, separated between the 12th and 13th ribs. You can order sides already split from local meat lockers and specialty processors and enjoy a nice quality beef.

HINDQUARTER

FOREQUARTER CHUCK

RIB LOIN

● ➊

● ➋

● ➌

BRISKET

FORESHANK

● ● ➎ ➍ ● ➐ ● ➏

● ➒

PLATE

SIRLOIN

● ➓ FLANK

ROUND

HIND SHANK


BEEF BASICS: FACTS AND FUNDAMENTALS

15

INSIDE A BOVINE

To be a master cutter, you need an in-depth understanding of the bovine bone structure and how it relates to what you are processing. This diagram will help you better comprehend the anatomy and structure of a bovine and add to your personal knowledge base. The bone/skeletal structure will be your guide to separating the carcass into quarters and primals.

1–7

1–13

DEFINITION OF COMMON TERMS Anterior

Posterior Toward the tail; also referred to as “caudal.”

1–6

1–5

H

Ventral

Toward the plane of support—the “bottom side”; sometimes referred to as “inferior.”

Dorsal

Away from the plane of support—the “top side.” Often known as “superior.”

1–2

C D A

E

B

● ➊ G

F

● ➋

● ➌

● ● ➎ ➍ ● ➐ ● ➏

● ➒

Toward the head; sometimes known as “cranial.”

● ➓

A Femur bone

1–7 Cervical vertebrae (neck bones)

B Tibia

1–13 Thoracic vertebrae (back bones)

C Pelvic bone (aitch)

1–6 Lumbar vertebrae (loin bones)

D Ball of femur

1–5 Sacral vertebrae

E Humerus (arm bone)

1–2 Caudal vertebrae (tail bones, 2 bones)

F Ulna, radius (for shank bones) G Ulna (elbow) H Chine bones

➊–

Rib bones


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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

PRIMAL SEPARATION

What is a primal? A side of beef is separated or divided into seven somewhat more manageable sections called primals. These primals are still quite heavy and large. There are seven primals: chuck, rib, loin, round, brisket, plate, and flank. The primal designations are key to understanding how the cow is processed. Consider this your road map. The following information is for illustration purposes, and I do not recommend that you try breaking down a carcass on your own unless you are supervised by an experienced meat cutter or professional with the proper processing and safety equipment. A side of beef is made up of a forequarter and a hindquarter. The forequarter is separated from the hindquarter between the 12th and 13th ribs. The forequarter is processed into four major primals: chuck, rib, brisket, and plate. The key to processing a quarter is knowing the importance of counting ribs. The front quarter should be flat on a cutting table with the internal surface facing up or fat side down, or it should be hanging on a rail.

1. To separate the forequarter into primals, start by locating the ribs

on the internal surface of the quarter. Count five ribs from the front end—this is the separation point. Make a straight cut with your knife all the way through. Use a handsaw to completely separate the quarter into two large sections: Chuck and brisket are one, and the rib and plate are the other. 2. Remove the brisket from the chuck by locating the arm or shank,

and make a straight cut just above the elbow joint and through the cartilage at the first rib. 3. To separate the plate primal from the rib, use a saw to cut a

straight line through ribs 6–12, approximately 10 inches from the backbone. 4. Cut the chuck into two sections; the blade half and the arm half.

Use a handsaw to make a straight cut through the head of the humerus bone, just below the ridge or socket of the scapula.


BEEF BASICS: FACTS AND FUNDAMENTALS

The hindquarter is processed into three major primals: loin (sirloin), round, and flank. The hindquarter should be flat on a cutting table with the internal surface facing up or fat side down, or it should be hanging on a rail.

you clip part of the head of the femur joint—that means you nailed it!

1. The hindquarter is separated from the forequarter between the

Purchasing primals is not recommended for today’s typical retail and foodservice operators. They are large, offer lower yield, and cannot be cooked properly.

12th and 13th ribs. Remove any heavy cod or kidney fat, being careful not to score the lean muscle. 2. To separate the flank, measure and mark the desired length of the

loin tail from the loin eye with a knife cut, typically 2 to 3 inches from the edge of the loin eye. Locate the heavy cod fat, and cut around the round up toward, or ventral, to the head of the femur bone. 3. Continue cutting the flank by following the natural seam toward the

13th rib or your knife mark. Pull the flank and bottom sirloin from the fat and carefully trim them. 4. To remove the sirloin tip or knuckle from the round, first locate the

knee joint. Cut slightly above until you hit the femur bone. Run the knife up until you feel the aitch or pelvic bone. Angle your knife out to complete the separation. 5. In order to remove the round from the loin, you must identify the fifth

sacral vertebra. Start at the tailbone and count two vertebrae; the next six vertebrae are the sacral. Use a saw to separate the round from the loin between the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. It’s OK if

6. Next, remove the aitch or pelvic bone. 7. Finish by removing the shank at the knee joint.

Subprimals

Primals that are further processed into more manageable parts are called subprimals. Subprimals are smaller and more cost-effective to transport and handle. Almost all grocery stores and restaurants and steak processors purchase subprimals. Subprimals cost more than primals because more waste has been removed and more labor has gone into fabricating the meat into usable form. See Chapter Four for information on specific subprimals. Block or tray-ready subprimals

Block or tray-ready subprimals are further processed subprimals. These cost more than the regular subprimals because almost all the fat and trim has been removed. Simply open the bag, cut it, and tray it. Today many subprimals can be purchased in a single muscle format. Congratulations! You have completed your basic beef instruction. Read on to learn more specific information on cutting techniques, merchandising, and more.

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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

SHARPENING YOUR EDGE: STEELS AND STONES

As you develop your knife skills, you’ll start to have a “feel” for how much pressure to apply. With use, the edge of a knife blade develops nicks and begins to fold over. When you begin to feel like you are pushing your knife, this is a sign that your knife has become dull. If after using a steel to align your blade it doesn’t seem to be working, it is time to grind your blade on a knife stone. The most important tool you can own (second only to the cut-resistant glove) is a steel. A steel helps keep the edge of your knife’s blade straight, reduces the risk of injury, and prolongs the life of the knife. It should be used frequently throughout your day. The art of steeling a knife can be mastered within a few weeks. Steels typically come in three surfaces: Coarse steel: Has deep grooves in the rod of the steel. Use this steel when you see visual signs of dents and divots. Medium steel (not shown): Has medium coarse grooves and is used to grind the edge of your knife. Fine steel: Features a smooth, shiny surface and is used to finish the edge of your knife with a fine edge.

Not all three surfaces are needed to realign your knife; it depends on the condition of the edge of your blade. Always start with the coarsest steel, and finish your knife on a fine steel.

Coarse and fine steels


UNDERSTANDING YOUR TOOLS

23

HOW TO STEEL YOUR KNIFE Option 1: For Chefs, Students, and Beginners

The easiest way to learn how to steel your knife is to place the point of the steel on the cutting table. Since it does not move, you’ll be able to focus on the angle and the pressure on the knife. If your steel no longer does the trick at keeping your knife sharp, move on to a knife stone (see page 24). STEP 1 Place the point of the steel directly on the surface. Start by placing the lower part of the knife blade on the steel at a 20° angle. Begin drawing the knife down the shaft of the steel.

STEP 2 Maintain the blade angle with moderate pressure as you draw the length of the edge down the length of the steel.

STEP 3 Finish by running the knife all the way to the point down the steel shaft. Repeat the steps for the opposite side of the knife blade.

STEP 1 Start by placing the lower part of the knife blade on the steel at a 20° angle. Begin drawing the knife down the shaft of the steel.

STEP 2 Maintain the blade angle with moderate pressure as you draw the length of the edge down the length of the steel.

STEP 3 Finish by running the knife all the way to the point down the steel shaft. Repeat the steps for the opposite side of the knife blade.

Option 2: Typical Approach Used by Meat Cutters and Butchers

Always keep your fingers behind the guard of the steel, and watch what you are doing. This option requires movement and coordination of both hands. Hold the knife in your dominant hand and hold the steel in your opposite hand. Remember to hold the steel out in front of you, away from your body, other people, and objects.


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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

DENUDING A common term used in this book is “denude.” In this context, to denude means to remove any heavy white or opaque connective tissue from lean subprimals. This will improve tenderness and taste satisfaction for your customers. By removing the heavy connective tissue, you are creating a product that once was undervalued and transforming it into a product that meets consumer expectations: lean, moderately tender, and sold at an affordable price. The tissue must be removed when selecting a cut for a dry-heat cooking method such as oven roasting or grilling. The intense heat source will not break down the connective tissue as it would in a moist-cooking method such as braising.

STEP 1 Remove all visible fat to expose the connective tissue that lies beneath.

STEP 2 Slide the knife under the connective tissue. Fillet knife shown here; boning knife also recommended.

STEP 3 Angle the knife upward at a 20° angle.

STEP 4 Use your free hand to anchor the muscle. Then gently push the knife, maintaining the angle, and slide just underneath the connective tissue. The goal is to leave as much lean meat on the muscle as possible.

STEP 5 Continue the process until the connective tissue is loosened.

STEP 6 Separate the connective tissue. Chefs can add it to soup stock.

The following step-by-step denuding demonstration uses a BEEF SHOULDER CENTER (TRICEPS BRACHII).

Kari’s Quick Tips The Shoulder Center makes excellent steak, especially when cooked over wood chips.


MASTERING CUTTING TECHNIQUES

29

DENUDING A BEEF TENDERLOIN The tenderloin is the most tender cut of beef. Since it is expensive, removing any lean is costly. Yet it is essential to denude, since the strong connective tissue, known as “silver skin,” is tough and does not cook down during dry-heat cooking or grilling. If left attached, the skin will shrink awkwardly when the meat is cooked. By mastering this technique, you can guarantee your high-end customer a beautiful tenderloin that deserves the premium it commands. The following step-by-step denuding demonstration uses a BEEF TENDERLOIN (PSOAS MAJOR).

Kari’s Quick Tips Start at the small end and use a very sharp knife. This will help you avoid tearing the tenderloin and help you slide along the silver skin, preserving as much lean as possible.

STEP 1 Remove the fat and the tenderloin tail (optional) from the loin.

STEP 2 Starting at the small end of the loin, slide the fillet knife under the connective tissue or silver skin, and place your free hand just behind the knife to hold the loin in place.

STEP 3 If you start at the large end, you will get slight tears in the tender muscle fibers. Angle the knife at approximately 20°.

STEP 4 Gently slide the knife up toward the silver skin as you move it toward the larger end of the loin.

STEP 5 Continue to slide the knife through the end of the loin.

STEP 6 Remove the silver skin and repeat until the loin is completely denuded.


BEEF CUTTING—CHUCK

PRIMAL:

A MOUTHFUL OF FLAVOR, VERSATILITY, AND VALUE

CHUCK

Some of your most memorable meals probably centered on your grandmother’s braised pot roast on a cold winter’s day or a juicy ground chuck burger at a summer barbecue. Why is the chuck so flavorful? The secret is LOCATION AND COMPOSITION The chuck primal is located toward the head or neck of the animal and runs through the fifth rib, where it is separated from the rib primal. The muscles in the chuck are used for movement and are heavily excerised.

The main subprimals are: Bone-In Chuck Chuck Roll

in the marbling and connective tissue. During the moist cooking process, this tissue slowly melts, adding flavor and tenderness to every bite. The chuck is divided into two main groups: the arm, which contains the shoulder; and the blade, which contains the chuck. The shoulder section features many lean and flavorful muscles that are great for more than just pot roast or inexpensive steaks. Researchers involved in a beef

Chuck Flap

industry-funded muscle-profiling project discovered that some muscles

Shoulder Clod

from the chuck and shoulder are actually lean, flavorful, and tender. Now consumers can enjoy moderately priced steaks that meet their expecta-

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Chuck Roll Shoulder Clod Center Shoulder Clod Top Blade

tions for quality and tenderness. Popular cuts from the shoulder include the flat iron and ranch steak. The chuck portion is typically sold in a boneless format, although you can still find some merchants that sell bone-in chucks.

OPPOSITE

Chuck Eye Steak

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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

SUBPRIMAL:

SPINAL CHANNEL

BONE-IN CHUCK The bone-in chuck contains the top blade, which lies on the blade bone of the shoulder. The seven-bone roast is one of the most recognizable cuts from this subprimal. When the blade bone is crosscut, it forms the number seven in the middle of the roast, hence the seven-bone roast. Look for this identifying feature when purchasing this roast. Overall, cuts from this section are flavorful and well marbled, making them ideal for slow braising. And most important, they are a great value.

B

RIB END ND

A

1 BONE-IN CHUCK

2 BLADE BONE

3 BLADE STEAK

The bone-in chuck contains the top blade, the mock tender, and the chuck roll along with the blade bone. Saw required for Steps 2 through 6.

The key characteristic of blade roast is the bone (A). Notice the bone is narrow and long. The top blade rests on top (B). Cut blade steaks and roast as long as the bone exists or stays similar in shape and length.

Start at the rib end of the chuck and place the spinal channel down the saw. This will keep the chuck level and on a flat surface and lessen the chances of the chuck spinning. Cut a blade steak ½ to 1 inch thick.

LOCATION AND COMPOSITION The bone-in chuck is located from the neck down toward the fifth rib, just above the foreshank or elbow. The main muscles in the chuck are longissimus dorsi, spinalis dorsi, complexus, multifidus dorsi, rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, subscapularis, infraspinatus, and splenius.

B

C

B

CUTS Beef Chuck Blade Steak

C

D

Beef Chuck Blade Roast Beef Chuck Top Blade Steak

7 MERCHANDISING

8 ROAST OR STEAKS

9 UNDER BLADE ROASTS

Beef Chuck Top Blade Roast

Locate the seven bone. There are two main muscles: the top blade (B) and the mock tender (C). Remove the heavy fat by following the natural seam. Slide the knife just below the bone or “under” the blade (D) and follow the natural seam to remove.

Leave the top blade (B) and the mock tender (C) whole for a beef chuck top blade roast or cut ¾ to 1 inch thick for beef chuck top blade steaks. (Steaks not shown.)

Now that the blade/seven bone has been removed, the remaining portion is the under blade. Cut roasts 1½ to 2 inches thick.

Beef Chuck Under Blade Steak Beef Chuck Under Blade Roast Beef Chuck Pot Roast, Boneless Beef Chuck Steak, Boneless Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Steak Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Roast


BEEF CUTTING—CHUCK

Did you know… The blade or seven bone is actually the scapula bone in the shoulder.

4 BLADE ROAST

5 SEVEN-BONE STEAK

6 SEVEN-BONE ROAST

Cut a blade roast 1½ to 2 inches thick.

Continue cutting the chuck into sevenbone steaks ½ to 1 inch thick. As you cut toward the neck, the blade bone will start to resemble the number seven, hence the name seven bone.

Continue cutting the chuck into seven-bone roasts 1½ to 2 inches thick.

10 UNDER BLADE STEAK

11 CHUCK POT ROAST

Cut the remaining under blade portion into steaks ¾ to 1 inch thick.

Remove any remaining bones and cut steaks ¾ to 1 inch thick and roasts ½ to 1¾ inches thick. Bone the remaining portion for stew or ground chuck trim. You can continue to cut the neck cuts, but they make better tasting ground chuck than a roast. (Steaks not shown.)

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TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

SUBPRIMAL:

CHUCK ROLL The boneless version of the bone-in chuck is the chuck roll. The chuck roll is located underneath the blade bone. The blade bone and the top blade have been removed, along with other remaining bones and cartilage. This friendlier version is easier to handle and smaller in size, plus the unwanted bones have already been removed. It is typically sold and merchandised as a retail item and is great for promotion and sales building. Foodservice associates will find the chuck roll very appealing—it’s versatile, easy to prepare, and loaded with value and flavor.

NECK END

C B A

RIB END 1 WHOLE CHUCK ROLL

2 CHUCK ROLL SECTIONS

Start with a whole chuck roll. Place the chuck flat side down. Remove any visible, heavy, thick tissue from the top of the chuck.

A chuck roll contains three parts: the chuck eye (A), chuck (B), and neck (C) sections. Remove the chuck eye (A) section with a straight cut 3 to 4 inches from the rib end.

Beef Chuck Pot Roast, Boneless

5 CHUCK POT ROAST

6 CHUCK STEAKS

Beef Chuck Short Rib

Cut roasts 1½ to 2 inches thick.

Or cut chuck into steaks ½ to ¾ inch thick.

LOCATION AND COMPOSITION The boneless chuck roll is located from the neck down toward the fifth rib, just above the foreshank or elbow. The main muscles in the chuck roll are longissimus dorsi, spinalis dorsi, complexus, multifidus dorsi, rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, subscapularis, and splenius. CUTS Beef Chuck Eye Steak, Boneless

Beef Chuck Steak, Boneless

ETHNIC CUTS Chuleta de Diezmillo

Barbacoa Trozo para Barbacoa


BEEF CUTTING—CHUCK

BOTTOM PORTION

ETHNIC CUTS

CHUCK EYE PORTION HISPANIC

3 REMOVE CHUCK EYE

4 CHUCK EYE STEAKS

Separate the chuck eye by locating the heavy thick seam. Use the pull and seam method to separate the chuck eye from the bottom portion.

Trim fat to specification, and cut the chuck eye portion into steaks ¾ to 1 inch thick.

Follow Steps 1– 4. Slice ¼ to ½ inch thick for: CHULETA DE DIEZMILLO

Follow Steps 1– 4. Slice the chuck roll into larger pieces or chunks for: BARBACOA TROZO PARA BARBACOA

7 CHUCK POT ROAST

8 CHUCK SHORT RIBS

Cut chuck into a roast at least 2 to 2½ inches thick.

Use any remaining lean and cut it 2 inches thick into chuck short ribs.

Kari’s Quick Tips Cut Chuck Eye Steaks 1½ inches thick and tie to maintain shape. Use the two-step cook method.

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ut

SUBPRIMAL:

CHUCK ROLL Traditionally, the chuck roll is merchandised during cool seasons or when you’re looking to promote a low-cost steak. Since the chuck roll offers such great value, you would be remiss not to take a close look. By separating the chuck eye portion from the rest of the chuck roll, you can offer convenient new items such as delicious countrystyle ribs or great steaks for the grill. This is a great merchandising tool for adding profit and attracting new customers. LOCATION AND COMPOSITION The boneless chuck roll is located from the neck down toward the fifth rib, just above the foreshank or elbow. The main muscles in the chuck roll are longissimus dorsi, spinalis dorsi, complexus, multifidus dorsi, rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, subscapularis, and splenius.

B

A

1 WHOLE CHUCK ROLL

2 REMOVE THE CHUCK EYE ROLL

3 CHUCK SEPARATED

The chuck roll is separated into two main parts: A Chuck Under Blade B Chuck Eye Roll

Place the chuck roll flat side down. Locate the heavy fat, and use the pull and seam method to separate the chuck eye roll from the under blade.

A Chuck Under Blade B Chuck Eye Roll

C C

Beef Chuck Roast, Boneless Beef Chuck Steak, Boneless Beef Chuck Flat (Sierra cut), Boneless Beef Chuck Center Steak (Denver cut), Boneless

D

D

C

CUTS Beef Chuck Eye Country-Style Ribs, Boneless

Beef Chuck Eye Roast

B

A

D

8 UNDER BLADE OPTIONS

9 MULTI-MUSCLE— POT ROAST

10 SINGLE MUSCLE

There are two ways to merchandise the under blade. A multi-muscle or in a singlemuscle format: C Chuck Flap D Chuck Flat

Start with the whole multi-muscle under blade. Cut roast (C & D) 1½ to 2 inches thick to create chuck pot roast. Cut ½ to 1 inch thick for a steak application. (Steaks not shown.)

Locate the chuck flat (C). Find the fat seam toward the front to remove the flat (D). Pierce the connective tissue with a knife, and use the pull and seam method to remove.


BEEF CUTTING—CHUCK

59

4 CHUCK EYE ROLL

5 COUNTRY-STYLE RIBS

6 COUNTRY-STYLE RIBS

7 CHUCK EYE ROAST

Any portion of the chuck eye roll can be used to generate country-style ribs or a chuck eye roast. This item can also be used to generate chuck eye steaks. (See the chuck roll section cut Steps 3 and 4 on page 57.)

In this two-step process, first cut sections 1½ to 2 inches thick. (See page 36 in Chapter Three: Mastering Cutting Techniques.)

Second, lay each section flat and cut through the lean portion to cut it in half. HINT: Do not cut through the seam fat. By doing so, the face will appear to be all fat.

Or to create a roast, remove any heavy fat and portion into a 3- to 4-pound roast. Tie or net the roast, which will help the roast keep a uniform shape during cooking.

F

E

11 CHUCK FLAT— SIERRA CUT

12 PROCESS UNDER BLADE

13 CHUCK CENTER

14 CHUCK CENTER STEAKS

Remove the fat and thin connective tissue.

Remove the neck portion (E), and use it for ground beef or chuck. Next, remove the large cylinder-shaped muscle by following the natural seam (F), and use it for stew. The chuck center remains.

Remove all heavy fat and connective tissue for grilling as steaks. If merchandising this item whole as a roast, you can leave the connective tissue and fat intact. Cut the muscle into two sections following the 90° rule.

Use the 90° rule and cut the center into steaks ½ to ¾ inch thick. HINT: See fillet method on page 32 to add more value.


158

TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

BEGINNING WITH THE BASICS

UNDERSTANDING THE CUT TEST

The quickest way to lose money in the meat case is by not having a true understanding of your costs. This is a challenge because you do not always sell what you cut, either because of loss in markdowns or because of generating trim or unfavorable cuts. If you are a retailer or foodservice operator, you must understand the cost of what you cut.

A cut test is simply a yield test. In other words, any meat that can be sold must be captured in a yield or cut test. The remaining unusable portion must be captured as a loss. Knowing your yield percentage is one of the keys to unlocking your profit potential.

First things first. To thoroughly grasp this chapter, being familiar with the financial, yield, and cost terms is absolutely necessary. Labor: Any time involved to get the meat to its final stage. Example:

trimming, cutting, and wrapping. Regular Cost: The price per pound directly from the invoice. Saleable Yield: Available product for sale expressed as a percentage. Yielded Cost: Cost that accounts for unusable trim, fat, and bone. Yield Test: The process of tracking yields, costs, and revenues

related to the conversion of a subprimal to final products for sale in the marketplace.

Once you perform cut tests on subprimals you regularly use, you can keep using those numbers for your calculations. But I do recommend conducting your own cut test quarterly. Seasonality, specification changes, feeding, and breeds all affect the yield percentage of a cut test, so regular review is essential. When performing a cut test, make sure you clearly indicate which merchandising method the cutter should use. Do not overtrim or undertrim your tests; keep them realistic. If you don’t, you are only cheating yourself. Items needed to perform a cut test: Scale Cut test form Pencil Knife Cutting board Subprimal Stopwatch (Use a stopwatch if you are collecting time and motion data; for instance, how long it takes to cut the desired subprimal.) Labor rate Marketing percentage

Disclaimer: All the numbers used in the following calculations are for illustration purposes and should not be used to plan your business. You must conduct your own cut test and profit analysis for accuracy.


CUTTING FOR PROFIT

CUT TEST: TOP LOIN FOR STEAKS Date

Today

Total

Description

Top Loin (IMPS/NAMP 180)

Marketing Cost (minus retail)

Grade

Choice

Subprimal Yielded Cost

Start Weight

39.0 pounds

Labor Cost ($)

$29.95

Total Cost ($)

$735.84

Retail ($)

Total Net Retail ($)

Bag Weight

0.03 pounds

Margin ($)

Purge

0.15 pounds

Margin (%)

Naked Weight Cut Loss

Subprimal Cost

$6.00 per pound

Labor Cost Per Second (D 3) (Labor Cost x Total Time)

Cut Time Wrap/Storage Time Saleable Yield Percentage

Description of Cuts Section Top Loin Steak (IMPS/NAMP 1180)

$1,222.48

$1,222.48 $61.12

$1,161.36 $600.00

$622.48

$705.88

$425.52

50.92%

36.64%

5.67 pounds 33.15 pounds

Labor Rate

Net

38.82 pounds

Total Saleable Weight

Marketing Percentage Rate

Gross

5% $21.00 per hour 0.006 units 9.9295 units Minutes

Seconds

18.87

1132.200

9.5

570.00

85.00%

Item Weight

Item Yield Contribution

Retail/Portion Price

Marketing Cost

Net Retail/ Portion Price

Yield Cost

Total Retail Yield Value

Per Pound

Net Margin Per Cut

31.00

79.49%

$14.99

$0.75

$14.24

$1,191.51

$7.06

Top Loin for Stir-Fry

0.70

1.79%

$8.99

$0.45

$8.54

$16.14

$7.06

17.35%

Beef Trimmings

1.45

3.72%

$3.99

$0.20

$3.79

$14.83

$7.06

-86.22%

Fat

3.50 Total Retail ($)

All data is based on CTWT (per hundred weight) This is an example of a fully completed cut test form. The instructions on pages 160–163 show how to use the cut test form and how to calculate your profits.

$1,222.48

50.43%

159


174

TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

Barbecuing: From how it’s spelled to how it’s defined, barbecuing

is complex. I talk about barbecue as a method of cooking meat at low temperatures for long periods of time. Your own definition could vary. It is different from grilling in that authentic barbecue can take several hours or even all day to fully cook because of the low-level heat and larger cuts of meat (sometimes whole animals) used. These longer cooking times allow the flavor to fully develop. You can barbecue almost anything: beef, chicken, pork, fish, and vegetables. Here, I will focus on barbecuing beef. People have been cooking meat over a fire since the Stone Ages, but American barbecue seems to date back to Colonial times in Alexandria, Virginia, in the 1700s. As the country expanded westward, so did barbecue. People all over the world have their own barbecue traditions and techniques. I have found marvelous beef barbecue in Texas, Memphis, Kansas City, and California. Everything is big in Texas; and barbecue is no exception. Texas barbecue is most often beef, with brisket being the hands-down favorite. Pit masters there combine unique spices and rub it on the beef before it is barbecued and topped with a sweet and spicy tomato-based sauce that is thick and delicious. While pork is popular in Kansas City, beef brisket does have a following. With barbecue restaurants around every corner, this city loves barbecue—and the secret is the sauce. After the meat is smoked with a dry rub, it is topped with a thick, sweet sauce with a tomato and molasses base. Usually there is more sauce available for dipping at the table. Another great place to take a dip is Memphis. Like Kansas City, Memphis is known for its barbecue sauce, which has a thin consistency and is usually used for dipping. This sauce is commonly made with tomatoes, vinegar, and a combination of spices for a tangy flavor with a bit of sweetness.

A standout in tri-tip beef barbecue is Santa Maria, California. Here, this roast is covered in a mixture of salt, pepper, and garlic salt then grilled over a fire of red oak from the California coast. The people of Santa Maria claim this coastal wood makes all the difference. There are many regions known for barbecue and many flavors to explore. I hope you get a chance to enjoy them all. Broiling: Broiling is similar to grilling, except broiling is usually

performed in an oven with the heat source above the beef. Kalbi or Galbi: This is a very popular Korean method of cooking that

involves grilling thin cuts, often short ribs, over charcoal. Live coals are ideal. Hardwood charcoal is even better. Roasting: Roasting is a particularly British way of cooking meat that produces the well-known British dish, roast beef. This technique cooks food in the hot, dry air of an oven. Little if any liquid is added. The liquid produced during cooking is decanted from the fat and is usually made into a gravy or juice to serve with the sliced beef. Sautéing: This is a French word, meaning “to jump.” Sautéing uses

high heat to quickly brown and sear beef in a small amount of oil. A flavorful caramelized crust will form on the meat, locking in the natural juices. This cooking process is ideal for thin, tender cuts of beef that cook quickly, such as tenderloin, or cuts that have been pounded and tenderized. Stir-Fry: This is mainly a Chinese way of cooking quickly in a wok over high heat. Often garlic, ginger, and onions are added to the cooking oil along with slices of beef (or any other type of meat) and mixed vegetables. Deep Frying: You may not think deep frying is a dry-heat cooking

method, but it is. Deep frying is done in fat, which initially is a solid, although it can take on a liquid form. Another clue is the golden brown color achieved with deep frying, which is only possible with dry-heat cooking methods. To properly deep fry beef, the oil temperature should stay between 325°F (163°C) and 400°F (204°C).


FLAVOR OVERVIEW, COOKING TIPS, AND SAFE HANDLING

Maintaining this range will prevent the oil from seeping into the beef and making it greasy. While beef isn’t often fried, try deep frying battered flank steak and prepare a crispy, spicy ginger dish. Smoking: This is a process of cooking or preserving beef by exposing

it to smoke created by burning wood. You will need a meat smoker or charcoal grill to properly smoke your beef. A larger, less tender cut of beef, such as a brisket, responds well to smoking. The motto for smoking is “low and slow.” Use a low temperature 225°F (107°C), and smoke meat between 60 and 75 minutes per pound. For added flavor, try various woods, including hickory, mesquite, oak, maple, and even fruit-tree woods such as apple and cherry. Sear and Roast: In this quick cooking method, the beef is first seared

or browned in a medium-hot pan, then finishes cooking in the oven at 350ºF (177°C) to 375ºF (190°). Asador: Spanish, meaning “spit” or “rotisserie,” asador is the method used when grilling a whole animal or large sections of beef over wood coals. The meat is attached to iron stakes laid out like a cross attached with wire. Spread the coals around to control the rate of the cooking speed. INTERNAL DEGREE OF DONENESS GUIDELINES COOKED

TEMPERATURE

DESCRIPTION

Very rare

115–125°F (46–52°C)

Blood-red meat, soft, very juicy

Rare

125–130°F (52–54°C)

Red center, gray surface, soft, juicy

Medium rare

130–140°F (54–60°C)

Pink center, gray-brown surface, often remains juicy

Medium

140–150°F (60–66°C)

Pink throughout, becomes gray-brown toward surface

Medium well

150–160°F (66–71°C)

Thin line of pink, firm texture

Well done

>160°F (>71°C)

Gray-brown throughout, tough texture

Note that these temperatures are different from USDA guldelines.

A la Parilla or a la Brasa: These are common Hispanic terms for char-

coal grilling. In Spanish, la parrilla means “cast iron barbecue grate,” like a kettle grill, that is set over approximately 4 to 5 inches above the hot coals. A la brasa means “to grill on or over live coals.” A la Plancha/Chapa: Common in Hispanic restaurants, a la plancha means grilled on a metal plate or plank. You can also heat your cast iron skillet until very hot, season your favorite steaks, and grill on the plank or flat cast iron surface over hot coals. Al Horno: Cooking something al horno means you are using your oven to cook it. Al horno dishes are common in authentic Mexican restaurants. MOIST-HEAT COOKING METHODS

This means cooking food with, or in, any type of liquid—whether it is water, stock, wine, or another liquid. Moist-heat cooking uses lower temperatures; remember slow and low. Larger, tougher multi-muscle cuts of beef from the round, brisket, shank, and chuck are best cooked by moist-heat cooking methods, such as braising, pot roasting, and stewing. Braising: Meats for stews or pot roasts are often braised. This technique starts by first searing (browning) the meat to enhance flavors. Transfer the meat to your stock pot or Dutch oven with a variable amount of liquid depending upon the recipe (the liquid should not cover the meat). Keep the temperature around 250°F (121°F), and heat the food until the meat is fork tender. Stewing: Stewing involves immersing the entire cut of beef in a

liquid and cooking slowly. Beef is typically dusted in seasoned flour and browned in a small amount of oil before the liquid is added. Often vegetables are added, and all ingredients are served in the resulting gravy.

175


192

TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

MEAT PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

Chuck

URMIS DESCRIPTION

MEAT BUYER’S GUIDE (IMPS/NAMP)*

Beef Chuck Blade Roast

MEAT BUYER’S GUIDE (IMPS/NAMP) PORTION CONTROL*

URMIS UPC CAT. A**

URMIS UPC CAT. B**

MAIN MUSCLE(S)***

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1064

1879

Serratus ventralis, Infraspinatus, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

55

Beef Chuck Blade Steak

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1066

1881

Serratus ventralis, Infraspinatus, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

54

Beef Chuck Center Steak (Denver Cut), Boneless

116E Chuck, Under Blade Roast

1098

1913

Serratus ventralis

59

Beef Chuck Eye CountryStyle Ribs, Boneless

116D Chuck, Chuck Eye Roll

1096

1911

Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi

59

Beef Chuck Eye Roast, Boneless

116D Chuck, Chuck Eye Roll

1095

1910

Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi

59

Beef Chuck Eye Steak, Boneless

116D Chuck, Chuck Eye Roll

1102

1917

Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi

57

Beef Chuck Flat (Sierra Cut), Boneless

116E Chuck, Under Blade Roast

1097

1912

Splenius

59

Beef Chuck Flanken-Style Ribs

121 Plate, Short Plate

1123 Beef Short Rib, Bone-In

1107

1922

Serratus ventralis

61

Beef Chuck Flanken-Style Steaks

121 Plate, Short Plate

1123 Beef Short Rib, Bone-In

1108

1923

Serratus ventralis

61

Beef Chuck Pot Roast

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1065

1880

Serratus ventralis, Infraspinatus, Complexus, Longissimus 55, 56, 57 dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

Beef Chuck Roast, Boneless

116A Chuck, Chuck Roll

1151

1966

Serratus ventralis, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/ Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

58

Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Roast

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1033

1848

Serratus ventralis, Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

55

Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Steak

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1035

1850

Serratus ventralis, Infraspinatus, Supraspinatus, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

55

Beef Chuck Short Ribs

121 Plate, Short Plate 123 Short Ribs

1127

1942

Serratus ventralis

57, 61

Beef Chuck Short Ribs, Frenched

121 Plate, Short Plate

Serratus ventralis

137

Beef Chuck Top Blade Roast, Bone-In

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1136

1951

Infraspinatus

54

Beef Chuck Under Blade Roast

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1150

1965

Serratus ventralis, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/ Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

54

Beef Chuck Under Blade Steak

113 Chuck, Square-Cut

1152

1967

Serratus ventralis, Complexus, Longissimus dorsi, Multifidus/ Spinalis dorsi, Splenius, Subscapularis, Rhomboideus

55

1116D Chuck, Chuck Eye Steak, Boneless

PAGE


APPENDIX

Chuck Shoulder

Rib

URMIS DESCRIPTION

MEAT BUYER’S GUIDE (IMPS/NAMP)*

MEAT BUYER’S GUIDE (IMPS/NAMP) PORTION CONTROL*

Beef Shoulder London Broil, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod)

Beef Shoulder Country-Style Ribs

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod)

Beef Shoulder Roast, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod)

1132

Beef Shoulder Steak, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod)

193

URMIS UPC CAT. A**

URMIS UPC CAT. B**

MAIN MUSCLE(S)***

PAGE

1810

2625

Triceps brachii, Infraspinatus, Teres major

63

Triceps brachii, Infraspinatus, Teres major

63

1947

Triceps brachii, Infraspinatus, Teres major

63

1133

1948

Triceps brachii, Infraspinatus, Teres major

63

Beef Shoulder Top Blade (Cross-Cut) 114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Steak, Boneless 114D Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Top Blade

1114D Shoulder, Top Blade Steak (IM)

1144

1959

Infraspinatus

63

Beef Shoulder Center (Ranch) Steak, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), 114E Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Arm Roast

1114E Shoulder, Arm Steak—PSO:1

1162

1977

Triceps brachii

65

Beef Shoulder Center (Ranch) Steak Thin, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), 114E Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Arm Roast

1114E Shoulder, Arm Steak—PSO:1

Triceps brachii

65

Beef Shoulder Center Pepper Steak, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), 114E Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Arm Roast

1114E Shoulder, Arm Steak—PSO:1

Triceps brachii

65

Beef Shoulder Top Blade (Flat Iron) Steak, Boneless

114 Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), 114D Chuck, Shoulder (Clod), Top Blade

1114D Shoulder, Top Blade Steak (IM)—PSO:1

Beef Back Ribs Split

124 Rib, Back Ribs

1166

1981

Infraspinatus

67

1183

1998

Rib bone, Intercostal

80

Rib bone, Intercostal

80

1180

1995

Rib bone, Intercostal

80

Beef Back Short-Rib Style

124 Rib, Back Ribs

Beef Back Ribs Full Cut

124 Rib, Back Ribs

Beef Rib Standing Rib Roast

110 Rib, Roast-Ready, Boneless

1103B Rib, Rib Steak, Bone-In, Frenched—PSO:1

1193

2008

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

73

Beef Rib Steak

110 Rib, Roast-Ready, Boneless

1103 Rib, Rib Steak, Bone-In

1197

2012

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

73

Beef Rib Cowboy Steak

110 Rib, Roast-Ready, Boneless

1103B Rib, Rib Steak, Bone-In, Frenched

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

73

Beef Ribeye Fillet, Boneless

112 Rib, Ribeye Roll, 112C Rib, Ribeye (IM)

1112 Rib, Ribeye Roll Steak, Boneless, 1112C Rib, Ribeye (IM)

1253

2068

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

77

Beef Ribeye Fillet Roast, Boneless

112C Rib, Ribeye (IM)

1112C Rib, Ribeye (IM)

1250

2065

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

77

Beef Ribeye Roast Extra Trim, Boneless

112 Rib, Ribeye Roll, 112C Rib, Ribeye (IM)

1112 Rib, Ribeye Roll Steak, Boneless

Longissimus dorsi, Spinalis dorsi

79


198

TH E A R T O F B E E F C U T T I N G

COOKING METHODS AND STYLES TENDERNESS DESCRIPTION

Chuck

(★–★★★★)

COST

MARINATE

GRILL/BROIL

STIR-FRY

KABOBS

OVEN ROAST

POT ROAST BRAISE/STEW

FAMILY STYLE

ASIAN GRILL

HISPANIC GRILL

SOUP

PAGE

Beef Chuck Blade Roast

★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Blade Steak

★★

★★★

$

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Eye Country-Style Ribs, Boneless

★★

★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Eye Roast, Boneless

★★

★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Eye Steak, Boneless

★★

★★★

$

★★

$$

★★

★★★★

$$

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Pot Roast

★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Roast, Boneless

★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Steak, Boneless

★★

★★★

$

■ 55,56,58

Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Roast

★★

★★★

$

55

Beef Chuck Seven-Bone Steak

★★

★★★

$

55

Beef Chuck Short Ribs

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Short Ribs

★★

★★★★

$$

Beef Chuck Under Blade Roast

★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Under Blade Steak

★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Top Blade Roast

★★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Top Blade (Cross-Cut) Steak

★★★

★★★

$

★★

★★★

$

Beef Shoulder Country-Style Ribs

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Shoulder Roast, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$

Beef Chuck Center Steak (Denver Cut), Boneless

Beef Chuck Flat (Sierra Cut), Boneless Beef Chuck Flanken-Style Ribs Beef Chuck Flanken-Style Steaks

Chuck Shoulder

FLAVOR

(★–★★★★) ($–$ $ $ $)

Beef Shoulder London Broil, Boneless

54

55

59

59

59

57

59

■ ■

■ ■

Beef Shoulder Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Shoulder Center (Ranch) Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Shoulder Center (Ranch) Steak Thin, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$

54

■ ■

63

63 63 63

65

■ ■

54 63

■ ■

55 54

61 57

Beef Shoulder Top Blade Steak, (Cross-Cut) Boneless

58

61 55,56,57

61

65


APPENDIX

TENDERNESS DESCRIPTION

Chuck Shoulder cont.

Rib

Loin

(★–★★★★)

FLAVOR

COST

(★–★★★★) ($–$ $ $ $)

MARINATE

GRILL/BROIL

STIR-FRY

KABOBS

OVEN ROAST

POT ROAST BRAISE/STEW

FAMILY STYLE

ASIAN GRILL

HISPANIC GRILL

SOUP

199

PAGE

Beef Shoulder Center Pepper Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$

Beef Shoulder Top Blade (Flat Iron) Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$$

Beef Back Ribs Full Cut

★★

★★★

$

80

Beef Back Ribs Split

★★

★★★

$

80

Beef Back Short-Rib Style

★★

★★★

$

Beef Rib Easy-Carve Roast

★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Rib Standing Rib Roast

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Rib Steak

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Rib Cowboy Steak

★★★

★★★★

$

Beef Ribeye Fillet, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Ribeye Fillet Roast, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Ribeye Roast (Extra Trim), Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$$$

Beef Ribeye Roast, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Ribeye Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Ribeye Steak Thin, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Ribeye Steaks (Extra Trim), Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$$$

Beef Ribeye Sweetheart Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$

Beef Ribeye Cap Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★★

$$$$

★★

★★★

$$$

Beef Top Loin Steak, Boneless

★★★

★★★

$$$

Beef Loin Porterhouse Steak

★★★

★★★

$$$

Beef Loin T-Bone Steak

★★★

★★★

$$$

Beef Loin Tenderloin Double Roast, Boneless

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Loin Tenderloin Double Steak, Boneless

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Loin Tenderloin for Fondue

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Loin Tenderloin for Taco Meat

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Loin Tenderloin Roast (Chateaubriand)

★★★★

$$$$

Beef Loin Bones for Soup

65

67

■ ■

73

73 73

73

■ ■

77

77

■ ■

79 75 72,75

■ ■

75 79

75 ■

77

■ ■

85,89 85,89,93

85 84 87

■ ■

80

87

87

87 87

Underly Art of Beef Cutting Sample Chapter  

Underly Art of Beef Cutting Sample Chapter

Underly Art of Beef Cutting Sample Chapter  

Underly Art of Beef Cutting Sample Chapter

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