100 x VIENNA
HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE
Precious works of art. Exceptional documents of Viennaâ€™s history. Cultural-historical rarities. Unusual artefacts from everyday life. This book helps you explore Vienna, by means of 100 exceptional exhibits from the Wien Museum. The time span ranges from prehistory to Viennese Modernism of the early 20th century. The selected highlights reflect the panoramic breadth to be found in the collections of an important European city museum.
100 x VIENNA HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE WIEN MUSEUM KARLSPLATZ
100 x VIENNA HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE WIEN MUSEUM KARLSPLATZ
100 x VIENNA HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE WIEN MUSEUM KARLSPLATZ Published by Wolfgang Kos
With texts by Sándor Békési Susanne Breuss Elke Doppler Peter Eppel Alexandra Hönigmann-Tempelmayr Andrea Hönigmann Regina Karner Renata Kassal-Mikula Wolfgang Kos Frauke Kreutler Michaela Kronberger Michaela Lindinger Sylvia Mattl-Wurm Walter Öhlinger Eva-Maria Orosz Reinhard Pohanka Adelbert Schusser Werner M. Schwarz Ursula Storch Susanne Winkler Reingard Witzmann Lisa Wögenstein
IMPRINT Publisher: Wolfgang Kos Coordination: Andrea Hönigmann Text editing: Walter Öhlinger Translation: Andrew Horsfield Editing: Milena Greif Visual design: fuhrer, Vienna Photographs of the objects: Enver Hirsch, Hamburg Other photographs: Lichtbildwerkstätte Alpenland, Vienna; Mischa Erben, Vienna; Paul Grünzweig, Vienna; Fotostudio Otto, Vienna; Color Fotolabor Dr. Parisini, Vienna; Selenographie Kunstreproduktionsgesellschaft, Vienna; Stiegler/ Massard, Vienna Scans: Pixelstorm, Vienna; Vienna Paint, Vienna In-house publication of the Wien Museum Printing: Holzhausen Druck & Medien GmbH, Vienna 2nd edition 2012 © 2012 Wien Museum ISBN 978-3-902312-27-3
Wien Museum Karlsplatz 8 A-1040 Vienna Tel.: 505 87 47 Fax.: 505 87 47 / 7201 E-Mail: email@example.com Web: www.wienmuseum.at
Please note Uncertainty exists concerning the provenance of three of the objects illustrated: · Peter Fendi, The Freezing Pretzel Boy in front of the Dominikanerbastei, 1828 Inv. No. 59.894 · Joseph Haupt, Lady’s Bureau and Toilet Table, 1805 Inv. No. 70.572 · Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, The Highest Degree of Simplicity, after 1770 Inv. No. 67.137
Cover illustrations Front: Max Kurzweil, Lady in Yellow (Detail), 1899 (No. 85_100) Back: “Zum (großen) Roten Igel” (Detail), first half of 18th century (No. 40_100) Illustration p. 3: No. 61_100 (Detail) Illustration p. 6: No. 46_100 (Detail) Illustration p. 10: No. 64_100 (Detail)
These objects were purchased from the fine arts trade between 1938 and 1945. It may be that they originate from Jewish owners and were then confiscated by the National Socialists. However, clarification of previous ownership has not yet proven possible. The Wien Museum kindly requests, in line with the Resolution of the Vienna City Council of April 29th, 1999, that any relevant information concerning former owners of these three objects prior to 1938 be directed towards those responsible for restitution matters (Mag. Gerhard Milchram +43/1/50508747 Ext. 84034, firstname.lastname@example.org; or MMag. Dr. Michael Wladika +43/1/505 87 47, +43/664/859 00 30 or +43/676/811 80 12 63, email@example.com).
Picture Credits Enver Hirsch: pp. 10, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, 59, 65, 75, 77, 85, 89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 105, 107, 117, 119, 131, 133, 135, 137, 139, 149, 155, 157, 159, 161, 173, 175, 185, 187, 191, 193, 195, 207, 209, 211 Lichtbildwerkstätte Alpenland: p. 103 (upper) Mischa Erben: pp. 79, 115 Paul Grünzweig: p. 210 Fotostudio Otto: pp. 49, 61, 67, 73, 81, 83, 87, 109, 111, 113, 129, 143, 147, 153, 167, 169, 171, 177, 179, 197, 199, 201 Color Fotolabor Dr. Parisini: pp. 3, 132 Selenographie Kunstreproduktionsgesellschaft: pp. 69, 71, 121, 123, 125, 127, 141, 145, 151, 163, 165, 181, 183, 189, 203, 205 Stiegler/Massard: pp. 6, 63, 103 (lower)
100 Highlights from the Wien Museum Karlsplatz
Authors’ names abbreviated SBe Sándor Békési SBr Susanne Breuss ED Elke Doppler PE Peter Eppel AHT Alexandra Hönigmann-Tempelmayr AH Andrea Hönigmann RK Regina Karner RKM Renata Kassal-Mikula WK Wolfgang Kos FK Frauke Kreutler MK Michaela Kronberger ML Michaela Lindinger SMW Sylvia Mattl-Wurm WÖ Walter Öhlinger EMO Eva-Maria Orosz RP Reinhard Pohanka AS Adelbert Schusser WS Werner M. Schwarz USt Ursula Storch SW Susanne Winkler RW Reingard Witzmann LW Lisa Wögenstein
A moon idol from the Early Iron Age. The original Gothic sandstone figures from the façade of St. Stephen’s Cathedral. The oldest completely preserved horse armour in the world. The first city map of Vienna drawn according to exact geometry. A spoke wheel which was used until 1786 to “break” murderers letting them suffer the most dreadful agony. An elegantly designed dish for a woman in childbed from the Rococo Period. A three hundred year old house sign in the shape of a hedgehog. The interior view of a Freemason’s Lodge on which most likely the lodge brother Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart can also be seen. The gilded half-moon that was mounted on top of St. Stephen’s tower from 1519 until 1686. A “documentary painting” which shows an attempted assassination of Emperor Francis Joseph. One of the most important women’s portraits by Gustav Klimt, namely that of Emilie Flöge. The interior décor that Adolf Loos designed for his own flat. These examples may appear disparate, yet they hint at the extraordinary range and diversity – embracing every aspect of society – that typify the collections of a large city’s universal museum. The Wien Museum (until 2003 the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien) is a repository of memories containing important artworks from six centuries as well as unique city models, archaeological artefacts as well as precious arts and crafts, objects bearing witness to everyday urban life as well as the oldest views of Vienna, the splendid as well as the quaint: a rich spectrum, therefore, from high to low, from elite culture to popular style, from “the ground floor” to the “first floor” to quote the title of a play by Johann Nepomuk Nestroy which refers to social disparities. A permanent exhibition always only shows a narrow selection of a museum’s collected trea-
sures. Well over 99 percent of the objects that have been turned into museum artefacts are stored in depots, including old carriages, stone remains of buildings or tens of thousands of photographs. And of the exhibits to be seen on three floors of the Wien Museum at Karlsplatz, this publication in turn also contains only a selection. The highlights presented here were chosen by the Museum’s curators according to several criteria. Selection was primarily made of those objects which over the years have become particular attractions for the public, from the Gothic statues of St. Stephen’s Cathedral and pieces that recall the Turkish Siege of 1683, to key works of Viennese Biedermeier Painting and icons of Early Viennese Modernism. Efforts were made to choose examples from all epochs of Vienna’s cultural history. And as many diverse types of object as possible were to be represented, thus under no circumstances paintings only. One should not make too much of the organised nature of a museum’s collection. Besides those objects collected purposely, there were and still are unexpected acquisitions. The fact that significant works of art can also be found in a historical museum date back, for example, to donations made by Fürst Liechtenstein to the City of Vienna one hundred years ago. Since that time, besides the typical historical objects found in city museums, artworks were also systematically acquired. Schiele’s paintings, for instance, came to the Museum from the estate of his mentor, Arthur Rössler, while the treasures of the Wiener Werkstätte are from an auction held after this exemplary arts and crafts business was closed down. In addition many acquisitions were made from the fine arts trade, as well as further donations received. 7
Some partial collections are older than the Museum itself. When in 1887 the Vienna City Council passed a resolution to found a historical museum, already existing collections were integrated into this, most notably the Civic Armoury or the Lapidarium, in which were stored the remains of demolished historical buildings. Among the earliest collection focal points were, besides city views and portraits of leading citizens, also rarities from Viennese everyday life (“Viennensia”). Later on the Museum accrued special collections of culturalhistorical interest (fashion, clocks, etc.). While preserving the cultural heritage is one of the main tasks of a museum, it is equally important actively to continue collecting. Our latest acquisition, which is included in this book, is just a few months old. It concerns a curious lindworm which probably served as a shop sign for a material and spices merchant in the 18th century. There were also additions made in the course of brutal confiscations, namely those “aryanised” cultural testimonies stolen from Jewish collections by the Nazis after 1938. Some objects were returned after 1945, while the majority – some 2,000 – were only returned to their owners and their descendants after the Vienna Law of Restitution of 1998. There are still assets in the collection acquired under dubious circumstances. Three of them can be found among the 100 highlights in this book. Perhaps clues will now emerge as to whether they are indeed stolen property. This volume contains exclusively exhibits displayed in the main building of the Museum on Karlsplatz. In the near future a volume with highlights from the Clock Museum will follow, as well as memorabilia of important composers who can be seen in the “Musicians’ Halls of Fame” which likewise are part of the Wien Museum. 8
Most of the artworks and everyday objects included here have been on display for more than fifty years. It was only in 1959 that the city collections were given a home of their own: prior to that, the City Hall had served for some seven decades as the place of an “interim installation”. In the years before the First World War, the construction of a splendid city museum designed by Otto Wagner was almost realised. Had this been the case, a major work of Jugendstil would now be found on Karlsplatz. The permanent exhibition designed in the late 1950s in the new Historisches Museum was stocked with impressive exhibits, yet had some key shortcomings. On the one hand, it was apparent even upon moving into the premises that the far too narrow dimensions of the post-war building failed to provide sufficient space to house the 20th century objects as well. This deficiency has long since become intolerable. On the other hand, it fitted the museum style of that period to present artistic, cultural and historical products “silently”, i.e. without offering any explanation of their social, political and urban contexts. While the Wien Museum was able to make its mark over the decades by means of special exhibitions, innovation at the permanent exhibition occurred in fits and starts. Its basic restructuring as part of the creation of extra space constitutes the most important task for the Wien Museum in the years ahead. But for sure the “Highlights” presented in this book will also make their own distinguished appearances in a completely redesigned depiction of Vienna’s history. The explanatory texts accompanying the 100 selected exhibits hint at how many different stories can be told by objects in a collection – including those concerning their former social function,
their meaning in the everyday life concerned, or their often circuitous route into the Museum. Even though the catalogue concerns 100 individual exhibits, the explanatory texts contain time and again momentary snapshots of Vienna’s history and the people inhabiting it. And – we hope – unexpected insights and cross-connections in line with the museum’s maxim, “Something New from the Past”. However, museum objects are not just “links” to pass on knowledge. The museum is also a “school in consternation and surprise”, in the words of the philosopher Peter Sloterdijk. After all, one is confronted with objects and styles of representation which tell of realities that seem alien and puzzling to today’s viewer. This already can be seen in exotic-seeming object descriptions such as “Funeral Helmet” or “The Breaking Wheel”. The Hamburg-based photographer Enver Hirsch has succeeded in bringing out this magical dimension. Hirsch, who became known in the 1990s with his work for design and trendy magazine media such as “Wallpaper” or “Tempo”, stands for a subjective, staged method of photographing objects which goes beyond mere documentary. Hirsch has been responsible above all for the pictures taken of three-dimensional objects. Graphics and layout were handled by Büro Fuhrer, which I wish to thank for its clear and elegant work. Thanks to their careful approach to the design, the selected “Highlights” were bound to be the stars – also in a visual sense – of this book. I wish also to thank the authors, all of them scientific experts at the Museum, for their descriptive texts, and most of all for the trouble they took to convey specialised information in a readable, vivid way. To prepare a publication of this type is a most
complex undertaking. A key role in this was carried out by Andrea Hönigmann, who attended to all technical steps in its production just as assiduously as the editorial fine-tuning. The main burden of editing the texts rested with Walter Öhlinger, the generalist among the historians at the Wien Museum. Thanks are warmly extended to them both, as to the translator Andrew Horsfield and all those colleagues at the museum involved in the production. So, finally, with “Highlights from the Wien Museum”, a publication is now available giving a feeling of the panoramic diversity of the exhibits to be admired at the Wien Museum Karlsplatz, which offers so many clues to let us explore the past of Vienna.
Wolfgang Kos Director, Wien Museum
Animal-Shaped Vessels, Urn Field Culture, 1300/1200 to 800/750 B.C Ceramic, hand-cast, h 8–9 cm, w 5.5–6 cm, l 10.5–13.5 cm Inv. Nos. MV 8.228–8.231 Found in Vösendorf, 1941
In the early 1940s, 31 Late Bronze Age graves were found in Vösendorf, in the south of Vienna. Besides the funerary contents usually found for this epoch, some quite extraordinary objects came to light including four similar vessels designed like mythical creatures. Their hollow, barrel-shaped bodies, which taper off at the ends, are attached to human legs. In each case, one end is shaped into what most closely resembled a cow’s head. The opposing sides are provided with an opening, exactly like the upper sides. At first glance, the objects convey a bird-like appearance. Grouped together, they look as though they are just about to pick up grain which has been thrown towards them. Due to the size and delicate shaping of the mythical creatures, they are often attributed to the world of children in scientific debates. Their functional features, the orifice for pouring in liquid on the upper side and the opening on the back, indicate that they may have been used as bottles to feed infants and small children. The excavations were affected by motorway construction which took place in 1940 and 1941. This entailed large surface areas of the surrounding fields being removed in order to extract gravel to create the base for the long-distance roads.
At the same time, rich archaeological findings were brought to light on the so-called “Eisgrubfeld” (literally “ice-ditch field”). Under great time pressure the archaeologists responsible were obliged to uncover and document the relics, which cover a time span of some 4,700 years – from the Middle Neolithic Age (4700–4000 B.C.) to the Celtic La Tène Culture (450–15 B.C.). Forced labour was also used to achieve this. The findings were divided up among the collections of the City of Vienna, with Vösendorf being part of the Vienna city area during the National Socialist era. MK Lit.: Otto Seewald: Zur Bedeutung des Gräberfeldes der älteren Urnenfelderzeit aus Vösendorf, in: Karl Krabicka: Was Heimat ist und Vaterland, Vösendorf 1966, pp. 21-25. Dorothea Talaa: Fundgeschichte und kurzer Überblick über das urgeschichtliche Geschehen Vösendorfs, in: Urgeschichtliche Funde aus Vösendorf (Exhibition Catalogue of the Marktgemeinde Vösendorf), Vösendorf 1991, pp. 26ff., 39. Otto H. Urban: Der lange Weg zur Geschichte. Die Urgeschichte Österreichs (Österreichische Geschichte. Bis 15 v. Chr., ed. by Herwig Wolfram), Vienna 2000, pp. 193-210. Otto H. Urban: Junior-Wegweiser in die Urgeschichte Österreichs, Vienna 1989, pp. 17-21. Clemens Eibner: Die urnenfelderzeitlichen Sauggefäße. Ein Beitrag zur morphologischen und ergologischen Umschreibung, in: Prähistorische Zeitschrift 48 (1973), pp. 144-199 (ÖAW Prähistorische Kommission).
Upper Italian Itinerant Artist Maria on the Throne with with Child, Abbot and Founder Fresco of the Singertor of St. Stephen’s, around 1400 Transferred to aluminium alveolar and glass fibre support, 220 ¥ 120 cm Inv. No. 13.924 Donated by the Fürsterzbischöfliches Consistorium, 1897
The wish to live on beyond death and keep up the memory of oneself is found in every society. In the Middle Ages this drove people to donate holy masses and found prebends and charitable institutions. The depiction of the founder accompanied by saints who were significant in his life conveyed to posterity the way the benefactor perceived himself. The identity of the fresco’s benefactor – formerly mounted in the porch of the Singertor, then removed in 1895 and restored in 1999/2000 – is unknown. The belief that the person in question could be the personal physician to Albrecht IV, Galleazzo di Santa Sofia, native of Padua and documented to have been in Vienna in 1396 and 1406, is now considered rather unlikely in view of the untypical attire of the subject depicted. The fresco from the period around 1400 is an excellently executed piece of work of an itinerant artist trained in the Verona-Padua region, the iconographic typus as well as the stylistic appearance clearly indebted to the works of Jacopo Avanzi or Altichiero (Aldighiero) da Zevio. It is one of the first works of this kind in the Central European region. It depicts the Madonna with the infant Jesus and to their left the kneeling founder,
being led in by a holy abbot. Mary and child sit in a multipartite throne that is lavishly arranged with dazzling arcades and niches, and infused with angels. In its original condition the fresco was probably twice the size; the wife of the founder was presumably depicted on the second half of the fresco which went missing from 1480 in the course of erecting a pillar in St. Stephen’s; judging by other examples, her patron saint must presumably have been St. Jacob. In the High Gothic-style Cathedral of St. Stephan’s, this donation on the part of a wealthy patron resulted in a work of art of the Italian Early Renaissance. The small putto in the middle part supports a portative organ, i.e. a hand organ, and is the oldest depiction of a musical instrument in Vienna. RP/ED
Lit.: Peter Berzobohaty, Claudio Bizzari, Claudia Riff: Abgenommene Wandmalerei aus der Stephanskirche Maria mit Kind, hl. Antonius und Stifter. Unpublished report, Wien Museum 2002. Günter Brucher (Ed.): Geschichte der bildenden Kunst in Österreich, Vol. 2. Gotik. Munich/ London/New York 2000, No. 210 (Text Franz Kirchweger).
“Moonlight” – The Crowning of the High Tower of St. Stephen’s Cathedral, Vienna, 1519 Brass, gilded, 141.5 ¥ 145 cm Inv. No. 561 From the inventory of the former Wiener Bürgerliches Zeughaus
On July 28th, 1519, the high tower of St. Stephen’s Cathedral received a new spire: the “Moonlight”. A stone shaft supported a capital wrapped in eight gilded copper plates, on which was placed an eight-rayed star and a half-moon, both of gilded brass. The tips of the moon’s crescent were fixed to the axis of the star in such a way that the moon could turn sideways around the star. The original meaning of this sign is unclear: it may have been seen as a symbol of the interplay between spiritual and secular power – pope and emperor as sun (star) and moon respectively. In view of the then-flourishing humanism with its interest in astronomy, a contemporary interpretation of the sign as a cosmic symbol is also possible. In that case the capital would have stood for the sun, the star and moon for its satellites. Originally no connection was made between the Moonlight and the Islamic symbol of the rising half-moon which was used on flags and banners of the Ottoman Empire from the reign of Sultan Selim (1512–1520) onwards. In 1529, during the First Turkish Siege though, the similarity must have naturally occurred to the Viennese. Subsequently it was said both in Vienna and in the Ottoman Empire that the symbol was mounted on the tower by order of the
Sultan. In 1530, a request made to the Emperor by the City Council to replace the symbol with a figure of St. George with his flag remained initially unanswered. It was not until June 15th, 1686 that the half-moon and star were taken down and – as was said, to fulfil a vow undertaken by Emperor Leopold I during the Second Turkish Siege – replaced by a cross. The moon and star of the old tower spire, now clearly seen purely as a symbol of Islam, were then used to insult the Ottomans. The inscription “Haec Solymanne Memoria tua” (“This, Suleyman, in memory of you”) was etched into the moon with a hand making an obscene gesture (“fig”) and the year “Ao 1529”; it was then exhibited in the “Imperial Gallery” in Vienna’s Stallburg together with the star, from which two rays had been broken off. Later it was moved to the Wiener Bürgerliches Zeughaus (Vienna Civic Armoury) where loot from the Turkish Wars was also kept. WÖ Lit.: 850 Jahre St. Stephan. Symbol und Mitte in Wien 1147–1997 (Exhibition Catalogue of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien), Vienna 1997, pp. 230-231. Birgit und Thomas Ertl: Sonne und Mond. Die Turmbekrönung am Stephansdom zwischen den zwei Türkenbelagerungen, in: Wiener Geschichtsblätter 52 (1997), pp. 165-181.
Medal to Mark the Elephant Brought to Vienna on the Occasion of Archduke Maximilian’s Entry into the City, 1554 Medallist: Michael Fuchs Lead, dm 61 mm On one side: DISER. HELFANT.IST.KVMEN.GIEN WIE-N. IN DIE.STAT.DA / MAN.IN.BEI.SEINEM.L-EB-EN.ABKONT / ERFETH-AT In the lower segment: .1554.M.F. Inv. No. 76.410 Donated by the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Coin Cabinet, 1943
Created at the time of the Renaissance in Vienna, this medal is of the utmost rarity. Its existence is thanks to the return to Vienna from Spain of the subsequent Emperor Maximilian II (1527–1576, Emperor 1564–1576). When Maximilian made his entry into Vienna with his Spanish wife Maria in 1552, among the many exotic animals that were brought along was an elephant by the name of Soliman. He was accompanied by an Indian animal keeper, a so-called mahout, shown on the medal riding the animal. Although the elephant already arrived on March 6th 1552, he was not presented to the people of Vienna until May 7th 1552 (a Saturday). As it was the first elephant ever seen in Vienna, many curious spectators gathered on “Grüner Markt” (as the Graben was called in those days). The following is said to have happened: due to the great throng of people, the five-year old daughter of a woman allegedly fell over and landed in front of the elephant's feet. In the ensuing panic the elephant is said to have calmly picked up the child with its trunk and given it unharmed to the weeping mother. To mark this event the father of the rescued child, a Lower Austrian “Raitrat” (financial official) by the name of Anton Gienger apparently had a large elephant made out of sandstone. This he had mounted on
the side of the house facing Stock-im-Eisen-Platz which formed the eastern end of the Graben. From then on this building was called “The Black Elephant”. The house was later restructured, then demolished in 1866. The elephant already died on December 18th 1553, probably in the menagerie set up in Schloss Ebersdorf in the 1550s. In 1554 the mayor of Vienna, Sebastian Huetstocker, had a chair made from the bones of the dead animal which today can be found in Stift Kremsmünster. Reminders of the elephant’s journey across the Alps were soon set up in the form of “elephant’s houses”, for example in Brixen, Lambach and Linz. In Vienna the elephant became especially popular as numerous house signs proved. Michael Fuchs, to whom this medal was attributed, was first and foremost a sculptor and illustrator. He first worked in Nuremberg and came to Vienna in 1550, later returning to Germany. The artist was commissioned to create the medal by Emperor Maximilian II himself. AS Lit.: Ferdinand Opll: „ ... ein(e) vorhin in Wien nie gesehene Rarität von jedermann bewundert“. Zu Leben, Tod und Nachleben des ersten Wiener Elefanten, in: Jahrbuch des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Wien 60 (2004), pp. 229-273.
Kara Mustafa Pasha, 1696 (?) Unknown artist Oil on canvas, 75 ¥ 49 cm Inscription: Chara Mustapha türkischer Großvezier welcher / Anno 1683 den 12. July die Kay. Residenz Statt Wien belagert / aber wider den 12. 7br. mit Verlust und großen Spott weckgeschlagen worden. Inv. No. 31.033 Donated by Graf Hans Wilczek, 1883
Only very few portraits remain of Kara Mustafa (around 1640–1683), the Ottoman commander-inchief during the Second Turkish Siege of Vienna. The portrait exhibited in the Wien Museum was presumably completed somewhat more than ten years after the execution of Kara Mustafa. It shows the General in splendid – albeit civilian – clothing wearing a plumed turban. Prior to the risky advances on Vienna, Kara Mustafa had already proven by and large luckless against the Polish-Lithuanian Empire in the Ukraine, and against the Cossacks. According to contemporary accounts, his character was marked by blackmail, bribery and various cruel acts rather than skilful strategic deliberations in battle. However, family connections made it possible for him to be promoted to Great Admiral of the Turkish fleet in 1661. From 1676 Kara Mustafa was Grand Vizier, meaning he held one of the highest offices in the Ottoman Empire. After his plans to conquer the West had been foiled by the defence of Vienna and above all by the timely arrival of the Polish King Jan III Sobieski, he retreated to Belgrade with his defeated army where his fate awaited him:
Sultan Mehmet IV’s order of execution. The former army commander died on December 25th, 1683. After the conquest of Belgrade (1688) his alleged skull was stolen by grave-robbers and handed over to the Austrian Cardinal Leopold Count Kollonitsch. The latter brought the “memento” to the former Wiener Bürgerliches Zeughaus (Vienna Civic Armoury), the collection of which later passed over to the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien. The well-known orientalist Joseph Hammer-Purgstall cast doubt on the skull’s authenticity, pointing out that Kara Mustafa was buried in the Turkish city of Edirne, a view shared by Turkish historians to the present day. The skull was exhibited in a silver-plated brass shrine in the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien (now the Wien Museum) until 1976; later it was kept in storage. In 2006 it was buried in the Wiener Zentralfriedhof. ML Lit.: Die Türken vor Wien. Europa und die Entscheidung an der Donau 1683 (Exhibition Catalogue of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien), Vienna 1983, p. 67. ¸ a, Conference Volume, Ankara 2001, p. 283. Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pas
Paul Troger Pietà, around 1735/40 Oil on canvas, 229 ¥ 132 cm Inv. No. 117.341 Before 1888 in the inventory of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien
If Johann Michael Rottmayr is considered the founder of Austrian baroque painting (see No. 35), Paul Troger (1698–1762) became the most important exponent of the next generation of painters, along with Daniel Gran. Born in the South Tyrol, Troger received early key influences during years of study in Italy; from 1728 he settled in Vienna. Despite contacts to Vienna’s Academy of Fine Arts, however, he never progressed to court painter, nor, unlike Rottmayr and Gran, did he become a representative of the “imperial style”. Troger worked mainly for the Lower Austrian clergy, and his œuvre both as a fresco and an oil painter is accordingly determined by religious themes. As an Academy teacher, he in turn left his mark on the most significant painters of the second half of the 18th century, including above all Franz Anton Maulbertsch, whose visionary language of form was strongly influenced by Troger’s expressive late style. Paul Troger’s highly expressive painting with its use of bright-dark contrast finds its most independent expression in monumental devotional pictures such as the “Pietà”. Intensity of religious feeling lies at the heart of this depiction of the grieving mother Mary, who holds the dead body of Jesus Christ on her lap. The great emotional and contemplative effect of the picture is reinforced by the dense composition, the effective use of light and colour, and the expressive power of the protagonists. In a monumental triangular composi-
tion, the group of figures emerges alone through the sharp light from the background to the left. In terms of colours, red and blue in harmony dominate, a characteristic of Troger. The picture shown here is a replica of the Pietà of the parish of Welsberg in the Pustertal (1735/38). Art historians emphasise how close both pictures are to Annibale Carracci’s Pietà in Naples (Pinacoteca Nazionale), but they also presume Venetian influence to be at work. An oil sketch for the Pietà can be found in the City Museum in Bozen. A drawing by the sculptor and Troger pupil Joseph Winterhalter the Elder based on this Pietà (Moravian Gallery in Brno) led to the theory that a threedimensional model was used by both artists for the drawing, or rather the picture, in order to test lighting effects. The painting’s provenance is unclear. Found rolled up and badly damaged, the picture was restored at the beginning of the 1960s and newly framed. ED
Lit.: Wanda Aschenbrenner, Gregor Schweighofer: Paul Troger. Leben und Werk, Salzburg 1965, p. 98. Günther Brucher: Staffeleimalerei, in: Günther Brucher (Ed.): Die Kunst des Barock in Österreich, Salzburg 1994, pp. 335-341. Karl Möseneder: Über die Stellung Paul Trogers in der Malerei des 18. Jahrhunderts, in: Barockberichte (2005) 38/39, p. 550. Ingrid Schemper-Sparholz: Troger und die Skulptur, in: Barockberichte (2005) 38/39, pp. 616ff.
Porcelain Figures from a Series “Viennese Market Criers” Thread Vendor, around 1765 Design: Johann Joseph Niedermayer (?) Execution: Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur, Anton Payer, Christoph Dreischarf Porcelain, painted, h 20.9 cm Marked: sub-glaze blue porcelain mark, etching symbol: X, decorator no. 26 (= Ch. Dreischarf), stamped embosser’s sign P (= A. Payer) Inv. No. 49.139 Acquired at the auction of Karl Mayer’s porcelain collection at Glückselig, 1928 From 1745 to 1785 the Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur produced several series of figures depicting itinerant merchants and traders. Today around 65 such statuettes are known, including a female fishmonger, a seller of rapier handles, a tobacco trader, a barometer seller, a vendor of crotchetwork, a piper with a puppet, a ribbon seller, a cook, a gardener, a blacksmith, a milliner or a wig maker. They are among the oldest depictions of their kind. Many of these trades have long since died out. Similarly, itinerant merchants such as the two shown here – the thread vendor who sold the most varied sewing commodities, such as thread and ribbons, or the fancy goods dealer, who offered jewellery, haberdashery and other utensils with the finest finish – no longer exist. The porcelain figures preceded the similarly popular “market crier characters” produced by Viennese copperplate engravers. The manufacturers Meissen and Sèvres led the way in small statuettes, influenced by French market crier engravings. The Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur, founded in 1718 and taken over by the state in 1744, picked up this new subject and soon found its own style after an initial period of imitating French models. The statuettes of the highest artistic worth were created after 1755 in the heyday of Viennese Rococo. The Viennese figures are elegant in their
Fancy Goods Dealer, around 1755 Design: Johann Joseph Niedermayer (?) Execution: Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur, Anton Payer Porcelain, painted, h 20.4 cm Marked: sub-glaze blue porcelain mark, stamped embosser’s sign P (= A. Payer) Inv. No. 49.148 Acquired at the auction of Karl Mayer’s porcelain collection at Glückselig, 1928
movement, their posture is natural and elated. The painting is delicate, and the pieces are marked by careful and deliberately detailed execution. The materials for the clothing are mostly in one colour; fur trimmings, patterned in the style of ermine, or striped neckerchiefs were highly popular. The gold-decorated bodices are of particular finesse. Towards the end of the Rococo Era, the small scattered flower patterning that was popular at the time was used to decorate women’s dresses. The figures’ pedestal is mostly furnished with gold decoration. The creator of these models was most likely Johann Joseph Niedermayer, model master of the Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur from 1747 to 1784. The embosser’s task was to give final shape to the figures and work out details, whereby more or less significant variants of the same figures were created without altering the models. The task of painting the figures fell to the so-called decorators. AH
Lit.: Hubert Kaut: Kaufrufe aus Wien. Volkstypen und Straßenszenen in der Wiener Graphik von 1775 bis 1914, Vienna/ Munich 1970, pp. 26-29. Josef Folnesics: Die Wiener-Porzellan Sammlung Karl Mayer. Katalog und historische Einleitung, Vienna 1914, pp. 60ff. Edmund Wilhelm Braun: Ausruferfiguren aus Alt-Wiener Porzellan, in: Alois Trost (Ed.): Alt-Wiener Kalender für das Jahr 1918, Vienna 1918, pp. 105-109.
Josef Danhauser The Child and his World, 1842 Oil on wood, 22.6 ¥ 29 cm Monogrammed and dated (on the toy box): J. D. 842 Inv. No. 16.640 Acquired at the auction of the Rogge collection at Wawra, 1898
Several important Viennese Biedermeier painters such as Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller or Peter Fendi were particularly preoccupied with the theme of the “Child”. This had been given fresh impetus since the end of the 18th century by new pedagogical theories. From 1840, at the very pinnacle of his artistic achievement, the highly sensitive draughtsman and painter Josef Danhauser (1805–1845) turned to the (for him) new subject of depicting children, in which his own children played the main role. The painting “The Child and his World” met with such approval that the artist completed several versions which, however, can no longer be fully reconstructed today. In any case he painted the picture twice in 1842, the year it was created, twice again for each year in the two years that followed; then in 1845, the year of his death, he produced two to three further variations. The picture gained great popularity and circulation due to the reproduction engraving by Franz Stöber which can be dated with a fair degree of certainty to 1843. At first sight, some of his narrative pictures seem like idylls that are petit-bourgeois in style, yet Josef Danhauser, a man of finely-tuned sensibility, was certainly not oblivious to the political and social developments of the Biedermeier Period. Through his work for his family’s furniture factory – which he had had to take over upon the sudden death of his father in 1829 – he himself had known the problems and tensions which had ultimately led to the 1848 Revolution. In his final creative period, Danhauser achieved a depth in terms of content that eludes simplistic interpretation. This includes the painting “The Child and his World” with its coded text concerning social reali-
ty: a child lies at the centre of an almost eerily empty stage, the artist’s own three-year-old son. With his torso he rests on a chair – a fashionable product of their own Danhauser furniture factory – while his legs are supported on a studio stool on which a book is also lying. In one dynamic movement the child turns to the viewer, his eyes sparkling, as if he has seen something marvellous. Under the chair his playmate lies resting, a small spotted dog, which can also be interpreted as a symbol of the animal world. Small, stiff adults stand around as if on the unending ocean surface, with absolutely no relation to one another. They are wooden dolls, known as “Docken”, which at the time were used as cheap toys and kept in plywood boxes. In the left-hand lower corner of the picture lies one such box under which, however, a “Docke” is jammed, giving the impression of being “unable to stand up”, of being worn-out. This immobile “wooden adult”, lying diagonally to the living child, creates a contrast which while not gimmicky is surely unambiguous: it is the child achieving chilling insight into this frozen, cold world – moreover, whilst still in its most innate domain, that of play. RW
Lit.: Veronika Birke: Josef Danhauser (1805–1845). Gemälde und Zeichnungen (Exhibition Catalogue of the Graphische Sammlung Albertina), Vienna 1983. Gerbert Frodl, Klaus Albrecht Schröder (Ed.): Wiener Biedermeier. Malerei zwischen Wiener Kongreß und Revolution (Exhibition Catalogue of the Kunstforum der Bank Austria Wien and Österreichische Galerie Belvedere), Vienna 1993, pp. 4-32. Reingard Witzmann: „Euer Kinderland sollt ihr lieben ...“ – Die Imagination des Kindes in der Malerei und Graphik, in: Heinrich Pleticha (Ed.): Die Kinderwelt der Donaumonarchie, Vienna 1995, pp. 181-206.
Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller The Time of Roses, around 1864 Oil on wood, 56.9 ¥ 70.6 cm Signed and (incomplete) dated centre left: Waldmüller/186[ ] Inv. No. 10.134 Donated by Fürst Johann II von und zu Liechtenstein, 1894
It was presumably during the last summer of his life that Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (1793–1865) painted one of his most beautiful pictures of the area around Brühl in the southern Vienna Woods, where he also lived. In “The Time of Roses” we see the Sparbach Valley with the mountain ridge of the Middle Otter in the dawn light of a warm summer’s day. A cart harnessed with two oxen has stopped on a path. A youth on the cart is talking to a girl who puts a rose in his hat. The title “The Time of Roses” refers both to the roses blossoming in the right-hand foreground as well as to the symbolic power of the rose for the two lovers. “Human fate and nature, having been set equal, are brought into complete harmony with one another.” (Grimschitz) In his later genre pictures, Waldmüller gradually dispenses with telling “staged” stories with theatrical-seeming scenes. The story appears “natural” now, almost ordinary. The figures, smaller in scale, are more self-evidently integrated in the landscape, which now has turned into the actual conveyor of atmosphere, the main character. Man, animal and landscape form a harmonious whole. In pictures like “The Time of Roses”, Waldmüller came close to the uncompromising realisation of his artistic ideal of sunlit painting. All his life, he was almost obsessed with the problem of how to render sunlight in a way true to reality. “Bathing in the dazzling sun, blossoming in its light and glowing in its shade fascinated him to the point of insanity” (Hevesi). The controversial artist, whose strivings to reorganise Academy teaching had resulted in
serious dispute with the professors’ council, and in his forced retirement as a professor at the Academy, was not, however, to be put off by the criticism of his peers. In “The Time of Roses” the clear sunlight helps the colours achieve intense luminosity. The sun unifies, yet also creates spectacular effects by means of light-shadow contrasts. The yoke of oxen and the young couple appear almost tangibly three-dimensional in the light that simultaneously shines in their eyes and casts a long shadow over the path. In contrast to the French Impressionists, Waldmüller always adhered to firm forms and local colour, a tradition on which Austrian Atmospheric Realism was later to build upon with artists such as Emil Jakob Schindler or Tina Blau (see No. 77). Around the turn of the century, however, the artist’s rediscovered and celebrated late work was acknowledged to have a degree of modernity comparable to Impressionism. ED
Lit.: Ludwig Hevesi: Oesterreichische Kunst im 19. Jahrhundert, Leipzig 1903, pp. 78, 82 (quotation). Bruno Grimschitz: Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Salzburg 1957, p. 70 (quotation) and WV 971, p. 365. Klaus Albrecht Schröder (Ed.): Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller (Exhibition Catalogue of the Kunstforum Länderbank Wien), Munich 1990, pp. 29-31. Rupert Feuchtmüller: Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller 1793–1865, Vienna/Munich 1996, p. 296 and WV 1087, p. 526. Johann II. von und zu Liechtenstein. Ein Fürst beschenkt Wien. 1894–1916 (Exhibition Catalogue of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien), Vienna 2003, p. 52.
Model of Vienna’s Inner City, 1852/54 Manufacture: Eduard Fischer Wood, paper and cardboard, coloured, 432 × 510 cm, scale 1 : 450 Inv. No. 94.521 Before 1888 in the inventory of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien
Models with a claim to realistic reproduction have been one of the specials forms of representing cities since Early Modern Times. Unfortunately, older portraits of Vienna, like that of cartographer Daniel Suttinger around 1680, have disappeared. Both large-format city models from the 19th century (see No. 82) have been chief attractions of the permanent collection since they were put up in the Wien Museum: the model of Vienna’s inner city created by the civic master carpenter Eduard Fischer is thus considered the oldest surviving, three-dimensional representation of Vienna. It was created during the first period the city was extended in Modern Times and sheds light on the old city shortly before the fortifications were torn down and the Ringstrasse was built on the location of the Glacis ground that had been freed up. Using the city’s land-register plan as its basis and essentially created to scale, the model gives us a clear view of the extent and condition of the rampart walls, city moat and bastions. Removing these defences meant the disappearance of a major morphological and building structure that had dominated the appearance and experience of the city throughout centuries. The rampart walls are shown here in their last stage of development with the Volksgarten and the Burggarten already created, as well as the outer Burgtor built as part of the so-called “small city extension” arising from the
destruction of part of the city defences at the hands of the French in 1809. Clearly visible are the numerous rambling, narrow streets of the old city, to which only a few regulatory measures had been applied up till then. The Franz-Joseph Barracks, erected on the Dominikanerbastei from 1854–57, are already integrated in the model – the matching counterpart of the subsequent Rossauer Barracks built on the other side of the city. In 1872, Fischer’s model was shown in the Historic Exhibition of the City of Vienna held in the Pädagogium, the city’s teacher training college opened in Hegelgasse in 1868. Later it served once more to put “Old Vienna” on display when in 1898 it was mounted in the Prater as part of the Jubilee Exhibition celebrating fifty years of Franz Joseph I on the throne. This time it served as the counterpart to Erwin Pendl’s city model, new at the time, which already illustrated the inner city of the Gründerzeit (i.e. the period of expansion in the second half of the 19th century) with its newly constructed Ringstrasse area. SBe Lit.: Andrew John Martin: Stadtmodelle, in: Wolfgang Behringer, Bernd Roeck (Ed.): Das Bild der Stadt in der Neuzeit 1400–1800, Munich 1999, pp. 66-72. Karl Fischer: Der Kartograph Daniel Suttinger (1640– um 1690). Sein Leben und sein Werk im Rahmen der frühen Wiener Stadtkartographie, in: Jahrbuch des Vereins für Geschichte der Stadt Wien, 1991/92 (Studien zur Wiener Geschichte, Vol. 47/48), pp. 51-92.
Gustav Klimt Portrait of Emilie Flöge, 1902 Oil on canvas, 178 ¥ 80 cm Signed, dated and monogrammed in lower right area: Gustav Klimt 1902 GK Inv. No. 45.677 Taken over from the Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum, 1921
Gustav Klimt’s portrait of Emilie Flöge is one of the most famous and valuable of the paintings at the Wien Museum. The first portrait of a lady by Klimt according the ornamental unique value, this artwork marks the beginning of that creative period of the artist the pictures of which in recent years have demanded the very highest prices at international auctions. The woman depicted is standing, life-size and full-length, in front of an obscure background that is kept in mud and earth tones, from which only her face, hands and décolletage stand out brightly. Her facial features are kept naturalistic, creating a contrast with the abstract ornamental fabric which wraps around her body, head and shoulders like an aura. Emilie Flöge (1874–1952) can definitely be described as the person Gustav Klimt related to most significantly. Jointly with her sisters, she ran a flourishing fashion boutique on Vienna’s Mariahilferstrasse from 1904 to 1938; the interior décor was designed by the Wiener Werkstätte. As a financially independent businesswoman, for whom a conventional marriage in the sense of material security was meaningless, she could relate eye-toeye with a freedom-loving artistic nature such as Gustav Klimt. There has been much speculation as to the nature of their relationship. The most likely variant is – as assumed by art historian Tobias Natter – a love affair that evolved over the years into a stable partnership. The two met in 1891 at the wedding of Emilie’s sister Helene to Klimt’s brother Ernst. From summer 1900 they spent the summer months together at the Austrian lake of Attersee. On holiday photos we see Klimt wearing an artist’s smock, and Emilie in wide, loosely flowing robes. Lacking the constraining corset, these so-called reform 178
clothes were ultra-modern around the turn of the century, symbolising freedom and escape from social convention. Accordingly, Emilie’s dress on Klimt’s portrait has mostly been interpreted in the literature concerned as a reform dress, which is, however, most unlikely. On the one hand, the narrow silhouette from the hip downwards contradicts the abundance in material that characterised reform dresses as we know from photographs; on the other hand, the material pattern would have had to appear broken by deep folds. However, precisely the regular execution of ornamentation shows that in this picture Klimt is starting to eschew naturalistic painting in favour of decorative abstraction. Emilie Flöge’s portrait was first shown in the 1903 Klimt exhibition at the Secession. Berta Zuckerkandl was delighted: “The charming face, subtly and delicately modelled, is enhanced further by the unusual frame in which it is set. The head is surrounded by an aureole-like, green-blue wreath of blossoms with a colour mystique that is byzantine in its origins.” Emilie Flöge herself showed no interest in her own portrait. Possibly she felt a lack of psychological nuance in the painting, which resembled the image of a beautiful, bored, Viennese society lady rather than a businesswoman with her own career. For this reason Klimt sold the picture to the Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum (Provincial Museum of Lower Austria) in 1908. USt Lit.: Emilie Flöge und Gustav Klimt. Doppelporträt in Ideallandschaft (Exhibition Catalogue of the Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien), Vienna 1988. Tobias G. Natter, Gerbert Frodl (Ed.): Klimt und die Frauen, Cologne 2000, pp. 100-103. Sehnsucht nach Glück. Klimt, Kokoschka, Schiele (Exhibition Catalogue of the Schirn Kunsthalle), Frankfurt 1995, p. 66.
Display Cabinet, 1901 Design: Josef Hoffmann Execution: Portois & Fix, Vienna Mahogany veneer, brass handles, cut-glass, h 180 cm, w 110 cm, d 50 cm Inv. No. 198.098 Acquired on the Vienna art market, 1993
In 1901 the magazine “Das Interieur” published Josef Hoffmann’s influential text “Einfache Möbel” (“Simple Furniture”). In it Hoffmann appealed to all designers to bring to bear to each work of art, to each piece of furniture, quite natural innate laws of beauty by their appreciation of good proportions and their sensitivity when choosing and implementing the materials they used. This display cabinet was designed at the same time as the 1901 article, in which the artist criticised, amongst other things, the use of curved forms in the furniture of his early period, now rejected as contrary to the materials used. The display cabinet marks that stylistic phase in the designer’s work in which he moved away from the soft lines of the Secession to the integrity of form he now demanded, characterised by straight lines, authenticity of material and purpose in design. This development culminated in 1902 in purist forms of elementary geometrical simplicity. The piece of furniture thus illustrates the “purification and clarification” in the form of things demanded by Hoffmann. In style it is close to the kind of furniture that Hoffmann showed at the 1900
Secession European Art of Furniture Exhibition, which he initiated and designed, whereby he first presented his new principles of form to a wider public. The composition of the display cabinet is determined by the very carefully planned combination of geometric bodies within the actual interior of the furniture. Space is created which is defined but not really limited by the side corner supports and the top piece. The openness of form outwards that results from this, and the markedly lean proportions, relativise the austerity of the geometrical contours of the piece of furniture. The similarity in design to realised architecture illustrates how much Hoffmann’s ideas as an architect also determined the tectonics of his furniture. Hoffmann’s requirements concerning the beauty of the materials used on the one hand and technically perfect execution on the other necessitated cooperation with top-class production companies. In this case, the cabinet was made by Portois & Fix, probably the most important furniture maker in Vienna around 1900. ED
Egon Schiele Self-Portrait, 1911 Oil on wood, 27.5 ¥ 34 cm Signed and dated lower right: Egon Schiele 1911 Inv. No. 104.207 Estate of Arthur Roessler, 1954
This highly expressive self-portrait of Egon Schiele (1890–1918) was created in 1911 in Neulengbach where the young painter had settled down after ˇeský Krumlov in Bohemia the townspeople in C with their narrow notions of morality had made it impossible for him to continue living in the small town. Living a withdrawn life in the country, the young artist seemed to be striving for selfassurance. He depicts himself in the left-hand half of a horizontal format picture, with his head turned slightly to the right-hand shoulder, spreading the fingers of his left hand in front of his dark torso. Behind him, some of his paintings seem to be visible, like for instance one of the pictures showing a ˇeský Krumlov city landscape. withered tree and a C The white surface in the right-hand half of the picture was mostly interpreted as a tabletop with a piece of bright-coloured material on it. However, it could also be an – unfinished – picture. A darkly glazed clay vessel can be seen to the right of the head, the contour of which resembles a sharply featured profile. In art history this detail has repeatedly been linked to Paul Gauguin’s “Self-Portrait with Yellow Christ” – likewise a horizontal format on which a jug with physiognomic features is depicted behind the artist’s head to the right. Schiele could have seen this picture at the 1907 Gauguin exhibition in Vienna’s Galerie Miethke or at the 1909 International Kunstschau and have been inspired by it. In any
case the double image of Schiele’s face with the “profile” of the clay vessel can be interpreted symbolically: the depiction with a kind of Janus head may have corresponded to his self-image at the time, or rather, to how society saw him. The vivid facial expression and gestures of this self-portrait can be found in many of Egon Schiele’s works, for instance in a number of drawings and watercolours, or in the photographic portraits that he created in 1914 from collaboration with his photographer friend Anton Trcˇka. They overlap with the requirement of expressionism for exaggerated depiction of emotional expression; in terms of Austrian history of art they link up the grimacing self-portraits of the Baroque sculptor Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (see No. 47) with Arnulf Rainer’s painted over faces. Egon Schiele opted for wood as the material used in this small-format self-portrait as the result of a recommendation by his mentor Arthur Roessler, who advised him to adopt this technique in the spring of 1911, as it apparently made pictures of this type and size easier to sell. USt Lit.: Peter Baum: Körpersprache im Werk von Egon Schiele, in: Egon Schiele (Exhibition Catalogue of the Fondation Pierre Gianadda), Martigny 1995, pp. 29-32. Rudolf Leopold: Egon Schiele. Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Salzburg 1972, p. 194. Erwin Mitsch: Egon Schiele, Munich 1978, pp. 32ff. Sehnsucht nach Glück. Klimt, Kokoschka, Schiele (Exhibition Catalogue of Schirn Kunsthalle), Frankfurt 1995, p. 266.
YOU’RE INTERESTED IN THIS CATALOGUE? CLICK HERE TO ORDER ONLINE OR BY PHONE.
Color images, Paperback edition, 56 pages ISBN: 978-3-902312-15-0 available in: English
Published on Jul 18, 2013
Color images, Paperback edition, 56 pages ISBN: 978-3-902312-15-0 available in: English