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I ndones i anGi bbons , Wher ec anwef i ndt hem?

Lear n,ex pl or eandobs er ve t hebi odi ver s i t yofI ndones i anFor es t s Aut hor :EdyHendr asW. Layout :Andr easA. K.


Gi bbonsf ami l yandSi amangi sasi ngl egener af r om Hyl obat i dae,consi st sof9speci es.Thi spr i mat ef ul l y l i vei nt het r eeandknownast het opf or estacr obat i c. Thei rl ocomot i onar ef ul l ybyhangi ng( br anchi asi )f r om onebr ancht oanot her .Movementont het r eei sver y f ast ,coul dr each60km /hour . Oneuni queas pec tofgi bbonphy s i ol ogyi st hatt hewr i s ti sc ompos edofa bal l ands oc k etj oi nt ,al l owi ngf orbi ax i al mov ement .Thi sgr eat l yr educ es t heamountofener gyneededi nt heupperar m andt or s o,whi l eal s o r educ i ngs t r es sont hes houl derj oi nt .Gi bbonsal s ohav el onghandsand f eet ,wi t hadeepc l ef tbet weent hef i r s tands ec onddi gi t soft hei rhands . Gi bbonsandSi amanghav el oud,bac kandf or t hv oi c es .I nt hemor ni ng Gi bbon( i nJ av ac al l edOwa)ands i amangal way spr oduc ess hr i ek i ng " mor ni ngc al l "s ound.Us ual l y ,t hemal emak ess oundf i r s tandt hen f ol l owedbyt hef emal e.Eac hs pec i eshasdi f f er entr hy t hm andv oi c e c har ac t er . y ,ex c eptf orKl os s ' s Si amangi st hel ar ges tpr i mat ei nHy l obat i daef ami l Gi bbon/Si amangKer di l ( Hy l obat esk l os s i ) ,whi c hi sanendemi cpr i mat ei n Ment awai i s l ands .Agr oupofSi amangus ual l ypr oduc esbac kandf or t h s ound,whi c hc anbehear dk i l omet er sawayi nt hef or es t .Qui t es i mi l arwi t h i t sr el at i v ei nSumat r a,J av a,andKal i mant an,Kl os s ' sGi bbonal s omak es " mor ni ngc al l " ,wi t ht hemal ef i r s tt odoi t . I ti spr edi c t edt hatKl os s ' sGi bboni st heol des tmemberofHy l obat i dae f ami l ywhi c hs t i l l al i v e.Al t hought hes pec i eshasbas ev oi c et hatal s o ownedbyHy l obat i daes pec i es ,t hef eat ur ei sdev i at edf r om t heot her memberoft hef ami l y .Si amangk er di l hasbl ac ks c ar c el yhai r ,unl i k et he ot herHy l obat i dae. Al l Hy l obat i daef ami l yi smonogamy i v ewi t hi t spai randoneort wo m ,l of f s pr i ng.Pr egnanc yper i odi s7-8mont hs ,i nt er bi r t hr angei s2-2. 5y ear . Theageofi ndi v i dual t hatr eadyt omat ei s8-9y ear s .Li f es pani s25 y ear s .Theyar es oc i al ani mal sands t r ongl yt er r i t or i al ,t heywi l l def endt hei r boundar i eswi t hv i gor ousv i s ual andv oc al di s pl ay s .


Agi l eGi bbon-Hyl obat esagi l i s LocalName: I ndones i a:Wauwau( Kal i mant an)orUngk oorungk o t anganput i h( Sumat r a) ,Kel awat( Sout her n Sumat r a) . Di st r i but i on: Canbef oundal ongt hes out her ns i deofSumat r a( as wel l asNor t her nPeni ns ul aofMal ay s i a) ,Sout hWes t andCent r al Kal i mant anbet weent heKapuasand Bar i t oRi v er s . Descr i pt i on: Adul twei ght :5. 0-6. 4k gandbodyl engt hadul t s ar ound450-500mm.Not ai l . Hyl obat esagi l i sal bi bar bi ss ubs pec i es ,f r om Wes t er nandCent r al Kal i mant ani st hemos tc ol or f ul andc ont r as t i ngl ypat t er nedofgi bbons .Thebac kof bodyi spal egr ay i s hbr own,t ur ni nt ogol denbuf fon t her ump;abuf fc or onabor der st hedar kbr ownc ap, s etof fbyawhi t ebr own. Al l mal eandhal ft headul tf emal es pec i menshav ewhi t eorc r eam c heek pat c hes ,nor mal l yj oi nedatt het hr oat .Wher easadul tf emal esus ual l yhav e s eper at e,ar c hed,whi t eey ebr owsandnoc heekpat c hes .Thev ent erand i nneras pec tofl i mbsar ebl ac k i s hbr own,t ur ni nt oc hes t nutatt hel i neal ong t hepal ef l ank sandl i mbs .Handsandt oesar ebl ac k . OnSumat r a,Hyl obat esagi l i sagi l i shaswhi t eey ebr ows ,i nt hemal e,whi t e c heekpat c hes .Gener al bodyc ol our sv ar yf r om buf ft obl ac k ,near l y r es embl et oKal i mant an' sagi l i s .Thebr ownerpar ti ss i mi l arl i k eHyl obat es agi l i sal bi bar bi ss pec t r um butl ac k sbl ac konhandsandf eet . Thebl ac kagi l egi bbonsdonotl i v ei nt hemount ai nousar ea,s pec i mens di v i dedal ongt heeas t er nbas eoft heBuk i tBar i s anMount ai nsRange.I n Buk i tBar i s ant hes pec i mensar enotbl ac kwher easbl ac kpr edomi nant si n t hes wampf or es t soft heeas t er nl owl and.


Habi t at : Commonl ys eeni nal l f or es tupt o1000m as l ex c l udi ngmangr ov e,andal s o t heynor mal l yf oundonl yi nt al l ands el ec t i v el yl oggeddi pt er oc ar pf or es t s .I n Sumat r a,t heyal s oc anbef oundi ns ec ondar yorol dl oggedf or es t s . Di et : Fr ugi v or ous .Di etmai nl yc ons i s t soff r ui t s ,andal s ol ar gequant i t i esoff i gs ( Fi c usf r ui t s ) ,l eav es ,f l ower s ,i ns ec t s .Fr ui tc ompr i s esabout60% ( mos t l y r i pe,s ugarr i c h,j ui c yf r ui t s )and30% l eav es ,butmont hl ypr opor t i onsoff r ui t s s omet i mesex c eed90% orf al l bel ow30%. Soci alSt r uct ur e: Theyar emonogamousandt er r i t or i al ,t hei rt er r i t or i esar edef endedt hr ough r egul arl oudmor ni ngs ongs .Nor mal l yf oundl owl ev el sofi nt er ac t i onsi n gi bbonsduet ol ac koft hei rs oc i al par t ner s . Thi sc ondi t i onsc anbes eenpar t i c ul ar l yl i k el yf orol deri nf ant sandj uv eni l es , c ompar edt ot hey oungofmos tot herpr i mat es ,t heyhav enos ameaged pl ay mat esoft hei rdayi ns oc i al pl ay . Femal egi bbonofagi l i sar eof t enc odomi nantt hanmal ei nt hei rgr oup.Thi s i si nc ont r as tt omanys pec i esofot herpr i mat es . Ecol ogyandBehavi or : Di ur nal andc ompl et el yar bor eal ,Theyhav eas mal l t er r i t or ywhi c hdef ended 29ha.Meanagi l i st r av el about1, 200m aday . Agi l i sof t ent ak eonl y10t o15mi nut est oc r os sf r om ones i deoft hei r t er r i t or yt ot heot her ,andt heynor mal l yt ak e2t o3day st oc ov ert hei rr anges c ompl et el y( aswel l ass eeni nl ar ) . Ther ei snos t r ongev i denc ef orpat r ol i ngandboundar ydi s put esnor mal l ydo notaf f ec tr angi ngpat t er n. Locomot i on: Spec t ac ul arandt ot al l ybr ac hi at or .Bi pedal l ywal kont hegr oundand br anc hes .


Vocal i z at i on: Ter r i t or i alsongs: Dawns i ngi ngofmal eagi l egi bbonsbegi nss i mpl y ,t woort hr eenot esata t i me.Dur i ngt hehal fhourormor eoft heens ui ngc hor us ,s hor ts ongsofup t o14not esdev el opt hati nc l udet hedi phas i cc oupl et .Equal l ydi agnos t i ci s t heas c enti npi t c hoft heopeni ngs hor tnot esoft hes ong,t hef i r s tbei ng l owes twi t honl yoneex c ept i on,as ongt hatbeganhi gh,appar ent l ywi t han i nhal ed" hah" . Cons i s t enti nt er v al sar emai nt ai ned,v ar y i ngf r om t wot of i v es ongsper mi nut eac c or di ngt ot hei ndi v i dual .Themal eagi l egi bbonav oi dsdoubl e i nf l ec t i ons .Thef emal eagi l egi bboni ndul gesi ns ev er al mi nut esof monot onouspr el ude( war m up)andput saf l our i s hont hes t ar toft hef i r s t not eoft hegr eatc al l . Theens ui nggr eatc al l ,begi nni ngwi t ht hef i r s tl ongnot e,i soft hes oar i ng t y peasoppos edt ot r i l l i ng.Gr eatc al l sofagi l egi bbonsdi f f erf r om one f emal et oanot heri nnumberofnot esanddur at i on. Mor ni ngcal l s: Thes ol osofunmat edmal est endt ol ongerandt empor al l ys epar at edf r om t hos eofmat edmal es ,andappar ant l yf unc t i ont oat t r ac tunmat edf emal es . Thef emal e' ss ongi ss ungasaduetwi t ht hemal e.Sol i t ar y ,t r ans i ent f emal esal mos tnev erc al l ,andwi dowedf emal est endt os i ngi r r egul ar l yi fat al l . Thef emal e' sl ouds ong,t her ef or e,s eemst oadv er t i z eherpai r eds t at usas wel l asherpr es enc eonat er r i t or y .Theyar enor mal l yduetany t i mebet ween dawnandt eno' c l oc ki nt hemor ni ng.Duet sbegi ns pont aneous l yori n r es pons et oc al l bynei ghbor i nggr oups .Theduetl as tar ound15mi nut es . I nt er gr oupencount er : I nt er gr oupc onf l i c t sofagi l i sandot hergi bbonsar enotal way ss of r equentf or mal es .Rat esofi nt er gr oupenc ount er sonl yonc eev er yt woday si nagi l i s . Fi ght i ngi sr ar e.Femal epar t i c i pat i oni nbor derdi s put esi snor mal l yl i mi t edt o c al l i ng.Subadul tandadol es c entmal esof t enpar t i c i pat ei ni nt er gr oup c onf l i c sandj oi nt hei rpar ent si nc has i nganei ghbor i ngmal e.


Conser vat i onSt at us: Thehabi t ats hr i nk i ngbec aus eoff or es topeni ngf oragr i c ul t ur al pur pos eor l oggi ng,c aus edt hedec l i ni ngoft hepopul at i onoft hi ss pec i esi nt hewi l d. Ac c or di ngt oI UCN,ungk oi sc at egor i z edasEndanger edspeci es. I ndones i angov er nmenthaspr ot ec t edt hi spr i mat eundert hemi ni s t r yof f or es t r ydec i s i on10J une1991no.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991andUUno51990.Thi s s pec i eshasl os t66% ofi t shabi t at-500. 000k m2t o170. 000k m2.I ti s es t i mat edt hatt her ear eonl y30. 000i ndi v i dual l ef ti nt hewi l d.Att hi s moment ,Ungk oonl yl i v ei npr ot ec t edar easi nKal i mant anandSumat er a. Thel os sofhabi t att oc ul t i v at i onorc ommer c i al l oggi ngi st hepr i mar yc aus ed t ot hr eat ent hei rnat ur al popul at i onc ur r ent l y .I ndones i angov er nmenthas beenpr ot ec t i ngt hi sgi bbonunderl i s t sofani mal spr ot ec t i onbyl aw,by For es t r yMi ni s t ergov er nmentdec r eeJ une,10/ 1991No.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991 andUndangundangNo.51990. Thes t at usofHyl obat esagi l i si shi ghl yv ul ner abl e,t henumberofs ur v i v i ng popul at i onsar es mal l orf r agment ed,andt hr eat enedbyhabi t atdes t r uc t i on orhunt i ng.


Kl oss' sGi bbon-Hyl obat eskl ossi i LocalName: I ndones i a:Si amangKer di l orBi l ou( Ment awai an) Di st r i but i on: Theyar ec onf i nedt ot heMent awai I s l andsandf oundonl yont he bi ggeri s l ands( Si ber ut ,Si por a,Nor t hPagai ,andSout hPagai ) ,l i e 85, 135k m of ft hewes tc oas tofSumat r a,I ndones i a. Descr i pt i on: Adul t swei ghti sar oundof5. 5k gandbodyl engt hofmal e andf emal ear ound450mm.Not ai l . I ti sdi f f i c ul tt odi f f er ent i at emal eandf emal e i nt hewi l d.Theyar et ot al l yj etbl ac kwi t hout anyi ndi v i dual di f f er enc esi npel agec ol our orpat t er n. I nt hei rnat ur al env i r onment ,di s t i ngui s hi ngbet ween i ndi v i dual sands ex esi snear l yi mpos s i bl e,i tc anonl ybe ac hi ev edc ons i s t ent l ywhent heani mal wer ef ul l yhabi t uat ed. Di f f er enc esbet weenmal eandf emal ear eal mos tnotobs er v abl e.Mal e geni t al t uf t sar epr es enti nal l gi bbons pec i esex c eptH.k l os s i i .Thel abi a maj or aar epr omi nenti ngi bbons ,andt hel abi ac oul ds omet i mesbemi s t ak en i nt hef i el df ort hes mal l peni soft hemal e.Thef emal eur i nes t r ai ghtdown wher easmal eur i nei sdi r ec t edbac k war ds .Femal eni ppl eswer el ar gert han mal eni ppl esbutt hatwasonl yr el at i v eandnotas pec i al c har ac t er i s t i c . Habi t at : Pr i mar yandpr i s t i nef or es t s ,s omet i mest heyal s os eeni nex pl oi t edf or es t s near byl oggi ngc ons ent i onar eas .Theyc annots ur v i v eats ec ondar yor pl ant at edf or es t s .Mangr ov eandc oas t al f or es t sar enott hei rhabi t at s . Di et : Thei rpr i mar ydi et sar ef r ui t s ,l eav es ,andi ns ec t s .Kl os sgi bbonr equi r e v ar i ousf r ui tt r eest hatr i peal l y earast hei rf oods our c es .Theymaybemor e f r ugi v or ous( 80% f r ui t seat en) ,andappar ent l yobt ai nspr ot ei npr i mar i l yf r om i ns ec t sandl egumi nos esorephi phy t eor c hi dsi ns t eadofy oungl eav es .And al s ot hi sgi bbonwoul dl i k et oeatl eafofl i ana,l eafs hootofor c hi d,f i tt r ee bar kofShor eas p,Hopeas p,andot herk i ndsofDi pt er oc ar pac eae.Kl os s gi bbongetmor ec ar bohy dr atf r om f r ui t s .


Soci alSt r uct ur e: Si mi l l arwi t hot hers pec i esofOwa,Si amangk er di l l i v esi npai r( monogamy ) andf ol l owedbyi t sunder8y ear sol dof f s pr i ngs . Of f s pr i ngst hathav er eac hed8y ear sol d( f emal eormal e)ar es epar at ed t hems el v esf r om t hei rpar ent s .Monogamousgr oups i z eofk l os s i i i s3-7 i ndi v i dual s . Ecol ogyandBehavi or : J us tl i k eot hers pec i esofOwa,s i amangk er di l i sdi ur nal ( ac t i v edur i ngt he day )andar bor eal ( l i v eont het r ee) .Theyr ar el yc omet ot hef or es tf l oor . Themot herus ual l yhel psi t sbec omi ngadul tof f s pr i ngt of i ndempt ypl ac e f ort hei rt er r i t or y .I t ' sof t endonebyus i ngpr es s ur e,i nt i mi dat i ng,andal s o pr es sot herf ami l yt hatl i v esc l os et ot heof f s pr i ng' smot her . Theys l eepont het r eebr anc hest hathasnol i ana,andr ar el ys t ayatt he s amet r eef ormor et hant woday s .Thi sc oul dbeas t r at egyt oav oi d pr edat or ,gener al l yphy t on. I nt hewi l d,s i amangk er di l c anl i v es i debys i dewi t hot herpr i mat e,l ut ung Ment awai ( Pr esbyt i spot enz i ani ) . Locomot i on: Si amangk er di l us esi t sbot har m( br ac hi at or )t omov eamongbr anc hes . Eac hdayt heymov ei nqui t eal ongway ,c ompar edwi t hot hers pec i esof owa.Thei rdai l ymov ementr eac hes1-2k m,andt hei rt er r i t or yc ov er34 hec t ar es .


Vocal i z at i on Ter r i t or i alGr eatCal l s: TheKl os s ' sgi bbons i ngi ngi sr ef i ned,s i mpl e,s l owl ymodul at ed,andf l ut e l i k e.Mal ess i ngmai nl yf r om t hei rs l eepi ngt r eesi napr edawnc hor usof s hor ts ongsgr adual l yel abor at edt oi nc l udeat r i l l .Conv er s el y ,f emal es s oundal i k e,andt heys i ngl at eri nt hemor ni ng. Theys ol oi nt heear l ymor ni ng,ut t er i ngt hegr eatc al l at1mi nut ei nt er v al s . Eac hgr eatc al l l as t s20s ecormor eands of topeni ngnot est hats wel l i n v ol ume,r eac hi ngac l i maxi npi t c h,i nt ens i t yorr es pi di t y ,andt hens ubs i di ng. Thepi t c hv ar i esbet ween0. 5and1. 5k Hzwi t hf ewex c ept i ons . Thes ongs t ar t sasanas c endi ngs er i esofs us t ai nednot est hatbec ome s hor t erast heygai nat er mi nal upwar di nf l ec t i on.Femal esi nadj ac ent t er r i t or i esof t enmeetonas har edt er r i t or i al boundar yands i ngt oget her . Daught er ss t i l l l i v ewi t ht hei rpar ent sands i ngwi t ht hei rmot her s ,buts ons donots i ngwi t ht hei rf at her s . I nt er gr oupconf l i ct s: Al mos tr es embl est oagi l i sgi bbon.I nk l os s i i ,f emal esmaybec omemor e agr es s i v et hi sc anbes eent odef endt hei rt er r i t or i esbot hv oc al l yand phy s i c al l yagai ns ts ol i t ar ymal esandi nt r udi ngnei ghbor s . Subadul t sandadol os c ent mal esac c ompani edpar t i c i pat ei ni nt er gr oup c onf l i c t sandj oi nt hei rf at her st odi s pel anei ghbour i ngmal e. Soci alGr oups: Theyar emonogamousf ami l i esoft wot os i xi ndi v i dual sl i v ei nwel l def i ned t er r i t or i es ,whi c har edef endedbys ongaswel l asbyphy s i c al c onf r ont at i on. Mal esdef endagai nt smal es ,f emal esagai ns tf emal es .Adul tmal esar et he pr i nc i pal pr ot ec t oragai ns thumanpr edat or sandt hemor eac t i v eaggr es s or i ni nt er gr oupenc ount er s .I ns omepai r s ,t headul tf emal eal mos tal way s t r av el sf i r s ti ngr ouppr ogr es s i ons .Kl os s i i gi v enf or51% oft hei rt heac t i v i t y per i od( bet weenl eav i ngandent er i ngs l eepi ngt r ees ) ,ands omet i mess i tf or hour si nl at eaf t er noonbef or ef al l i ngas l eep.


Conser vat i onSt at us: Al t houghMent awai peopl egener al l yhuntt heex i s t i ngpr i mat e,butSi amang Ker di l i snott hei rmai nt ar get . Habi t atdes t r uc t i oni soneoft her eas onf ort hedec l i ni ngoft hi ss pec i es .I n t hebegi nni ngt hepr i mat eoc c upi edanar eaaswi deas6. 500k m2i n Ment awai i s l and,butt hehabi t ati ss hr i nk i ng31% t o4500k m. Thepopul at i onl ef tes t i mat ed84, 000Si amangKer di l ,andoc c upi ed pr ot ec t edf or es tar eaof1, 490k m2. Bec aus eofi t sendemi s m anduni quenes s ,t hepr i mat ehasbeenpr ot ec t ed undert hel awoft hewi l dl i f epr ot ec t i onr egul at i on1931no.266,t hemi ni s t r y off or es t r ydec i s i on10J une1991no.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991andUUno51990. I UCNpl ac edSi amangk er di l asEndanger edf r om ex t i nc t i oni ft hehabi t at des t r uc t i oni sc ont i nui ng.


Whi t ehandedGi bbonHyl obat esl ar LocalName: I ndones i a:Ungk ot anganput i h( Nor t hSumat r a) Di st r i but i on: I nI ndones i ai sl i mi t edt onor t her nSumat r a( as wel l aspeni ns ul arMal ay s i aandThai l and) . Theyar es ubs pec i esofHyl obat esl ar vest i t uswhi c hi s ol at edt oSundai c . Descr i pt i on: Bes i desc ov er i ngt hear m andf eet ,t hewhi t e hai ront heungk os pec i esal s ogr owar oundt he f ac e.Bodyc ol ouri sv ar i ed,f r om whi t e br owni s ht obl ac korbl ac kbr ownt or ed.Mal e andf emal es howst hes amec ol our .Thel engt h off emal ebodyi sar ound420580mm,and mal ei sar ound435-585mm. Bes i dest hedi f f er enc esi nbodyl engt h,t hemal eandf emal ehas di f f er enc esi nbodywei ght ,whi c hi sf emal ear ound4. 56. 8k g,andmal ei s ar ound4. 9-7. 6k g.Mal eandf emal ehast hes amef ang. Habi t at : Pr i mar yands ec ondar yf or es t ,f r om l owl andunt i l mount ai nf or es tupt o 2400m as l . Di et : Di et smai nl yar er i pef r ui t s ,y oungl eav es ,ol dl eav esandaf ewf l ower s , buds ,andi ns ec tc ol umns .Foodc ompos i t i onofl armont hl ypr opor t i ons ( meanandr ange)off r ui tex c eedof50% ( 36-60) ,f orf i g22,l eav es29% ( 14-53) ,f l ower7% ( 3-8) ,andi ns ec t s13% ( 6-24) . I nKet ambe,nor t hSumat r awhi c hhasf i gr i c hf or es t ,s y ndac t y l usandl ar gr oupswi t hov er l appi ngr angeshav ef oodsmor es i mi l art oeac hot hert han t onei ghbor i nggr oupsoft hes ames pec i es .


Soci alSt r uct ur e: Res embl est oot hergi bbons ,t er r i t or i al andmonogamousf ami l ywhi c h c ons i s t soft wot of i v eors i xmember s ,andwel l t er r i t or ywhi c hdef end t hr oughl ouds ongi nt hemor ni ng.I nl ar ,gi v enr es tf or20% oft heper i od bet weent hei rl eav i ngands l eepi ngt r ees . I noneoft wogr oupsofl ar ,t hemal ewasdomi nantt ot hef emal e;i nt he ot herdomi nanc ev ar i ed,i nl at epr egnanc yandear l ypos t par t um,t he f emal ebec amedomi natt ot hemal ei nf eedi ngc ont ex t s . Adul tmal ei sbec omi ngpr i nc i pal pr ot ec t oragai ns thumanandpr edat or s ( aswel l asi nk l os s i i ,andmuel l er i )andt hemor eac t i v eagr es s or si n i nt er gr oupenc ount er s . Ecol ogyandBehavi or : Whi t ehandedungk oac t i v ef r om mor ni ngt oaf t er noonands pendmos tof i t st i meont het r ee.Themal edoesnott ol er at et hepr es entofot hermal ei n i t st er r i t or y . Dur i ngt hedayr es t ,mal eandf emal egr oomi ng.Thehabi t atdec l i ni ng c aus edbyf or es tc utac t i v i t yandopeni nghasc aus edt henar r owi ngof ungk o' st er r i t or y .And,t hef oods our c ei sal s odec r eas i ng.Ont hear ea s uc ht hos e,ungk oc ons umedmor el eav es . Whi t ehandedungk oc anl i v es i debys i dewi t hs i amang( H.syndact i l us) andbl ac khandedungk o( H.agi l i s) .Butwhenenc ount erwi t hLongT ai l Mac aque( M.f asci cul ar i s)c ompet i t i onof t enhappen,es pec i al l yf orf ood, bys howi ngt hei rs har pf ang. Thi spr i mat es l eepsont hebr anc hes ,andav oi dl i anaf orpr edat or av oi danc e.They ' r eal s or ar el ys l eepont hes amet r eef ormor et hant wo day s .I tc oul dbet oav oi dpar as i t e. Locomot i on: Br anc hi at i on,Swi nggi ngandc l i mbi ng.Quadr opedal ,bi pedal l ywal kont he gr oundorbr anc hes .


Vocal i z at i on Ter r i t or i algr eatcal l sandsongs: Themal esar enor mal l ys ongsatdawnasc ont i nous .Somet i mesdi sc r et e s ongsar eut t er edi nadawnc hor usoratmi ddayduel i ngv oc al l ybyt wo mal es . Mal esunabl ec anbedi s t i ngui s hedf r om eac hot herbyt hei rs ongs .The f emal egr eatc al l r es embl est hatoft heagi l egi bbon.Andf emal esi ni t i at ed al mos tal l v oc al r es pons est opl ay bac k s ,butc al l edc ons i s t ent l yonl yi n r eac t i ont of emal es ol osands omet i mesdi dnotj oi nt hei rmat e' s appr oac hest owar damal es ol osorduet .Mal ewi l l bel edappr oac hest oal l pl ay bac kex c eptt woofei ghtf emal es ol os . Si ngi ngi nl aral mos tr es embl ewi t hot hergi bbonss uc hask l os s i i ,and s y ndac t y l usandwi l l bel es sf r equentonr ai nyorwi ndyday sandi s pos i t i v el yc or el at edwi t hf r ui tabundanc e,mat i ngac t i v i t y . I nt er gr oupconf l i ct s: Al mos ts i mi l art oagi l i swhi c hs howt hati nt er gr oupc onf l i c t sar enotal way s s of r equentf ormal esandr at esofi nt er gr oupenc ount er sv ar y . Fi ght i ngi sr ar eandonl yonc eands us pec t edf i ght i ngi nonl y10c as es .The i nc i denc eoff ac i al s c ar s ,br ok enc ani nesonmal egi bbonsal s ov ar i es bet weens i t es . Ther ei sc ons i s t ent l yl es sev i denc eoff i ght i ngi nj ur esamongf emal est han amongmal es .Subadul tandadol es c entmal esal s opar t i c i pat ei n i nt er gr oupc onf l i c t saswel l ass y ndac t y l us ,agi l i s ,andk l os s i i .I ndeedi nt wo l argr oups ,as ubadul tmal egr adual l yt ookov ert hemal er ol ei nt er r i t or y def ens ef r om agi ngf at her s .


Conser vat i onSt at us: Wi t ht hes hr i nk i ngof55% oft hehabi t at ,whi t ehandedungk ohas bec omi ngv ul ner abl et oex t i nc t i on. Theywer eoc c upy i nghabi t atof68. 000k m2,butnowi t ' sonl yar ound 30. 800k m2.Fr om t her emai nofi t shabi t at ,i ti ses t i mat edt hatungk o' s popul at i oni sonl y250. 000i ndi v i dual andl i v es af el yi nc ons er v at i onar eaof 4. 000k m2. Thes ubs pec i esofwhi t ehandedungk oi ni ndones i ahasbeenpr ot ec t ed bas edont hewi l dl i f epr ot ec t i onr egul at i onno299,1931,t hemi ni s t r yof f or es t r yl et t erofdec i s i on10J une1991No.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991,andLawNo. 5y ear1990. Ac c or di ngt oI UCN:Thi ss pec i esi sl i s t edasEndanger edasi ti sbel i ev ed t ohav eunder goneadec l i neofmor et han50% i nt hel as tt hr ee gener at i ons( 45y ear s )duet or ampantf or es tl os sandl os sofmat ur e i ndi v i dual sduet ohunt i ng.


Si l ver yGi bbonHyl obat esmol och LocalName: I ndones i a:Owa,WauWauKel abu Di st r i but i on: Thedi s t r i but i onofHyl obat es mol ochmol ochl i mi t edt ot he f or es ti nWes tJ av a,es pec i al l yi n t hepr ot ec t edar ea,s uc hasUj ung Kul onNP,GunungHal i mun, GunungGedepangr ango,al s o nat ur er es er v eGunungSi mpang, andLeuweungSanc ang. Hyl obat esmol ochpangoal soni onl yex i s ti nt hes ur r oundi ngof GunungSl ametunt i l Di eng Mount ai nsi nCent r al J av a. Descr i pt i on: Wei gt h4. 37. 9k gf ormal es ,4. 16. 8k gf orf emal es .Gener al bodyc ol or sar e v ar i ous l yf r om bl ac k i s ht os i l v er ygr eyandnor mal l yhasgr eybr owni s h. Hai rs ur r oundi ngt hef ac ei si sei t hers l i ght l ypal eri ns t eadt her es toft he pel age.Thec api sei t herdar kgr eyorbl ac k ,t her ei sabl ac kgeni t al s pot . Fac ei st ot al l ybl ac k ,Thei rey ebr owi spal eanddar k l yonc r ownoft he br eas thai r .Ther ei sadi f f er enc ec ol orbet weenmal eandf emal eandage c l as st oo. Di s t r i but i onofmol oc hc anbedet er mi nedbas edonhi ghel ev at i on.Theyar e c ommonl ys t i l l f oundov er14001600met er sabov es eal ev el ( a. s . l )and nev ers eenabov e1600met er sa. s . l .Thi sc aus edbyt hec hangesof v eget at i onf or mat i ons uc hasf or es ts t r uc t ur eandphy s i ognomyandf l or i s t i c c ompos i t i onont heupperl and.Gener al l yt heydi s t r i but i onar ec onf i nedt o wes t er nJ av aands omeoft hear easi nt hewes t er nhal fofJ av aar es t i l l c ov er edwi t hor i gi nal r ai nf or es t st hatar eoneofs ui t abl e/ wel l habi t atof mol oc h.


Habi t at : H.mol oc hi sex c l us i v el yr es t r i c t edt odi v er s et r opi c al l owl andandhi l l ev er gr eenr ai nf or es tondr yl and.Commonl yt heyf oundi nal l f or es tupt o 1250met era. s . l ex c l udi ngmangr ov e. Di et : Foods our c esc ompos i t i onofmol oc har ec ompr i s esi nmont hl ypr opor t i ons ( meanandr ange)off r ui t61% ( 4968) ,l eav esof38% ( 3050) ,f l ower s1% ( 02) ,andi ns ec t s0%. Thef oodr es our c esoft hes egi bbonl i v edi nt hei rhomer ange/ t er r i t or i ewi t h anav er ageof17has i z ewhi c hwel l def endedwi t hi naf ami l y . Soci alSt r uct ur e: Monogamy us tl i k eot hers pec i esofOwa,OwaJ awal i v ei npai ri na m .J monogamyf ami l ys y s t em. Bes i dest het wopar ent s ,t her ei sal s o1-2dependentof f s pr i ng.Gener al l y eac hf ami l yoc c upi edoneoft hei rownt er r i t or y . Ecol ogyandBehavi or : Di ur nal andc ompl et el yar bor eal andhenc er equi r esaf or es twi t hc l os ed c anopy . I tf eedsmai nl yonf r ui tandl eav esandl i v esal l t hey earr oundi ns t abl e homer anges .Mor eov er ,t hef or es ts houl dc ompr i s eagr eatdi v er s i t yoft r ee s pec i es . Thei rf oods our c esi sl i mi t edt os mal l t er r i t or ys ot hatt heyal way si tdef end. Dai l yt r av el ac t i v i t yofmol oc hi tanav er ageof1400met er . Locomot i on: Br anc hi at i on


Vocal i z at i on: Ter r i t or i algr eatcal landsongs: I nmol oc h,t hef emal e' ss ongi ss ungasaduetwi t ht hemal e.Femal eof mol oc hc al l edal onei nr es pons et of emal es ol osandi nal l off ourac t ual i nt r us i onsobs er v ed. Appar ent l y ,mal emol oc happr oac hi nt r udi ngpai r sal onewhi l et hei rmat es s i ng.Cons i s t enti ndi v i dual di f f er enc eseas i l ydi s t i ngui s hnei ghbor i ngJ av an gi bbonf emal esi nt henat ur al ,t husc ompens at i ngf ort hel ac kofaf ami l y l abel i ngmal es ongi nmol oc h. I nt er gr oupencount er s: Femal esofmol oc hpar t i c i pat i oni nbor derdi s put esi sc ommonl yl i mi t edt o c al l i ng,ast heex t r em,s c r eam,orgr eatc al l t hr oughoutanenc ount erand f emal emaybec omemor eagr es s i v e.


Conser vat i onSt at us: Thei nc r eas i ngnumberofpopul at i oni nJ av ahasc aus edt het r opi c al r ai nf or es tt odec l i nedr as t i c al l y .Or i gi nal l yt heani mal oc c upi edanar eaof 43. 274k m2,butnowi t ' sonl y1608k m2ors hr i nkt o96%. Bes i det hat ,t hehuntpr es s ur ehasmadeOwaJawaasaf av or i t epetwhi c h t hr eati t sex i s t enc ei nt hewi l d.Asar es ul t ,t heendemi cpr i mat ei s c ont i nuedpus ht ot hepr ot ec t edar eaof600k m2. Des pi t et her egul at i on-1931wi l dl i f epr ot ec t i onr egul at i on,s t r engt hened wi t ht heMi ni s t r yofFor es t r yl et t erofdec i s i on10J une1991No. 301/ Kpt s I I / 1991andLawno5,1990,t hepopul at i oni nt hewi l di s dec l i ni ng. Att hi spoi nt ,i ti spr edi c t edt hatt her ei sonl y2. 000-4. 000OwaJ awai n wi l d.Thi si soneofI ndones i anpr i mat et hatc l os et oex t i nc t i on.Bes i des ex s i t uc ons er v at i onef f or t ,habi t atpr ot ec t i onandl awenf or c ementi sr eal l y neededt os av et hi sendanger edpr i mat e. H.mol ochhasbeenpr ot ec t edbyl awi nJ av as i nc e1924andt oget herwi t h al l ot hergi bbons pec i esl i v i ngi nI ndones i a,mol oc hwasi nc l udedi nt hel i s t ofs t r i c t l ypr ot ec t edani mal i n1931.T odayt hi sgi bboni sf ul l pr ot ec t edunder For es t r yMi ni s t r y .Ac c or di ngt ot heI UCNRedLi s tofThr eat enedAni mal s s t at est hatmol oc hhasbeeni nc l udedasendanger eds t at us .Andt he I UCN/ SSC( 1987)c ons i der edt hem t omer i tt hehi ghes tc ons er v at i on pr i or i t yr at i ngoft heAs i anpr i mat es .Nol ar ges ec t i onoft hepopul at i oni s r eal l ys ec ur e.


M端l l er ' sBor neanGi bbonHyl obat esmuel l er i LocalName: I ndones i a:Kel awat ,Kel ampi au,owa Kal i mant an Di st r i but i on: Muel l er ' sgi bboni sf oundont hei s l andof Bor neo.Thi ss pec i esi sf oundi n s emi dec i duousmons oonf or es t sand t r opi c al ev er gr eenf or es t s ,ei t herpr i mar yor s ec ondar yf or es tt y pes .H.muel l er i muel l er ic anbef oundbet weenSungai Bar i t oandSungai Kar angani nNor t her n Cent r al Kal i mant an.Whi l eH.muel l er i abbot t ic anbeobs er v edbet weent he Sambasr egi onandSungai Kapuasi nWes t Kal i mant an. Descr i pt i on: Thi spr i mat ehasr el at i v el yl ongf or ear mswhi c has s i s ti ti ns us pens or y behav i or .Thi spr i mat ehast hr oats acl oc at edbeneat ht hec hi nt ohel p enhanc et hec al l s .Muel l er ' sgi bbonl ac k sat ai l ,c audal v er t ebr ae. Theav er agebodymas sf oranadul tmal eandf emal eMuel l er ' sgi bboni s ar ound5. 0-6. 4k i l ogr ams . Thepel agec ol orr angesf r om gr ayt obr ownwi t hal i ght err i ngofhai r s ur r oundi ngt hef ac e.Thehai ront opoft heheadi sdar k ert hant hebody hai r . Ther ear et wos ubs pec i esf oundi nKal i mant an( I ndones i anBor neo): H.muel l er imuel l er i ,hav emi dgr eybr ownc ol or ,wi t hbl ac kunder par t s , bl ac k i s hhead,handsandf eet . H.muel l er iabbot t i ,ent i r el ypal egr ey i s h.


Habi t at : Nor mal l yt hel owl andsandhi l l si nKal i mant an,butal s of oundatt he el ev at i onupt o1500met er sas l onGunungKi nabal u( Ser awak )andon peats wampsofWes tKal i mant an.Theyc an' tbef oundi nmangr ov ef or es t . Di et : Muel l er ' sgi bboni saf r ugi v or ouss pec i es ,buti t smai nf oods our c es c ons i s t soff r ui t shi ghi ns ugar ,i mmat ur el eav es ,ands mal l i ns ec t s . Ac c or di ngt os omer es ear c h,t hi spr i mat ec ons umes62% f r ui t s ,32% l eav es ,4% f l ower sand2% i ns ec t s . Soci alSt r uct ur e: Si mi l arwi t hot hergi bbons ,t heyar emonogamousandt er r i t or i al .Thei r t er r i t or i eswi l l bedef endedv i ar egul arl oudmor ni ngs ongs .Af ami l ygr oup i sc ompos edof2t o6member s( adul tmal e,adul tf emal e,j uv eni l es ,and i nf ant s ) .Thebas i cgr oups t r uc t ur ei st hebr eedi ngpai randt hei rof f s pr i ng. Femal esi nonegr oups eemsmor eaggr es i v et hanmal e,t heyt endt obe mor edomi nantov ert hemal es .Theadul tmal ewi l l bepr i nc i pal pr ot ec t or agai ns thuman,pr edat or sandt hemor eac t i v eaggr es s ori ni nt er gr oup c onf l i c t s . Adul tmal esofmuel l er i aswel l ass y ndac t y l uss pentmor et i mepl ay i ng andgr oomi ngwi t ht hei ry oung. Ecol ogyandBehavi or : Di ur nal andc ompl et el yar bor eal . Locomot i on: At r uebr ac hi at or( mov esbys us pens or ybehav i or ) .Muel l er ' sgi bbon t hr owsi t s el ff r om t r eet ot r eeov ergapsof10met er sormor eus i ngt hei r ar ms .Theyal s oc l i mbswhenmov i ngs l owl yandf eedi ng,andabl et o mov ef ors hor tdi s t anc esbybi pedal i s m.


Vocal i z at i on: T er r i t or i al gr eatc al l ands ongs:Mal eofmuel l er i s i ngal mos tev er y mor ni ngf r om t hei rs l eepi ngt r eesbef or edawn.Mos ts ongsbegi nhi ghand des c end. Whenamal eandf emal emuel l er i s i ngt oget her( duet ) ,gener al l yaf emal e v oi c ei smor edomi nantandhar der ,ac c ompani edbyt ugsi nherv oi c e. Mal ev oi c emor eof t enl ong,wi t habouts i xs t r ai nsatev er y3s ec onds .Thi s s ong,whet hermal eorf emal e,endi ngwi t haf as tr hy t hm andv i br at i on. Gener al l yKel awats t ar t eds i ngi ngf r om 5: 00pm unt i l 6: 30ev er ymor ni ng. Mal eswhodonothav epai r sus ual l ys i ngmuc hl ongerwhenc ompar ed wi t ht hemal eswhoal r eadypai r ed. Thel oudc al l off emal emuel l er i c anbehear df oradi s t anc eofov er2k m unders ui t abl ec ondi t i ons .Songdur at i onoft hi sgi bbonal s oi nc r eas es whent hei rhabi t atdi s t ur bedbyi nt r uder s . Conser vat i onSt at us: Ac c or di ngt oI UCNr ec or d,t heOwaKal i mant ans t at usi sEndanger ed. Owat hatl i v esi nmount ai nar eai smor es af ec ompar edt ot hepopul at i on t hatl i v esi nl owl andar ea.Bec aus emos toft hel owl andf or es ti s t r ans f er r edasagr i c ul t ur al ar ea,t r ans mi gr at i ons i t eandf or es t r y . I nt hebegi nni ngKal i mant anOwaoc c upi edf or es tar eaof237. 000k m2, butt hehabi t atr educ et o38% t ol es st han146. 000k m2.Fr om what ' sl ef t oft hear ea,Kal i mant anOwac anonl yl i v es af eands oundi na c ons er v at i onar eaof13. 500k m2. T omai nt ai nt heex i s t i ngofKal i mant anOwai nnat ur e,I ndones i an gov er nmentpr ot ec t si twi t ht heMi ni s t r yofFor es t r yl et t erofdec i s i on10 J une1991No.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991andLawno5,1990. Thepopul at i ons t at usofmuel l er i Kal i mant an' si sr el at i v el ys af ei nt he upl andf or es t ,butt heyar et hr eat enedi nt hel owl andf or es tbec aus et her e ar el oggi ng,humans et t l ementandagr i c ul t ur edev el opment . Thi sani mal hasbeenpr ot ec t edbyl awofI ndones i angov er nment ac c or di ngt ot hel i s tofani mal sandbi r dspr ot ec t i on.


Si amang Symphal angussyndact yl us LocalName: I ndones i an:Ki mbo( Sumat er a) Di st r i but i on: TheSi amangpr ef ert oi nhabi tl owl andf or es t bel owbet ween500m i nal t i t udeandov er1000 m abov es eal ev el . Descr i pt i on: Wei gt happr ox i mat el yaboutof1 1. 2k gf oradul t . I ti sc ons i der abl yl ar gert hant hegi bboni n hy l obat i daegr oup,wi t hanar ms pr eadofas muc has1. 5met er . I t sheadandbodyl engt hi s800900mm,t her e i snot ai l . Thebodyandl i mbsar et ot al l ybl ac kex c epton t hef ac e,whi c hi st hi nl yc l adwi t hwhi t i s hhai r s , mos tdens el yont hec hi n,t heyar es l i ght l y t i ngedwi t hbr own. Ther ei sal ar gegr ayorpi nkt hr oats act hati s i nf l at eddur i ngc al l sandt hec r ownf uri s br us hedl at er al l yt ogi v eaf l atc r own. Thes ec ondandt hi r dt oesar euni t edweb. Ther ei sal ar gepr eput al t as s el i nmal es , s omet i mess i xi nc hesl ongandf ourt of i v ei n br eadt hatt hedi s t al end.


Habi t at : Thi ss pec i esl i v esi npr i mar yands ec ondar ys emi dec i duousandt r opi c al ev er gr eenf or es t .Al l l ev el soft hec anopyar eus ed,al t houghemer gent t r eesar er equi r edf orr es t i ngands l eepi ng. Si amangsoc c uratl owerdens i t i esi ns ec ondar yf or es t ,butc anper s i s ti n s ec ondar yar eas .Theyr angef r om t hel owl andsupt o1, 500m i nel ev at i on. Di et : TheSi amangmai nl yeat sv ar i ouspar t sofpl ant s .TheSumat r anSi amang i smor ef r ugi v or oust hani t sMal ay anc ous i n,wi t hf r ui tmak i ngupt o60% of i t sdi et . TheSi amangeat satl eas t160s pec i esofpl ant s ,f r om v i nest owoody pl ant s .I t smaj orf oodi sf i gs( Fi c uss pp. ) ,amemberofMor ac eaef ami l y . TheSi amangpr ef er st oeatr i pef r ui tr at hert hanunr i pef r ui t ,andy oung l eav esr at hert hanol dl eav es .I teat sf l ower sandaf ewani mal s ,mos t l y i ns ec t s Soci alSt r uct ur e: er r i t or i al l yandmonogamous l y .Si mi l art heot hergi bbon,t het er r i t or ywi l l T def endt hr oughr egul arl oudmor ni ngs ongsenc ount er swi t hnei ghbor sand i nt r uder s .Thel owl ev el sofi nt er ac t i onduet ol i t t l eofs oc i al par t ner smay c ont r i but e.I ti sbec aus et her ehav enots ameagedpl ay mat esi ns oc i al pl ay . Nor mal l yi nf ami l yc ons i s t sofmot her ,f at herands ev er al c hi l ds .Femal e s i amangar eus ual l yc odomi nantwi t hmal es .Adul tf emal eal mos tal way s l eadi nt r av el i ng. Themal emor eac t i v et hant hef emal ei ns oc i al i ngandappeart obe es pec i al l yac t i v ef at her s . I nt er gr oupi nt er ac t i onss eeni nc r eas ei nf r equenc ydur i ngper i odsofs ex ual ac t i v i t yorasof f s pr i ngnearmat ur i t y ,i nmat i ngandt er r i t or i al behav i our .


Ecol ogyandBehavi or : Nor mal l ydi ur nal ac t i v i t y .I ti sac t i v ef orabout10. 5hour saday ,c ompl et el y ar bor eal ,ex c l us i v el ybr ac hi at or ,mor ef ol i ov or oust hanf r ugi v or oust han ex pec t edf ori t sl ar gerbodys i z eands mal l ert er r i t or i es ,s pec t ac ul ar v oc al i z at i on/ gr eatc al l ,monogamousandt er r i t or i al anddef enc ei t st er r i t or y byl oudc al l . Di ur nal l yac t i v eandar bor eal .T er i t or i al ofSi amangar eav ai l abl ewi t hi n appr ox i mat el yof2030hai t shomer angewher es mal l ert hanot her gi bbon.Si amangt r av el i ngabout800t o900m adayandt ak e6day st o c ov ert hei rr angesc ompl et el y . Theyar eac t i v ef r om 8t o10hour sadayonav er ageandc ommonl y begi nsatdawnandc ompl et ewel l bef or es uns et . Theyus ual l yus eemer gentt r eespar t i c ul ar l yt or es t ,s l eepands i ng.Muc h t i mei ss penti nt hemai nc anopyf ors i ngi ngandf or agi ngandr ar el ys een i nt hel owerc anopyf ort hos eac t i v i t i es .Themal eandt hef emal es i amang mat ur eat8t o10y ear sofage. Themal ec ommonl yt oi ni t i at emat i ng,ot her wi s et hef emal ewi l l i gnor et he mal eormov eaway . I ns oc i al or gani z at i on,s i amangar emonogamousandt er r i t or i al whi c h f r equent l ydef ens e.Ass uc hot hergi bbon,s i amanghasl ac kofs oc i al par t ner sandl owl ev el sofi nt er ac t i on.Si mi l art ol ar ,agi l i s ,f emal es i amang i sof t enc odomi nantwi t hmal eandadul tf emal eal way st r av el sf i r s ti n gr ouppr ogr es s i ons . Locomot i on: Si amangSpec t ac ul arbr ac hi at or ,mov et y pesar equadr opedal f orc l i mbi ng andbi pedal f orwal k i ngont hegr oundandbr anc hs .


Vocal i z at i on: T er r i t or i al gr eatc al l ands ongs:Res embl et ok l os s i i ,agi l i sandl art he s ol osofunmat edmal est endt obel ongerandt empor al l ys epar at edf r om t hos eofmat edmal es ,andappar ant l yt oat t r ac tunmat edf emal es( Gi t t i ns andRaemar k er s1980;Lei ght on,1987) . Mos ti ndi v i dual soft hi ss pec i esduet sal mos tdai l y .Theduetoft hepai r begi nsi nmi dmor ni ngorl at er( Chi v er s1974) .Howev er ,duet sbys i amang oc c url es sf r equent l y .Si ngi ngi sl es sf r equentonr ai nyorwi ndyday sand i spos i t i v el yc or r el at edwi t hf r ui tabundanc eandmat i ngac t i v i t y( Chi v er s andRaemar k er s1980) . Whenpr epar i ngt os i ng,t hi sgi bboni nf l at esi t sv oc al s ac ,whi c hr es onat es adeepboom.Thes ongper i odbegi nswi t hs t ac c at oannounc ementbar k s , i naphr as eut t er edbyt hemal eorbyt hepai ri nuni s on.Dur i ngt he war mupt hemal ec ont r i but ess c r eamc hat t er st hatev ent ual l yi nt r oduc e t hegr eatc al l ,s ungbyf emal esf i v eors i xt i mes .Gr eatc al l openwi t ha l ongs er i esofal t er nat i ngboomsandbar k swhos es l i ghts y nc opat i onand s t eadyac c el er at i oni mpar tex c i t ement . I nt er gr oupenc ount er s:Nor mal l ys eens ubadul tandadol es c entmal es f r equentpar t i c i pat ei ni nt er gr oupc onf l i c t sandac c ompani est hei rf at her si n c has i nganei ghbor i ngmal e( Chi v er s1974) . Conser vat i onSt at us: I nt hewi l dt hepopul at i ons t at usofs i amangi sc r i t i c al ,meani ngi ti swor r i ed t hatt hi ss pec i eswoul dbev ani s hi ft her ei snoc ons er v at i onef f or tdone, es pec i al l yt hehabi t atpr ot ec t i on. Si amanghasl os tar ound66% ofi t sor i gi nal habi t at ,us edt obe340. 000 k m2hasbec ome120. 000k m2.Bes i des ,habi t atl os s ,s i amangf ac edt he hunt i ngt hr eatf orpetpur pos e. Thenumberofs i amangi nt hewi l di sappr ox i mat el y31. 000i ndi v i dual , oc c upy i ng20. 000k m2ofhabi t att hats t i l l i nt ac t . opr ot ec ti t ,I ndones i anGov er nmenthasr el eas eds omer egul at i onsand T l awswhi c har e:t hemi ni s t r yofAgr i c ul t ur edec i s i onl et t er14Febr uar y1973 no.66/ Kpt s / um/ 2/ 1973,t hemi ni s t r yoff or es t r ydec i s i onl et t er10J une1991 No.301/ Kpt s I I / 1991,andUUNo.5y ear1990.


I ndonesi anGi bbonsandSi amangcanbef oundi n t heseNat i onalPar ks,Nat ur eReser ves,Wi l dl i f e Sanct uar i esandNat ur alFor est s: 01.Ber bak 02.Bet ungKer i hun 03.Buki tBakaBuki tRaya 04.Buki tBar i sanSel at an 05.Buki tKaba 06.Buki tTi gapul uh 07.Ci kepuh 08.DanauSent ar um 09.GunungBur angr angAndTangkubanPer ahu 10.GunungGede-Pangr ango 11.GunungHal i munSal ak 12.GunungMal abar 13.GunungPal ung 14.GunungPapandayan-Kamoj ang 15.GunungSanggabuana 16.GunungSegar a 17.GunungSl amet 18.GunungTi l uSi mpang 19.KayanMent ar ang 20.Ker umut an 21.Kut ai 22.LeuweungSancang 23.PegununganDi eng 24.Si ber ut 25.Tanj ungPut i ng 26.Uj ungKul on 27.WayKambas


01.Ber bak

Type:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni st r at i veAr ea:Tanj ungJabung,Bat angHar i-Jambi Cl osestAi r por t: Sul t anThahaSyai f udi nAi r por t-Jambi( DJB)I ndonesi a. Over vi ew: Thi sar eai sl ocat edont heeast er ncoastofSumat r a,Jambi Pr ovi nce( ar ound50Ki l omet er sf r om Jambi ) ,att her i ghtsi deof Bat angHar ir i verupst r eam,whi chi sonl yaccessi bl ebyr i ver t r anspor t at i on. Habi t att ypes: peatswampf or est1 10, 000hect ar es,f r eshwat erswamp60, 000 hect ar esand1, 500hect ar esofmangr ovef or est . Wi l dl i f e: Mi l kySt or k,St or m' sSt or k,LesserAdj ut ant ,Whi t ewi ngedDuck, Bl ackpar t r i dge,Spot t edGr eenshank,Asi at i cDowi t cher ,Si l ver y Pi geon,Bl uebandedKi ngf i sher ,SundaWar bl er ,Bi nt ur ong, Sumat r anRhi nocer os,SunBear ,Ag i l eGi bbon, Hai r ynosedOt t er ,Yel l owt hr oat edMar t en,Cl oudedLeopar d, Mal ayanTapi r ,CommonSof t shel l Tur t l e,andmanyot her .


02.Bet ungKer i hun

Type:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni st r at i veAr ea:KapuasHul u-WestKal i mant an Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt : Supadi oAi r por t-Pont i anak Over vi ew: Locat edi nt heupperKapuasRi ver ,bor der edbySar awak ( Mal aysi a) .Awat er shedar eaf orKapuas,Mahakam andRaj ang r i ver s.Put usi baui st henear estci t yf r om Nat i onalPar k' sar ea, whi chi scommonl yusedbyvi si t or sast heent r ance. Habi t att ypes: l owermont anef or est ,l owl andever gr eenf or est ,andupper mont anef or est . Wi l dl i f e: Wal l ace' shawkeagl e,Bul wer ' spheasant ,Whi t ehead' sTr ogon, Mount ai nBar bet ,Gol dennapedBar bet ,Bor neanBar bet ,Hose' s Br oadbi l l ,Whi t ehead' sBr oadbi l l ,Bl ueheadedPi t t a,Fai r yPi t t a, St r awheadedbul bul ,Bl uewat t l edBul bul ,Hookbi l l edBul bul , Bl ackbr owedBabbl er ,Bor neanWr enbabbl er ,Mount ai n Wr enbabbl er ,SundaLaughi ngt hr ush,Chest nut cr est edYuhi na, Bor neanSt ubt ai l ,Eyebr owedJungl ef l ycat cher ,Lar gebi l l ed bl uef l ycat cher ,Bl acksi dedFl ower pecker ,Whi t ehead' s Spi der hunt er ,PygmyWhi t eeye,Mount ai nBl ackeye,M端l l er ' s Bor neanGi bbon,Pr obosci sMonkey ,Bor neanOr angut an, Mar oonLeafMonkey ,SunBear ,Cl oudedLeopar d.


03.Buki tBakaBuki tRaya

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Si nt ang,EastKot awar i ngi n-WestKal i mant an, Cent r alKal i mant an.

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Supadi oAi r por t-Pont i anak

Over vi ew:

Thi sar eas t r et c hest hr ought heSc hwanermount ai nsar ea,wi t han al t i t udef r om 150t o2, 278m abov es eal ev el . Hi l l yar eawi t has l opeofmor et han30% c anbef oundatnor t handwes t s i de.Whi l et hes out hi smor ef l atwi t hahei ghtofabout150-300m abov es eal ev el .

Wi l dl i f e:

Smal l t oot hedPal m Ci v et ,Pl ant ai nSqui r r el ,As i anTr i c ol or edSqui r r el , Rus a,Moonr at ,SunBear ,Shor t t ai l edMongoos e,Agi l eGi bbon, M端l l er ' sBor neanGi bbon,Mal ay anPor c upi ne,Sout her nPi gt ai l ed Mac aque,SundaPangol i n,Bar k i ngDeer ,Pr obos c i sMonk ey ,Cl ouded Leopar d,SundaSl owLor i s ,Bor neanOr angut an,Mar oonLeafMonk ey , Leopar dCat ,BandedLi ns ang,Bear dedPi g,Wes t er nt ar s i er ,Les s er Mous eDeer ,Gr eat erMous edeer ,Or i ent al Ci v et ,Whi t ec r owned eat hedHor nbi l l ,Oc hr ac eousBul bul ,Bus hy c r es t edHor nbi l l , Hor nbi l l ,Wr Gr eatAr gus ,Rhi noc er osHor nbi l l ,Hel met edHor nbi l l ,Emer al dDov e, Bl ac k br eas t edFr ui t hunt er ,Bl ueandWhi t eFl y c at c her ,Gr eat er Rac k et t ai l edDr ongo,Ol i v ebac k edWoodpec k er ,Whi t ebel l i ed Woodpec k er ,Whi t ec r ownedFor k t ai l ,Li t t l ePi edFl y c at c her ,Gr een J ungl ef owl ,Ches t nut c appedLaughi ngt hr us h,CommonHi l l My na, Whi s k er edTr ees wi f t ,Les s erFi s hEagl e,Bul wer ' spheas ant , Redt hr oat edBar bet ,Gr eyWagt ai l ,St or k bi l l edKi ngf i s her ,Mal ay an Peac oc k pheas ant ,Ches t nut bac k edSc i mi t ar babbl er ,St r awheaded bul bul ,Cr es t edWoodpar t r i dge,Vel v et f r ont edNut hat c h,As i an Par adi s ef l y c at c her .


04.Buki tBar i sanSel at an

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Tanggamus,WestLampung-Bengkul u, Lampung

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Radi nI nt enAi r por t-BandarLampung

Over vi ew:

T opogr aphyv ar i es ,r angi ngf r om wat erar eas ,l ows l opi ngpl ai ns , undul at i ngt ohi l l yar easands t eepmount ai ns ,wi t hahei ghtf r om 0t o 1964m abov es eal ev el .Att heeas t er nr egi ongener al l yf or meds t eep ar eas ,wher easi nt hewes t er npar twhi c hl oc at edc l os et oI ndones i an Oc eani smor ef l at .Ther ear emanymount ai nsi nt hi sar ea,wi t ht he hi ghes tpeaki sMountPul ung( 1, 964m) ,ont hewes ts i deofLak eRanau.

Wi l dl i f e:

Wat erBuf f al o,Pl ant ai nSqui r r el ,Sumat r anser ow,Rusasambar ,Dhol e, Sumat r anRhi nocer os,Sumat r anel ephant ,SunBear ,Agi l eGi bbon, Si amang,Mal ayanPor cupi ne,Hai r ynosedOt t er ,Sout her nPi gt ai l ed Macaque,Pangol i n,Bar ki ngDeer ,Ser ow,Cl oudedLeopar d,Sumat r an St r i pedRabbi t ,Sumat r ant i ger ,Sumat r anSur i l i ,Leopar dCat ,Mal ayanFl yi ng Fox,Bl ackGi antSqui r r el ,Wi l dboar ,Mal ayanTapi r ,West er nt ar si er ,Javan Langur ,LesserMouseDeer ,Gr eat erMousedeer ,Bl uebandedKi ngf i sher , Gr eycheekedBul bul ,Pl ai nSunbi r d,Asi anGl ossySt ar l i ng,Yel l owear ed Spi der hunt er ,Thi ckbi l l edSpi der hunt er ,Li t t l eSpi der hunt er ,Gr eatAr gus, Gr eatHor nbi l l ,Rhi nocer osHor nbi l l ,Hel met edHor nbi l l ,Ruf ousWoodpecker , Bl uewi ngedLeaf bi r d,St or m' sSt or k,Bl ueandWhi t eFl ycat cher ,Whi t et ai l ed Fl ycat cher ,Mangr oveBl uef l ycat cher ,Pal eBl uef l ycat cher ,Asi anHouse Mar t i n,Thi ckbi l l edFl ower pecker ,Pl ai nFl ower pecker ,Ol i vebacked Woodpecker ,Gr eenI mper i al pi geon,Pi edI mper i al pi geon,Mal aysi an Rai l babbl er ,Bl ackandyel l owBr oadbi l l ,Ruf ouschest edFl ycat cher , Mugi makiFl ycat cher ,MaskedFi nf oot ,AshyBul bul ,Ruf ousbel l i edEagl e, Pur pl enapedSunbi r d,LesserAdj ut ant ,Bl uecr ownedHangi ngPar r ot , Shor t t ai l edBabbl er ,Moust achedTr eeBabbl er ,Ruf ouscr ownedBabbl er , Buf f neckedWoodpecker ,Chest nut headedBeeeat er ,Mi l kySt or k,Javan whi st l i ngt hr ush,Bl ackandcr i msonOr i ol e,Raf f l es' sMal koha, Checker t hr oat edWoodpecker ,BandedWoodpecker ,Gr acef ulPi t t a,Bl ack Magpi e,Cr i msonbr east edFl ower pecker ,Longt ai l edBr oadbi l l , Or angespot t edBul bul ,RedeyedBul bul ,Bl ackandwhi t eBul bul , Scal ybr east edBul bul ,Redl eggedCr ake,Or angebackedWoodpecker , Ful vouschest edJungl eFl ycat cher ,Bl yt h' sHawkEagl e,Wal l ace' s hawkeagl e,Chest nut r umpedBabbl er ,Li t t l eTer n,Pi nkneckedGr eenpi geon.


05.Buki tKaba

Ty pe:GameHunt i ngPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Nor t hBengkul u-Bengkul u

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Fat mawat iSoekar noAi r por t-Bengk ul u

Over vi ew:

Thi sar eai sl oc at edatt hes out heas tofCur up.Ont hes l opesoft he c ent r al par tt her ear et eapl ant at i ons ,butmont anef or es tc ans t i l l be f oundar oundt hepeak .

Wi l dl i f e:

Sal v ador i ' spheas ant ,Br onz et ai l edPeac oc k pheas ant ,Pi nk headed Fr ui tDov e,J av anTr ogon,Fi r et uf t edBar bet ,Gr ac ef ul Pi t t a, Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,Bl uemas k edLeaf bi r d,Sunda For k t ai l ,Shi nyWhi s t l i ngt hr us h,Rus t y br eas t edWr enbabbl er ,Mar bl ed Wr enbabbl er ,Ruf ous v ent edNi l t av a,Bl ac k c appedWhi t eey e, Sumat r anDr ongo,Si amang,Agi l eGi bbon.


06.Buki tTi gapul uh

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:I ndr agi r iHul u,I ndr agi r iHi l i r-Ri au

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Sul t anSyar i fQasi mI II nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Pek anbar u

Over vi ew:

Thi sar eai sl oc at edappr ox i mat el y80k ms out hofRengat .Habi t att y pes : l owl andev er gr eenf or es t ,s ec ondar yf or es t ,r ubberpl ant at i ons ,and s hi f t i ngc ul t i v at i onar eas .

Wi l dl i f e:

Or i ent al Smal l c l awedOt t er ,Spot t edwi ngedFr ui tBat ,Rus as ambar , Dhol e,Sumat r anRhi noc er os ,Sumat r anel ephant ,SunBear ,Agi l e Gi bbon,LarGi bbon,Si amang,Sout her nPi gt ai l edMac aque, Whi t ec ol l ar edf r ui tbat ,Bar k i ngDeer ,Roundear edTubenos edBat , Cl oudedLeopar d,Sumat r ant i ger ,BandedLeaf monk ey ,Mi t r edLeaf Monk ey ,Wi l dboar ,Mal ay anT api r ,J av anLangur ,St or m' sSt or k ,Les s er Adj ut ant ,Whi t ewi ngedDuc k ,Bl ac kpar t r i dge,Cr es t l es sf i r ebac k , Bl uebandedKi ngf i s her .


07.Ci kepuh

Ty pe:Wi l dl i f eSanct uar y Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Sukabumi-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

Thi sar eai sl oc at edont hes out hc oas tr egi on,17k m wes tof J ampangk ul on.Mos toft hi sar eac ons i s t sofs ec ondar yl owl andr ai n f or es tands omepar t ss t i l l hav epr i mar yf or es t ,whi l et her emai ni ngar ea c ons i s t sofmangr ov ef or es t sands wamps .

Wi l dl i f e:

Gr eenPeaf owl ,St r awheadedbul bul ,Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er , Gr ey c heek edTi t babbl er ,J av aSpar r ow,Bant eng,Leopar d,J av aWar t y Pi g,Si l ver yGi bbon,J av anLangur ,Gr eens eat ur t l e,Leat her bac kt ur t l e, Hawk s bi l l t ur t l e.


08.DanauSent ar um

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:KapuasHul u-WestKal i mant an

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Supadi oAi r por t-Pont i anak

Over vi ew:

Loc at edi nKapuasT engahar eaandi st hemai npr i or i t yf ort hepr ot ec t i on ofwet l andar easandi sI ndones i a' ss ec ondRams arar ea. Habi t att ypes: s wampf or es t swi t hs hor tt r ees( wi t ht r eehei ghtbet ween58met er s ,and al mos tent i r el ys ubmer gedi nwat er ) ,s wampf or es t swi t hmoder at ehei ght t r ees( bet ween815met er s ,ands ubmer gedi nwat er ) ,s wampf or es t wi t hhi ght r ees( 2030met er s ,s ubmer gedi nwat erf or3t o6mont hsi na y ear ) ,f or es ts l opes ,aswel l ass ec ondar yv eget at i onandagr i c ul t ur al ar eas .

Wi l dl i f e:

St or m' sSt or k ,Les s erAdj ut ant ,Wal l ac e' shawk eagl e,Bl ac kpar t r i dge, Cr i ms onheadedPar t r i dge,Bul wer ' spheas ant ,Bor nean Peac oc k pheas ant ,Gr eyI mper i al pi geon,SundaNi ght j ar , Whi t es houl der edI bi s ,St r awheadedbul bul ,M端l l er ' sBor neanGi bbon, Pr obos c i sMonk ey ,Bor neanOr angut an,SunBear ,Or i ent al Smal l c l awed Ot t er ,Cl oudedLeopar d,Sal t wat erCr oc odi l e,Fal s eghar i al ,As i an Ar owana.


09.GunungBur angr angAndTangkubanPer ahu Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve,Recr eat i onPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Bandung,Pur wakar t a,Subang-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

21k m nor t hwes tofBandung,c ons i s t i ngoft womount ai n:Mt .T angk uban Per ahu( 2, 023m)andMt .Bur angr ang( 2, 064m) . T angk ubanPer ahui sanac t i v ev ol c anoandhasamount ai nf or es thabi t at t y pe.Thear eaar oundt hec r at eri sapopul art our i s tdes t i nat i oni nWes tJ av a. MountBur angr anghasupperr ai nf or es thabi t att y peands ur r oundedby pl ant at i ons .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,J av anSc opsOwl ,Vol c ano Swi f t l et ,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,SundaMi ni v et , Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,SundaFor k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa, Whi t ebi bbedBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Ruf ous f r ont ed Laughi ngt hr us h,J av anFul v et t a,J av anT es i a,SundaWar bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l ed Fant ai l ,Py gmyTi t ,Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av anGr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e, J av anLangur ,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


10.GunungGede-Pangr ango

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Bogor ,Ci anj ur ,Sukabumi-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Soekar no–Hat t aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-J ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

20k ms out heas tofBogorandc anber eac hedbyl andt r ans por t at i on f r om J ak ar t aorBogort hr oughCi awi ,Ci panasandPac et . Cons i s t sof :Mt .Gede( 2, 958m)whi c hi ss t i l l anac t i v ev ol c ano,andMt . Pangr ango( 3, 019m) . Maj orhabi t att y pest hatex i s ti nt hi sar eai sl owermont anef or es t ,upper mont aner ai nf or es t ,s ubal pi nef or es t ,s ubal pi nemeadowandmount ai n c r at er .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Gr eenPeaf owl , Sumat r anGr eenpi geon,Pi nk headedFr ui tDov e,Dar k bac k ed I mper i al pi geon,J av anSc opsOwl ,Sal v ador i ' sNi ght j ar ,Wat er f al l Swi f t , Vol c anoSwi f t l et ,J av anTr ogon,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont ed Bar bet ,SundaMi ni v et ,St r awheadedbul bul ,Or anges pot t edBul bul , SundaBul bul ,SundaRobi n,SundaFor k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa, Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er ,Whi t ebi bbedBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t ed Babbl er ,Ruf ous f r ont edLaughi ngt hr us h,J av anFul v et t a,Spot t ed Cr oc i as ,J av anT es i a,SundaWar bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l , Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t ,Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av an Gr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,Mount ai nSer i n,J av aSpar r ow,Or i ent al Smal l c l awedOt t er ,Bi nt ur ong,Bl ac k bandedSqui r r el ,Dhol e,Mal ay an f l y i ngl emur ,Si l ver yGi bbon,Bar t el ' sFl y i ngSqui r r el ,SundaPor c upi ne, SundaPangol i n,Yel l owt hr oat edMar t en,Bar k i ngDeer ,Leopar d,As i an Pal m Ci v et ,RedGi antFl y i ngSqui r r el ,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Leopar d Cat ,Bl ac kGi antSqui r r el ,Wi l dboar ,J av aWar t yPi g,Les s erMous e Deer .


11.GunungHal i munSal ak

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Lebak,Bogor ,Sukabumi-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Soekar no–Hat t aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-J ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

20k ms out hwes ts i deofBogor ,or10k m nor t hofPel abuhanRat u. Fr om Bogorr egi onc anber eac hedbyl andt r ans por t at i ont hr oughCi awi , Par ungk udaandKal apanunggal . Appr ox i mat el y20% oft hi sar eai sal owl andr ai nf or es t .Badui t r i beswho l i v edatt hewes t er npar toft hi sar eas t i l l r et ai nst het r adi t i onal way sof l i f eandi snoti nf l uenc edbyot herc ul t ur es .

Wi l dl i f e:

Thi c k t ai l edShr ew,Or i ent al Smal l c l awedOt t er ,Bl ac k bandedSqui r r el , Rus aDeer ,Bl ac k c appedFr ui tBat ,SundaShr ew,Dhol e,Les s er Shor t nos edFr ui tBat ,Hor s ef i el d' sFr ui tBat ,Si l ver yGi bbon, Shor t t ai l edGy mnur e,Longt onguedFr ui tBat ,SundaPangol i n,Bar k i ng Deer ,SundaSl owLor i s ,Leopar d,RedGi antFl y i ngSqui r r el ,Gr i z z l ed Leaf monk ey ,Leopar dCat ,Wi l dboar ,J av anLangur ,Les s erMous e Deer ,J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Pi nk headedFr ui t Dov e,Dar k bac k edI mper i al pi geon,J av anSc opsOwl ,Wat er f al l Swi f t , Vol c anoSwi f t l et ,J av anTr ogon,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont ed Bar bet ,SundaMi ni v et ,Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,Sunda Robi n,SundaFor k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa,Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er , Whi t ebi bbedBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Gr ey c heek ed Ti t babbl er ,Ruf ous f r ont edLaughi ngt hr us h,J av anFul v et t a,Spot t ed Cr oc i as ,J av anT es i a,SundaWar bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t , Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av anGr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,J av aSpar r ow.


12.GunungMal abar

Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Bandung-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

24k ms out hofBandung,andc ons i s t sofdamagedmont aner ai nf or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,SundaMi ni v et , Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaFor k t ai l ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er , SundaWar bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t ,Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d, J av anLangur ,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


13.GunungPal ung

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Ket apang-WestKal i mant an

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

RahadiUsmanAi r por t-Ket apang

Over vi ew:

GunungPal ungNat i onal Par kl i esi nt her egenc i esofNor t hKay ongand Ket apang,i nt heI ndones i anpr ov i nc eofWes tKal i mant an,nor t hof Ket apangandeas tofSuk adana.Habi t att y pesatt hi snat i onal par k : l owermont anef or es t ,l owl andev er gr eenf or es t ,peats wampf or es tand f r es hwat ers wampf or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

St or m' sSt or k ,Les s erAdj ut ant ,Wal l ac e' shawk eagl e,Bl ac kpar t r i dge, Cr es t l es sf i r ebac k ,Bor neanPeac oc k pheas ant ,Lar geGr eenpi geon, Shor t t oedCouc al ,Bl uebandedKi ngf i s her ,Bl ueheadedPi t t a, Hook bi l l edBul bul ,Bor neanWr enbabbl er ,Ches t nut c r es t edYuhi na, Agi l eGi bbon,Pr obos c i sMonk ey ,Bor neanOr angut an,SunBear , Mar oonLeafMonk ey ,Rhet hr os c i ur usmac r ot i s ,Cl oudedLeopar d,Fal s e ghar i al ,As i anAr owana.


14.GunungPapandayan-Kamoj ang Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve,Recr eat i onPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Bandung,Gar ut-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

Kamoj angi sl oc at edabout7k m nor t hofGar ut ,whi l ePapanday ani s21 k ms out hwes tofGar ut .Kamoj angc r at er shasuppermont aner ai nf or es t t hats er v esast hec at c hmentar ea.AndPapanday anhasas l i ght l y damagedmont anef or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Sumat r anGr eenpi geon, Pi nk headedFr ui tDov e,Dar k bac k edI mper i al pi geon,Vol c anoSwi f t l et , J av anTr ogon,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,Sunda Mi ni v et ,Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,SundaRobi n,Sunda For k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Ruf ous f r ont ed Laughi ngt hr us h,J av anFul v et t a,Spot t edCr oc i as ,J av anT es i a,Sunda War bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l ,Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t , Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av anGr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,J av anLangur , Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


15.GunungSanggabuana

Ty pe:For est Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Kar awang,Bogor-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Soekar noHat t aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-J ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

40k m eas tofBogor .Thi sar eai sl oc at edc l os et oJ at i l uhurRes er v oi r . SanggabuanaMount ai n( 2, 048m)i sc ov er edbyl owl andr ai nf or es tand l owermont aner ai nf or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont ed Bar bet ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,J av anFul v et t a,Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l , J av anLangur ,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


16.GunungSegar a

Ty pe:For est Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Kuni ngan,Br ebes,Ci l acap-WestJava,Cent r al Java

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Soekar noHat t aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-J ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

71k m nor t heas tofCi ami s .Thi sar eai sc ov er edbyl owl andr ai nf or es t andl owermont aner ai nf or es tonv ol c ani cs oi l .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet , Mount ai nSer i n,J av anLangur ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


17.GunungSl amet

Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Br ebes,Tegal ,Pemal ang-Cent r alJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Adi suci pt oI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Yogy ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

24k m nor t hwes tofPur wok er t o.MountSl amet( 3, 418m)i st hes ec ond hi ghes tmount ai ni nJ av aaf t erMt .Semer u.Thi sar eahasanupper mont aner ai nf or es thabi t att y pe.

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Pi nk headedFr ui tDov e, Dar k bac k edI mper i al pi geon,Sal v ador i ' sNi ght j ar ,Br ownt hr oat ed Bar bet ,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,SundaMi ni v et ,Or anges pot t edBul bul , SundaBul bul ,SundaFor k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa,Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er , Whi t ebi bbedBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Ruf ous f r ont ed Laughi ngt hr us h,J av anFul v et t a,Spot t edCr oc i as ,J av anT es i a,Sunda War bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l ,Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t , Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av anGr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,Mount ai nSer i n, J av anLangur ,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,Si l ver yGi bbon.


18.GunungTi l uSi mpang

Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Bandung-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

25k ms out hofBandung.Somemount ai nsatt hi sr egi on:Mt .Ti l u,Mt . War i ngi n,Mt .Cur euh,Mt .Si mpang,Mt .Punc akWal angand Boj ongl ar angJ ay ant i r egi on.Thear eai sc ov er edbyl owermont aner ai n f or es tanduppermont aner ai nf or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

Les s erAdj ut ant ,J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge, Sumat r anGr eenpi geon,Pi nk headedFr ui tDov e,Dar k bac k ed I mper i al pi geon,J av anTr ogon,Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont ed Bar bet ,SundaMi ni v et ,Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,Sunda For k t ai l ,J av anCoc hoa,Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t ed Babbl er ,J av anFul v et t a,Spot t edCr oc i as ,J av anT es i a,SundaWar bl er , Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l ,Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t ,Whi t ef l ank ed Sunbi r d,J av anGr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,Dhol e,Leopar d,Si l ver y Gi bbon,Sur i l i ,J av anLangur .


19.KayanMent ar ang

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Nunukan,Mal i no-EastKal i mant an

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

NunukanAi r por t-Nunuk an

Over vi ew:

Thi sar eai sl oc at edneart hebor derofSar awakandSabah.Ac l us t erof v al l ey s ,f oot hi l l sandmount ai nr angest hatr eac hesanal t i t udeabov e 2, 500met er s . Habi t att y pe:l owermont anef or es t ,uppermont anef or es t ,l owl and ev er gr eenf or es t ,s ec ondar yf or es tandr es i dent i al ar eas .

Wi l dl i f e:

St or m' sSt or k ,Bl ac kpar t r i dge,Redbr eas t edPar t r i dge,Cr i ms onheaded Par t r i dge,Dul i tFr ogmout h,Shor t t ai l edFr ogmout h,Whi t ehead' sTr ogon, Bl uebandedKi ngf i s her ,Mount ai nBar bet ,Gol dennapedBar bet , Bor neanBar bet ,Hos e' sBr oadbi l l ,Whi t ehead' sBr oadbi l l ,Bl ueheaded Pi t t a,St r awheadedbul bul ,Bl uewat t l edBul bul ,Hook bi l l edBul bul , Bl ac k br owedBabbl er ,Bor neanWr enbabbl er ,SundaLaughi ngt hr us h, Ey ebr owedJ ungl ef l y c at c her ,Bl ac k s i dedFl ower pec k er ,Whi t ehead' s Spi der hunt er ,Bl ac k c appedWhi t eey e,Py gmyWhi t eey e,St r i ped Tr ees hr ew,Mount ai nTr ees hr ew,Pai nt edTr ees hr ew,RedBr own Pi pi s t r el l e,Pr obos c i sMonk ey ,Whi t ef r ont edSur i l i ,Hos e' sLeaf monk ey , Mar oonLeafMonk ey ,M端l l er ' sBor neanGi bbon,Cl oudedLeopar d, Bant eng,Bor neanYel l owMunt j ac ,Ches t nut Bel l i edSpi nyRat ,Ear s pot Squi r r el ,Ki nabal uSqui r r el ,Bor neoBl ac k bandedSqui r r el ,Tuf t edPy gmy Squi r r el ,Ki ngCobr a,Fal s eghar i al .


20.Ker umut an

Ty pe:Wi l dl i f eSanct uar y Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Kampar-Ri au

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Sul t anSyar i fQasi mI II nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Pek anbar u

Over vi ew:

Loc at edbet weenKamparandI ndr agi r i r i v er s .Themai nhabi t att y pe: peats wampf or es tandf r es hwat ers wampf or es t .Thes out her nt i poft hi s r egi onhasbeenc onv er t edt or i c ec ul t i v at i onar eas .

Wi l dl i f e:

Mi l k ySt or k ,St or m' sSt or k ,Les s erAdj ut ant ,Wal l ac e' shawk eagl e, Whi t ewi ngedDuc k ,Agi l eGi bbon,Si amang,SunBear ,Mal ay an Por c upi ne,SundaPangol i n,Sumat r ant i ger ,Mal ay anT api r ,Common Sof t s hel l Tur t l e,Sof t s hel l Tur t l e,Bor neanRi v erTur t l e.


21.Kut ai

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Cent r alKut ai ,EastKut ai-EastKal i mant an

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Sepi ngganI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bal i k papan

Over vi ew:

Thef or es t sofKut ai Nat i onal Par ki st hehomef ormanywi l dani mal s , f r om t hos ec r awl i ngov ert hef or es tf l oort ot heani mal st hatar es wi ngi ng t hr ought hebr anc heshi ghi nt hec anopy .

Wi l dl i f e:

Chi nes eEgr et ,Lar geGr eenpi geon,Bl ueheadedPi t t a,St r awheaded bul bul ,Pr obos c i sMonk ey ,Whi t ef r ont edSur i l i ,Hos e' sLeaf monk ey , Mar oonLeafMonk ey ,Bor neanOr angut an,M端l l er ' sBor neanGi bbon, Cl oudedLeopar d,SunBear ,Penc i l t ai l edt r eemous e,RaneeMous e, Les s erRaneeMous e,Br ook e' sSqui r r el ,Sal t wat erCr oc odi l e,Fal s e ghar i al .


22.LeuweungSancang

Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Gar ut-WestJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Husei nSast r anegar aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Bandung

Over vi ew:

55k ms out hofGar uti nWes tJ av as out hc oas tr egi on.Leuweung Sanc angi sal owl andc ons i s t sofs anddunes ,mangr ov ef or es t s ,and l owl andr ai nf or es tonal i mes t oner oc k . Thi sar eai nc l udesmanydi f f er entt y pesofhabi t at sr angi ngf r om l owl and r ai nf or es t s( par t l yabov et hel i mes t one) ,mangr ov ef or es t sand meadows .

Wi l dl i f e:

Gr eenPeaf owl ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Gr ey c heek edTi t babbl er , Bant eng,Leopar d,Les s erMous eDeer ,Si l ver yGi bbon,J av anLangur , Logger heads eat ur t l e,Gr eens eat ur t l e,Hawk s bi l l t ur t l e.


23.PegununganDi eng

Ty pe:Nat ur eReser ve Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Banj ar negar a,Wonosobo,Kendal ,Bat ang, Pekal ongan,Temanggung-Cent r alJava

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Adi suci pt oI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Yogy ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

50k ms out heas tofPek al ongan.Di engMount ai nsc ons i s tofs ev er al peak swhi c har enol ongerac t i v e. Maj orhabi t att y pesi nt hi sar eai sl owl andr ai nf or es t ,l owerandupper mont aner ai nf or es t s .

Wi l dl i f e:

J av anHawk eagl e,Ches t nut bel l i edPar t r i dge,Pi nk headedFr ui tDov e, Br ownt hr oat edBar bet ,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,SundaMi ni v et , Or anges pot t edBul bul ,SundaBul bul ,SundaRobi n,Whi t ebr eas t ed Babbl er ,Whi t ebi bbedBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,J av an Ful v et t a,J av anT es i a,SundaWar bl er ,Ruf ous t ai l edFant ai l , Whi t ebel l i edFant ai l ,Py gmyTi t ,Whi t ef l ank edSunbi r d,J av an Gr ey t hr oat edWhi t eey e,Mount ai nSer i n,J av aWar t yPi g,Leopar d, J av anLangur ,Si l ver yGi bbon,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey .


24.Si ber ut

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Si ber utI sl and-WestSumat er a

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Mi nangkabauI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Padang

Over vi ew:

Si ber uti st hel ar ges ti s l andi nt heMent awai I s l ands ,l oc at ed appr ox i mat el y125-140k m wes tofPadang,whi c hc anber eac hedby f er r y . Appr ox i mat el y5060% oft hi si s l andi sc ov er edbyDi pt er oc ar pac ea l owl andev er gr eenr ai nf or es t ,mi x edl owl andev er gr een,andf r es hwat er mar s h/s wamppeat ,wi t hdi f f er entpr opor t i ons . Ther ear eal s oc oas t al f or es t s ,andmagr ov ef or es t sal ongt hec oas t al r egi onatt heeas tands out heas toft hei s l and.

Wi l dl i f e:

St or m' sSt or k ,Wal l ac e' shawk eagl e,Ment awai Sc opsOwl ,Sumat r an Dr ongo,Lar geGr eenpi geon,Kl oss' sGi bbon,Ment awai mac aque, Ment awai I s l andLeaf monk ey ,Si mak obuorPi gT ai l edSnubNos e Langur .


25.Tanj ungPut i ng

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:WestKot awar i ngi n,EastKot awar i ngi n-Cent r al Kal i mant an

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

I skandarI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-Pangk al anBun

Over vi ew:

Famousast heOr angUt anRehabi l i t at i onCent r e,T anj ungPut i ng c ons i s t sofHeat hf or es tands wampar east hatar ei mpor t anti nt he s out her nc oas t al ar eaofCent r al Kal i mant an,bet weenKumai Bayand Ser uy anRi v er .Ther ear eal s opeats wampf or es t ,t i dal mangr ov eand pal mf or es t .

Wi l dl i f e:

St or m' sSt or k ,Les s erAdj ut ant ,Bl ac kpar t r i dge,Cr es t l es sf i r ebac k , Bul wer ' spheas ant ,Lar geGr eenpi geon,Shor t t oedCouc al ,Hook bi l l ed Bul bul ,Agi l eGi bbon,Mar oonLeafMonk ey ,Pr obos c i sMonk ey , Bor neanOr angut an,Cl oudedLeopar d,Bant eng,SunBear ,Sal t wat er Cr oc odi l e,Fal s eghar i al ,Gr eent ur t l e,Hawk s bi l l t ur t l e,As i anar owana.


26.Uj ungKul on

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Pandegl ang-Bant en

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Soekar noHat t aI nt er nat i onalAi r por t-J ak ar t a

Over vi ew:

Thi sNat i onal Par kbec amet hef i r s tNat i onal Par kwhi c hwasi naugur at ed i nI ndones i a,andal s oal r eadyes t abl i s hedasoneoft hepr ot ec t edWor l d Her i t ageSi t esbyUNESCO i n1992,bec aus et her egi onc ov er sav as t pr ot ec t edf or es t .Unt i l nowappr ox i mat el y50t o60r hi nosl i v ei nt hi s habi t at .

Wi l dl i f e:

Chr i s t masf r i gat ebi r d,Les s erAdj ut ant ,J av anHawk eagl e,Whi t ewi nged Duc k ,Gr eenPeaf owl ,J av anPl ov er ,Dar k bac k edI mper i al pi geon, SundaCouc al ,Fl amef r ont edBar bet ,St r awheadedbul bul , Whi t ebr eas t edBabbl er ,Cr es c ent c hes t edBabbl er ,Gr ey c heek ed Ti t babbl er ,J av aSpar r ow,Bant eng,Dhol e,Leopar d,J av anRhi noc er os , J av aWar t yPi g,Si l ver yGi bbon,Gr i z z l edLeaf monk ey ,J av anLangur , Gr eens eat ur t l e,Leat her bac kt ur t l e,Hawk s bi l l t ur t l e.


27.WayKambas

Ty pe:Nat i onalPar k Admi ni s t r at i v eAr ea:Cent r alLampung-Lampung

Easi estSt ar t i ngPoi nt :

Radi nI nt enI IAi r por t-BandarLampung

Over vi ew:

Att hi snat i onal par k ,t her ei sat r ai ni ngf ac i l i t yf orel ephant s .Habi t at t y pesl i s t edi nt hi sar ea:l owl andev er gr eenf or es t ,f r es hwat ers wamp f or es t ,mangr ov ef or es t ,her bac eouss wamp,gr as s l ands ,s ec ondar y v eget at i on,mudpl ai nst i dal f r es hwat ers wampf or es t ,as mal l gr oupof mangr ov ef or es t s ,andopens eas onal mar s h.Thet i dal mudpl ai nar eai s apl ac er i c hi nbi r ds pec i es .

Wi l dl i f e:

Mi l k ySt or k ,St or m' sSt or k ,Les s erAdj ut ant ,Wal l ac e' shawk eagl e, Whi t ewi ngedDuc k ,Mas k edFi nf oot ,As i at i cDowi t c her ,Lar ge Gr eenpi geon,Shor t t ai l edFr ogmout h,SundaNi ght j ar ,Bl uebanded Ki ngf i s her ,St r awheadedbul bul ,Sumat r anDr ongo,Or i ent al Smal l c l awedOt t er ,As i anTr i c ol or edSqui r r el ,As i anGol denCat ,Rus a s ambar ,Sumat r anRhi noc er os ,Sumat r anel ephant ,Leopar dCat , Mal ay anPor c upi ne,Cl oudedLeopar d,Sumat r ant i ger ,Mal ay anT api r , Agi l eGi bbon,Si amang,Si l v er edLeaf monk ey ,Sal t wat erCr oc odi l e, Fal s eghar i al ,Ret i c ul at edPy t hon.


I fy ouwantt oobs e r v eoneormor ear e asl i s t e di nt he s epubl i c a on Pl e as ec ont ac tus !

WI LDLI FEI NDONES I AADVENTURE ByPas sNgur ahRai1 1 0 Bal i-I ndones i a Res er v a ona ndMor eI nf o: Phone :+ 628129338678, + 628174742327 E ma i l :i nf o@wi l dl i f ei ndones i a a dv ent ur e. c om Webs i t e:www. wi l dl i f ei ndones i a a dv ent ur e. c om


Indonesian Gibbons (Hylobatidae), where can we find them?  

List of Siamang and Gibbons (Hylobatidae family) found in Indonesia. You can also find list of National Parks, Nature Reserves, Wildlife San...

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