L ALAND N D & LIVESTOCK LIVESTO FARMING, RANCHING AND THE COUNTRY WAY OF LIFE
September 26, 2013 | Vol. 4 Issue 9 | Pierre, South Dakota ECRWSS CARRIER ROUTE PRE-SORT
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Cowtown on the strip New fruit fly found for first time in SD Evaluating late season corn nitrogen deficiency SD could lead US in 2013 sunflower productiom
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 1
ONLY 1 IN 5 IS GOOD ENOUGH TO BE CALLED WALMART CHOICE BEEF
T hank you to our Local and Area Beef Producers 1730 N. Garfield Ave. Pierre • 224-8830
2 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
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Publisher Steven Baker 605-224-7301 ext. 111 firstname.lastname@example.org
Lance Nixon 605-224-7301 ext. 130 email@example.com
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Cowtown on the strip (Dakota Life)............................................................................4
Land & Livestock News
Julie Furchner 605-224-7301 ext. 142 email@example.com
Wanda Doren 605-224-7301 ext. 109
Evaluating late season corn nitrogen deficiency.......................................................9
Raven Industries collaborates to commercialize ag technology products...........10
SD could lead US in sunflower production in 2013.................................................11
Alyssa Small firstname.lastname@example.org New fruit fly found for first time in SD....................................................................12
Cowboys from Texas, New Mexico and elsewhere arrived in Evarts, S.D., in the first decade of the 20th century to help huge ranching operations manage herds on leased Indian lands to the west. Here two cowboys pose for the photographer on the main street of Evarts. Courtesy of the South Dakota State Historical Society
New grain cart system first to integrate moisture system in cart itself .............13
Using lentil, peas and chickpea in crop rotation in South Dakota........................14
U.S. net beef exports grow.........................................................................................17
Land & Livestock is a publication of the Capital Journal and is published monthly at 333 W. Dakota Ave., P.O. Box 878, Pierre, SD 57501 Content of Land & Livestock is protected under the Federal Copyright Act. Reproduction of any portion of any issue will not be permitted without the express permission of the Capital Journal.
House GOP works for votes on food stamp measure..............................................20
University of Wyoming student farm receives national attention.......................23
Land & Livestock Classifieds
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 3
Old family farms: ‘We’re never going to sell this’...................................................18
COWTOWN ON THE STRIP
4 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
By Lance Nixon | email@example.com
Cowboys led cattle headed for market from the west shore of the Missouri in groups of 20 across a pontoon bridge in order to load them on trains in Evarts, on the east shore. Photos Courtesy of the south Dakota state hIstorICal soCIety
T WAS A FLIMSY, FALSE-FRONTED town that served sturdy drinks and steaks in the Empire Restaurant, and in Joe Green’s hotel in spring 1904, cowpunchers from Texas and New Mexico watched Cap Mossman light his cigars with a $100 bill. There was also a house by the river with girls to entertain the cowboys pushing herds of cattle down from the west. That was ordinary life at Evarts, South Dakota, on the east side of the Missouri about 12 miles south of where the town of Mobridge would later grow up. It was a busy place in part because an unprecedented 8.7 million immigrants were pouring into the United States during the opening decade of the 20th century, and the beef to help feed them funneled through cowtowns such as Evarts – strategically placed at the edge of the newly opened Indian grazing lands to the west. Not that everyone was impressed. “Evarts is a disreputable bawdy house which lacks a tent to have it all under one cover – an annex to the House by the Missouri shore,” Mrs. Frank Mitchell of Amarillo, Texas – wife of a ranch manager who’d relocated to Dakota – observed. She soon returned to Texas and never looked back. Fortunately there were others who found more to like about Evarts, including a man named Ike Blasingame who later wrote about it in a book, Dakota Cowboy: My Life in the Old Days. “It was said that on the three days each week during beef shipping time in fall that a trainload of beef left the Evarts stockyards every hour, establishing this little frontier cow town – only a lost ghost town now – the reputation of being one of the greatest cattle-shipping points in the United States,” Blasingame writes in his 1958 memoir.
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Blasingame writes that Evarts came into its own when the federal government decided in 1903 to allow Indian lands west of the Missouri River to be leased by ranchers. That included nearly 3 million acres that made up the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, plus the Standing Rock Indian Reservation to the north. “This chance to obtain virgin grassland at a time when many stockmen with large herds were being crowded out of pastures by the ever-increasing homesteader and small rancher was something like a glimpse into Utopia,” Blasingame writes. And the railroad, the Milwaukee Road, made the whole deal work. “The Milwaukee held a lease on the whole north tier of townships of the Cheyenne River reservation. A six-mile-wide lane was fenced on both sides to provide a driveway for herds coming to Evarts to ship, and was known as the Strip or Trail. It was eighty miles long. The watering places on the Strip were spaced about twelve miles apart – a day’s drive for a beef herd. Some of them were natural water – lakes, creeks or water holes – but the railroad built several big dams, too, so there was plenty of water even in dry times. Thousands of cattle were taken down this trail, going in or coming out to grass, and big cattle operators from far west of the reservation, too, regularly used the Strip … Freight rates were far cheaper on the east shore of the Missouri, so stockgrowers chose to come down the Strip to Evarts.” The cowboys drove herds from as far away as the Black Hills. The traffic included brands such as the H A T outfit, the Flying V, the Three V’s, the H O’s, the 73, the Turkey Track, the Sword & Dagger, the Mississippi Cattle Co., the Reverse L7, and the outfit Ike Blasingame rode with – the Matador Land and Cattle Co. with its Drag V brand, arriving from Texas in May 1904 to make some money from the Dakota prairie. The famous cowman Murdo Mackenzie, for whom the town of Murdo, S.D.,
Ike Blasingame’s 1958 memoir, “Dakota Cowboy,” includes a map of the newly opened West River range country in 1904, including Evarts and the Strip.
Courtesy of Ike Blasingame
million acres of Cheyenne River Indian Reservation land.
“We were going to a great new range and all of us were as keen to get
6 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
is named, was manager of the Matador and had leased more than half a
on to the north as wild geese,” Blasingame writes in describing the mood at the home ranch down in Texas. “New grass would be rising and winter fading out as we landed on the east Missouri shore at Evarts.” Elsewhere Blasingame talks about those cowboys’ first sight of the Missouri, “longest and unruliest river in the nation,” and the range country beyond it. “Out in the west-of-theriver country was cowboy land – Indians, cattle, wolves, coyotes, wildcats, beaver, and rattlesnakes – wild and somewhat desolate, but country a cowboy loves. And for a few more years it was to resound to cowboy shouts and bawling cattle.”
But for a very few years, as it turned out. Nathan Sanderson, a historian who is now an adviser to Gov. Dennis Daugaard, said Evarts had an impressive start, as the Milwaukee Road shipped nearly 40,000 head of cattle in 1904 alone from the Evarts terminal. But the town’s heyday was less than 10 years. Sanderson dealt briefly with Evarts in his 2011 dissertation for his Ph.D. in history at the University of Nebraska. He writes about Evarts in discussing the cattleman George Edward Lemmon, for whom the town of Lemmon is named. “T he Chica go, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad had arrived on the east bank of the Missouri River in 1900, terminating the line at a small ramshackle community called Evarts,” Sanderson writes. “Although initially not much more than a haphazardly constructed collection of crude wooden buildings, Evarts thrived as a livestock shipping point because the railroad made several investments to ensure its success. It erected a large stockyard in town and constructed substantial holding pens across the river to the west. Hired men dug ‘dipping’ facilities – channels filled with lime, sulfur and other anti-parasitic solutions in which herds of cattle were immersed as a means to eradicate diseases like scabies (a contagious skin disease) and the widely maligned Texas Fever. The Milwaukee also built
a pontoon bridge and later provided a ferry service so ranchers would not have to chance swimming their cattle across the river – a dangerous activity that could result in the deaths of cattle and cowboys.” Sanderson said Evarts had to contend with competition from Forest City, which had constructed a short rail line that merged with the Chicago & North Western Railroad at Gettysburg. Evarts also faced competition from established railroad shipping points in the Black Hills area, where Belle Fourche, Sanderson notes, had been easily the largest beef shipping point in the nation in the 1890s.
By ferry and pontoon bridge
Evarts helped funnel cattle west across the Missouri to stock the range when outfits like the Matador arrived with their southern cattle. “The thousands of cattle crossing over this wide stream, coming in from the south to graze, thin and weak, had to cross by ferry when the river was rolling high from spring rains and melting snow,” Blasingame writes. “The ferry was a barge built like a floating stockyards, each pen holding from 20 to 40 cattle, depending on age and condition. Each pen had a gate to close off the stock from those in the next one. This kept them from crowding and pushing all to one side, possibly capsizing the boat. A ferry could handle up to 500 head.” In fall, cattle herds heading to market moved
10 loading chutes led up to the stock cars. “A trainload of four hundred head could be loaded in about an hour. An outfit shipping a herd of twelve hundred head shipped a trainload a day in that way perhaps taking advantage of any price fluctuations. Also, by being allowed but one trainload a day, it gave other shippers the same chance to share the better prices.”
Fire and water The Missouri River could be treacherous in spring, and more than one cowboy – including
Blasingame – had close calls in trying to make a late crossing after a late visit to Evarts. Cowboys were not the only ones who had much to learn about the Dakota landscape. “Everything was as strange to the yearlings as it was to us,” Blasingame writes. “For one thing, in Texas these cattle had always watered out of steel tanks at tall windmills and the long blue water holes of Dakota looked just like shallow little Texas lakes after a rain. Accordingly, they stepped confidently into them, expecting to wade across, but instead they
dropped out of sight. This amused the cowboys and before long we were heading some of them toward every water hole we passed, just to see them duck themselves.” The country also had its share of fire – in the sky and in the earth. “Lightning was an everpresent danger to a cowboy. Working livestock in natural lightning country, we had many close calls. Among ourselves, we had a theory that hot, sweaty cattle or horses ‘drawed’ electricity; that they were a likely target when the fire-devils in the clouds got to splitting the sky apart. Most any old cow-
Photos courtesy of the South Dakota State Historical Society
ries of the stormy nights, night-guarding a herd, and to claim that a man is without fear of lighting just isn’t true.” There were other things to fear: Ghosts or spirits that troubled Indian folks and cowboys alike, for example; and prairie fires like the big one in 1905 that, one rumor said, kindled by a homesteader trying to kill rattlesnakes in what would later become Perkins County. Big fire drags made of chains that pulled 12-footsquare asbestos sheets were the main tool to fight fire. Cowboys also used wagons full of barrels to fetch water from the near-
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 7
A cattle operation near Fort Pierre shows the West River landscape cowboys from other states encountered when several major ranches expanded to South Dakota shortly after 1900.
boy can tell of the way a horse’s mane and tail almost sparks just before a storm. The hairs stand out separately as if a little hurricane is blowing in from underneath. On nights when a black storm hovers overhead, soft phosphorus lights glow on the tips of a horse’s ears, like little candles, moving as he twitches and turns them while watching everything out in the dark. On many bad nights, I’ve seen these same little balls of light on the tips of the cattle’s horns, and the glow is considerable when many cattle are bunched. Such are a cowboy’s memo-
the other direction, east across a pontoon bridge. “When a herd was ready to cross over from the corrals on the west shore, a cowboy took the lead, riding his horse out onto the pontoon and the cattle followed. When twenty of the animals got out on the gently swaying walk, someone shouted ‘Cowboy!’ Then another rider would cut into a place just behind the first twenty, and so on, until the pontoon was full clear across the river.” On the east shore, those cattle entered a 14-footwide lane between tall fences that led them to the shipping corrals, where
est streams. Blasingame nearly died of smallpox one year after two new cowhands brought it into camp. The Matador’s way of dealing with sickness was to send the sick rider off to tend himself in a cabin apart from everyone else. Water was another hazard, likely to make a man sick if he drank it, even though conventional wisdom said water in a stream purified itself every 100 feet. “Most of the cowboys working with outfits on the range drank coffee – morning, noon, and night – for one main reason: boiled water,” Blasingame said. Not that the coffee wasn’t good; there was a coffee mill mounted right on the side of the chuck wagon and the cook
ground the beans fresh.
The Big Drift Not surprisingly for Texas cattlemen who didn’t even know the landmarks of the country – Blasingame describes his boss, Con McCurry, riding through the country with a map to get the lay of the land when the Matador first arrived – the Texans didn’t know what the climate would toss at them, either. They learned in the Big Winter of 1906-1907. The first blizzard came in November and things only got worse. Although northern cattlemen had been aware since the 1880s and 1890s that they needed some feed for winter, they still weren’t properly prepared. “Hay was stacked; weak
right across the Matador and Turkey Track ranges. Thousands crowded into the Little Bend country north of Pierre. “There was no hay to be had anywhere. The small ranchers across the Missouri had stacked some for their own small herds, but they saw it swallowed up by hungry cattle from distant parts, so desperate that they couldn’t be driven away.” In the spring the coulees and watercourses were littered with dead cattle. “Dead bodies lodged along the creeks where they entered the Big Muddy, until higher water helped to dislodge them and carry them on oceanward. The streams were full of floating death,” Blasingame writes. “On the reserva-
tion, it was months later before a man would ride anywhere near Swift Bird and other river bottoms where stock had died in droves, because of the horrible stench.”
Railroaded In the end it wasn’t the elements or conditions on the range that spelled the end of Evarts. It was the fact that that the riverbed didn’t have the structure engineers wanted in order to build a railroad bridge. In addition the higher bluffs on the west side of the river would have required a lot of earthwork in order to build a railroad grade at that point. Sanderson’s research suggests it was Lemmon, the cattleman, who proposed an alternate cross-
ing – farther north near present-day Mobridge – when railroad officials discussed the problem of crossing the river in 190506. “Without a doubt Evarts went away because there wasn’t any way to cross the Missouri River at that point,” Sanderson said. The flooding of the Oahe Reservoir at the start of the 1960s was the epitaph. The “lost ghost town” that was still there when Blasingame wrote his 1958 memoir soon vanished beneath silver sheet of water. “Now Lake Oahe covers it up almost completely,” Sanderson said. “You can’t even go see it unless you’ve got scuba gear.” But it lives in its brief moment in history as one of the great shipping points for beef.
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stuff was gathered and fed, but still the majority of stock were expected to winter on what they could rustle along the creeks, river bottoms, and windswept hills. What stacked feed was available couldn’t begin to feed the starving stock in a winter such as was upon us.” Horses did better than cattle, staying on the ridges and pawing down to reach feed, eating snow for water. Cowboys used V-shaped drags to try to peel the snow away to let the cattle get at the grass underneath. Then came the Big Drift, as cattle from far northwest of the Cannonball River in North Dakota and the Grand River in South Dakota came drifting before the wind into the Cheyenne River country,
Evaluating late season corn nitrogen deficiency By Anthony Bly Extension Regional Soil Specialist
Rows of corn emerge from a field during a light rain shower May 22 near Sioux Falls, S.D. Recent widespread rains have improved the outlook for farmers and ranchers in some areas hit hard by drought.
AP Photo/Dirk Lammers
is not a good approach. N mineralization from the soils organic matter plays a large role in contributing to the variability of the amount of nitrate-N that can exist in the soil profile. It is hard to predict how much N with be mineralized because it is controlled mainly by previous plant residue and manure additions and changes in soil temperature and moisture. Across the last 10 years in South Dakota the average nitrate-N remaining in the soil after corn grain harvest has been 86 lbs N/a 0-2 ft depth. Hopefully, these suggestions for evaluating late season nitrogen deficiency will help to determine more effective use of nitrogen for corn production.
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Corn is now in the seed filling growth stages (R2-R5) when nutrient demands are put on plant leaves as the seed kernels develop. At R2 blister stage, approximately 75% of the corn plant’s required nitrogen is in the plant. The remaining 25 percent still needs to be taken up by the roots. When the plant is water stressed, N uptake is limited, resulting in more N being transported from the leaves to the seed kernels. Leaves below the ear are the main sources for N in the seed when the corn plant is stressed for water and N or in the case when the applied N rate is too low. While plant tissue testing is probably not the best tool for evaluating N status of the plant during these late grain filling growth stages, visual observations can give good indications of plant N status. N deficiency appears first on the lower leaves of the plant as leaf yellowing and tissue die-off which starts at the leaf tip and forms a V-shape pointing down the mid-rib of the leaf (see nitrogen leaf symptom at: http://www. s d s t at e. e d u / p s / e x t e n sion/soil-fert/corn-deficiency-photos.cfm ). A long-term study at the SE Research Farm near Beresford evaluated nitrogen rates for corn. In this study, percent leaf
greenness was visually estimated for each leaf below the ear from 10 plants in each N rate plot. Percent leaf greenness was then compared (regressed) with grain yield and it was determined that if the third and fourth leaf below the primary ear leaf were green (without visual N deficiency) for corn following corn and soybean respectively, yield should not have been limited due to lack of N (for more research information see the report at: http:// pubstorage.sdstate.edu/ PlantScience/progressreports/2009/09-9(36709). The late-season stalk nitrate-N test is another way to evaluate corn N status. For more information see the report at: http://www.extension. iastate.edu/publications/ pm1584.pdf With this test, stalk samples are taken when corn plants reach maturity and submitted to a laboratory for nitrate-N analysis. The interpretation of these results does not result in an exact determination of the correct N rate, but can be helpful in determining if the corn plant N status was low, marginal, optimal or excessive. Post season soil samples obtained from the two foot depth, can also be a way to determine how much nitrate-N is remaining in the soil and potentially not utilized by the corn plant. Using the check book method of accounting for nitrogen in the soil and taken up by corn plants
Raven Industries collaborates to commercialize ag technology products with premier land grant institution areas of engineering, agronomy and agribusiness to conduct research and ultimately commercialize new products. Raven has had past success with similar research and development centers in Austin, Texas, and on the campus of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in Rapid City, South Dakota. Raven and SDSU have had a longterm relationship through classroom and lab activities and have also worked closely on talent recruitment. SDSU faculty and students recently worked hand-in-hand with Raven Industries to design a
10 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
SIOUX FALLS, S.D. — Raven Industries Inc. has announced its commitment to open a research development center within The Research Park at South Dakota State University in Brookings, South Dakota. Raven and SDSU will collaborate to engineer new precision agriculture technologies to help farmers grow more food to feed an expanding world population, a critical mission for Raven’s Applied Technology Division. Initially, Raven plans to hire two full-time positions and six part-time intern positions in the
multi-hybrid planter control solution, the first of its kind in the industry. “The opportunity to collaborate on opportunities associated with our core businesses will enhance our growth as an organization and develop a stronger cohesion between Raven, the university, and industry challenges,” said Dan Rykhus, president and CEO at Raven Industries. “We are proud to support South Dakota’s higher education and provide rewarding jobs.” “We are excited to connect industry-leading faculty and top-caliber students from a renowned
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Initially, Raven plans to hire two full-time positions and six part-time intern positions in the areas of engineering, agronomy and agribusiness to conduct research and ultimately commercialize new products.
unique and unmatched,” said Lewis Brown, dean of the Jerome J. Lohr College of Engineering at SDSU. About Raven Industries, Inc: Since 1956, Raven Industries has designed and manufactured high quality, high-value technical products. Raven is publicly traded on
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SD could lead US in sunflower production in 2013 By Lance Nixon
to the drought of 2012 that left them with poor stands of winter wheat. Sandbakken said the Just as it did in 2011, industry won’t know South Dakota has a chance to outpace peren- until after the harvest, nial ag powerhouse North but he said it’s already Dakota as the largest sun- clear that South Dakota’s flower-producing state in Sully County will easily lead the nation in sun2013. Executive Director flower production. Only North Dakota’s Bottineau John Sandbakken of the Mandan, N.D.-based and Emmons counties National Sunflower come anywhere close, Association said accord- Sandbakken said. Sully County ing to the U.S. frequently leads Department of “We’re the nation in A g r i c u l t u r e ’ s more arid sunflower proJune data, North here and Dakota ended sunflowers duction, so that in itself is not up with about do very unusual. 578,000 acres of well in arid But there may sunflower in the be even more ground compared conditions acres seeded to to South Dakota’s because they have sunflower this 617,000 acres. a large year. That gives Tim Luken South Dakota a taproot of Oahe Grain bit of an edge as that will Corp. in Onida the sister states go down said one thing move toward har- after the that has benvest – but not by moisture,” much. Tim Luken, efited central “It’s close. And Oahe Grain South Dakota is what it will come Corp. that companies that contract down to is yield,” with producers Sandbakken said. to grow confec“In 2011 South tion sunflowDakota actually had more production than ers couldn’t find enough North Dakota. Potentially growers in North Dakota for 2013 that might once this year, so some of that business has come to again be the case.” Ag watchers blame South Dakota. Confection snow and rain in North sunflowers are those Dakota that prevented grown as a snack food farmers from planting as rather than for their oils. Luken said sunflowers many acres to sunflower as they had planned in are a great fit for Sully 2013, while central South County and other parts Dakota farmers were of central South Dakota shifting acres out of win- because they fit well into ter wheat into crops such a four-year rotation – as sunflower – a response sunflower, spring wheat, firstname.lastname@example.org
Sully County sunflowers in late August are shown in this photo.
Lance Nixon/Land & Livestock
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Sully County sunflowers in late August are shown in this photo.
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Lance Nixon/Land & Livestock
winter wheat, corn, and back to sunflower – that no-till producers in the region like. The plants also do well in the hot dry conditions. “We’re more arid here and sunflowers do very well in arid conditions because they have a large taproot that will go down after the moisture,” Luken said. Pierre-area producer Tom Young, a past chairman and current board member of the National Sunflower Association who farms in Hughes and Sully counties, said sunflowers deal with the heat better than corn and the plant keeps making a crop even at 90 degrees, whereas corn hits a ceiling at about 86 degrees. “Sunflowers have shown that they are consistently a great cash crop and also that they are able to withstand most droughts,” Young said. “With no-till and most rotations, they’re a great crop for central South Dakota with the heat that we have here.” Sandbakken said although producers shoot for a target of about 2,000 pounds of sunflowers to the acre – the crop is marketed by the hundredweight instead of by bushels – yields of about 1,700 pounds an acre for oilseed sunflowers is average in South Dakota, and about 1,700 to 1,800 pounds an acre for confection sunflowers.
New fruit fly found for first time in SD By Lance Nixon email@example.com
Walworth County Implement
1810 N Broadway • Miller, SD 57362 800-658-3658/605-853-2482 Dylan 605-769-0598 • Darren 605-769-1041 Art 605-769-1314 • Rod 605-769-1962 Terry 605-450-1676
PO Box 137 • Selby, SD 57472 800-658-3634/605-649-7665 Bill 605-848-2450 • Tyler 605-848-1243 John 605-848-1242 • Josh 605-203-1807
Potter County Implement
HWY 12, PO Box 137 • Roscoe, SD 57471 800-592-1822/605-287-4281 John 605-281-6001 • Scott 605-281-6000 Kaleb 605-281-6002 • Ryan 605-281-6003
30965 US HWY 212 • Gettysburg, SD 57442 800-333-3658/605-765-2434 Bill 605-769-2004 • Bob 605-769-2500 Ben 605-769-1711 • Scott 605-769-1300 Derek 605-769-0794
Davison County Implement
2600 W Havens • Mitchell,SD 57301 800-952-2362 Kevin 605-770-3275 • Troy 605-770-1488 Neil 605-770-2101 • Max 605-770-5186 Corey 605-770-8256
Fred Haar Yankton
2200 E HWY 50 • Yankton, SD 57078 800-952-2424 Jeff 605-661-1890 • Wayne 605-660-5846 John 605-661-1891 • Adam 605-760-0777
Edmunds County Implement
Fred Haar Wagner
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See Full Inventory at
12 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
Greenline Implement of Hand County
An Asian vinegar fly or fruit fly that was first found in the continental U.S. in 2008 and has been expanding its range ever since has now been found in South Dakota. South Dakota State University entomologist Buyung Hadi set traps for what is known as the spotted wing Drosophila – Drosophila suzukii to scientists – and caught it the last week of August in southeastern South Dakota. Hadi said he suspected the insect was here because it had already been found in nearby Minnesota and Iowa. Hadi said so far he’s found it at only one location. “It won’t be as much of a big deal in South Dakota as it is in Minnesota and Michigan because of the amount of fruit production that we have,” Hadi said. But Hadi added that the fly is a concern to both gardeners and commercial growers of fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. “It will be a problem for those crops,” he said.
And unlike some other fruit flies, Hadi said, this species – a pest native to southeast Asia that was first described in Japan but known in Hawaii since the 1980s – is not limited to laying its eggs in rotten fruits or fruits that have already split open. “This particular species has a serrated ovipositor, so they can actually deposit their eggs inside healthy fruits,” Hadi said. Hadi said once the egg hatches, the larvae feed on the fruit from the inside, causing the fruit to collapse. In some cases, fruits start to rot as well. For reasons entomologists don’t quite understand, the larvae don’t appear to develop well in grapes, meaning South Dakota’s small but growing wine industry may have less to fear from the pest. But Hadi cautioned that that is based on reports from California and other West Coast states that note lesser damage to grapes compared to other fruit crops, and he said there may be unknown variables that make the insect behave differently in the Midwest.
Raven Industries and Unverferth Manufacturing announce UHarvest Grain Cart System “Unverferth has been a great partner of ours for many years, and we appreciate the opportunity to work with them to bring new technology into agriculture,”
Matt Burkhart, vice president and general manager for Raven’s Applied Technology Division
is to solve great challenges in areas of safety, feeding the world, energy independence, and resource preservation. To realize this purpose, we utilize our strengths in engineering, manufacturing, and technological innovation to serve the precision agriculture, high performance specialty films, aerospace, and electronic manufacturing services markets. Visit www.RavenInd.com for more information. About Unverferth Mfg. Co: Unverferth Mfg. Co., Inc. is a family owned manufacturer and marketer of tillage, seed, hayand grain-handling equipment along with pull-type sprayers and agricultural dual, triples and specialty wheel products. For additional information, contact Unverferth Manufacturing Co., Inc., P.O. Box 357, Kalida, OH 45853. Phone 1-800-322-6301, 419-532-3121 or visit the website at www.unverferth.com. Forward-Looking Statements: This news release contains “forwardlooking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange
Act of 1934, as amended, including statements regarding the expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The company intends that
all forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. Although management believes that the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, there is no assurance these assumptions are correct or that these expectations will be achieved. Assumptions involve important risks and uncertainties that could significantly affect results in the future. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those
relating to the inability to achieve objectives established for research and development activities, or changes in competition, raw material availability, technology or relationships with the company’s largest customers--any of which could adversely affect any of the company’s product lines--as well as other risks described in Raven’s 10-K under Item 1A.This list is not exhaustive, and the company does not have an obligation to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date these statements are made.
yield data even faster and more efficiently. Slingshot allows access to this data through a secured, online account that owners and managers can access wherever they have an internet connection. “Unverferth has been a great partner of ours for many years, and we appreciate the opportunity to work with them to bring new technology into agriculture,” said Matt Burkhart, vice president and general manager for Raven’s Applied Technology Division. “Connectivity and data management are becoming a vital part of our customers’ success, and UHarvest shows our commitment to innovate new products to help our partners and customers become more efficient while utilizing valuable data collected in the field. UHarvest will be available in 2014. Visit Unverferth at tradeshows this summer to see it in action, or visit an Unverferth dealer for more information about ordering your system today. About Raven Industries, Inc: Since 1956, Raven Industries has designed and manufactured high quality, high-value technical products. Raven is publicly traded on NASDAQ (RAVN) and has earned an international reputation for innovation, product quality, high performance, and unmatched service. Raven’s purpose
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 13
SIOUX FALLS, S.D., — Raven Industries, Inc. and Unverferth Manufacturing Co., Inc. are excited to introduce UHarvest(TM): a first-ofits-kind grain cart system that provides more accurate yield data and streamlines how data is shared between machines in the field. UHarvest is the first grain cart system to integrate a moisture sensor on the cart itself, which will provide operators with more accurate yield data as it is loaded from the combine. • ISObus compatible. UHarvest works with existing virtual terminals already in the cab, reducing cab clutter and eliminating the need for a stand-alone monitor. • Tablet interface. Output from multiple grain carts in the field will now sync together, providing instant and accurate data for field records and accounting to interface on Windows, Android or Apple tablet devices. • Streamlined data management. Manage data from a single grower or the whole farm with field data structure and the ability to track operators and individual grain cart data along with other equipment and the data collected by them. • Powered by Slingshot(R). Connectivity in the field with Slingshot allows data to flow wirelessly, removing the need to transfer via USB devices, and provides important
Using lentil, peas and chickpea in crop rotation in South Dakota and beyond By Mat Chaudhry
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14 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
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North Dakota and Montana have led the nation in dry field pea production for the past decade. Since the early 1990s, pulse and pea crop production have increased dramatically on the Great Plains of the United States and on the prairies of Western Canada. Over the last 20 years the pulse crop has gone from covering a few thousand acres to 3.5 million. This growth is no accident. Dry peas have become an important rotation crop in the region (including in South Dakota) since their introduction to the Northern Plains in the 1990s. Particularly when used in conjunction with cereal grains such as wheat and corn, peas are considered a cash crop. Moreover, peas break the disease and weed cycle in cereals grass crops, conserve soil moisture relative to other rotational crops, improve soil fertility by fixing nitrogen. The big benefit of the N fixation is the reduction of N requirement in the year the legume is grown. N credit is a function of low residue levels following pulse crops, which increases yields in the following crop planted. On highly erodible land, dry peas in rotation with winter cereals limit soil erosion more than a summer fallow, although summer
fallow is not common in peas are normally grown South Dakota anymore. following cornn or some Field peas can be grown other warm-season grass. on a wide range of soil Eastern South Dakota is types, from heavy clay to too wet to plant.. Optimal light sandy loams. All soil, seeding rates vary with however, must have good variety and seed size, but drainage as field peas do typically range between not tolerate wet or even 120-175 pounds per acre. soggy conditions. The In South Dakota it is recoptimum soil pH ommended to use is neutral between 350,000 pure live Field peas 5.5 and 6.5. A cool seeds in optimum can be grown growing season growing condion a wide range of soil is ideal for protions and good types, from duction, with soils heavy clay to preferred temDry peas are light sandy peratures ranging sown in rows 6.5 loams. All soil, between 45°F to to 7 inches apart; however, must 65°F at the time of in South Dakota have good seeding. some producers drainage as A cool season use 10-inch row field peas do annual crop classpacing. Optimal not tolerate sified as a grain planting time wet or even legume, dry peas ranges from late soggy conditions. The are used as a staple March to early optimum soil food by one-third April, when soil pH is neutral of world’s populatemperatures between 5.5 tion. Despite this, are above 41°F. and 6.5. A cool due to an underdeIn most years, growing seaveloped processdelaying planting son is ideal for ing and marketing past April lowproduction, industry, dry pea ers quality and with preferred production in the yield. Dry peas temperatures South Dakota has are adapted to ranging been sporadic and grow during the between 45°F to 65°F at acres often fluctucool season when the time of ate. evapotranspiraseeding. Almost all dry tion is minimal. peas produced Thus, in most in South Dakota production area, are grown on non-irri- seeds rely on stored soil gated land that receives moisture for a large part between 15 to 20 inches of their growth cycle. of annual precipitation. In some parts of South Dry peas can perform well Dakota June and July are when planted in a vari- the months with higher ety of seedbeds, including precipitation. Pulses will direct seeding into grain do well if an average rainresidue.. In South Dakota fall in June and July is
Nitrogen (N) Fixation
Why is crop rotation important? A scheduled sequence of crops on a field is considered a crop rotation. Both research trials and grower experience have shown that monoculture, the practice of continu-
ous production of a single crop, is always produces inferior crop yields than systems where a variety of crops are grown. This is primarily due to the persistence of plant disease associated with that crop. For this reason, crop rotation is one of the oldest systems utilized to keep crop disease under control and remains perhaps the most important non-biological control measure available to producers. The field research trials at a number of locations in Canada and North Dakota continue to show the benefits of crop rotation. The yields of cereal crops are consistently higher when grown on the stubble of broadleaf crops than in a monoculture field. Similarly the yield of broadleaf crops like canola is greater when grown on cereal or pea stubble; and pea yield is greater on cereal or oilseed stubble.
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Impact of Rotating Pulses with Wheat on Yield Although rotation between two different crops results in a higher yield than when a field is continuously sown with the same crop, there are even greater benefits to be had if the rotation occurs between two distinctly unrelated crops. For example, cultivating small grain on land where the previous crop was a legume or other broadleaf crop. This is to say that to maximize the benefits of crop rotations, it is important to build as much diversity into the rotation as possible. Crop rotation diversity means growing a
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 15
Nitrogen fixation is the natural process where pulses crops and related bacteria (rhizobia) work symbiotically to convert nitrogen in the soil into ammonia (NH3). The relationship between the pulses and rhizobia is mutually beneficial. This process frees nitrogen from its relatively inert diatomic form so that it can be used by the plant. This process is important because nitrogen is essential to the biosynthesis of basic components not only of plants but all life. Legumes, such as peas, soybeans, and peanuts, are the most prolific nitrogen fixing plants. In order for peas to fix nitrogen, they must be properly nodulated. Legume inoculation is the process of introducing commercially prepared sources of rhizobia to promote nitrogen fixation. This variety of rhizobia is specific to peas.
Soon after the seed begins to germinate, rhizobia enter into the root hairs. Once inside, the bacteria move further into the root through a pathway called an infection thread. If the field in which the seeds are planted has previously been used for pea production, the requisite bacteria may already be present in the soil. However, the inoculation of seeds to be planted in fields previously used for pea production is still recommended if new strains of bacteria need to be introduced. Of course, seed inoculation is highly recommended with no previous history of pea planting. Under ideal conditions, pulse crops, such as peas, can fix as much as 80% of the nitrogen they require. The remaining nitrogen must come from the soil or a fertilizer source. A study by Beckie and Brandt (1997) in Saskatchewan, Canada revealed that regardless of how much nitrogen was applied, barley grown on wheat stubble produced a smaller crop yield than identically fertilized barley grown on pea stubble. This indicates what is called the non-N benefit of pea stubble and is most likely attributable to the negative effect of growing barley on cereal stubble. Source: North Dakota State University Extension Services
below 3 inches. Dry peas start flowering after a specific number of nodes are formed. The number of nodes depends on the variety of pea. Peas will continue to flower until drought, heat, disease or nitrogen deficiency ends flowering. Seed maturity is reached about 100 days after emergence. Dry pea harvest starts in late July when pods are dry and seed moisture is less than 13%. Dry peas are gathered directly from the field. Timely harvest is critical to avoid postmaturity disease, seed bleaching and seed shattering.
combination of crops that complement each other to the greatest degree. Take for instance, the impact of peas on wheat yield which is currently being evaluated in an ongoing study of agriculture in Montana and North Dakota. As shown on the chart below, in 20002001, winter wheat yield was 14% to 20% greater in fields where wheat followed peas compared with fields where there was a continuous wheat monoculture. W =Wheat, AC = Alternative crop such as pea or lentil. Source: NDSU Extension Service
Capital University center FALL Non-Credit Classes
They are everywhere. The iPad is an amazing productivity tool, but sometimes it is hard to get started. Andy will teach you how to get around your iPad! Class will be held at Capital University Center on Monday, October 7, 7:00-9:00pm. Andy Ogan, Instructor $20.00
Getting More Out of the Internet Learn how to use Social Networking like Facebook, Twitter, Google, Chrome, tips/tricks, etc.! Class will be held at Capital University Center on Monday, October 14, 7:00-9:00pm. Andy Ogan, Instructor $20.00
16 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
You have an iPad, you have the basics down, but you want to see what else this amazing device has to offer. Come learn about some of the new, amazing apps available in the App Store with some live demonstrations of the favorites from around the Internet. Class will be held at Capital University Center on Monday, October 21, 7:009:00pm. Andy Ogan, Instructor $20.00
Have you always wondered how to sell on Ebay? Millions of people are selling items laying around the house to people all over the world! Find out how! Class will be held on Monday October 28, 7:00-9:00 pm. Shawn England, Instructor $20.00
Photoshop Part One and Part Two
Tired of not knowing where you saved your pictures, or how to edit pictures that didn’t turn out the way you expected! You can make those pictures look more professional by using Photoshop. It is easier than you think! Bob Gill, SDSU Instructor Part One – $30.00 Wednesday, October 9, 7:00 -9:00 pm, Room 107, Riggs High School (use west door) Part Two – $30.00 Wednesday, October 16, 7:00 -9:00 pm, Room 107, Riggs High School (use west door)
Designed for small businesses. NSU instructor Natalie Bergquist will teach you with “hands-on” experience. You will learn how to set up your company and chart your accounts, track your payables and receivables, record your income, prepare computerized checks or record annual checks, reconcile your bank statement, prepare financial reports, and manage your payroll! 2012 QuickBook software will be used. Part One - $80.00 Wednesday, October 23, at CUC, 6:00-9:00 pm Part Two- $80.00 Wednesday, October 30, at CUC, 6:00-9:00 pm
Your friends and family are on it; your colleagues use it; even your boss has told you that you need to join! Whether you are worried about privacy policies and online scams, or you are just unfamiliar with the technology, this course will teach you all you need to know about using the most popular social media site in the world! Class will be held at Capital University Center on Monday, Nov 4, 7:00 – 9:00 pm. Adam Emerson and Dohui Kim, Instructors $20.00
This six week class will be held on Monday nights at the Boys and Girls Club. The first night will be without the dogs. Dogs must be at least six months old. It is a hands-on class so owner must be at least 13 years old and be able to handle dog in walking around the room. Mondays, October 7 – Nov 11 at 7:00 pm. Dr. Vicky Wilkey, Instructor $35.00.
At the 2012 Zero Till workshop, Randy Anderson of the USDAARS in Brookings, South Dakota gave a talk on crop synergism in which he said that, according to USDA-ARS research, winter wheat produces 10% to 25% more grain when planted in a field after dry pea than when planted following winter wheat, proso millet or planted in a previously fallow field even when other variables such as water use were the same. According to Anderson the beneficial effect of dry pea is not simply due to crop diversity, but appears to be specific to dry pea and winter wheat. Anderson calls it “Synergism.”
Impact of Rotating Pulses with Wheat on Crop Disease Disease control by crop rotation is based on the principle that the majority of plant pathogens are specific to single crop
varieties. This is why yield losses due to disease are usually found to be greater under monoculture than with diverse crop rotation since monoculture frequently results in the buildup of pathogen populations that attack the crop being cultivated. By lengthening the time between susceptible crops, rotation encourages a decline in the pathogen population, thus reducing yield loss. Both peas and soybeans have been used in rotations dominated by wheat to break disease cycles that effect cereal crops. During years of high disease pressure, tan spot infection was reduced in spring wheat when the crop was planted in a field previously used for lentils. The role of diverse crop rotations in reducing the severity of wheat disease was assessed in a study summarized by Bailey (2000). The disease cycle was reduced when wheat was alternated every-other-year with another crop (wheat-alternate-wheatalternate) rather than every three years (wheatwheat-alternate-wheat), or when grown in a field that only rotated between wheat and fallow (fallowwheat-wheat-wheat). The yield gain sometimes coincided with root disease suppression in wheat grown in the diverse rotation (wheat-pea-wheatflax) compared with the other two production systems. Bailey suggests that the elimination of tillage coupled with the insertion of alternate crops into rotations would reduce wheat disease severity. For example, peas were identified as a good choice
for minimizing tan spot. In another study conducted in western North Dakota, a causal relationship between rotation diversity and root disease severity was established (Ashley, 1998). Wheat yields were 42% higher in fumigated areas compared with non-fumigated areas for fields where spring wheat was grown continuously or rotated with barley. However, there was no difference between fumigated and non-fumigated areas in fields where crops which are not susceptible to tan spot (such as peas) were planted for two-year intervals between successive wheat crops. This study supported the theory that a yearlong break between wheat crops can increase yield up to 20% and that a two-year break can bring those increases to 40% when compared with wheat grown in monoculture fields. Crop rotation however is not as simple as it sounds. The farm managers must develop the required skills for proper rotational planning. Dr. Dwayne Beck plant science professor and celebrated agronomy expert from Pierre emphasizes that to increase rotational diversity, an operator needs to focus on how crops interact with each other with other species present, with the soil, with the environment, and with the operator’s short and long term goals. Dr. Beck publication “The Power Behind Crop Rotations” is highly recommended guide for the producers interested in the idea of crop rotation. It can be downloaded from the web.
U.S. net beef exports grow months prior to the original ban Japan placed on U.S. beef imports following the BSE case in December 2003,” Mark said. “Beef exports to Japan have surged since February 2013, resulting in a 52 percent increase for the first seven months of the year.” Among the other large U.S. beef export customers, Mark said exports to Canada and Mexico both increased in July 2013 relative to a year ago. “Canada imported 15 percent more beef from the U.S. while Mexico imported 32 percent more U.S. beef,” he said. “For both countries, increased imports of U.S. beef have likely resulted from smaller domestic beef supplies following liquidation of their cattle herds in the last couple of years.” Exports to South Korea - historically one of the top four buyers of U.S. beef - have not faired as well in 2013. Mark explained that in July 2013, the U.S. exported 27 percent less beef to South Korea than in July 2012 and exports to the country have averaged 26 percent lower for the first seven months of 2013. However, he said exports to other Asian countries have improved, in 2013. “In particular, beef exports to Taiwan and Hong Kong have increased by 166 percent and 70 percent, respectively, for the January-July period,” Mark said. “Many of these exports are believed to reach China, a potentially large-growth market for beef.” The U.S. has imported less beef in 2013. “Although July 2013 U.S.
beef imports were on pace with July 2012, imports from January to July were down 2 percent. Of interest in the July trade data are changes in the countries supplying beef to the U.S,” he said, explaining that beef imports from Canada and Mexico were down 4 percent and 1 percent, respectively. “Again, this reflects smaller beef supplies in those countries after liquidation of their cattle herds.” Imports were also 16 percent lower from New Zealand, which had emerged as a large supplier of beef to the U.S. earlier in 2013 following drought in that country that caused increase slaughter of its cattle herd. In July 2013, the U.S. imported more beef from South America. Imports from Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay increased 81percent, 16 percent and 18 percent, respectively, compared to July 2012. In the Sept. 12 World Agriculture Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report, USDA forecasted 2013 annual U.S. beef imports and exports to be 2.298 million and 2.408 million pounds, respectively. “If realized, that would make the U.S. a net exporter of beef for the fourth consecutive year,” he said. “USDA forecasts beef imports in 2014 will be 2.64 million pounds and beef exports next year to be 2.30 million pounds, which would result in the U.S. being a net importer of beef on a volume basis, which is not uncommon by historical standards.”
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 17
BROOKINGS, S.D. — United States net beef exports have grown appreciably in the last few months, said Darrell Mark, Adjunct Professor of Economics at South Dakota State University. He explained that net exports – beef exports minus imports – grew to 72.3 million pounds in July 2013. “Net beef exports have been higher than last year on a monthly basis from May through July 2013, which is the most recent month for which data are available. From January through July 2013, the U.S. exported 42 million more pounds of beef than it imported. During the same seven months in 2012, the U.S. imported 30 million more pounds of beef than it exported,” he said. Mark noted that net exports have expanded due to both higher exports and lower imports in recent months. In July, U.S. beef and veal exports totaled 264.6 million pounds, 14.7 percent more than in July 2012 and 32 percent more than the previous 5-year average for July. Exports to Japan, which totaled 80.5 million pounds in July, have led the increase in U.S. beef exports. Exports to Japan have surged since Japan changed the BSE-related trade restriction to allow beef from cattle less than 30 months old to be imported from the U.S. instead of the more restrictive 20 month old requirement that had been in place. “In fact, July’s exports to Japan were the highest since October 2003, two
18 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
Old family farms: ‘We’re never going to sell this’ CANTON, S.D. (AP) — He’s walking in the yard, and the birds are talking, the wind is sweeping through the trees, and the old windmill is creaking in the distance. Suddenly, Cliff Sorum pauses. How many times did Great-Grandpa walk this very ground, the 55-yearold farmer wonders as his gaze moves across the lightly rolling hills that define the family’s farm here in the southern shadows of Newton Hills? How often do the footsteps match up where these sodbusters – four generations apart – worked and left their sweat in the same ground? “A few years ago, we toured Abraham Lincoln’s house, and I thought that was kind of neat, that you’re walking the same stairs as he did,” Sorum tells the Argus Leader. “And you get that same feeling here.” For him – for thousands of farm and ranch families across South Dakota – “here” is a place called home and a piece of ground that has been plowed, planted, nurtured and harvested by the same bloodline for as many as seven generations now. In 1984, the state thought enough of that longevity to honor operations in the same families for a century or more during the annual State Fair in Huron. In 2010, another milestone – the quasquicentennial, or
But Johannes Sorum found no bidders. So begrudgingly, he went back. In 1872, he took a wife, a Norwegian like himself named Anna Jesine Anderson. Together they hauled oak timbers from a claim at Newton Hills and built a log cabin. Those 12-inchthick timbers, now 140 years old, still form the walls of Cliff Sorum’s living room. The story is similar at Bruce Heggen’s farm house northeast of Corson in Minnehaha County. The square nails Juul Heggen used to build that house in the early 1870s still hold it together. “It’s been added onto two, three times,” said Bruce’s father, 78-yearold Leo Heggen, who Jared, Manfred and Richard Hill at their family farm in Canton, S.D., Aug. 29. The Hill family farm was homesteaded in remembers long ago 1877. The home was built in 1909. when the home place was AP Photo/Argus Leader, Emily Spartz not much more than a big room with one little bed125-year-old farms – was by these grassroots fami- here by the American before Sorum’s great- room and something like impulse, he would pay $14 grandfather, Johannes an attic that mesmerized lies.” added. In a decade, some of for 160.24 acres of ground Sorum, arrived from the child who Leo Heggen So it was a week ago that the South Dakota these farms will be cel- just northeast of what is Norway and started turn- once was. ing the rolling hills with Farm Bureau and state ebrating 150 years. That’s now Canton. He and his son are His sodhouse sat at a plow and oxen. Agriculture Department all relative, of course, the fourth and State records How differwelcomed another 58 cen- in a country where the the north end of the fifth generations indicate tury farms and 25 quas- first Americans lived for property, though in fact ent all their to work Juul that the first quicentennial operations thousands of years, and Schiager actually lived lives might have Heggen’s homehomestead into the fraternity. That where the earliest visi- east of there with his turned out, Cliff stead claim of 160 claims in Daspecubrought the total through tors arrived four centu- brother, Paul, and Paul’s Sorum acres. Sorum is kota Territory the past 30 years to 2,729, ries ago. Still, the links to wife. The actual original lates now, if his the fourth generadate back to at said Julie Fritzche, an South Dakota’s pioneer house wasn’t built until g r e a t - g r a n d f a tion on his famleast 1869 and ther, frustrated administrative assistant past remain powerful, 1909. ily’s farm; his were signed State records indi- by the harsh almost mystical. with the Farm Bureau. 14-year-old son, by President and In 1868, Manfred Hill’s cate that the first home- winters “We don’t know if Rutherford B. Clayton, a freshHayes. all those farms are still great-great uncle, Simen stead claims in Dakota g r a s s h o p p e r s man at Canton going, especially the ones Schiager, rode into pres- Territory date back to at and prairie fires, High, would be from the early years,” she ent-day Lincoln County least 1869 and were signed had succeeded the fifth if he so said. “But we intend to in a caravan of 80 people by President Rutherford when he traveled to Sioux chooses. And Manfred, City, Iowa, to sell his oxen Richard and Jared Hill keep this program intact that literally doubled the B. Hayes. That was just a year and wagon. because we’re so honored area’s population. Lured represent the fourth, fifth
“You can’t look back. It’s great that we’ve owned this place for so many years, and we do appreciate the heritage of it. But we also have to look forward at technological advances in farming to make the place more efficient, more profitable, more prosperous,”
Kentucky Fried Chicken, with his white hair and white goatee,” Richard Hill said. Stories about Simen and Johannes and Grandpa Nels are important for the lessons passed on about perseverance and struggle and triumph, Sorum and the Hills say. But the tales told more often around the kitchen table are those that come out of a shared existence at the same address, one that spans the generations. Like how the screen door would slam after an argument with his dad, and teenaged Jared Hill would wander off into one of the nearby fields to get away and cool off. Or how he spent hours in the shop with his Grandpa Manfred learning how to fix equipment and become a mechanic. Or the times when a piece of machinery wouldn’t start, and Grandpa Manfred seemed only to have to go over and touch it, and it magically fired up. “Grandpa always told me, ‘You learn how to work and the rest will come easy,’ “ Jared Hill, 37, said, then with a smile added, “I’m still waiting for it to come easy.” Where there are cen-
tury farms that anchor rural life in South Dakota, there are photographs of birthdays and funerals, weddings and holidays – with faces that grow older through the years until they are gone from the photos, but where the background always remains amazingly the same. These farms are the manifestation of the phrase “coming home,” as the Heggen generations do every Fourth of July when the camp-
ers roll in and take their places on family land near Splitrock Creek. They are the place where country characters with names like “Poor Richard Hill” are forged. “Why Poor Richard?” the man with the nickname said when asked about it. “Because I was born the son of a poor sharecropper. I’m dirt poor, I live on a dead-end road, and I have a degree in misery.” And his face barely shows a smile as the words leave his lips. His sons and grandsons will tell that story someday, and long after that, their sons and grandsons will as well. At least those on today’s century and quasquicentennial farms would like it to be so. Asked what he wants to see happen to their land
near Corson, Leo Heggen said, simply, “Hopefully, we can carry it on.” He won’t push his son Clayton, Cliff Sorum insisted. “But I’ll encourage him. He doesn’t have to farm, but I’ll encourage him to try to do his best to hold onto it. You can always leave and come back.” Northeast of Canton, standing outside his father’s house, Jared Hill can’t tell you a thing about the man who started this all, that old Norwegian relative of his named Simen Schiager. But he can tell you this: “I’m very proud of what I’ve done with this place, what we’ve done with this place. I think, like my dad does, like my grandpa does, that we’re never going to sell this. That’s how I feel. That’s how we all feel.”
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this very house in 1891 and claimed three of Johannes Sorum’s children: 15-year-old Anna Marie on Jan. 25, 7-yearold Adina Judith on Jan. 28 and 19-year-old John Albert on March 17. Had it been worse, Johannes might never have been able to pass the land on to his son, Haran, who in turn passed it on to Cliff Sorum’s father, Robert, who in 1985 died suddenly at the kitchen table and left the land to Cliff and his brother, Jeff. In 1896, a threshing machine took Simen Schiager’s hand. He was fortunate that it took only that. At age 89, Manfred Hill still remembers his great-great uncle. He knows the story of how Schiager passed the farm on to his niece, Ingeborg Nelson Roe, who was Hill’s grandmother. He also is old enough to have seen how the dust storms of the 1930s drove so many of their neighbors off the land. “I got the records of the Lincoln County weather, and I think it was July 17, 1936, when it was 115 degrees here, and there was a strong southwest wind, a strong wind from the Nebraska sandhills, and it changed the color of the crop,” he said. “That same year, it got to 40 below in the winter. We were lucky.” Turns out Ingeborg’s husband, Nels, was a selfmade veterinarian who made sick livestock well and kept the family afloat during the Depression. “He looked like Colonel Sanders, you know, with
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 19
and six generations in their family’s operation. There’s a nephew, Tate Hill, who goes to South Dakota State University and stands seventh in line among the generations if it’s his will to do so. Ask any of them how it is possible for a family to endure through pestilence and plague, fickle bankers and Mother Nature, and the answer never changes. It takes hard work, good timing and a lot of luck. In 1931, there were 84,300 farming operations in South Dakota. The Depression wiped out thousands of those. The progression of technology that has made it possible to do more with less also has significantly trimmed the state’s numbers – to just 31,000 farms at the end of last year. A pair of oxen pulling a plowshare probably cost his pioneer ancestor $10 in the 1870s, Richard Hill, 65, said. Today, monster John Deere or Case tractors run $400,000 brand new. “You can’t look back,” Cliff Sorum said. “It’s great that we’ve owned this place for so many years, and we do appreciate the heritage of it. But we also have to look forward at technological advances in farming to make the place more efficient, more profitable, more prosperous.” When they do look back, however, it’s often at the twists and quirks that so easily could have changed everything. At his kitchen table, Sorum tells a story of how diphtheria visited
After rough years, hay now plentiful, cheaper
Steve Flewelling, left, Blake Flewelling and Brett Flewelling pose for a photograph on their family farm in Sioux City, Iowa, on Sept. 10. In the fields where the Flewellings got two cuttings of hay and were mostly done harvesting by July in 2012, they’re now trying to get a fourth cutting dried, harvested and safely stored away.
20 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
AP Photo/The Sioux City Journal, Dawn J. Sagert
SIOUX CITY, Iowa (AP) — Last year, Steve Flewelling and his sons, Brett and Blake, watched helplessly as their hayfields shriveled in a scorching, summerlong drought. This year, they can barely keep up with fields full of green alfalfa and grass hay. They have adequate rain to thank. “It’s just 10 times busier than last year,” Brett Flewelling told the Sioux City Journal. About 2 inches more of rain fell on this year’s crop than last year’s, according to National Weather Service figures. Rainfall measured at Sioux Gateway Airport from June through August last year totaled 4.65 inches; this year’s total for the same period was 6.8 inches, said Brad Adams, a hydrometeorological technician at the Weather Service office in Sioux Falls, S.D. In addition, blistering temperatures of more than 100 degrees on several days took a toll last summer. Temperatures didn’t go that high during this season’s critical growing months. As a result, experts say bountiful hay crops and lush pastures mean area livestock owners will not face another crippling hay shortage in 2013. Hay is not expected to be as expensive this winter as it was last year. The price of alfalfa hay dropped dramatically this summer, outpacing the normal seasonal decline
when pastures typically was the effects of reduced provide adequate for- acreage and reduced proage, said Ken Barnett, a duction, especially from University of Wisconsin Texas,” said Barnett. Extension educaThe shorttor who tracks hay age sent feedWith last prices. The monthlot operators year’s ly mean price of scrambling for droughtalfalfa hay in the forage. Many induced shortUpper Midwest ranchers had age, alfalfa was $40 less in to sell cows hay in Iowa August than it was because they had soared as in August 2012, he didn’t have high as $280 said. enough grass or a ton by June of this year, “Once produchay to feed them, according to tion kicked in said Melody University in the spring, Benjamin, vice of Wisconsin the price really president of data. In dropped more member servicAugust, the than it nores for Nebraska average price mally would,” Cattlemen, was down to said Barnett, of which repre$205 a ton. Wausau, Wis. “But sents the state’s we were at a really beef industry. high price.” “Last year you just With last year’s couldn’t find (hay),” drought-induced short- Benjamin said. “It didn’t age, alfalfa hay in Iowa matter what the price had soared as high as $280 was. You just couldn’t a ton by June of this year, find it.” according to University This year, it’s a comof Wisconsin data. In pletely different story August, the average price In the fields where the was down to $205 a ton. Flewellings got two cutIn 2011, when peren- tings of hay and were nial hay-producing states mostly done harvesting such as Texas were rav- by July in 2012, they’re aged by drought, many now trying to get a fourth Midwest farmers and cutting dried, harvested ranchers sold excess hay and safely stored away. to desperate livestock Area hay won’t be of owners in the South. the best quality — moisWhen the drought moved ture from heavy dews, to the Northern Plains humidity and rain affects the next year, with- the nutritional value — ered crops and depleted but it will be plentiful, reserves combined for a said Brent Flewelling. crippling shortage of hay. “The quantity is there,” Adding to the calamity, he said. “The quality is farmers nationwide have poor because of the sumbeen harvesting less hay mer we’ve had, but there as more fields are planted won’t be any problems with corn. with feed being avail“What we were seeing able.”
September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 21
22 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
University of Wyoming student farm receives local, national attention problems? What are you er, Norton said. “Instead of food for guys facing? What’s your thought, they bring direction?’ And I would thought for food,” she know what to do,” he said. Ockinga wouldn’t be the said. “Everybody comes with a different experi- first UW student to take his ACRES experience ence.” “You have the freedom and turn it into a future career. Norton to share your said many stuexperiences with “ACRES’ model dents have done people,” intern is unique in its just that over the Rael Otuya added. complete and years. That’s exactly total involveThis summer, what she did with ment of both former ACRES Justin Ockinga, students and manager Perry this summer’s the commuBaptista worked farm manager. nity at every as an intern for a “We were worklevel of the organization,” company designing and she said, Baptista ing and managing ‘Let’s double-dig wrote. “ACRES small-scale farms all these beds.’” is an example in Colorado. Ockinga agreed, of how suc“My past and began to dig cessful a experience with in. What he found student farm ACRES played a out, though, was can be in big part in getthat double digspite of (or, in ting my current ging was differfact, because summer job,” ent from what he of) limited Baptista wrote thought. resources and a transient in an email. “Double-digging student work“This company means pretty force when is very similar much restoring supported by to ACRES, but the structure of an equally most of our stuthe soil by loosinterested dents go on to get ening up the community. internships in a substructure of large variety of the soil,” Otuya fields after their explained. “The clay is going to be moved ACRES experience.” But ACRES has done around a little bit, so the water will penetrate more than just influence through. That way, the the student and other volplants can actually set the unteers who till its soil. The farm is at the center root and grow better. “Here, the soil is the of multiple community perfect candidate for the partnerships, including a same thing (as in Kenya).” composting partnership It’s teaching moments with local restaurants, like this that Ockinga said growing pumpkins for will help him be success- Altitude Chophouse and Brewery and inviting stuful at ACRES and beyond. “Walking away from dents from a variety of this, I feel like I could academic backgrounds to almost walk into any farm perform research on the and say, ‘What are your farm.
ACRES (Agricultural Community Resources for Everyday Sustainability) Student Farm manager Justin Ockinga and president Perry Baptista harvest peas from under one of the hoop houses to take to the Undine Park Loco Market in August.
AP Photos/Laramie Boomerang, Jeremy Martin
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September 26, 2013 | Land & Livestock | 23
LARAMIE, Wyo. — Success stories can be told many ways. ACRES’ success story is first shared through the soil, then it roots out into the community and beyond. University of Wyoming students have tilled, toiled and planted on the small farm at Laramie for nearly 10 years. “Looking back through all the years that different students engaged in ACRES, there is a whole series of different failures and successes – mostly successes – for the direction of the farm,” said Urszula Norton, a UW professor and ACRES’ faculty adviser. “It’s a very good, rewarding process for everybody.” Student farms aren’t uncommon, but what’s made ACRES – which stands for Agricultural Community Resources for Everyday Sustainability – unique in its organization and success has been that both are driven almost solely by students, Norton said. “There are some schools like (Montana State University) Bozeman and Utah State (University) – they have farms that were created by departments or universities and then students come on board,” she said. “This is sort of a grassroots initiative that was driven by students for the pure purpose of education.” It’s an education that’s shaped by more than the farm, though. Students also learn from one anoth-
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• An ATV is not a toy. Children should not be permitted to operate ATVs without specialized training and then they should be allowed to only operate an ATV of an appropriate size. Contact the ATV Safety Institute to enroll in a course. • Wear appropriate riding gear: DOT-, Snell ANSI-approved helmet, goggles, gloves, over-the-ankle boots, long-sleeve shirt and long pants. • ATVs are not made for multiple riders. Never carry anyone else on the ATV.
Child Safety on the Farm
• Do not allow children to roam freely on the farm. Design a fenced “safe play area.” This area should be near the house and away from work activities. • Equip all barns, farm shops, chemical storage areas, livestock pens, etc. with latches that can be locked or secured so that children cannot enter. • Do not expose children to hazards. Never carry them on tractors and equipment or invite them into the farm shop, livestock barns, grain bins, etc.
24 | Land & Livestock | September 26, 2013
• Be physically and mentally ﬁt when operating tractors. Fatigue, stress, medication, alcohol and drugs can detract from safe tractor operation. Take Breaks. • Equip the tractor with a Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) and wear seat belts.
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