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‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√

‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√


‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae ∑’˪√÷°…“/Honorary Advisors  ¡»—°¥‘Ï ‚æ∏‘ —μ¬å Somsak Potisat

 ¡—¬ ‡®’¬¡®‘π¥“√—μπå Samai Chiemchindaratana

æ‘¿æ « ÿ«“π‘™ Pipob Wasuvanich

μ√«®∑“π/Proofreaders ‡∫Á≠®“ ‡ °∏’√– Benja Sektheera ‡Õ°«— πå  ‘∑∏‘∂“«√ Ekawat Sitthithaworn

»»‘∏√ ¢—π ÿ¿“ Sasidhorn Khansubha ≈–ÕÕ ‡≈Á∫§√ÿ± La-or Lebcrut

«—≤π“ μ—π‡ ∂’¬√ Wattana Tansathien ‡©‘¥©—π ‚æ∏‘‰™¬“ Cherdchan Pothichaiya

‡π◊ÈÕÀ“/Composers «‘¶‡π» ∑√ß∏√√¡ Wickanet Songtham

‡∫Á≠®“ ‡ °∏’√– Benja Sektheera

∫√√≥“∏‘°“√/Editor in chief ‡∫≠®«√√≥ ®“√ÿ°≈—  Benjawan Charukalas

»‘≈ª°√√¡/Graphic Designers ‡∫≠®«√√≥ ®“√ÿ°≈—  «‘¶‡π» ∑√ß∏√√¡ Benjawan Charukalas Wickanet Songtham

«—≤π“ μ—π‡ ∂’¬√ Wattana Tansathien

≈–ÕÕ ‡≈Á∫§√ÿ± La-or Lebcrut

°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ °√–∑√«ß∑√—欓°√∏√√¡™“μ‘·≈– ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡ ∂ππæ√–√“¡∑’ËÀ° ·¢«ß∑ÿàßæ≠“‰∑ ‡¢μ√“™‡∑«’ °√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ 10400 æ‘¡æå§√—Èß∑’Ë 1 °—𬓬π æ.». 2549 (®”π«π 3,000 ‡≈à¡) Department of Mineral Resources, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Rama VI Road, Tung Phaya Thai, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 Thailand Phone +66 2202 3737 Fax +66 2202 3754 Website: http://www.dmr.go.th First Edition September 2006 (3,000 copies) ISBN 978-974-226-410-9

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PREFACE This book is an important scientific text of Thai dinosaurs, especially of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae from Phu Wiang. The species designation of this dinosaur is in honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of the Kingdom of Thailand. The first dinosaur bone found in Thailand was found in 1976 in the Phu Wiang National Park but, at that time, nobody knew what kind of dinosaur it came from. In 1982, many more pieces of bone were discovered in the park. Since then, intensive investigation and research concerning dinosaurs have been done under Thai-French cooperative paleontological expeditions. The Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae dinosaur was designated as a new sauropod dinosaur taxon and its description was published in 1994. The name çPhuwiangé now has world recognition as an important dinosaur site and the name çSirindhorné has resulted in Thai people appreciating the importance of fossils and paleontology. All dinosaur investigation and research in Thailand, as well as a dinosaur museum, have greatly progressed as a result of the encouragement of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. She showed her interest in dinosaurs by visiting three dinosaur sites and this interest in dinosaurs strongly stimulates Thai people to learn about dinosaurs. Over the 30 years since the first dinosaur discovery, there has been much published about Thai dinosaur bones, footprints, and eggs. Dinosaur coprolites have also been found but have yet to be studied. The Department of Mineral Resources has established the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum in Khon Kaen Province and Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Site Museum in Kalasin Province that are being developed to be international level standard. The museums are places where fossils and fossil site have been conserved for public learning the important national heritages. The Department has made an official petition in using the name çSirindhorné as name of the museum at Phu Kum Khao as Sirindhorn Museum to honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn since 23 June 2006 that is waiting for royal permission. The Department of Mineral Resources hopes that students, researchers, and general readers will enjoy this book in learning the Thai dinosaur story. This book is just an early milestone on what is undoubtedly a long road that will reveal the entire story of dinosaurs in Thailand. Many more dinosaur bones are likely hidden in rock formations, waiting to be discovered by future paleontologists. All will add detail to the Thai dinosaur story.

(Mr. Somsak Potisat) Director-General September, 2006

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§”π” Àπ—ß ◊Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ©∫—∫π’È ®—¥æ‘¡æå¢÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ°“√‡∑‘¥æ√–‡°’¬√μ‘·¥à ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ √—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ∑’Ë∑√ß„À⧫“¡ πæ√–∑—¬μàÕ°“√§âπæ∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ´÷Ëߧâπæ∫‡ªìπ §√—Èß·√°‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2519 ‚¥¬‰¥â‡ ¥Á®æ√–√“™¥”‡π‘π‰ª∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ·≈–·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å¥â«¬ æ√–Õߧå‡Õß∂÷ß “¡§√—Èߥ⫬°—π§◊Õ ‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 3 惻®‘°“¬π æ.». 2532 ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ‰¥‚π‡ “√åÕ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥ ¢Õπ·°àπ «—π∑’Ë 13 °ÿ¡¿“æ—π∏å æ.». 2534 ∑’Ë·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√åÕ”‡¿Õ¿ŸÀ≈«ß ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬ ·≈–«—π∑’Ë 24 惻®‘°“¬π æ.». 2538 ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ‚¥¬‡©æ“–‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 16 ‡¡…“¬π æ.». 2537 ‰¥â∑√ß¡’ æ√–¡À“°√ÿ≥“∏‘§ÿ≥æ√–√“™∑“πæ√–√“™“πÿ≠“μ„ÀâÕ—≠‡™‘≠æ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°‘πæ◊™ °ÿ≈·≈–™π‘¥„À¡à ¢Õß‚≈°∑’æË ∫∑’ÕË ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ‚¥¬„ÀâªØ‘∫μ— μ‘ “¡√–‡∫’¬∫·≈–«‘∏°’ “√ªØ‘∫μ— „‘ π°“√μ—ßÈ ™◊ÕË ‡ªìπ¿“…“≈“μ‘π«à“ Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae ´÷Ëß°“√Õà“πÕÕ°‡ ’¬ßμ“¡À≈—°°“√Õà“π¿“…“≈“μ‘πμâÕßÕà“π«à“ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¥â«¬§«“¡∑’ˇªìπ§π‰∑¬·≈–‚¥¬‡©æ“–ª√–™“™π™“«‰∑¬∑—Ë«‰ª∑’Ë ‰ ¡à ‰ ¥â Õ ¬Ÿà „π·«¥«ß«‘∑¬“»“ μ√åÕ“®®–‰¡à§ÿâπ μàÕÀ≈—°‡°≥±å°“√μ—Èß™◊ËÕ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå —μ«å·≈–æ◊™Õ¬à“߇ªìπ “°≈·≈–¬—ߧ߬÷¥¡—Ëπ„π®“√’μª√–‡æ≥’·≈–«—≤π∏√√¡ Õ—πߥߓ¡¢Õß™“쑉∑¬ Õ“®®–μ–¢‘¥μ–¢«ß„®∑’Ë®–‡Õà¬æ√–π“¡¢Õßæ√–Õߧå∑à“π‚¥¬‰¡à¡’§”π”æ√–Õ‘ √‘¬¬» ®÷߉¥â¡’ °“√‡ πÕ„Àâμß—È ™◊ÕË Àπ—ß ◊Õ©∫—∫π’‡È ªìπ·∫∫‰∑¬Ê¢Õ߇√“‡æ◊ÕË ‡ªìπ°“√∂«“¬§«“¡‡§“√æ„π°“√‡∑‘¥æ√–‡°’¬√μ‘·¥àæ√–Õߧå∑“à π«à“ 牥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√é ·∑π™◊ËÕ∑’ËμâÕßÕà“πÕÕ°‡ ’¬ß‡ªìπ¿“…“≈“μ‘π ·μà„π∑“ß«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å°Á¬—ߧ߄À⇪ìπ‰ª μ“¡À≈—°‡°≥±å°“√μ—Èß™◊ËÕÕ—π‡ªìπ “°≈·≈–À≈—°°“√Õà“π¿“…“≈“μ‘π¥—߉¥â°≈à“«¡“·≈â« º≈¢Õß°“√¢ÿ¥§âπæ∫´“°°√–¥Ÿ°™‘È𠔧—≠ʇæ‘Ë¡‡μ‘¡·≈–º≈°“√»÷°…“«‘®—¬¢Õßπ—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√ ∏√≥’°—∫ºŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠™“«Ω√—Ë߇»  ¿“¬„μ₧√ß°“√§«“¡√à«¡¡◊Õ„π°“√ ”√«®∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“ ‰∑¬-Ω√—Ë߇»  ´÷Ë߉¥âμ’æ‘¡æå ‡º¬·æ√à ‰ª∑—Ë«‚≈°„πªï æ.». 2537 ∑”„Àâ™◊ËÕ¢ÕßÕ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß´÷Ë߇ªìπÕ”‡¿Õ‡≈Á°Ê¢Õß®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ‰¥â‡ªìπ∑’Ë√Ÿâ®—° °—π‰ª∑—Ë«‚≈°«à“‡ªìπ·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë ”§—≠·ÀàßÀπ÷ËߢÕß‚≈° ·≈–‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëßæ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬ ç ‘√‘π∏√é Õ—π‡ªìπ æ√–π“¡∑’˧π‰∑¬„À⧫“¡‡§“√æ‡∑‘¥∑Ÿπ·≈–‡ªìπ∑’ˬա√—∫„πæ√–ª√’™“ “¡“√∂‰ª∑—Ë«‚≈°·≈â« ¬‘Ëß∑”„Àâ§π‰∑¬‚¥¬‡©æ“– ‡¬“«™π„À⧫“¡ ”§—≠μàÕ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ‰¥‚π‡ “√å·≈–‡°‘¥§«“¡¿“§¿Ÿ¡‘„®„π·ºàπ¥‘π‡°‘¥¬‘Ëߢ÷Èπ ‡æ◊ËÕ„À⇰‘¥§«“¡√Ÿâ§«“¡‡¢â“„®·≈–°“√Õπÿ√—°…å´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå·≈–·À≈àߢÿ¥§âπæ∫Õ—π‡ªìπ ¡∫—μ‘¢Õß™“μ‘Õ—π§«√ À«ß·Àπ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’®÷߉¥â®—¥μ—Èßæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë°‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ‡«’¬ß‡°à“ (‡¥‘¡‡ªìπÕ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß) ®—ßÀ«—¥ ¢Õπ·°àπ ·≈–∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ´÷Ëߢ≥–π’È°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’°”≈—ߪ√—∫ª√ÿß æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ∑—È ß  Õß·Àà ß „Àâ ¡’ ¡ “μ√∞“π√–¥— ∫  “°≈·≈–‰¥â ° √“∫∫— ß §¡∑Ÿ ≈ ¢Õæ√–√“™∑“πæ√–√“™“πÿ ≠ “μÕ— ≠ ‡™‘ ≠ æ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬ ç ‘√‘π∏√é ‡ªìπ™◊ËÕæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ‚¥¬„™â™◊ËÕ«à“ çæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‘√‘π∏√é (Sirindhorn Museum) ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ ‘√‘¡ß§≈·≈–‡∑‘¥æ√–‡°’¬√μ‘ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ μ“¡Àπ—ß ◊Õ°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ∑’Ë ∑  0508/1360 ≈ß«—π∑’Ë 23 ¡‘∂ÿπ“¬π 2549 ´÷Ëߢ≥–π’È ‡√◊ËÕßÕ¬Ÿà√–À«à“ß°“√π”°√“∫∫—ߧ¡∑Ÿ≈‡æ◊ËÕ¡’æ√–√“™«‘π‘®©—¬ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ À«—߇ªìπÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß«à“ Àπ—ß ◊Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ©∫—∫π’È ¥â«¬æ√–∫“√¡’·≈– æ√–ª√’™“ “¡“√∂¢Õß ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ∑’Ë∑√ß„À⧫“¡ πæ√–∑—¬·≈–∑√ß¡’ æ√–¡À“°√ÿ≥“∏‘§ÿ≥æ√–√“™∑“πæ√–√“™“πÿ≠“μ„ÀâÕ—≠‡™‘≠æ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ‰¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥π’È §ß®ÿ¥ª√–°“¬ §«“¡ π„®μàÕ°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ °“√∑”§«“¡‡¢â“„® ·≈–°“√Õπÿ√—°…å´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ∑’ˬ—ß√Õ°“√¢ÿ¥§âπ·≈–»÷°…“«‘®—¬®“° π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“·≈–‚¥¬‡©æ“–π—°∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“√ÿàπ„À¡à„πÕπ“§μμàÕ‰ª

(𓬠¡»—°¥‘Ï ‚æ∏‘ —μ¬å) Õ∏‘∫¥’°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ °—𬓬π 2549 3


ºŸâ∫√‘À“√¥â“π´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ªïß∫ª√–¡“≥ 2549 Executive Personnel on Fossils of Department of Mineral Resources Fiscal Year 2006 Õ∏‘∫¥’°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’/Director General 𓬠¡»—°¥‘Ï ‚æ∏‘ —μ¬å Mr. Somsak Potisat √ÕßÕ∏‘∫¥’°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’/Deputy Director General 𓬠¡—¬ ‡®’¬¡®‘π¥“√—μπå π“¬æ‘¿æ « ÿ«“π‘™ Mr. Samai Chiemchindaratana Mr. Pipob Wasuvanich ºŸâÕ”π«¬°“√ ”π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“ Director of Bureau of Geological Survey π“߇∫≠®«√√≥ ®“√ÿ°≈—  Mrs. Benjawan Charukalas

ºŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠‡©æ“–¥â“π°“√∫√‘À“√®—¥°“√ ·À≈àß´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå (æπ—°ß“π√“™°“√) Specific Specialist on Fossil Site Management π“߇∫Á≠®“ ‡ °∏’√– Mrs. Benja Sektheera

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“√∫—≠

CONTENTS

æ√–¡À“°√ÿ≥“∏‘§ÿ≥¢Õß ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’°—∫ß“π¥â“π°“√»÷°…“‰¥‚π‡ “√å 7 Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and dinosaur work ‰¥‚π‡ “√å/Dinosaurs

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¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß: º◊π¥‘π∂‘Ëπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å/Phu Wiang: Land of Dinosaurs

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‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√/Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

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‰¥‚π‡ “√å√à«¡ ¡—¬Õ◊ËπÊ∑’Ëæ∫„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬/Other contemporaneous dinosaurs of Thailanad 1. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ/Siamosaurus suteethorni 2. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘ /Siamotyrannus isanensis 3. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ/Isanosaurus attavipachi 4. ‰¥‚π‡ “√媓°π°·°â« ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ/Psittacosaurus sattayaraki 5. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ °ÿ≈ §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏— /Compsognathus sp. 6. ‰¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑»/Ornithomimosaur 7. ‰¢à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å/Dinosaur eggs 8. √Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å/Dinosaur footprints

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º≈¢Õß°“√§âπæ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Result of the discovery of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

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æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß/Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum

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æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫/Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum

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·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬/Dinosaur sites in Thailand

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‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß/References

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¥—™π’»—æ∑å«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å/Index of scientific names

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§”¢Õ∫§ÿ≥/Acknowledgments

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¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn

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æ√–¡À“°√ÿ≥“∏‘§ÿ≥¢Õß ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ HER ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCESS √—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’°∫— ß“π MAHA CHAKRI SIRINDHORN ¥â“π°“√»÷°…“‰¥‚π‡ “√å AND DINOSAUR WORK  ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√— μ π√“™ ÿ ¥ “œ  ¬“¡∫√¡ √“™°ÿ¡“√’ ∑√ß„À⧫“¡ πæ√–∑—¬„π‡√◊ËÕß√“«¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√凙àπ‡¥’¬«°—∫∫ÿ§§≈∑—Ë«Ê ‰ª ¥—ßπ—Èπ‡¡◊ËÕ ∑√ß∑√“∫«à“ ¡’°“√§âπæ∫´“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ®÷ ß ‰¥â ‡  ¥Á ® æ√–√“™¥”‡π‘ 𠉪∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√À≈ÿ ¡ ¢ÿ ¥ §â 𠉥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë 2 ∫πÕÿ ∑ ¬“π·Àà ß ™“μ‘ ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 3 惻®‘°“¬π æ.». 2532 ∑√ß´— ° ∂“¡‡√◊Ë Õ ß√“«¢Õß°“√§â π æ∫´“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å À≈— ß ®“°π—È π „π«— π ∑’Ë 13 °ÿ ¡ ¿“æ— π ∏å æ.». 2534 ‰¥â‡ ¥Á®‰ª∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë¿ŸÀ≈«ß ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬ ·≈–∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡∫√Ÿ≥å∑’Ë ÿ¥„πª√–‡∑»∑’Ë«—¥ —°°–«—π ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ Õ”‡¿Õ À—   ¢— π ∏å ®— ß À«— ¥ °“à‘ π ∏ÿå ‡¡◊Ë Õ «— π ∑’Ë 24 惻®‘ ° “¬π æ.». 2538 πÕ°®“°π’È ‡¡◊Ë Õ °√¡ ∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â¡’‚Õ°“ ‡ΩÑ“√—∫‡ ¥Á®æ√–√“™¥”‡π‘π „πß“π®—¥π‘∑√√»°“√μ“¡ ∂“π∑’Ëμà“ßÊ ‰¥â∑√ß√—∫ —Ëß ∂÷ß°“√»÷°…“«‘®—¬‰¥‚π‡ “√å¥â«¬‡ ¡Õ · ¥ß∂÷ߧ«“¡  πæ√–∑—¬„πß“π¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ´÷Ëß∑”„À⠢⠓ √“™°“√∑ÿ ° §πª≈◊È ¡ ªï μ‘ · ≈–´“∫´÷È ß „πæ√–¡À“°√ÿ ≥ “∏‘ §ÿ ≥ ‡ªì π ¬‘Ë ß π— ° ¥— ß π—È π ‡¡◊Ë Õ °“√»÷ ° …“«‘ ®— ¬ ´“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√宓°À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 1  ”‡√Á®≈ß ·≈–æ∫«à“‡ªìπ´“°¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥„À¡à¢Õß‚≈° °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’®÷߉¥â¢Õæ√–√“™∑“πæ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬ ç ‘√‘π∏√é ¡“‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ™π‘¥¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åæ—π∏ÿå „À¡à π’È ‡æ◊Ë Õ ‡ªì π °“√‡∑‘ ¥ æ√–‡°’ ¬ √μ‘ · ≈–‡º¬·æ√à æ√–π“¡„Àâ°«â“߉°≈„πÀ¡Ÿ«à ™‘ “°“√¥â“π∫√√æ™’«π‘ «‘∑¬“ ∑”„Àâ«ß°“√‰¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß‚≈°¡’™◊ËÕ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ Õ¬Ÿà„π∑”‡π’¬∫´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå —μ«å¡’°√–¥Ÿ°  —πÀ≈—ßπ“π“™“μ‘μ—Èß·μàªï æ.». 2537 ‡ªìπμâπ¡“

Dinosaurs are an important part of Earthûs long history. Their story greatly fascinates people all over the world, including Thailandûs Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. These now extinct creatures, both large and small, ruled planet Earth for 150 million years. Since the Department of Mineral Resources has discovered and systematically researched dinosaurs, Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn first visited the Phu Wiang National Park in Khon Kaen Province to see dinosaur site no. 2 on 3 November 1989. Her visit gave overwhelming pleasure to the Phu Wiang people. Two years later, on 13 February 1991, she saw the dinosaur footprints on a sandstone bed at the Phu Luang in Loei Province. On 24 November 1995 she visited the most outstanding dinosaur site ever found in Thailand, which had been discovered at Phu Kum Khao in Kalasin Province. She gave suggestions concerning dinosaur work when she visited the Department of Mineral Resourcesû booth at the World Techû95 Exposition in Nakorn Ratchasima Province in November 1995. All of these visits indicate that she has great interest in the Department of Mineral Resources missions. This interest gives great pleasure to the Departmentûs staff.

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𓬪√’™“ Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ª≈—¥°√–∑√«ßÕÿμ “À°√√¡ æ√âÕ¡¥â«¬π“¬π¿¥≈ ¡—≥±®‘μ√ Õ∏‘∫¥’°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ·≈–§≥– ‡¢â“‡ΩÑ“œ πâÕ¡‡°≈â“œ ∂«“¬Àÿà𠉥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 2 °ÿ¡¿“æ—π∏å 2541 ≥ »“≈“¥ÿ ‘¥“≈—¬  «π®‘μ√¥“ Mr. Preecha Attavipach, Permanent-Secretary to Ministry of Industry, together with Mr. Nopadon Mantajit, Director General of the Department of Mineral Resources and his colleagues, bestowed a Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae model on 2 February 1998 at Dusidalai Pavilion, Chitralada Palace.

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μàÕ¡“°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‡ÀÁ𧫓¡®”‡ªìπμâÕß ®—¥ √â“ßæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¢÷Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ‡ªìπ·À≈àßÕπÿ√—°…å ´“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å ·≈–‡ªìπ·À≈àß∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ«∑“ß «‘™“°“√∑’Ë®– √â“ß√“¬‰¥â „Àâ°—∫∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ®÷߉¥â®—¥ √â“ß æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å 2 ·Ààß ∫√‘‡«≥·À≈àß∑’Ëæ∫„À≠àÊ ‰¥â·°à æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß·≈–æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ „π°“√π’È°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â®—¥∑”Àÿà𠉥‚π‡ “√å¢π“¥‡≈Á°¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√° ‡æ◊ËÕ§—¥‡≈◊Õ° ºŸâ¡’Ωï¡◊Õ„π°“√®—¥∑”Àÿàπ¢π“¥„À≠àμàÕ‰ª Àÿàπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–∂Ÿ°μâÕßμ“¡À≈—°«‘™“°“√·≈–∑“ß»‘≈ª– μ“¡§«“¡μâÕß°“√§√—Èß·√° ‡ªìπÀÿàπ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß ‡®â “ øÑ “  ‘ √‘ π ∏√ (Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae) ¬“«ª√–¡“≥ 1 øÿμ ∑”¥â«¬‚≈À– ∑Õß·¥ß ¡’ ®”π«π 5 Àÿà π °√¡∑√— æ ¬“°√∏√≥’ ‰¥â π”¢÷È π πâ Õ ¡‡°≈â “ πâ Õ ¡°√–À¡à Õ ¡∂«“¬ ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ‡¡◊ËÕ «—π∑’Ë 2 °ÿ¡¿“æ—π∏å 2541 ®”π«π 1 Àÿàπ ∑’ˇÀ≈◊Õ ‰¥â 𔉪‰«â ∑’Ë æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß ®— ß À«— ¥ ¢Õπ·°à π æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ °ÿâ ¡ ¢â “ « ®— ß À«— ¥ °“à‘ π ∏ÿå æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ± ∂“π·Àà ß ™“μ‘ ∏ √≥’ «‘ ∑ ¬“ ‡©≈‘¡æ√–‡°’¬√μ‘ ®—ßÀ«—¥ª∑ÿ¡∏“π’ ·≈–æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ∏√≥’«‘∑¬“°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ‡æ◊ËÕ®—¥· ¥ßÀ√◊Õ‡°Á∫‰«â ‡ªìπÀ≈—°∞“πμàÕ‰ª

When the dinosaur research from the Phu Wiang dinosaur site no. 1 came to an end in 1994, the result was that a new genus and species had been discovered. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhornûs name, çSirindhorné, was given to this new sauropod dinosaur as the species name. This dinosaur was named Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae, thus honoring her in the world paleontological records. Intensive investigations over the years have yielded tremendous numbers of dinosaur bones. Museums have been built to keep and display these bones, including the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum in Khon Kaen, the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum in Kalasin, and the National Geological Museum in Pathumthani. Supplementing these is the existing Geological Museum in Bangkok. These museums are used as teaching sources of geological and fossil knowledge for all people. They also stimulate the tourism industry and increase the incomes of local people. The Department of Mineral Resources selected an artist to make five one-foot long bronze models of the Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae dinosaur. One of these was given to Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn on 2 February 1998. The other four are in the Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Pathumthani, and Bangkok museums.

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·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√—  ∫√“π§“‰Õ ∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±åª√–«—μ‘»“ μ√å∏√√¡™“μ‘Œ—¡‚∫≈μå °√ÿ߇∫Õ√å≈‘π Brachiosaurus brancai at the Humboldt Natural History Museum, Berlin.

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‰¥‚π‡ “√å

DINOSAURS

‰¥‚π‡ “√凪ìπ —μ«å¡’°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ߧ√Õß‚≈° Õ¬Ÿà π “π°«à “ 165 ≈â “ πªï ‡°‘ ¥ ®“°°“√·μ°·¢πß «‘«—≤π“°“√¡“®“°∫√√æ∫ÿ√ÿ…´÷Ë߇ªìπ°≈ÿà¡¢ÕßÕ“√傧´Õ√凡◊ËÕª√–¡“≥ 230 ≈â“πªï§◊Õª√–¡“≥™à«ß°≈“ß ∂÷ ß ™à « ߪ≈“¬¢Õ߬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° ·≈–‰¥â  Ÿ ≠ æ— π ∏ÿå ‰ª‡¡◊Ë Õ ª√–¡“≥ 65 ≈â “ πªï ¡ “·≈â « „π‡Àμÿ ° “√≥å  Ÿ≠æ—π∏ÿå§√—Èß„À≠à Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ¡’°≈ÿà¡¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å Õ¬à “ ßπâ Õ ¬Àπ÷Ë ß °≈ÿà ¡ ∑’Ë ‰¥â√Õ¥æâπ‡Àμÿ°“√≥å Ÿ≠æ—π∏ÿå ¡“®π∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π§◊Õπ°´÷Ëßπ—°Õπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π‰¥âæ‘®“√≥“ „À⇪ìπ∑“¬“∑‚¥¬μ√ߢÕ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ §”«à“ 牥‚π‡ “√åé ∫“ߧ√—Èß°Á∂Ÿ°π”‰ª‡√’¬°  —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“π¬ÿ§‚∫√“≥Õ◊ËπÊÕ¬à“߉¡à‡ªìπ∑“ß°“√ Õ¬à “ ߇™à π æ«°‡æ≈’ ‚ §´Õ√å   °ÿ ≈ ‰¥‡¡‚∑√¥Õπ ‡∑Õ‚√´Õ√å´÷Ë߇ªìπ —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“π∫‘π‰¥â Õ‘§∑‘‚Õ´Õ√å ‡æ≈´‘‚Õ´Õ√å ·≈–‚¡´“´Õ√å´÷Ë߇ªìπ —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“π „π∑–‡≈ ´÷ßË ·∑â∑®’Ë √‘ß·≈â« —μ«å‡À≈à“π’È ‰¡à ‰¥â‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å π—°∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“μà“ß°Á‡ÀÁπæâÕß°—π«à“π°¡’ «‘«—≤π“°“√¡“®“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ À“°¬÷¥∂◊Õ π‘¬“¡Õ¬à“߇§√àߧ√—¥·≈â« π°‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß ·≈–π—Ëπ°ÁÀ¡“¬§«“¡«à“‰¥‚π‡ “√嬗߉¡à ‰ ¥â  Ÿ ≠ æ— π ∏ÿå π—°∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬‰¥â®—¥„Àâπ°ªí®®ÿ∫—πÕ¬Ÿà„π °≈ÿ࡬àÕ¬¡“π‘·√æ‡∑Õ√“ ‡ªìπæ«°´’≈Ÿ‚√´Õ√å ´÷Ëß°Á§◊Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥„π°≈ÿà¡¢Õß´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬ππ—Ëπ‡Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¡’ ¢ π“¥·ª√º— 𠇪ì π Õ¬à “ ß¡“° ‰¥‚π‡ “√åμ—«∑’Ë Ÿß·≈–πÈ”Àπ—°¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√—  ∫√“π§“‰Õ æ∫„π·∑π´“‡π’¬√–À«à“ß ªï æ.». 2450-2455 ‰¥â¢÷Èπ‚§√߇μÁ¡μ—«®—¥· ¥ß‰«â∑’Ë æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±åª√–«—μ‘»“ μ√å∏√√¡™“μ‘Œ—¡‚∫≈μå „π°√ÿß ‡∫Õ√å≈‘π μ—Èßμ–Àßà“πÕ¬Ÿà „πÀâÕß‚∂ߥ⫬§«“¡ Ÿß∂÷ß 12 ‡¡μ√ ¬“« 22.5 ‡¡μ√ ·≈–ª√–¡“≥πÈ”Àπ—°‡¡◊ËÕ ¬—ß¡’™’«‘쉥â 30,000 ∂÷ß 60,000 °‘‚≈°√—¡ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å μ—« ¡∫Ÿ√≥å∑’ˬ“«∑’Ë ÿ¥§◊Õ 27 ‡¡μ√ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¥‘ª‚ª≈‚¥§—  §“√å‡π°’‰Õ æ∫∑’Ë¡≈√—∞‰«‚Õ¡‘ß  À√—∞ Õ‡¡√‘°“·≈–®—¥· ¥ßÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±åª√–«—μ‘»“ μ√å

Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for over 165 million years. They diverged from their archosaur ancestors approximately 230 million years ago during the middle to late Triassic period. They completely disappeared at the end of Cretaceous period, approximately 65 million years ago, by a catastrophic extinction event. At least one significant group of dinosaurs has survived until the present day; the modern birds are considered to be the direct descendants of theropod dinosaurs. The taxon Dinosauria was formally named by Richard Owen, the English paleontologist, in 1842 as a superorder of Saurian Reptiles. The term is derived from the Greek words çdeinosé meaning çterribleé, çfearsomeé or çformidableé and çsauraé meaning çlizardé or çreptileé. The term dinosaur is sometimes used informally to describe other prehistoric reptiles, such as the pelycosaur Dimetrodon, the winged pterosaurs and the aquatic ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and mosasaurs, although technically none of these were dinosaurs. There is an almost universal consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs. Using the strict definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor are related, modern birds are dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Modern birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropod, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs. Dinosaurs greatly vary in sizes. The tallest and heaviest dinosaur known from good skeletons is Brachiosaurus brancai discovered in Tanzania between 1907-1912. Bones from multiple similarly-sized individuals were incorporated into the skeleton now mounted and on display at the Humboldt Natural History Museum in Berlin; 11


∏√√¡™“쑧“√å‡π°’·Àà߇¡◊Õßæ‘μ ‡∫‘√å° Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ¬—ߧߡ’‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë¡’¢π“¥„À≠à°«à“π’È·μàæ∫À≈—°∞“𠇪ìπ‡æ’¬ß°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ë·μ°À—°‰¡à°’Ë™‘Èπ  ”À√—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡’ ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ π—È π ¡’ ¢ 𓥪√–¡“≥Õ’ ° “À√◊ Õ ‰°à μ—«Àπ÷Ë߇∑à“π—È𠉥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ °ÿ≈ ‰¡‚§√·√æ‡μÕ√å ·≈–æ“√å«‘‡§Õ‡´Õ√å ¡’§«“¡¬“«πâÕ¬°«à“ 60 ‡´π쑇¡μ√‡∑à“π—Èπ ∑—Èßπ’È ‰¡à√«¡∂÷ß¢π“¥¢Õßπ° ªí®®ÿ∫—π Õ¬à“߇™àπ π°∫’Œ—¡¡‘Ë߇∫‘√奴÷Ëß¡’¢π“¥‡∑à“º÷Èß μ—«Àπ÷ßË ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´÷Ëß√«¡∂÷ßπ°¥â«¬π—Èπ‡ªìπæ«°Õ“√傧´Õ√å ‡ À¡◊ Õ π°— ∫ ®√–‡¢â „ πªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π °–‚À≈°·∫∫ ‰¥·Õæ´‘¥¢ÕßÕ“√傧´Õ√å¡’√Ÿ‡ªî¥°√–¥Ÿ° Õß√Ÿ∫√‘‡«≥ ∑’Ë°≈â“¡‡π◊ÈÕ¢“°√√‰°√¬÷¥μ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà‡√’¬°«à“√Ÿ‡ªî¥°√–¥Ÿ° ·∫∫‡∑¡ªÕ√—≈  —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“π∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬´÷Ëß√«¡∂÷ß π°¡’°–‚À≈°·∫∫‰¥·Õæ´‘¥  —μ«å‡≈’Ȭß≈Ÿ°¥â«¬π¡ ¡’ √Ÿ ‡ ªî ¥ °√–¥Ÿ ° ∫π°–‚À≈°‡æ’ ¬ ß√Ÿ ‡ ¥’ ¬ «®— ¥ ‡ªì π æ«° ´‘π·πæ´‘¥ ·≈–‡μà“‰¡à¡’√Ÿ‡ªî¥°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ë°√–‚À≈°‡≈¬ ‡√’¬°«à“‡Õ·πæ´‘¥ „π∑“ß°“¬«‘¿“§«‘∑¬“·≈â«æ∫«à“ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¡’≈—°…≥–√à«¡°—∫≈—°…≥–¢ÕßÕ“√å ‚§´Õ√å Õ◊ËπÊ ¡“°¡“¬ √«¡∂÷ßøíπ∑’ËßÕ°ÕÕ°¡“®“°‡∫â“øíπ ·∑π∑’Ë®–ßÕ°ÕÕ°¡“‚¥¬μ√ß®“°°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√ „π∫√√¥“°≈ÿ¡à ¢ÕßÕ“√傧´Õ√å·≈⫉¥‚π‡ “√å¡≈’ °— …≥– ∑’Ë · μ°μà “ ßÕÕ°‰ªÕ¬à “ ß™— ¥ ‡®π∑’Ë ≈— ° …≥–¢Õߢ“ °≈à“«§◊Õ¢“¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¬◊ËπÕÕ°‰ª∑“ߥâ“π„μâ¢Õß ≈”μ— « ‡À¡◊ Õ π — μ «å ‡ ≈’È ¬ ß≈Ÿ ° ¥â « ¬π¡ ¢≥–∑’Ë ¢ “¢Õß æ«°°‘Èß°à“·≈–®√–‡¢â®–‡À¬’¬¥‰ª∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ß ·≈– ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬‡ªìπ —μ«å∫°‡∑à“π—Èπ ¡’ —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“πÕ◊ËπÊ Õ’°¡“°∑’Ë¡’™’«‘μÕ¬Ÿà „π ™à«ß‡¥’¬«°—∫¬ÿ§¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∫“ß™π‘¥∂Ÿ°‡¢â“„® º‘¥«à“‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å Õ¬à“߇™àπ ‡æ≈´‘‚Õ´Õ√å ´÷Ë߉¡à ‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß‚¥¬μ√ß°—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡≈¬ ·≈–‡∑Õ‚√´Õ√å ´÷Ë ß ¡’ «‘ «— ≤ π“°“√·¬°ÕÕ°¡“®“° — μ «å ‡ ≈◊È Õ ¬§≈“π ‚∫√“≥„π™à«ßª≈“¬¢Õ߬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å·∫àßÕÕ°‰¥â‡ªìπ 2 æ«° §◊Õ ´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬π·≈–ÕÕ√åπ‘∏‘ ‡™’¬πμ“¡‚§√ß √â“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ°  –‚æ° æ«°´Õ√‘   ‡™’ ¬ π¡’ ‚ §√ß √â “ ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ ° 12

this mount is 12 m tall, 22.5 m long, and would have belonged to an animal that weight between 30,000 to 60,000 kg. The longest complete dinosaur is the 27 m long Diplodocus, which was discovered in Wyoming in the United States and display in Pittsburghûs Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907. There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of fragmentary fossils. Whereas, not include modern birds like the bee hummingbird, the smallest dinosaurs known were about the size of a crow or a chicken. The theropods Microraptor and Parvicursor were both under 60 cm in length. Dinosaurs (including birds) are archosaurs, like modern crocodilians. Archosaursû diapsid skulls have two holes located where the jaw muscles attach, called temporal fenestrae. Most reptiles (including birds) are diapsid; mammals, with only one temporal fenestra, are called synapsids; and turtles, with no temporal fenestra, are anapsid. Anatomically, dinosaurs share many other archosaur characteristics, including teeth that grow from sockets rather than as direct extensions of the jawbones. Within the archosaur group, dinosaurs are differentiated most noticeably by their gait. Dinosaur legs extend directly beneath the body, whereas the legs of lizards and crocodilians sprawl out to either side. All dinosaurs were land animals. Many other types of reptiles lived at the same time as the dinosaurs. Some of these are commonly, but incorrectly, thought of as dinosaurs, including plesiosaurs (which are not closely related to the dinosaurs) and pterosaurs, which developed separately from reptilian ancestors in the late Triassic period. Dinosaurs are divided into two orders, Saurischia and Ornithischia, depending upon their hip structure. Saurischians (lizard-hipped), from the Greek çsaurosé meaning çlizardé and çischioné meaning çhip jointé are dinosaurs that retained the hip structure of their ancestors. They include all the theropods (bipedal carnivores)


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and sauropods (long-necked herbivores). Ornithischians (bird-hipped), from the Greek çornitheosé meaning çof a birdé and çischioné meaning çhip jointé is the other dinosaurian order, most of which were quadrupedal herbivores. However, the birds evolved from dinosaurs with lizard hips. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Sauropsida (Reptilia) Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Archosauromorpha Superorder Dinosauria Order Ornithischia Suborder Cerapoda Suborder Thyreophora Order Saurischia Suborder Sauropodomorpha Suborder Theropoda There are at least three theories explaining the sudden extinction of dinosaurs and many other groups of animals including ammonites, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, herbivorous turtles and crocodiles. The theories include asteroid collision, multiple collision - the Oort cloud, and enviroment changes. But the asteroid collision theory is widely debated. The asteroid collision theory was first proposed by Walter Alvarez in the late 1970s, links the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous period to a bolide impact approximately 65 million years ago. Alvarez proposed that a sudden increase in iridium levels, recorded around the world in the period rock stratum, was direct evidence of the impact. The bulk of the evidence now suggests that a 5-15 km wide bolide hit in the vicinity of the Yucatan Peninsula, creating the 170 km wide Chicxulub Crater and triggering the mass extinction. The consensus among scientists who support this theory is that the impact caused extinctions both from the heat from the meteorite impact and worldwide cooling brought about when matter ejected from the impact crater reflected thermal radiation from the sun. 13


¿“æ∂à“¬¥“«‡∑’¬¡∫√‘‡«≥¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Satellite imagery of Phu Wiang.

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·ºπ∑’Ë¿Ÿ¡‘ª√–‡∑»¢Õß¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß · ¥ßμ”·Àπàß·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß 9 ·À≈àß·≈–æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Topographic map of Phu Wiang showing the nine dinosaur sites and dinosaur museum

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¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß: º◊π¥‘π∂‘Ëπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“∑’ˇªìπ à«πÀπ÷ËߢÕß ·π«‡∑◊ Õ °‡¢“¿Ÿ æ “π ·μà ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‚ ¥¥‡¥à 𠇪ì π ‡Õ°≈— ° …≥å ‡ ©æ“–μ— « ‰¡à ‡ À¡◊ Õ π‡∑◊ Õ °‡¢“„π∫√‘ ‡ «≥ „°≈⇧’¬ß °≈à“«§◊Õ‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“∑’Ë≈âÕ¡√Õ∫∑’Ë√“∫‡ªìπ √Ÿ ª «ß·À«π ‚¥¬¡’ ¬ Õ¥‡¢“ Ÿ ß ª√–¡“≥ 400 ∂÷ ß 800 ‡¡μ√®“°√–¥—∫∑–‡≈ª“π°≈“ß æ◊Èπ∑’Ë√“∫∫√‘‡«≥  à«π°≈“ß¡’√–¥—∫§«“¡ Ÿßª√–¡“≥ 215 ‡¡μ√®“° √–¥—∫∑–‡≈ª“π°≈“ߧ√Õ∫§≈ÿ¡æ◊Èπ∑’˪√–¡“≥ 286 μ“√“ß°‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ‡ªìπæ◊Èπ∑’Ë¢Õß°‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ‡«’ ¬ ߇°à “ ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ ¢÷ÈπÕ¬Ÿà°—∫®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ 3 μ”∫≈ §◊Õ μ”∫≈‡¡◊Õ߇°à“æ—≤π“ μ”∫≈„π‡¡◊Õß ·≈–μ”∫≈‡¢“πâÕ¬ ‡ªìπ™ÿ¡™π‡≈Á°Ê °√–®—¥°√–®“¬ ·≈–√“¬≈âÕ¡¥â«¬æ◊Èπ∑’Ë° ‘°√√¡ ¥â“πμ–«—πÕÕ°·≈– μ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß„μâ¢Õßæ◊Èπ∑’ˇªìπ·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“·§∫Ê ‡μ’È¬Ê °«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ 700 ‡¡μ√·≈– Ÿßª√–¡“≥ 400 ‡¡μ√®“°√–¥—∫∑–‡≈ª“π°≈“ß ¥â“πμ–«—πμ° ‡ªìπ·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“°«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ 3 ∂÷ß 4 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ·≈– Ÿßª√–¡“≥ 500 ∂÷ß 600 ‡¡μ√®“°√–¥—∫∑–‡≈ ª“π°≈“ß  à«π¥â“π‡Àπ◊Õ·≈–¥â“π„μ⇪ìπ‡¢“ Ÿß‚Àπ° ‡ß◊ÈÕ¡¢÷Èπ‰ª∑“ߥâ“π‡Àπ◊Õ·≈–¥â“π„μâμ“¡≈”¥—∫¥â«¬ §«“¡ Ÿßª√–¡“≥ 600 ∂÷ß 800 ‡¡μ√®“°√–¥—∫ ∑–‡≈ª“π°≈“ß ¥â“πμ–«—πÕÕ°¢Õß¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß¡’√àÕ߇¢“ ·§∫Ê °«â“ߪ√–¡“≥ 300 ‡¡μ√¡’≈”πÈ”∫Õ߉À≈ºà“π ÕÕ°‰ª Ÿà ¥â “ ππÕ°¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß·≈–‡ªì π ‡ â π ∑“߇¢â “ ÕÕ° ¢ÕߺŸâ§π‡æ’¬ß‡ âπ∑“߇¥’¬« ·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“¥â“πμ–«—πμ°¢Õß¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡ÀÁπ‡ªìπ ·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“´âÕπ°—π 2 ·π« ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“¥â“ππÕ°‡ªìπ ¿Ÿ‡¢“ Ÿßª√–¡“≥ 500 ∂÷ß 550 ‡¡μ√‡ªìπ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“ À‘π∑√“¬¢ÕßÀ¡«¥À‘πæ√–«‘À“√ ¢≥–∑’Ë·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“ ¥â“π„π‡ªìπ·π«¿Ÿ‡¢“≈Ÿ°‚¥¥Ê ‡√’¬ß√“¬¢π“π°—π‰ª°—∫ ·π«‡∑◊ Õ °‡¢“¥â “ ππÕ°∑’Ë ¡’ § «“¡ Ÿ ß ª√–¡“≥ 350 ∂÷ß 450 ‡¡μ√ ·π«‡¢“≈Ÿ°‚¥¥Ê ‡À≈à“π’ȇªìπÀ‘π∑√“¬ 16

PHU WIANG: LAND OF DINOSAURS The Phu Wiang mountain area, which is part of the Phu Phan mountain ranges, is spectacular and unique in character. It is characterized by inward dipping elliptical ridges ranging in elevation from 400 to 800 meters above mean sea level. The central area inside these ridges, about 286 square kilometers, is a relatively flat plain 215 meters above mean sea level and it covers all of Wiang Kao Minor District of Khon Kaen Province. This central plain is bounded on the east and southeast by a relatively low ridge that is about 700 meters wide and about 200 meters high. The west side of the central plain is bounded by two ridges, together 3 to 4 kilometers wide, and 300 to 400 meters high. The outer ridge is about 500 to 550 meters above mean sea level and is made up of sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Phra Wihan Formation. The inner ridge is a chain of isolated hills parallel to the outer ridge. These inner hills have elevations ranging from 350 to 450 meters above mean sea level and are made up of sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Sao Khrua Formation. Abundant dinosaur bones have been found here in the Sao Khua Formation. Mountains 600 to 800 meters above mean sea level extend north and southwest of the central plain. There is a relatively narrow gap about 300 meters wide in the eastern ridge bordering the central plain where the Bong River flows eastward. This gap gives easy access to the central plain.


À¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« Õ“¬ÿ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ∑’Ë¡’™—ÈπÀ‘π ∑’Ëæ∫°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å®”π«π¡“°„π¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß æ◊Èπ∑’Ë¿Ÿ‡¢“∑—ÈßÀ¡¥‰¥â√—∫°“√®—¥μ—È߇ªìπÕÿ∑¬“π ·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 8 ∏—𫓧¡ æ.». 2534 ®—¥‡ªìπÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘≈”¥—∫∑’Ë 71 ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ¥â«¬æ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑—Èß ‘Èπ 325 μ“√“ß°‘‚≈‡¡μ√ §√Õ∫§≈ÿ¡æ◊Èπ∑’Ë 3 Õ”‡¿Õ °—∫ 2 °‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ ‰¥â·°à Õ”‡¿Õ™ÿ¡·æ Õ”‡¿Õ  ’™¡æŸ Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß °‘ËßÕ”‡¿ÕÀπÕß𓧔 ·≈– °‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ‡«’¬ß‡°à“ ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ „πªï æ.». 2519 °√¡∑√— æ ¬“°√∏√≥’ ‰ ¥â  à ß §≥– ”√«®·√à ¬Ÿ ‡ √‡π’ ¬ ¡ ”√«®∫√‘ ‡ «≥‡™‘ ß ¿Ÿ ª √–μŸ μ’À¡“´÷ßË Õ¬Ÿ∑à “ß¥â“πμ–«—πμ°¢ÕßÀÿ∫‡¢“¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß π”‚¥¬ 𓬠ÿ∏√√¡ ·¬â¡π‘¬¡ π—°∏√≥’«∑‘ ¬“ ‰¥âæ∫‡»…°√–¥Ÿ° ∑àÕπ„À≠à ¿“¬À≈—ß°“√μ√«® Õ∫‚¥¬ºŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠ ™“«Ω√—ßË ‡» æ∫«à“‡ªìπ à«πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°‚§π¢“À≈—ß ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß π—∫‡ªìπ°“√§âπæ∫ À≈—°∞“π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√噑Èπ·√°¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ·≈– ¬— ß º≈„Àâ ‡ °‘ ¥ ‚§√ß°“√§«“¡√à « ¡¡◊ Õ ¥â “ π∫√√æ™’ «‘ π «‘∑¬“‰∑¬-Ω√—Ë߇»  μàÕ‡π◊ËÕß¡“®π∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π π—∫®“°ªï æ.». 2519 ‡ªìπμâπ¡“ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â¥”‡π‘π°“√ ”√«®·≈–«‘®—¬‰¥‚π‡ “√å„π¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ¡“Õ¬à“ßμàÕ‡π◊ËÕß ¡’°“√§âπæ∫∑—Èß´“°°√–¥Ÿ°·≈– √Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å®”π«π¡“°·≈–À≈“°À≈“¬ “¬æ—π∏ÿå §â π æ∫·À≈à ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∂÷ ß 9 ·À≈à ß æ∫°√–¥Ÿ ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß™π‘¥´Õ‚√æÕ¥·≈–‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¡’¢π“¥ μ—Èß·μàμ—«‡∑à“·¡à ‰ °à ‰ª®π∂÷ߢπ“¥≈”μ—«¬“«¡“°°«à“ 15 ‡¡μ√  —ππ‘…∞“π«à“‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡À≈à“π’ÈÕ“»—¬Õ¬Ÿà„π ∫√‘ ‡ «≥∑’Ë √ “∫°«â “ ß„À≠à ¡’   “¬πÈ” ‰À≈§¥‚§â ß ‰ª¡“ π”æ“‡Õ“μ–°Õπ∑√“¬¡“∑— ∫ ∂¡√à “ ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ≈â¡μ“¬μ—«·≈â«μ—«‡≈à“μ—ßÈ ·μàª√–¡“≥ 130 ≈â“πªï¡“·≈â« „π™à«ßμâπ¢Õß¡À“¬ÿ§´’‚π‚´Õ‘° ‰¥â‡°‘¥°“√ °àÕ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“À‘¡“≈—¬Õ—π‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°°“√™π°—π√–À«à“ß Õπÿ∑«’ªÕ‘π‡¥’¬°—∫¡À“∑«’ª¬Ÿ‡√‡´’¬ °“√°àÕ‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“ ¥— ß °≈à “ «¡’ º ≈°√–∑∫μà Õ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ¿ “§‡Õ‡™’ ¬ μ–«— π ÕÕ°

The mountain areas of the Phu Wiang were established as Phu Wiang National Park on 8 December 1991. This National Park is the 71st national park of Thailand. The area of the park is about 325 square kilometers and cover three districts and two minor districts, Chumpae, Sichompoo, and Phu Wiang Districts, and Nong Nakham, and Wiang Kao Minor Districts of Khon Kaen Province. In 1976 the Department of Mineral Resources conducted uranium exploration, headed by Sutham Yaemniyom, in the western part of the Phu Wiang central plain. Sutham found a large bone fragment along a stream at the foot of Phu Pratu Teema. This bone was identified by a French paleontologist as the distal part of a sauropod dinosaur femur. This bone fragment is regarded as the first known evidence of dinosaur in Thailand and gave rise to the establishment a Thai-French paleontological expeditions project. Since 1976 the Department of Mineral Resources has been continuously exploring and researching dinosaur fossils in Phu Wiang. Many diverse dinosaur bones and footprints have been found at nine sites. These dinosaur fossils are of sauropods and theropods range in size from hen-size to over 15 meters long. These dinosaurs likely wandered on wide flood plains with meandering rivers that carried sand-size sediments that later buried the dinosaurs, this happening about 130 million years ago. By the beginning of Cenozoic Era, the Himalayan orogeny that resulted from the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the 17


à«πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ À≈—°∞“π‰¥‚π‡ “√噑Èπ·√°¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ Distal part of a sauropod dinosaur femur, the first dinosaur evidence of Thailand.

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‡©’¬ß„μâ√«¡∂÷ß·ºàπ¥‘π¿“§μ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ¢Õß ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¥â « ¬ ·√ß®“°°“√°à Õ ‡∑◊ Õ °‡¢“∑”„Àâ ™—È π À‘ π ¡À“¬ÿ § ¡’ ‚ ´‚´Õ‘ ° ·≈–À‘ π ∑’Ë · °à ° «à “ „π¿Ÿ ¡‘ ¿ “§ ‡°‘¥°“√¬°μ—«·≈–‡°‘¥·π«§¥‚§â߇ªìπ·π«‡∑◊Õ°‡¢“ ¿Ÿæ“π ¢≥–‡¥’¬«°—π°Á¡’°√–∫«π°“√°—¥‡´“–∑”≈“¬ ‰ªæ√âÕ¡Ê °—πÕ¬à“ßμàÕ‡π◊ËÕߥ⫬√–¬–‡«≈“À≈“¬ ‘∫ ≈â “ πªï ® π∂÷ ß ªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π ¬— ß º≈„Àâ ‡ °‘ ¥ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ª √–‡∑»·∫∫ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß∑’Ë™—ÈπÀ‘πÕ“¬ÿª√–¡“≥ 130 ≈â“πªï¡’°√–¥Ÿ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√傺≈à„Àâ‡ÀÁπ¡“°¡“¬ ´“°·≈–√à Õ ß√Õ¬¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ® “°¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß π—∫‡ªìπÀ≈—°∞“π∑“ß«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å∑’Ë ”§—≠¬‘Ëß ∑’Ë®–‡ªìπ μ—«μàÕ à«πÀπ÷ËߢÕ߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß‚≈°‡æ◊ËÕ∑’Ë®–¡’ à«π ∑”„Àâ‡ÀÁπ¿“æ‚¥¬√«¡¢Õ߇√◊ËÕß√“«‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ „Àâ¡’§«“¡™—¥‡®π¡“°¬‘Ëߢ÷Èπ ∑—Èß„π¥â“π°“√°àÕ°”‡π‘¥ ·≈–«‘«—≤π“°“√™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’ËÕ“®‡ªìπ ∫√√æ∫ÿ √ÿ … ¢Õß — μ «å ‡ ≈’È ¬ ß≈Ÿ ° ¥â « ¬π¡·≈–√«¡∂÷ ß ¡πÿ…¬å¥â«¬ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß®÷߇ªìπ¥‘π·¥π∑’Ë ¡§«√ ß«π‰«â ´÷Ëߧ«“¡‡ªìπ¥‘π·¥π·Àà߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˬâÕπÀ≈—߉ª∂÷ß 130 ≈â“πªï¡“·≈â«

Eurasian supercontinent had commenced. This orogeny affected the Southeast Asian landmass, including the northeastern region of Thailand. The force from this orogeny uplifted and folded the Mesozoic rocks that now form the Phu Phan mountain ranges. Subsequent weathering and erosion over million of years sculpted these rocks into their present-day landforms. Phu Wiang with its trove of 130 million year-old dinosaur fossils, is one of these landforms. The remains and traces of dinosaurs from Phu Wiang are crucially important scientific evidence regarding the many jigsaw puzzles of the worldûs dinosaur story. These fossils partly provide an overview of dinosaurs, both as to their origin and phylogenic evolution. The Phu Wiang area is, therefore, deserving of protection and conservation as a land of dinosaurs dating back 130 million years.

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√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Reconstructed dinosaur model of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

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°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¢â“ߴ⓬¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Left ischium of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¢â“ߢ«“¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Right ischium of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

øíπ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Teeth of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

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‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√

Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å  “¬æ—π∏ÿå„À¡à¢Õß‚≈°∑’˧âπæ∫§√—Èß·√°„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥°≈“ß ‡¥‘π ’Ë¢“ §”π«≥ §«“¡¬“«¢Õß≈”μ—«‰¥âª√–¡“≥ 20 ‡¡μ√ °√–¥Ÿ° μâ π ·∫∫æ∫„πªï æ.». 2525 ∑’Ë À ≈ÿ ¡ ¢ÿ ¥ §â π ∑’Ë 1 ∫π¿Ÿ ª √–μŸ μ’ À ¡“ „π‡¢μÕÿ ∑ ¬“π·Àà ß ™“μ‘ ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ´÷ËßÕ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“°μ—« ®— ß À«— ¥ ¢Õπ·°à 𠉪∑“ß∑‘ » μ–«— π μ°ª√–¡“≥ 87 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ¡’®”π«π 21 ™‘È𠇪ìπ°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å μ—«‡¥’¬«°—π´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ °√–¥Ÿ°§Õ 3 ™‘Èπ °√–¥Ÿ°  –∫—°‰À≈à¥â“π´â“¬ ·≈– à«πª≈“¬¥â“π¢«“ °√–¥Ÿ° ¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π´â“¬ °√–¥Ÿ°·¢π∑àÕπ„π´â“¬∫“ß à«π °√–¥Ÿ°ªï° –‚æ°¢«“ °√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«´â“¬ °√–¥Ÿ° °âπ¢â“ߴ⓬ °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π´â“¬·≈–¢«“ ·≈– °√–¥Ÿ°πàÕߴ⓬ °√–¥Ÿ°∑—ÈßÀ¡¥æ∫Õ¬Ÿà„°≈â°—π «“ßμ—« ‡√’¬ß√“¬μàÕ‡π◊ËÕß°—π °√–¥Ÿ°‡À≈à“π’È°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ‰ ¥â ¥”‡π‘ π °“√Õπÿ √— ° …å „ πÀâ Õ ßªØ‘ ∫— μ‘ ° “√¢Õß  ”π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“∑’Ë°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ·≈–‰¥â»÷°…“ «‘®—¬„π√“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥√à«¡°—∫ºŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠™“«Ω√—Ë߇»  μ“¡‚§√ß°“√ ”√«®∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“ ‰∑¬-Ω√—Ë߇»  ´÷Ëߪ√–‡∑»Ω√—Ë߇» ‰¥â àߺŸâ‡™’ˬ«™“≠‰ª√à«¡ ”√«® ·≈–¢ÿ ¥ §â π ´“°¥÷ ° ¥”∫√√æå  — μ «å ¡’ ° √–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß √à«¡°—∫π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬‡ªìπª√–®”∑ÿ°ªï ¢â Õ ¡Ÿ ≈ ∑’Ë ‰ ¥â π—È π ‡¡◊Ë Õ π”‰ª‡ª√’ ¬ ∫‡∑’ ¬ ∫°— ∫ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ëæ∫·≈–‡°Á∫√—°…“‰«â„πÀâÕߪؑ∫—μ‘°“√·≈– æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å¢Õߪ√–‡∑»μà“ßÊ ∑—Ë«‚≈°·≈â« ª√“°Ø«à“ ¡’§«“¡·μ°μà“߉ª®“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˇ§¬æ∫·≈– »÷°…“«‘®—¬¡“°àÕπ ®÷ß®—¥„À⇪ìπ °ÿ≈·≈–™π‘¥„À¡à ¢Õß‚≈° °“√»÷°…“«‘®—¬´“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√宓° À≈ÿ¡∑’Ë 1 π’È „™â‡«≈“π“π°«à“ 10 ªï ®÷߇ √Á® ¡∫Ÿ√≥å º≈°“√«‘ ®— ¬ ‰¥â √— ∫ °“√μ’ æ‘ ¡ æå ‡ º¬·æ√à „ π«“√ “√ «‘ ™ “°“√∑’Ë ª √–‡∑»Ω√—Ë ß ‡»  ‡¡◊Ë Õ ‡¥◊ Õ π°— π ¬“¬π

Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is a new genus and species of dinosaur first discovered in Thailand. It is a medium-size sauropod dinosaur. When reconstructed, the type specimen was twenty meters long. Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae was found in 1982 at site no. 1 on a hill called Phu Pratu Teema in the Phu Wiang National Park. The fossil bones were in Early Cretaceous sandstone of the Sao Khua Formation. This site is located 87 kilometers west of Khon Kaen city. The type specimen consists of 21 bones that belong to the same dinosaur body. These are cervical, scapula, humerus, dorsal, rib, ilium, pelvis, femur, tibia, and vertebrae bones. All of these bones were found in the same locality. The Department of Mineral Resources has conserved these bones in the laboratory of the Bureau of Geological Survey in Bangkok and has conducted detailed research in cooperation with French experts as the Thai-French paleontological expeditions. Comparisons with specimens from various museums and laboratories elsewhere in the world found that the Thai specimens differed from those of previous studies. This difference meant that a new genus and species had been found and was, thus, proposed. After 10 years of dinosaur research from Phu Wiang site no. 1, the new sauropod dinosaur genus and species was accepted for publication in a French scientific journal in September, 1994. Researchers coined the generic name as çPhuwiangosaurusé, deriving this from the name of the discovery 23


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°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߴ⓬¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Left femur of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߢ«“¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ Left femur of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

æ.». 2537 ‚¥¬§≥–ºŸâ«‘®—¬‰¥âμ—Èß™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈¢÷Èπμ“¡™◊ËÕ  ∂“π∑’˧âπæ∫ §◊Õ ç¿Ÿ‡«’¬ßé  à«π™◊ËÕ™π‘¥ ºŸâ«‘®—¬ ‰¥â ° √“∫∫— ß §¡∑Ÿ ≈ ¢Õæ√–√“™∑“πæ√–π“¡“¿‘ ‰ ∏¬ ç ‘ √‘ π ∏√é ¢Õß ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√— μ π√“™ ÿ ¥ “œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ¡“„™â‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ ¥—ßπ—Èπ®÷߉¥â¡’™◊ËÕ ∑“ß«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å«“à Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae (¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’) μ’ æ‘ ¡ æå ‡ º¬·æ√à ‰ª„π «ß°“√∫√√æ™’«‘π«‘∑¬“∑—Ë«‚≈° ‚¥¬¡’√“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥ º≈°“√«‘®—¬´÷Ëß Martin et al., (1994) ‰¥â√“¬ß“π‰«â«à“ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å “¬æ—π∏ÿå„À¡à¡μ’ ”·Àπàß∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¥—ßπ’È

locality, çPhu Wiangé, and coined the species name as çsirindhornaeé, in honour of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn since she has repeatedly demonstrated her interest in the palaeontological riches of her country. Martin and others (1994) reported that the new taxon Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is based on the partly articulated skeleton from Phu Pratu Teema. This skeleton consists of three cervical vertebrae, four dorsal vertebrae, several ribs, the left scapula, the distal end of the right scapula, the left humerus, part of the left ulna, both sides of the pelvis, both femora, and the left fibula. The species taxon is taxonomically classified as:


°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ°∫¢â“ߢ«“¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Right ischium of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

™—πÈ : ‡√æ∑’‡≈’¬ Linne, 1758 Õ—π¥—∫„À≠à: ‰¥‚π´Õ‡√’¬ Owen, 1842 Õ—π¥—∫: ´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬ Seeley, 1888 Õ—π¥—∫¬àÕ¬: ´Õ‚√‚æ‚¥¡Õ√åø“ Huene, 1932 Õ—π¥—∫·¬°¬àÕ¬: ´Õ‚√‚楓 Marsh, 1878 «ß»å: ¬—߉¡à·πà™—¥  °ÿ≈: ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—  Martin et al., 1994 ™π‘¥: ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ Martin et al., 1994

Class: Reptilia Linne, 1758 Superorder: Dinosauria Owen, 1842 Order: Saurischia Seeley, 1888 Suborder: Sauropodomorpha Huene, 1932 Infraorder: Sauropoda Marsh, 1878 Family: indeterminant Genus: Phuwiangosaurus Martin et al., 1994 Species: Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae Martin et al., 1994

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°“√«‘π‘®©—¬

Diagnosis

‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ À√◊Õ™◊ËÕ‡√’¬° Õ¬à“߇ªìπ∑“ß°“√«à“ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ‡ªì𠉥‚π‡ “√å°‘πæ◊™¢π“¥°≈“ß ¡’§«“¡¬“«¢Õß≈”μ—« ª√–¡“≥ 15 ∂÷ß 20 ‡¡μ√ ¥â“πÀπâ“¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ¡’ πŸ √— ≈ Õ“√å § Àπ÷Ë ß Õ— π ∑’Ë ° «â “ ß·≈– ≈“¥μË”≈ß¡“°‡ÀÁπ‰¥Õ–æՉ洒 ·≈–æ“√“æՉ洑  ¬◊Ë π ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ߧà Õ π‰ª∑“ߥ⠓ π∑â Õ ß ‰´°“‚ª‰ø´‘   ∑—Èß Õß¡’¢π“¥„À≠àÕ¬ŸàμË”≈߉ª·≈–Õ¬ŸàÀà“ßÕÕ°®“° °—π·≈–∂à“ßÕÕ°‡ªìπ¡ÿ¡°«â“߉ª∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ßÕÕ°®“° ‡´πμ√— ¡ °√–‚¥ßπŸ √— ≈  ‰ªπå ∑—È ß  ÕߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ °  —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬∂à“ßÕÕ°‡ªìπßà“¡‡ªìπ ¡ÿ¡°«â“ß‚¥¬‰¡à¡’°√–‚¥ßμ√ß —π°≈“ß °√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß  à«π≈”§Õ¡’√–∫∫¢Õß≈“¡‘π’·≈–§“«‘μ’È∑’Ëæ—≤π“¢÷Èπ‡ÀÁ𠉥â Õ ¬à “ ß™— ¥ ‡®π ‡´πμ√— ¡ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π °≈“ß≈”μ— « æ∫‚Õæ‘   ‚∏´’ ≈—   ¡’ æ ≈Ÿ ‚ √´’ ≈ ‡ªì π √à Õ ß≈÷ ° ¥â“π∑⓬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«¡’°√–‚¥ß πŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå ‰¡à‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–¢Õßßà“¡·∫∫ âÕ¡ °√–‚¥ß ¥—ß°≈à“«¡’≈—°…≥–¬“«‡√’¬«¢π“π‰ªμ“¡·π«À—«∑⓬ ‰¥Õ“‚ª‰ø´‘ ¡’≈—°…≥–¬“«™’È¢÷Èπ‰ª∑“ߥâ“π∫π¡“° °«à “ ‰ª∑“ߥ⠓ π¢â “ ß®π‡°◊ Õ ∫∂÷ ß √–¥— ∫ ¢Õß°√–‚¥ß æ∫√–∫∫‰Œ‚ª ‡øπ‰Œ·æπ∑√— ¡ °√–¥Ÿ °  –∫— ° §àÕπ¢â“߬“«√’·≈–¡’ —π¥â“π¢â“ßÕ¬Ÿà∫√‘‡«≥ à«πª≈“¬ ∫π ÿ ¥ ∑”¡ÿ ¡ μ—È ß ©“°°— ∫ ∑à Õ π°√–¥Ÿ ° ·≈–§à Õ ¬Ê·ºà ¢¬“¬ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ß à«πª≈“¬≈à“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ° °√–¥Ÿ° ¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π·ºà¢¬“¬„À≠à¢÷ÈπÕÕ°‰ª∑“ß à«πª≈“¬ ∑—Èß Õߥâ“π§àÕπ¢â“߇∑à“°—π ‡ÀÁπ·ºàπ¥â“πÀπâ“¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π™—¥‡®π¥’ °â“π°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π‡ªìπ∑àÕπμ√ß ¬“« ·≈–™’È∑”¡ÿ¡μ—Èß ©“°°—∫∑‘»∑“ߢÕß·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π °â“π°√–¥Ÿ° °âπ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π‡ÀÁπ‰¡à™—¥‡®π ·°π¢Õß∑àÕπ °√–¥Ÿ ° À— « Àπà “ «°— ∫ ¢Õ∫¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° °â π ∑”¡ÿ ¡ °— π

The species is a middle sized sauropod 15 to 20 meters long. Anterior cervical vertebrae have a very low and wide neural arch. Diapophyses and parapophyses are very well developed lateroventrally. Zygapophyses are large and situated low and far from each other, strongly diverging laterally from the centrum. Neural spines of the posterior cervical vertebrae are widely bifurcated with no median spine. Cervical vertebrae have a well developed system of laminae and cavities. Centra of the dorsal vertebrae opisthocoelous have deep pleurocoels. Posterior dorsal vertebrae have unforked neural spines. Neural spines are elongated craniocaudally. Long diapophyses are directed more dorsally than laterally, nearly reaching the level of the spine. A phyposphenhypantrum system is present. The scapula is elongated and has a lateral ridge at the proximal extremity at a right angle to the shaft and also has a slight distal expansion. The humerus is similarly expanded at both ends. The anterior blade of the ilium is well developed. The pubic peduncle of the ilium is straight, long, and directed at right angles to the direction of the blade. The ischiatic peduncle of the ilium is faintly marked. The pubis has very open angles between the axis of the shaft and the ischiatic border. The caudal border of the ischium shaft has well marked curvature. The femur is flattened anteroposteriorly with the head situated slightly above the level of the great


°«â“ß¡“° ∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ëμ‘¥°—∫°√–¥Ÿ°À“ß ‡ÀÁπ‡ªìπ·π«‚§âß™—¥‡®π¥’ °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¡’ ≈—°…≥–·∫π‰ªμ“¡·π«¥â“πÀπâ“À≈—ß‚¥¬¡’ªÿÉ¡∫√‘‡«≥ §àÕπ‰ª∑“ߥâ“π∫π‡Àπ◊Õ√–¥—∫ªÿÉ¡„À≠à°√–¥Ÿ°‚§π¢“ ªÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ°‚§π¢“ªÿÉ¡∑’Ë ’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ —πÕ¬Ÿà∫√‘‡«≥ ·π«°≈“߇Àπ◊Õ∫√‘‡«≥ à«π°≈“ߢÕߧ«“¡¬“«∑àÕπ °√–¥Ÿ°  à«πª≈“¬≈à“ß ÿ¥¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π ¡’Õ’æ‘§Õ𥓬≈å∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ß¡’¢π“¥§àÕπ¢â“ß„À≠à¡“° ∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ≈à“ß¡’≈—°…≥–§àÕπ¢â“ß‚§âßßÕ ‰ª∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ß

trochanter. The fourth trochanter is crest-shaped, located medially above the mid-length of the shaft. The distal end of the femur has very large lateral epicondyle. The fibula shaft is slightly bent laterally.

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√Ÿªæ√√≥·≈–°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫

Description and comparision

μ— « Õ¬à “ ß°√–¥Ÿ ° ∑’Ë æ ∫„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ‰¥â π” ‰ª‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥´÷Ë߇ªìπ ∑’Ë√Ÿâ®—°°—π¥’®“°À≈“¬·ÀàߢÕß‚≈° ‰¥â·°à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë æ ∫®“°À¡«¥À‘ π ¡Õ√å √‘  — π ¬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° μÕπª≈“¬∑“ßμ–«—πμ°¢Õß À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“ ( °ÿ≈ §“¡“√“´Õ√—  ¥‘ª‚ª≈‚¥§—  ·≈–Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√— ) ®“° ™—ÈπÀ‘π‡∑𥓰Ÿ√Ÿ¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπª≈“¬„π·∑π´“‡π’¬ ( °ÿ≈ ∫“√Õ´Õ√—  ·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√—  ·≈–‰¥§√’ÕÕ´Õ√—  ) ·≈–®“°À¡«¥À‘πÀ≈“¬À¡«¥À‘π´÷Ëß¡’Õ“¬ÿ „π™à « ߬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° μÕπ°≈“ß∂÷ ß ¬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° μÕπ ª≈“¬„πª√–‡∑»®’π ( °ÿ≈ ™Ÿ‚π´Õ√—  ‚Õ‡À¡à´Õ√—  ·≈–¡“‡¡π™‘ ´ Õ√—   ®“°‡ ©«π ·≈–¬Ÿ ‡ Œ‚≈ªí   ®“°™“πμÿß) ‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß∂÷ß “¬æ—π∏ÿå ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´Õ‚√æÕ¥‡À≈à“π’È¥Ÿ‰¥â®“° McIntosh (1990) À≈—°°“√ ®”·π°‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢Õß·¡§Õ‘π∑Õ™¥—ß°≈à“« ∂Ÿ ° π”¡“ª√–¬ÿ ° μå „ ™â „π°“√»÷°…“ ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß°Õ´Õ√—    ‘√‘π∏√π’ π’ȥ⫬ ·μର‡«âπÀ≈“¬ °ÿ≈®“°®’π ‰¥â·°à ‚Õ‡À¡à´Õ√—  ¡“‡¡π™‘´Õ√—  ·≈–¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈ªí  ´÷Ëßμà“ß °Á∂Ÿ°®—¥„À⇢ⓉªÕ¬Ÿà„π«ß»å¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈‚楑¥’ ¥â “ πÀπâ “ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ®–¬“« μË” ·≈–°«â“ß¡“° ®“°°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫™’È™—¥«à“ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ·μ°μà“ß®“°´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢Õß®’π‡ªìπÕ¬à“ß¡“° Õ¬à“߇™àπ ¡“‡¡π™‘ ´ Õ√—   ‚Õ‡À¡à ´ Õ√—   ·≈–¬Ÿ ‡ Œ‚≈ªí   ´÷Ë ß ´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢Õß®’π¡’°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ·∫π√“∫ °«à“¡“°„π·π«¢«“ß  à«πÀ≈—ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß  à « π≈”§Õ¢Õß ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß°Õ´Õ√—    ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ ®–¡’ °√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå∑—Èß ÕߧàÕπ¢â“ß Ÿß·≈–∂à“ßÕÕ° ‡ªì π ¡ÿ ¡ °«â “ ß  à « π´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢Õß®’ π ¡’ πŸ √— ≈ Õ“√å § ∑“ߥ⠓ π∑â “ ¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π§Õ‡μ’È ¬ ·≈– °“√·μ°·¢πßÕÕ°‡ªìπßà“¡¢Õß°√–‚¥ß§àÕπ¢â“ßμ◊Èπ °«à“¡“° „π°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫π’È°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π

The Thai sauropod fossils have been compared with a number of well known sauropods from various localities, including those from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation of the western United States (Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus), from the Late Jurassic Tendaguru beds of Tanzania (Barosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Dicraeosaurus), and from several Middle and Late Jurassic formations in China (Shunosaurus, Omeisaurus and Mamenchisaurus from Sichuan, Euhelopus from Shandong). References concerning these forms are listed in McIntosh, 1990. McIntoshûs classification of the Sauropoda (McIntosh, 1990) has been followed, with the exception that the Chinese genera Omeisaurus, Mamenchisaurus, and Euhelopus are included in the family Euhelopodidae. The anterior cervical vertebrae of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae are elongated, low, and very broad. In this respect, this Thai sauropod differs greatly from Chinese sauropods, such as Mamenchisaurus, Omeisaurus, and Euhelopus. The Chinese sauropods have cervical vertebrae that are much more flattened transversally. The posterior cervical vertebrae of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae have high, widely bifurcated, neural spines. In the Chinese sauropods, the neural arches of the posterior cervical vertebrae are low and the bifurcation of the spine is very shallow. In this respect,


≈”§Õ¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ®–¡’≈—°…≥– „°≈⇧’¬ß°—∫°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ®”æ«° §“¡“√“´Õ√—  ´Ÿæ√’¡—  §“¡“√“´Õ√—  ≈ŸÕ‘ ‰Õ ·≈–∫“√Õ´Õ√—  ‡≈πμ—   à«π∑⓬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—« ¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’æ≈Ÿ‚√´’≈∑’Ë°√–¥Ÿ° ‡´πμ√— ¡ ·≈–¡’ √ –∫∫≈“¡‘ π’ ™— ¥ ‡®π¥’ ¡’ ° √–‚¥ß πŸ√—≈Õ“√姠Ÿß·μà¡’°√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå‡μ’Ȭ —Èπ·≈–‡√’¬« ¬“«„π·π«À— « ∑â “ ¬ ≈— ° …≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«‡À≈à“π’È· ¥ß≈—°…≥–„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π°—∫ ¢Õß ¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈ªí  ´¥“π´§’‰Õ ¡“°°«à“æ«°´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ™π‘ ¥ Õ◊Ë π Ê ·¡â «à “ ∞“π¢ÕßπŸ √— ≈ Õ“√å § ¢Õß ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß °Õ´Õ√—    ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ ®–‡μ’È ¬ °«à “ ¢Õß ¬Ÿ ‡ Œ≈Õªí   ´¥“π´§’‰Õ °Áμ“¡ °√–¥Ÿ° –∫—°¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–„°≈â ‡ §’ ¬ ß°— ∫ ¢Õß Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√—   ‡Õ°‡´≈´—  ·≈–Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√—  À≈ÿ¬ å´’ μ√ß∑’Ë¡’ ·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ°¬“«·≈–§àÕπ¢â“ß·ºà¢¬“¬°«â“ßÕÕ°‰ª ∑“ß à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥¢Õß·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ° ∑—Èßπ’È√«¡∂÷ß¡’ —π ¥â“π¢â“ß«“ßμ—«„π·π«μ—Èß©“°°—∫∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ° ·¡â «à “  à « πª≈“¬∫π ÿ ¥ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“Àπâ “ ∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ®–¡’ ¿“æ ‰¡à §à Õ ¬ ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ·μà ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π«à “  à « πª≈“¬ ÿ ¥ ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–·ºà ¢ ¬“¬°«â “ ßÕÕ°‰ª ´÷Ë ß μà “ ß®“°¢Õß ·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√—  ∫√“π§“‰Õ ∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–¬“«‡√’¬«°«à“ ¡“° ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥Õ◊ËπÊ ∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬®–¡’¢π“¥„À≠à¡“°°«à“¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡“°

the cervical vertebrae of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae are closer to those of Camarasaurus supremus, Camarasaurus lewisi, and Barosaurus lentus. The posterior dorsal vertebrae of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae have pleurocoels on the centrum and a well-developed system of laminae. The neural arch is high but the neural spine is short and craniocaudally elongated. These dorsal vertebrae show a closer resemblance to those of Euhelopus zdanskyi than to any other sauropod, although the base of the neural arch is lower than in Euhelopus zdanskyi. The scapula of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is close to that of Apatosaurus excelsus and Apatosaurus louisae in that the blade is elongated and very slightly expanded at its distal end. The lateral ridge is situated at right angles to the shaft. Though incomplete at its proximal end, the humerus of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae seems to have similarly expanded ends. The humerus of Brachiosaurus brancai is much more elongated and the humeri of other sauropods are more massive than that of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae.

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°â “ π°√–¥Ÿ ° À— « Àπà “ «¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  –‚æ°¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ §àÕπ¢â“߬“«·≈–™’È∑”¡ÿ¡ μ—Èß©“°°—∫·°π¢Õß·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ° ‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ∑’Ëæ∫„𠥑 ª ‚ª≈‚¥§—   ≈Õß°—   ·≈–Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√—   ‡Õ°‡´≈´—   ∑’Ë™’È ‰ª∑“ß à«πÀ—« ¥â“πÀπâ “ ¢Õß·ºà π °√–¥Ÿ °  –‚æ°¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë æ— ≤ π“‰¥â ¥’ ° «à “ ∑’Ë æ ∫„𠧓¡“√“´Õ√—  ´Ÿæ√’¡—  ‚Õ‡À¡à´Õ√—  ‡∑’¬πΩŸ‡Õπ´‘  ·≈æ擇√πμÕ´Õ√—   ¡“¥“°—   °“√å √‘ ‡ Õπ´‘   ·≈– ‡∑’¬π™“πÕ´Õ√—  ™‘‰μã‡Õπ´‘  °â“π°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’√àÕß√Õ¬ª√“°Ø„Àâ‡ÀÁπ §àÕπ¢â“ß™—¥‡®π °√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’¢π“¥‰¡à„À≠à°«à“¢Õß §“¡“√“´Õ√—  ´Ÿæ√’¡—  ·≈– ¡’≈—°…≥–‡æ√’¬«°«à“∑’Ëæ∫„𠥑ª‚ª≈‚¥§—  §“√å‡π°’‰Õ ‚æ√ßÕ–‡´μ–∫Ÿ≈“√å¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ®– —Èπ„π·π«À—«∑⓬·μà°«â“ß„π·π«¢«“ß §«“¡¬“«¢Õß à«π√Õß√—∫°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ∫π°√–¥Ÿ° À—«Àπà“«¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ®– —Èπ°«à“ ¢Õß ·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√—  ∫√“π§“‰Õ ·μà®–¬“«°«à“¢Õß §“¡“√“´Õ√—  ´Ÿæ√’¡—  ·≈–∫“√Õ´Õ√—  ·Õø√‘°—ππ—  °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“∑—ÈߢÕß Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√—  ‡Õ°‡´≈´—  ·≈–§“¡“√“´Õ√—  ´Ÿæ√’¡—  ·μà°Á‡æ√’¬« ∫“ß¡“°°«à “ ¢Õß ¥‘ª‚ª≈‚¥§—  §“√å‡π°’‰Õ ·≈– ¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈ªí  ´¥“π´§’‰Õ  à«π·μ°μà“ß∑’Ë ”§—≠√–À«à“ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß®’π °ÿ≈ ¡“‡¡π™‘´Õ√—  ‚Õ‡À¡à´Õ√—  ·≈–¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈ªí  °—∫ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ Õ’° Õ¬à “ ßÀπ÷Ë ß °Á §◊ Õ √Ÿ ª √à “ ß·≈–μ”·Àπà ß ¢ÕߪÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚∑√·´π‡μÕ√å ‚¥¬ªÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚∑√·´π‡μÕ√å ¢ Õß ´Õ‚√æÕ¥®“°®’π®–Õ¬Ÿà „ πμ”·Àπà ß ∑’Ë μË” °«à “ ∫√‘ ‡ «≥  à«π°≈“ߢÕß∑àÕπ¢“ ¢≥–∑’Ë¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ ®–Õ¬Ÿà „ πμ”·Àπà ß ∑’Ë  Ÿ ß °«à “ ªÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚∑√·´π‡μÕ√å¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ π’È

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The pubic peduncle of the ilium of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is very long and directed at right angles to the axis of the blade, unlike the condition in Diplodocus longus and Apatosaurus excelsus where it is cranially directed. The anterior blade of the ilium is more developed than in Camarasaurus supremus, Omeisaurus tianfuensis, Lapparentosaurus madagascariensis, and Tienshanosaurus chitaiensis. The ischiatic peduncle is slightly marked in Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae. The pubis of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is less massive than that of Camarasaurus supremus and less slender than that of Diplodocus carnegii. The acetabular surface is short craniocaudally and wide transversally in Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae. The length of the pubic peduncle of the ischium of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is intermediate between the elongated one of Brachiosaurus brancai and the shorter ones of Camarasaurus supremus and Barosaurus africanus. The femur of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is less massive than that of both Apatosaurus excelsus and Camarasaurus supremus, but it is more slender than in Diplodocus carnegii and Euhelopus zdanskyi. A main difference between the Chinese genera Mamenchisaurus, Omeisaurus, and Euhelopus and Phuwiangosaurus is the shape and position of the fourth trochanter. In Chinese sauropods, the fourth trochanter is placed in a low position


¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ —ππŸπ§≈⓬ÀßÕπ ·μà„π‰¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß ®’ π ®–¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‡ªì π °â Õ π‚Àπ°  à « πª≈“¬ ÿ ¥ ¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¡’Ւ摧Õ𥓬≈å¥â“π¢â“߇ÀÁπ‰¥â™—¥‡®π¥’ ·≈–°Áæ∫„π ·∫√§‘ Õ Õ´Õ√—   ∫√“π§“‰Õ ·≈–§“¡“√“´Õ√—   ´Ÿæ√’¡—  ¥â«¬‡À¡◊Õπ°—π °√–¥Ÿ° à«π°àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°√–‡∫π ‡ÀπÁ∫ ‡ªìπ à«π∑’Ë¡’ª√–‚¬™πå¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ ”À√—∫„™â „π °“√®”·π°§«“¡·μ°μà“ß√–À«à“ß´Õ‚√æÕ¥¥â«¬°—π ¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“°“√μ√«® Õ∫‚¥¬Õ“»—¬ à«π¢Õß°–‚À≈° ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß ®–ßà “ ¬°«à “ °“√μ√«® Õ∫‚¥¬ Õ“»—¬≈—°…≥–®“° à«π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°√¬“ߧå À√◊Õ°√–¥Ÿ°  à«π√Õ∫πÕ°´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡·ª√º—π Ÿß¡“° Õ¬à“߇™àπ∑’Ë æ∫„𠧓¡“√“´Õ√—   ´Ÿ æ √’ ¡—   Õ–·æμμÕ´Õ√—   ‡Õ°‡´≈´—  ·≈–∫“√Õ´Õ√—  ·Õø√‘°—ππ—  °√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ À≈“¬ °ÿ≈®“°®’π ¡’·π«‚πâ¡«à“®–∂Ÿ°∫’∫Õ—¥„π·π« ¢«“ßÕ¬à“ß·√ß „π∑“ßμ√ß°—π¢â“¡ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ ®–¡’ · π«°“√∫’ ∫ Õ— ¥ „π·π«μ—È ß ´÷Ë ß π”‰ª  Ÿà°“√∑”„Àâ°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ¢¬“¬·ºà°«â“ß ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ß πÕ°®“°π’È°“√·μ°·¢πßÕÕ° ‡ªì π ßà “ ¡∑’Ë ‡ °‘ ¥ ¢÷È π ∫π°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ∑à Õ π ∑â“¬Ê ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥À≈“¬ °ÿ≈®“°®’π®–§àÕπ¢â“ß μ◊Èπ¡“° ¢≥–∑’Ë„π ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¢Õ߉∑¬ ®–≈÷°·≈–™—¥‡®π°«à“¡“° · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß °Õ´Õ√—    ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ ‰¡à ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ¡’  à « π — ¡ æ— π ∏å „°≈♑¥„¥Ê°—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å„π«ß»å¬Ÿ‡Œ‚≈‚楑¥’ ≈—°…≥– √Ÿª√à“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ°¢“ À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ¥Ÿ§≈⓬ °—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å„π«ß»å§“¡“√“´Õ√‘¥’ ·μࡧ’ «“¡·μ°μà“ß À≈“¬Õ¬à “ ß∑’Ë ° √–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π°≈“ß≈”μ— « ·≈– °√–¥Ÿ° à«π√Õ∫πÕ° ´÷ßË ∑”„Àâ ‰¡à “¡“√∂®—¥„Àâ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß °Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ‡¢â“‰ªÕ¬Ÿà„π«ß»å§“¡“√“´Õ√‘¥’‰¥â

in the middle of the shaft, whereas in Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae it is located higher on the medial border. The fourth trochanter is crest-shaped in Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae and is bump-like in the Chinese genera. The distal end of the femur of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae has a very well developed lateral epicondyle, as in Brachiosaurus brancai and Camarasaurus supremus. The presacral vertebrae are considered as the most useful material on which to establish differences among sauropods. Advanced specializations seem to be more easily detectable on the skull and the vertebrae than on the limb bones or the girdles. A very large amount of individual variation can be observed on the limb bones and girdles of well known sauropods, such as Camarasaurus supremus, Apatosaurus excelsus, and Barosaurus africanus. In the Chinese genera, the cervical vertebrae have a tendency towards strong transversal compression. In contrast, in Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae the flattening occurs dorsoventrally, leading to very broad cervical vertebrae. Moreover, the bifurcation occurring on the last cervical vertebrae is very shallow in the Chinese genera. In Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae it is very deeply marked. These characters show that Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae has no close affinities with the Euhelopodidae. In the shape of the cervical vertebrae and the femur, Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is similar to the Camarasauridae.

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‚¥¬≈— ° …≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß · ¥ß√–¥— ∫ «‘«—≤π“°“√·≈–§«“¡´—∫´âÕπ∑’Ë Ÿß°«à“ ´÷Ë߉¡àæ∫„𠉥‚π‡ “√å„π«ß»å«—≈§“πÕ¥Õπ∑‘¥’ ·≈–‡´μ‘ÕÕ´Õ√‘¥’ ·≈–∑⓬∑’Ë ÿ¥·≈â«°Á¬—߉¡àæ∫≈—°…≥–„¥Ê ∑’Ë®–‡™◊ËÕ∂◊Õ ‰¥â«à“ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ‡ªìπ´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ¬Ÿà„π «ß»å¥‘ª‚ª≈‚¥´‘¥’ ‰∑∑—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’ ·∫√§‘ÕÕ´Õ√‘¥’ ·≈– ‰¥§√’ÕÕ´Õ√‘¥’  √ÿ ª ·≈â « ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß°Õ´Õ√—    ‘ √‘ π ∏√π’ À√◊ Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß ‡®â “ øÑ “  ‘ √‘ π ∏√ ‰¡à ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë §≈â “ ¬°— ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´ Õ‚√æÕ¥«ß»å „ ¥Ê ∑’Ë ‰ ¥â ¡’ ° “√ »÷ ° …“¡“°à Õ π‡≈¬ ®÷ ß ∂◊ Õ ‰¥â «à “ ‡ªì π ´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë ¬— ß ‰¡à “¡“√∂«‘π‘®©—¬„π√–¥—∫«ß»å ‰¥â ®π°«à“®–¡’°“√ §â π æ∫°√–¥Ÿ °  à « π∑’Ë  ”§— ≠ ¡“°°«à “ π’È ‚¥¬‡©æ“– Õ¬à “ ߬‘Ë ß  à « π°–‚À≈°·≈–°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß ∑’Ë Õ ¬Ÿà „ π  ¿“æ∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥å ®÷ß®– “¡“√∂®—¥«“ßμ”·Àπàß∑“ß Õπÿ ° √¡«‘ ∏ “π∑’Ë ∂Ÿ ° μâ Õ ß ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å  ”À√— ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ™π‘¥π’È ‰¥â πÕ°®“° ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ ·≈â«„π Õÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß¬—ßæ∫‰¥‚π‡ “√åÕ’°À≈“¬™π‘¥ ‡™àπ æ∫øíπ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ° ¢“¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ‡∑à “ ·¡à ‰ °à   °ÿ ≈ §Õ¡æå ´Õ°‡π∏—  ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 1 °√–¥Ÿ°À≈“¬™‘Èπ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 9 æ∫°√–¥Ÿ°ΩÉ“‡∑â“¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 5 æ∫°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 2 ·≈–À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ ∑’Ë 3 √«¡∑—Èßæ∫√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˬ—߇ªìπ√լ摡æå ∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥奒∫π™—ÈπÀ‘π∑√“¬æ√âÕ¡¥â«¬√àÕß√Õ¬¢Õß ÀπÕπ·≈–≈—°…≥–¢Õß√Õ¬√‘È«§≈◊Ëπ∑’Ë·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë 8 À≈—°∞“π°“√§âπæ∫‡À≈à“π’È· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“æ◊Èπ∑’Ë „πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡ªìπ·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë ”§—≠ ¡“°∑’Ë ¡§«√‰¥â√—∫°“√ ß«π√—°…“‰«â‡æ◊ËÕ°“√»÷°…“ «‘®—¬„π°“√ ◊∫ª√–«—μ‘«‘«—≤π“°“√¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‰∑¬

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But many differences in the dorsal vertebrae and the girdles prevent Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae from being attributed to the Camarasauridae. The vertebrae show an advanced level of complexity that is lacking in the Vulcanodontidae and the Cetiosauridae. Finally, there are no convincing common derived characters that could be used in favor of an attribution to the very specialized Diplodocidae, Titanosauridae, Brachiosauridae, and Dicraeosauridae. In conclusion, Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae does not have close similarities with any sauropod family already described. Thus, it is provisionally referred to an indeterminate family. Only the discovery of more remains, especially skull elements and well preserved vertebrae, or a clarification of sauropod systematics could result in a better understanding of its systematic position. Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae is not the only dinosaur that has been found in Phu Wiang National Park. Other dinosaurs that have been found there include Siamosaurus suteethorni, Siamotyrannus isanensis, the ostrich-mimic Ornithomimosaur, and the hen-size Compsognathus. However, only two pieces of bone of Compsognathus have been found and neither of these have enough significant characters to determine a species level. If further specimens of Compsognathus are found, perhaps a new species will have been discovered.


πÕ°®“°·Õà ß ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß·≈â « ¬— ß ¡’ ° “√ ”√«®æ∫ °√–¥Ÿ° ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ ß ‡®â “øÑ“ ‘ √‘ π ∏√ „π  ∂“π∑’Ë μà “ ßÊÕ’ ° À≈“¬·Àà ß „π¿“§μ–«— π ÕÕ°‡©’ ¬ ß ‡Àπ◊Õ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ·μà·À≈àß∑’Ëπà“ π„®·≈–®—¥«à“ ‡ªì π ·À≈à ß ∑’Ë ¡’ ° √–¥Ÿ °  ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ Õ¬Ÿà ∑’Ë À ≈ÿ ¡ ¢ÿ ¥ §â π ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå À≈ÿ¡ ¢ÿ¥§âπ¥—ß°≈à“«¡’¢π“¥ª√–¡“≥ 200 μ“√“߇¡μ√ ·μà¡’°√–¥Ÿ°√«¡°—π¡“°‡°◊Õ∫ 800 ™‘Èπ ®—¥‡ªìπ°√–¥Ÿ° ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ®”π«π 7 μ—« ‚¥¬μ—«Àπ÷Ëß ‡ªìπ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°‡°◊Õ∫ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å∑ß—È ‚§√ߢÕß≈Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¡’‡æ’¬ß à«πÀ—« §Õ ·≈–¢“Àπâ“¥â“π¢«“‡∑à“π—Èπ∑’Ë¢“¥ À“¬‰ª

Phu Wiang National Park has nine known dinosaur sites. Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae was discovered at site no. 1 in association with teeth of Siamosaurus suteethorni and the tibia and humerus of Compsognathus. Six bones were found at site no. 2 but these are too fragmented to study in detail. Dorsal vertebrae and other bones of a sauropod dinosaur found embedded in sandstone at site no. 3 have yet to be completely unearthed. Consequently, detail study of these bones is not yet possible. However, they possibly belong to Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae. Well preserved dinosaur footprints on sandstone beds were found at sites no. 5 and no. 8. These footprints were made by bipedal dinosaurs of various sizes. There are also worm traces and ripple marks at site no. 8. At site no. 9, a new theropod dinosaur genus and species, Siamotyrannus isanensis, was discovered. This dinosaur is seven meters long and is regarded as an ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex. All of these dinosaur remains indicate that the Phu Wiang National Park is a very important dinosaur fossil area for tracing the evolution of Thai dinosaurs. There are many other localities in northeastern Thailand that have yielded bones of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae but the most complete fossil found was at Phu Kum Khao in Kalasin Province. Almost 800 pieces of bone were found in an area of about 200 square meters. These bones are the remains of seven sauropod dinosaurs, one of which is a nearly complete skeleton of a juvenile body. Only a part of the skull of this dinosaur is missing. 33


‰¥‚π‡ “√å√«à ¡ ¡—¬Õ◊πË Ê ∑’æË ∫„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ OTHER CONTEMPORANEOUS ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬¡’°“√§âπæ∫´“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å DINOSAURS OF THAILAND ¡“μ—Èß·μàªï æ.» 2519 ®“°°“√ ”√«®·√ଟ‡√‡π’¬¡ „πÀ¡«¥À‘ π ‡ “¢— « ¢Õß𓬠ÿ ∏ √√¡ ·¬â ¡ π‘ ¬ ¡ π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ °√–¥Ÿ°™‘Èπ·√° ∑’Ë æ ∫‡ªì π  à « πª≈“¬ ÿ ¥ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“À≈— ß ∑à Õ π∫π ‚¥¬æ∫Õ¬Ÿà∫πæ◊ÈπÀ⫬¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“„°≈â°—∫À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ ∑’Ë 3 „πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ßªí®®ÿ∫—π °√–¥Ÿ°™‘Èππ’È ‰¥â√∫— °“√»÷°…“·≈–μ’æ¡‘ æ出¬·æ√à„πª√–‡∑»Ω√—ßË ‡»  ‚¥¬ Ingavat and others (1978) μ—Èß·μàπ—Èπ¡“ ®÷ß¡’‚§√ß°“√√à«¡¡◊Õ√–À«à“ߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬°—∫ª√–‡∑» Ω√—Ë߇»  ‡æ◊ËÕ»÷°…“«‘®—¬´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå —μ«å¡’°√–¥Ÿ°  —πÀ≈—ßÕ¬à“ßμàÕ‡π◊ËÕß®π∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π ¢≥–π’È ‰¥â§âπæ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ—π∏ÿå„À¡à¢Õß‚≈°„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬·≈â«®”π«π 5 ™π‘¥ ·≈–∑’ˬ—ß¡’¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈‰¡à‡æ’¬ßæÕ∑’Ë®–√–∫ÿ«à“‡ªìπ ™π‘¥„À¡à¢Õß‚≈°Õ’° 2 ™π‘¥ √«¡∑—È߉¢à·≈–√Õ¬μ’𠉥‚π‡ “√套ßμàÕ‰ªπ’È ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ æ∫„πªï æ.». 2519 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2529 ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß°Õ´Õ√—   ‘√‘π∏√π’ æ∫„πªï æ.». 2525 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2537 ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  æ∫„πªï æ.». 2536 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2539 ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ æ∫„πªï æ.». 2526 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2535 Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿™— πå ‰Õ æ∫„πªï æ.». 2541 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2543 §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  æ∫„πªï æ.». 2525 æ‘¡æå ‡º¬·æ√à„πªï æ.». 2527 ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å æ∫„πªï æ.». 2534 ¬—߉¡à ‰¥â √—∫°“√æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à

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The first Thai dinosaur bone was discovered by Sutham Yaemniyom in 1976 while conducting uranium exploration. This fossil was found in a piece of sandstone of the Sao Khua Formation. The bone is the distal part of a sauropod dinosaur femur. It was found in Huai Phu Pratu Teema stream, near what is now site no. 3 in the Phu Wiang National Park. This bone was studied and findings concerning it were published in France by R. Ingavat, R. Janvier, and P. Taquet in 1978. Since then, a cooperation project between Thailand and France concerning vertebrate paleontology research has made much progress. So far, seven Thai dinosaur genus have been found, five of which are new species. These are: ë Siamosaurus suteethorni Found in 1976, published in 1986 ë Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae Found in 1982, published in 1994 ë Siamotyrannus isanensis Found in 1993, published in 1996 ë Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Found in 1983, published in 1992 ë Isanosaurus attavipachi Found in 1998, published in 2000 ë Compsognathus sp. Found in 1982, published in 1984 ë Ornithomimosaur Found in 1991, unpublished


‰¢à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å æ∫„πªï 2545-2546 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à „πªï æ.». 2548 √Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿ŸÀ≈«ß æ∫„πªï æ.». 2527 æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√à‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2528

Dinosaurûs eggs Found in 2002-2003, published in 2005 ë Dinosaur footprints from Phu Luang Found in 1984, published in 1985

„π®”π«π∑’Ë æ ∫∑—È ß À¡¥ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡’ Õ “¬ÿ ‡¥’¬«°—π°—∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ §◊Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—    ÿ ∏’ ∏ √‰Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¢ π“¥®‘Î «  °ÿ ≈ §Õ¡æå ´ Õ°‡π∏—   ·≈– ‰¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å  à«π ‰¥‚π‡ “√媓°π°·°â« ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ ¡’Õ“¬ÿÕÕà π°«à“ ·≈–‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘ ¿— ™ πå ‰ Õ ¡’ Õ “¬ÿ · °à ° «à “ ´÷Ë ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ™ π‘ ¥  ÿ¥∑⓬‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥ ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ¥—ßπ—Èπ‡æ◊ËÕ∑’Ë®–‰¥â√Ÿâ®—°°—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å √à«¡ ¡—¬°—∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ·≈– «‘«≤ — π“°“√¢Õß “¬æ—π∏ÿ¢å Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ®÷ ß ‰¥â π”√“¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥¢Õß°“√»÷ ° …“«‘ ®— ¬ ¡“√«¡‰«â ¥—ßμàÕ‰ªπ’È

The dinosaurs with the same age as Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae are Siamosaurus suteethorni, Siamotyrannus isanensis, Compsognathus sp., and Ornithomimosaur. Psittacosaurus sattayaraki is younger than Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae and Isanosaurus attavipachi is older and the oldest Thai sauropod. The dinosaurs that are contemporaneous with Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae are described below.

ë

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√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ Reconstructed dinosaur model of Siamosaurus suteethorni

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1. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏∏’ √‰Õ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ °ÿ≈·≈–™π‘¥„À¡à¢Õß‚≈° æ∫§√—Èß·√°∑’Ë ¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“„πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‚¥¬æ∫øíπ ≈—°…≥–·ª≈°Õ¬Ÿà√«¡°—∫øíπª≈“©≈“¡ ‡°≈Á¥ª≈“ °√–¥Õ߇μà“·≈–®√–‡¢â™π‘¥„À¡à¢Õß‚≈° ‚°π‘ÕÕøÕ≈‘  ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡Õπ´‘  ∑—ßÈ À¡¥Õ¬Ÿà„π™—πÈ À‘π¢ÕßÀ¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑¡’Ë ≈’ °— …≥–∑’·Ë μ°μà“߉ª®“°∑’‡Ë §¬§âπæ∫ ¡“°àÕπ Buffetaut and Ingavat (1986) ®÷߉¥âμ—Èß ‡ªìπ °ÿ≈·≈–™π‘¥„À¡à§◊Õ ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ ™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√凪ìπ§”º ¡¢Õߧ”«à“ 牴·Õ¡é ´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ™◊Ë Õ ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬„πÕ¥’ μ ·≈–§”¿“…“°√’ ° ç´Õ√Õ é ´÷ËßÀ¡“¬∂÷ß  —μ«å‡≈◊ÈÕ¬§≈“πª√–‡¿∑°‘Èß°à“ À√◊Õ„π∑’Ëπ’ÈÀ¡“¬∂÷ß —μ«åæ«°‰¥‚π‡ “√å  à«π™◊ËÕ™π‘¥ μ—Èßμ“¡π“¡ °ÿ≈¢Õß𓬫√“«ÿ∏  ÿ∏’∏√ π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ´÷Ë߇ªìπÀπ÷Ëß„π§≥– ”√«®À“ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å„π§√—Èßπ—Èπ  ”À√— ∫ ≈— ° …≥–æ‘ ‡ »…¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ™ π‘ ¥ π’È ¡’ μ”·Àπàß∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¥—ßπ’È ™—πÈ : ‡√æ∑’‡≈’¬ Linne, 1758 Õ—π¥—∫„À≠à: ‰¥‚π´Õ‡√’¬ Owen, 1842 Õ—π¥—∫: ´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬ Seeley, 1888 Õ—π¥—∫¬àÕ¬: ‡∑Õ‚√‚楓 Marsh, 1881 «ß»å:  ‰ªπÕ´Õ√‘¥’ Stromer, 1915  °ÿ≈: ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—  Buffetaut & Ingavat, 1986 ™π‘¥: ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ Buffetaut & Ingavat, 1986

1. Siamosaurus suteethorni Siamosaurus suteethorni is a new genus and species of theropod dinosaur first found at Phu Pratu Teema in the Phu Wiang National Park. It was discovered as unusual teeth in association with shark teeth, fish scales, turtle plates, and a new crocodile species, Goniopholis phuwiangensis. Siamosaurus suteethorni has special characteristics that differentiate it from earlier described species. Buffetaut and Ingavat (1986), therefore, erected it as a new genus and species, Siamosaurus suteethorni. This name means the Siam dinosaur. The dinosaurûs generic name is derived from two words, Siam, the old name of Thailand, and sauros, a Greek word meaning lizard. Its species name, suteethorni, honors Varavudth Suteethorn, a geologist of the Department of Mineral Resources who has played an important part in the recent discoveries of fossil vertebrates in Thailand. Buffetaut and Ingavat (1986) described these unusual fossil teeth found at Phu Wiang as a new species of an unusual theropod dinosaur. Its taxonimic position is: Class: Reptilia Linne, 1758 Superorder: Dinosauria Owen, 1842 Order: Saurischia Seeley, 1888 Suborder: Theropoda Marsh, 1881 Family: Spinosauridae Stromer, 1915 Genus: Siamosaurus Buffetaut et al., 1986 Species: Siamosaurus suteethorni Buffetaut et al., 1986

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¥â“π√‘¡Ω望° Labial surface øíπ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ Tooth of Siamosaurus suteethorni

øíπ∑’Ë ÷°°√àÕπ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ Weathered tooth of Siamosaurus suteethorni

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¥â“π≈‘πÈ Lingual surface


μ—«Õ¬à“ßμâπ·∫∫·√° (À¡“¬‡≈¢ TF2043a) ‡ªìπ™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ߢÕßøíπ™‘Èπ‡¥’¬« ∂Ÿ°‡°Á∫√—°…“‰«â ∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ·≈– ¬— ß ¡’ μ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫‡§’ ¬ ßÕ’ ° 8 ™‘È π (À¡“¬‡≈¢ TF2043b ∂÷ß TF2043i) ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥‰¥â¡“®“°™—ÈπÀ‘π∑√“¬ ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ¢ÕßÀ¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« °≈ÿà¡À‘𠂧√“™ æ∫∑’Ë¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“ Õÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ μ—«Õ¬à“ßμâπ·∫∫·√° ‡ªìπøíπ∑’˧àÕπ¢â“ß∂Ÿ° ∫’ ∫ Õ— ¥ „π∑‘ » ∑“ߥ⠓ π≈‘È π ·≈–¥â “ π√‘ ¡ Ωï ª “° ¡’ ¿ “§ μ—¥¢«“߇ªìπ√Ÿª«ß√’§≈⓬√Ÿª‰¢à ·μà°Á¡’≈—°…≥–·ª√º—π Õ¬Ÿ∫à “â ߧ◊Õøíπ∫“ß´’¡Ë ¿’ “§μ—¥¢«“߇°◊Õ∫‡ªìπ√Ÿª«ß°≈¡ μ—«Õ¬à“ßμâπ·∫∫·√°¡’≈—°…≥–¬“«‡√’¬« §àÕπ¢â“ßμ√ß ·≈–‚§â߇≈Á°πâÕ¬„π·π«Àπâ“À≈—ߢÕßøíπ ¡ÿ¡¡Õß ∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“·≈–¥â“πÀ≈—ߢÕßøíπ¡’≈—°…≥–‚§âß Õß §√—Èß·μà ‰¡à§àÕ¬™—¥‡®π ´÷Ëß≈–¡â“¬°—∫∑’Ëæ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥â∑—Ë«‰ª „πøíπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ëæ∫„π·À≈à߇¥’¬«°—ππ’È ·μàøíπ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—  ´’ËÕ◊ËπÊ®“°¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‰¡à· ¥ß ≈—°…≥–¥—ß°≈à“«  à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥¢Õ߬եøíπ¡’≈—°…≥– ‚§âß¡π ¡’ —ππŸπμ“¡¬“«∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“·≈–¥â“πÀ≈—ß ¢Õßøíπ —߇°μ‡ÀÁπ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π ∑”„Àâ “¡“√∂·¬° æ◊È π º‘ « ¢Õßøí π ¥â “ π√‘ ¡ Ωï ª “°ÕÕ°®“°æ◊È π º‘ « ¢Õßøí π ¥â“π≈‘Èπ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π æ◊Èπº‘«¢Õßøíπ∑—Èß Õߥâ“𠂧âßπŸπÕÕ°‡∑à“°—π‰ª∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“·≈–¥â“πÀ≈—ß ¡’ ≈—°…≥–‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫øíπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑—«Ë ‰ª °≈à “ «§◊ Õ  — π πŸ π ‰¡à ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‡ªì π À¬— ° ·∫∫øí π ‡≈◊Ë Õ ¬ ‚¥¬ — π πŸ π ¥â “ πÀ≈— ß ¢Õßμ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫·√°¡’ ≈—°…≥–‰¡à‡√’¬∫ ¡Ë”‡ ¡Õ ·μà°Á‰¡à„™à≈—°…≥–¢Õß√Õ¬ À¬—°·∫∫øíπ‡≈◊ËÕ¬∑’Ë·∑â®√‘ß ¥—ß∑’Ëæ∫‡ÀÁπ„πøíπ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑—Ë«‰ª ∫πº‘«¢Õßøíπ∑—Èߥâ“π≈‘Èπ ·≈–¥â “ π√‘ ¡ Ωï ª “°´÷Ë ß ∂Ÿ ° ‡§≈◊ Õ ∫¥â « ¬ “√‡§≈◊ Õ ∫øí π (Õ’ 𠓇¡≈) ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‡ªì π ≈“¬‡ â 𠇪ì π  — π ¥â “ π≈– 15 ≈“¬‡ âπ ‚¬ß®“°∞“π¢Õßμ—«øíπ‰ª¬—ß à«π¢Õß

The holotype specimen, no. TF 2043a, is an isolated tooth housed at the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum, Kalasin Province, with eight more of less well preserved teeth, numbered TF 2043b to i. These teeth were recovered from a Late Jurassic Sao Khua Formation sandstone bed at Phu Pratu Teema, Phu Wiang, Khon Kaen Province. The holotype tooth is slightly compressd labiolingually, with an oval cross section. There is some variation in this respect, as other teeth have an almost circular cross section. The holotype is long and relatively straight and slender, with a feeble anteroposterior curvature. In anterior and posterior views, the tooth has a faint double curvature, reminiscent of what is seen in some normal carnosaur teeth from the same locality. Some other Siamosaurus teeth from Phu Wiang do not have such a feature. The tip of the crown is rounded. There are fairly distinct anterior and posterior carinae, separating the labial surface from the lingual surface. Both surfaces are equally convex anteroposteriorly. Unlike most theropod dinosaur teeth, the carinae do not have distinct serrations. The posterior carina of the holotype has irregularitites, but these are not as well defined as the true serrations seen in normal theropods. On both the lingual and labial sides, the surface of the enamel is covered with well marked ridges, which extend from the base of the crown to a point about 5 millimeters from the apex. There are 15 ridges on each side. These ridges are separated

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¬Õ¥øíπÀà“ß®“° à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥ª√–¡“≥ 5 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ‚¥¬√–À«à“ß≈“¬‡ âπ —ππ’ȇªìπ√àÕß∑’Ë¡’æ◊Èπ‡√’¬∫‚§â߇«â“ ≈߉ª μ—«Õ¬à“ßøíπ∑’Ë “√‡§≈◊Õ∫øíπÀ≈ÿ¥ÕÕ°‰ª®π ‡°◊Õ∫À¡¥· ¥ß≈“¬‡ âπ —π¥—ß°≈à“«μàÕ‡π◊ËÕß≈߉ª„π ‡π◊ÈÕøíπ∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¥â“π„π „πμ—«Õ¬à“ßμâπ·∫∫·√°‡ÀÁπ à«π ¢Õß√“°øí π ‰¡à ¡’ · π«ªŸ ¥ πŸ π ∫√‘ ‡ «≥√Õ¬μà Õ √–À«à “ ß √“°øí π °— ∫ ¬Õ¥øí π  à « π¢Õß√“°øí π °≈«ß·≈–¡’ ¿“§μ—¥¢«“߇ªìπ√Ÿª√’·∫∫‰¢à·≈–¡’æ—≈æ“√姓«‘μ’È „À≠à ´÷ßË ‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–ª°μ‘∑«—Ë ‰ª¢Õßøíπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ §«“¡ Ÿß¢Õßμ—«øíπ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 62.5 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ‡©æ“– à«π¢Õ߬եøíπ¡’§«“¡ Ÿß 47.7 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ‡ âπºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ߢÕßøíπμ“¡·π«Àπâ“À≈—ß 16.6 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ¢≥–∑’ˇ âπºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ßμ“¡·π«¥â“π √‘¡Ω望°°—∫¥â“π≈‘Èπ 12.5 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ μ—«Õ¬à“ßøíπ μâπ·∫∫·√°¡’¢π“¥„À≠à∑’Ë ÿ¥„π∫√√¥“μ—«Õ¬à“ßøíπ ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—  ∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬®“°¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“ ‚¥¬ μ—«Õ¬à“ßÀ¡“¬‡≈¢ TF 2043b ¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“¡“° ¥â«¬§«“¡ Ÿß‡æ’¬ß 24.3 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ´÷Ëß· ¥ß∂÷ß Õ“¬ÿ¢Õßøíπ∑’Ë·μ°μà“ß°—π∑’Ëæ∫„π·À≈à߇¥’¬«°—π

by grooves that have a concave floor. Weathered teeth in which the enamel has almost completely vanished show that the ridges extend to the underlying dentine. Part of the root is visible on the holotype. There is no constriction at the limit between the crown and the root. The root is hollow and has an oval cross section. It also has a vast pulpar cavity as in normal theropod teeth. The tooth is 62.5 millimeters high and the crown is 47.7 millimeters high. Anteroposterior and labiolingual diameters at base of the crown are 16.6 and 12.5 millimeters, respectively. The holotype tooth is among the largest Siamosaurus teeth found at Phu Pratu Teema. Tooth no. TF 2043b is much smaller, being 24.3 millimeters high, and shows that specimens from different aged individuals occur in the fossil locality.

‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 9 Siamotyrannus isanensis skeleton from excavation site no. 9

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√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  Reconstructed dinosaur model of Siamotyrannus isanensis

2. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  2. Siamotyrannus isanensis Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  Siamotyrannus isanensis Buffetaut

and others (1996) is a theropod dinosaur that is 6.5 meters long. It was discovered in 1993 at site no. 9 in Phu Wiang National Park. The discovery was made by Somchai Triamwichanon, a geologist of the Department of Mineral Resources. The bones are in dense sandstone and comprise an ilium and left pelvis that lie underneath dorsal vertebrae. The bones are described as follows in an article entitled çThe earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailandé, by Buffetaut and others (1996):

‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—   Õ’   “π‡Õπ´‘  ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥‡¥‘π Õߢ“ ¢π“¥≈”μ—«¬“« 6.5 ‡¡μ√ æ∫°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥π’ȇªìπ§√—Èß·√° ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 9 „πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‚¥¬ 𓬠¡™— ¬ ‡μ√’ ¬ ¡«‘ ™ “ππ∑å π— ° ∏√≥’ «‘ ∑ ¬“ °√¡ ∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2536 æ∫°√–¥Ÿ°Õ¬Ÿà„π À‘ π ∑√“¬‡π◊È Õ ·πà π ª√–°Õ∫¥â « ¬°√–¥Ÿ °  –‚æ° Àπ÷Ëß™‘Èπ ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π¥â“π´â“¬ ∑’Ë«“ßμ—«ΩíßÕ¬Ÿà „μâ°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß

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Buffetaut and others (1996) ‰¥â »÷ ° …“ °√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ëæ∫«à“‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥ „À≠ஓ°À¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ ·≈– ‰¥â殑 “√≥“«à“‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å„π«ß»å ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’  “¬æ—π∏ÿå‡°à“·°à “¬æ—π∏ÿå„À¡à∑’Ë¡’§«“¡‚∫√“≥¡“°°«à“ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å«ß»å ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’ ∑’ˇ§¬§âπæ∫¡“°àÕπ ∂÷ߪ√–¡“≥ 20 ≈â“πªï ¥—ßπ—Èπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å „ π«ß»å π’È  —ππ‘…∞“π«à“Õ“®¡’∂‘Ë𰔇𑥷≈–«‘«—≤π“°“√¢÷Èπ‡ªìπ §√—È ß ·√°„π‡Õ‡™’ ¬ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å   “¬æ— π ∏ÿå „ À¡à π’È ¡’ μ”·Àπàß∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¥—ßπ’È ™—πÈ : ‡√æ∑’‡≈’¬ Linne, 1758 Õ—π¥—∫„À≠à: ‰¥‚π´Õ‡√’¬ Owen, 1842 Õ—π¥—∫: ´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬ Seeley, 1888 Õ—π¥—∫¬àÕ¬: ‡∑Õ‚√‚楓 Marsh, 1881 «ß»å: ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’ Osborn, 1905  °ÿ≈: ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Buffetaut et al., 1996 ™π‘¥: ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  Buffetaut et al., 1996

Buffetaut and others (1996) described a newly discovered incomplete skeleton of a large theropod from the Early Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation of northeastern Thailand as an early and primitive representative of the Tyrannosauridae. This new taxon, which is at least 20 million years older than the earliest previously known tyrannosaurids, suggests that the early evolution of tyrannosaurids may have taken place is Asia. Its taxonomic position is: Class: Reptilia Linne, 1758 Superorder: Dinosauria Owen, 1842 Order: Saurischia Seeley, 1888 Suborder: Theropoda Marsh, 1881 Family: Tyrannosauridae Osborn, 1905 Genus: Siamotyrannus Buffetaut et al., 1996 Species: Siamotyrannus isanensis Buffetaut et al., 1996

™◊ÕË  °ÿ≈ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ Õߧ” §◊Õ  ¬“¡ (‰´·Õ¡) ·≈–‰∑√—ππÕ  ™◊ËÕ  ¬“¡ ‡ªìπ™◊ËÕ‡¥‘¡¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬  à « π§”«à “ ‰∑√— π πÕ  ‡ªì π ¿“…“°√’ ° À¡“¬∂÷ ß ºŸâ ¡’ Õ”π“®‡∫Á¥‡ √Á®  à«π™◊ËÕ™π‘¥¡“®“°§”«à“ çÕ’ “πé ‡ªì𧔉∑¬À¡“¬∂÷ßμ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ ¿Ÿ¡‘¿“§∑’Ëæ∫´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æåπ’È μ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫·√° (À¡“¬‡≈¢μ— « Õ¬à “ ß PW9-1) ∂Ÿ ° ‡°Á ∫ √— ° …“‰«â ∑’Ë æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ‡ªìπ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ° à«πÀπ÷Ëß ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ´÷Ë ß ª√–°Õ∫¥â « ¬°√–¥Ÿ ° ‡™‘ ß °√“π ¥â “ π´â “ ¬ °√–¥Ÿ ° °√–‡∫π‡ÀπÁ ∫ °√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à«π‚§πÀ“ß 13 ™‘Èπ∑’˪√–°Õ∫¥â«¬°√–¥Ÿ°‡™ø√Õπ ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«Õ’° 5 ™‘Èπ

The generic name consists of two words, siam and tyrannos. The word siam is the old name of Thailand and tyrannos is a Greek word for tyrant. The species name, isan, is a Thai word meaning northeastern part, the region where the fossil was first found. The holotype, PW.9-1, is housed in the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum in Kalasin Province. It is a partial skeleton that includes the left half of the pelvis, sacrum, 13 anteriormost caudal vertebrae with several chevron bones, and five dorsal vertebrae.


°√–¥Ÿ°°√–‡∫π‡ÀπÁ∫¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  Sacral vertebrae of Siamotyrannus isanensis

‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à ¡’≈”μ—«¬“« 6.5 ‡¡μ√ ‡¡◊ËÕ ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫ ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—  ´÷Ë ß ¡’ ≈”μ— « ¬“«∂÷ ß 12 ‡¡μ√ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°  –‚æ°¬“«≈“¥≈ßμË” ·≈–¡’·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ°¥â“πÀπâ“ ‡ªìπ‚§√ߥâ“π≈à“ßμ√ß°≈“ß«“߇°◊Õ∫„π·π«√–π“∫ ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«‡ªìπ∑àÕ𬓫 μ√ß à«πª≈“¬∫“π ÕÕ°‡ªì π ∞“π„À≠à ´÷Ë ß ¡’ ° “√æ— ≤ π“∑“ߥ⠓ πÀπâ “ ¡“°°«à“∑“ߥâ“πÀ≈—ß ∫√‘‡«≥¥â“π¢â“ß à«π‚§π¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«‰¡à¡’ —π‡ªìπÀßÕπ √Ÿ°√–¥Ÿ°ÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«‡ªî¥ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ߥâ“π≈à“ß ·μà®–∂Ÿ°≈âÕ¡√Õ∫‡ªìπ«ß°≈¡„À≠à¥â«¬ à«π‚§π¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°√Ÿªμ–¢Õ °√–¥Ÿ°°âπ‡√’¬«∫“ß·≈–‚§âß ·≈–¡’ √Õ¬·º≈‡ªìπ‡≈Á°Ê  —߇°μ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π∫√‘‡«≥¢Õ∫ ¥â “ π∫π¢Õß à « π‚§π´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ∑’Ë  ”À√— ∫  Õ¥¡—   §Ÿ ≈—   ‡ø≈°‡´Õ√å ∑‘‡∫’¬≈‘  Õ‘π‡∑Õ√åπ—  à«π∑’Ë “¡ °√–¥Ÿ°  — π À≈— ß  à « π‚§πÀ“ß¡’ πŸ √— ≈  ‰ªπå  Ÿ ß ·≈–‡√’ ¬ «∫“ß  à«πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«πÀ“ß¡’ªÿÉ¡À≈—߇≈Á°Ê ∫ππŸ√—≈Õ“√å§∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“¢ÕßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπåÀ≈—° °√–¥Ÿ° ‡™ø√Õπ¥â“πÀπâ“ ‡√’¬« ¬“« ·≈–μ√ß

It is a large theropod, being 6.5 meters long. By comparison, well-known Tyrannosaurus, another large theropod, is up to 12 meters long. Siamotyrannus isanensis has a long and relatively low ilium, the anterior blade of which forms an incipient subhorizontal medioventral shelf. The pubis has a long, straight shaft terminating in a massive distal boot, which is more developed anteriorly than posteriorly. No proximolateral crest is on the pubis. The obturator foramen of the pubis opens ventrally, but is largely encircled by a proximal bony hook. The ischium is slender, curved, with a small but well-defined scar on its proximodorsal edge for the insertion of the musculus flexor tibialis internus part 3. Anterior caudal vertebrae have tall, slender neural spines. Most posterior caudals have small dorsal process on the neural arch anterior to the main neural spine. Anterior chevrons are long, straight, and slender.

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‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   Õ’   “π‡Õπ´‘   ¡’ ≈— ° …≥– À≈“¬Õ¬à “ ß∑’Ë ¡’ § «“¡‡°’Ë ¬ «¢â Õ ß°— ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å « ß»å ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’ ·¡â«à“®–¡’∫“ß≈—°…≥–∑’Ë¡’°“√æ—≤π“ πâ Õ ¬°«à “ æ«°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ ∑’Ë æ ∫„π¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬   μÕπª≈“¬ Õ¬à“߇™àπ ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—  ∑“√å∫Õ´Õ√—  ·≈–Õ—≈‡∫‘√åμμÕ´Õ√—  ≈—°…≥–‡À≈à“π’È√«¡∂÷ß‚§√ß °√–¥Ÿ ° ¥â “ π≈à “ ßμ√ß — π °≈“ߢÕßªï ° ¥â “ πÀπâ “ ¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°´÷Ë߉¡àæ∫„π Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√—  ´‘π·√æ‡μÕ√å ·≈–‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à Õ◊Ë π Ê „π¬ÿ § ®Ÿ·√ ´‘° ·μà¡’°“√æ—≤π“‰¥â¥’„πæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥ ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬  ”À√—∫ °ÿ≈ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°¥—ß°≈à“««“ßμ—«Õ¬Ÿà„π·π«√–π“∫πâÕ¬°«à“ ·≈–·§∫°«à “ æ«°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ „π¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬   μÕπª≈“¬ °√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°¡’ —¥ à«π¢Õߧ«“¡¬“«·≈– °“√≈“¥‡Õ’ ¬ ß∑’Ë μË” ≈߇À¡◊ Õ π‰¥‚π‡ “√å æ «°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘¥∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ ·μà„π‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√‘¥ ´‘π·√æ‡μÕ√‘¥ ·≈–‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘° Õ◊ËπÊ ®–¡’·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ° Ÿß°«à“  ”À√—∫æ◊Èπº‘« ·ºà π °√–¥Ÿ °  –‚æ°„π ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   ¡’ § «“¡ μà“ß√–¥—∫™—¥‡®π ´÷Ëß√«¡∂÷ß·π« —π¢π“π„π·π«¥‘Ëß  Õß·π«‡Àπ◊ Õ ‚æ√ßÕ–‡´μ–∫Ÿ ≈— ¡  — π „π≈— ° …≥– ‡¥’ ¬ «°— π π’È æ ∫„π‰¥‚π‡ “√å æ «°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ ¬ÿ § §√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬¥â«¬ ·μà∑’Ëæ∫„π¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘° æ◊Èπº‘«°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°®–‡√’¬∫°«à“ æ◊Èπº‘«μ√ß à«π °≈“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ °  –‚æ°¬— ß §ß√Õß√— ∫  à « π¢ÕߪÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ°·π«¢«“ß∑’Ë·μ°À—°·≈–°√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°°√–‡∫π‡ÀπÁ∫´÷Ëß·π∫°√–™—∫°—∫°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ° ‰¥âÕ¬à“ßæÕ¥’ μ”·Àπàßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë¢Õß°“√ Õ¥„ à ”À√—∫ ªÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ°‡À≈à“π’ȇÀ¡◊Õπ°—π°—∫∑’Ëæ∫„π ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—  ·≈–Õ—≈‡∫‘√åμμÕ´Õ√—  ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß√àÕß√Õ¬ °“√ Õ¥„ à¢ÕߪÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ°„π·π«¢«“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ° °√–‡∫π‡ÀπÁ∫∑àÕπ·√°´÷ËßÕ¬Ÿà¥â“π∫π¢Õߪ≈“¬¥â“π À≈—ߢÕß√àÕß∫“°¥â“πÀπâ“∑’Ëæ∫„πæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥

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Siamotyrannus isanensis has several derived features of the Tyrannosauridae, although some of these are less fully developed than in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids, such as in Tyrannosaurus, Tarbosaurus, and Albertosaurus. These features include the medioventral shelf of the anterior wing of the ilium, which is absent in Allosaurus, Sinraptor, and other large theropods from the Jurassic but is well developed in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. In Siamotyrannus, the shelf is less horizontal and narrower than in the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. The proportions of the long and relatively low ilium are like those in tyrannosaurids. In allosaurids, sinraptorids, and other Jurassic theropods, the iliac blade is higher. In Siamotyrannus, the iliac blade has strong reliefs, including two well-marked parallel vertical ridges above the acetabulum. Similar ridges are present in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids, whereas Jurassic forms have smoother ilia. The medial surface of the ilium still bears parts of the broken transverse processes and neural spines of the sacral vertebrae, which were firmly attached to the ilium. The position of the insertion areas for these processes is similar to the condition in Tyrannosaurus and Albertosaurus, with, in particular, a well-marked insertion of the transverse process of the first sacral just above the posterior end of the anterior notch, which is present in tyrannosaurids but not clearly visible in Allosaurus and Sinraptor. The transverse


·μà‡ÀÁπ‰¥â ‰¡à™—¥‡®π„π Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√—  ·≈–´‘π·√æ‡μÕ√å ªÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ·π«¢«“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π°≈“ß ≈”μ—«™‘Èπ ÿ¥∑⓬ª√–°∫‡¢â“‰ª„π√Õ¬‡«â“‚§âßμ√ß à«π °≈“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°‡Àπ◊Õ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ë«“ßμ—« ‡°◊ Õ ∫Õ¬Ÿà „π·π«πÕ𠇪ìπ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë Õ¥§≈âÕß°—π °—∫√àÕß≈÷°∑’ˇÀÁπ‰¥â∫π°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å æ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬  à«π∑“ß ¥â“πÀ≈—ß ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ° —ÈπÊ μ√ß·π«°≈“ß®–·§∫¥—ß∑’Ë æ∫„π Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√—  ‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥ ∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ ∞“πæ¬ÿß°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«°«â“ߢ÷ÈπÕ¬à“ß ™—¥‡®π‰ª∑“ß à«πª≈“¬¥—ß∑’Ëæ∫„π ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—   — π ¢Õß‚æ√ßÕ–‡´μ–∫Ÿ ≈ “√å ‡ √‘Ë ¡ ∑’Ë  à « π∑â “ ¬¢Õß∞“π √Õß√—∫°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«·≈–‡°’ˬ«√—Èß°—∫∞“π√Õß√—∫ °√–¥Ÿ°°â𠉥‚π‡ “√åæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥√ÿàπÀ≈—ßÊ ¡’  — π „π≈— ° …≥–‡¥’ ¬ «°— π π’È ´÷Ë ß ª°μ‘ ® –¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‡ªì π ªÿÉ ¡ ™— ¥ ‡®πÀπ÷Ë ß ªÿÉ ¡ ∑’Ë ª ≈“¬¥â “ πÀ≈— ß ·μà ‰ ¡à æ ∫„π ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   °√–¥Ÿ ° À— « Àπà “ «· ¥ß≈— ° …≥– §≈⓬ª≈Õ°¢π“¥„À≠à  à«π„À≠à‡ÀÁπ‰¥â∑“ß à«πª≈“¬ ¥â“πÀπâ“¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ° Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ∑“ߥâ“πÀ≈—ß Õ“®¡’   ¿“æ‰¡à   ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å · ≈–Õ“®®– —È π °«à “ „πæ«° ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬  ”À√—∫„𠉥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°·≈â« À“° æ∫ª≈Õ°Àÿâ¡∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«¡’·π«‚πâ¡®–æ∫∑“ß ¥â“πÀ≈—ß¡“°°«à“∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“ ¥—ß∑’Ëæ∫„π À¬“ß™«π πÕ´Õ√—   ´‘ π ·√æ‡μÕ√å ·≈–Õ— ≈ ≈Õ´Õ√—   ∑à Õ π °√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  ¡’≈—°…≥–μ√ß ‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫∑’Ëæ∫„π Õ—≈‡∫‘√åμμÕ´Õ√—  ·≈–‡√’¬«∫“ß ¡“°°«à“¢Õßæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥√ÿàπÀ≈—ßÊ °√–¥Ÿ° À—«Àπà“«∑—Èß Õ߬◊Ëπ‰ª∫√√®∫°—πμ“¡ à«π§«“¡¬“«‰ª ∑“ß à«πª≈“¬ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–·∫∫‡¥’¬«°—π°—∫¢Õß Õ— ≈ ‡∫‘ √å μ μÕ´Õ√—   °√–¥Ÿ ° °â 𠇪ì π ∑à Õ πºÕ¡∫“ß ‡√’¬«‚§âߧ≈⓬°—∫æ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  μÕπª≈“¬‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß °ÿ≈ ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—  ªÿÉ¡ÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“®–·μ°À—° ·μà¢Õ∫∑“ß

process of the last dorsal fits into a depression of the medial face of the ilium, above the subhorizontal shelf, corresponding to the deep groove visible on the ilia of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. Posteriorly, the medial brevis shelf is relatively narrow, as in Allosaurus and tyrannosaurids. The massive pubic peduncle conspicuously broadens distally, as in Tyrannosaurus. The prominent supra-acetabular ridge starts from the posterior part of the pubic peduncle and overhangs the ischiadic peduncle. Later tyrannosaurids have a similar ridge that often forms a strong tubercle at its posterior end, but which is not developed in Siamotyrannus. The pubis shows a massive distal boot that is mainly developed anteriorly to the shaft. However, its posterior part may be incomplete, but was probably shorter than in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. In Jurassic large theropods, the pubic boot, when present, tends to be more developed posteriorly than anteriorly, as in Yuangchuanosaurus, Sinraptor, and Allosaurus. The pubic shaft of Siamotyrannus is straight, as it is in Albertosaurus, and more slender than in later tyrannosaurids. The pubes apparently met along part of their length distally, a condition similar to that of Albertosaurus. The ischium has a slender curved shaft, reminiscent of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids, especially Tyrannosaurus. Its anterior obturator process is broken, but a thickening of the otherwise thin anteroventral margin of the bone shows where it was located. However, its exact shape cannot be determined. On the posterolateral edge of 45


°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  Pubis of Siamotyrannus isanensis

øíπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ´÷ËßÕ“®‡ªìπ¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  A tooth of theropod probably belonging to Siamotyrannus isanensis

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¥â“πÀπâ“∫√‘‡«≥ à«π≈à“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ°´÷Ëß·∑π∑’Ë®–∫“ß °≈—∫Àπ“¢÷πÈ · ¥ß∂÷ßμ”·Àπàß∑’ÕË ¬Ÿ¢à Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¥—ß°≈à“« Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‰¡àÕ“®∑√“∫≈—°…≥–√Ÿª√à“ß∑’Ë·∑â®√‘߉¥â „μâæ◊Èπ∑’Ë —¡º— °—∫°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°∫√‘‡«≥¢Õ∫¥â“πÀ≈—ß μ√ß à « π≈à “ ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ ° ¡’ √à Õ ß√Õ¬√Ÿ ª ‰¢à ‡ ÀÁ π ‰¥â ™—¥‡®π‡ªìπ∑’Ë Õ¥‡¢â“‰ª¢Õß°≈â“¡‡π◊ÈÕ¡— §‘«≈—  ‡ø≈° ‡´Õ√å ∑‘‡∫’¬≈‘  Õ‘π‡∑Õπ—  à«π∑’Ë “¡ ‚¥¬°≈â“¡‡π◊ÈÕπ’È ¡’≈—°…≥–√à«¡Õ—πÀπ÷ËߢÕ߉¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°´’≈Ÿ´Õ‡√’¬π ∑’ˬ—߉¡à√Ÿâ™◊ËÕ ´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’·≈–∫—≈≈“∑Õ´Õ‡√’¬ ∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¡’ —π μ“¡·π«¬“«Àπ÷Ëß·π«‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫∑’Ëæ∫„π Õ— ≈ ‡∫‘ √å μ μÕ´Õ√—  ·μà ‰¡à¡’À≈—°∞“π· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ à«πª≈“¬ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¡’§«“¡Àπ“¢÷Èπ‡ÀÁπ‰¥â‡ªìπ à«π„À≠à„𠉥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° Õ¬à “ ߉√°Á μ “¡  à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ∑’¢Ë “¥À“¬‰ªπ—πÈ ®÷߉¡à·πà«“à ®–¡’ § «“¡Àπ“¢÷È π ∑“ß à « πª≈“¬¢Õß∑à Õ π°√–¥Ÿ ° À√◊ Õ ‡ª≈à “ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë À π“¢÷È π ∑“ߥ⠓ πª≈“¬¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°°âπæ∫„πæ«°ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å·μà ‰¡àæ∫„πæ«° ‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ ´÷Ë ß ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∫“ßÕ¬à “ ß„π°√–¥Ÿ °  —πÀ≈—ß¡“°°«à“„π°√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π °√–¥Ÿ°°√–‡∫π ‡ÀπÁ∫ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬°√–¥Ÿ°√Ÿª√à“ߧ≈⓬π“Ãî°“∑√“¬ ®”π«π 5 ™‘Èπ∑’ËÀ≈Õ¡μ‘¥Õ¬Ÿà°—∫≈”°√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡ ·≈–πŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå °√–¥Ÿ°°√–‡∫π‡ÀπÁ∫¢âÕ∑’Ë Õß·≈– ¢âÕ∑’Ë “¡¡’ à«π≈”°√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡·§∫¡“° ‡À¡◊Õπ∑’Ë æ∫„π ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√—  ‡√Á°´å ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–À≈“¬Õ¬à “ ß∑’Ë ‰¡à¡’„πæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬ ´÷Ë ß Õ“®æ‘ ® “√≥“‰¥â «à “ ‡ªì π ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‡ °à “ ·°à ° «à “ ‡¡◊Ë Õ ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥Õ◊ËπÊ ≈—°…≥– ¥—ß°≈à“«§◊Õ°“√ª√“°Ø¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°√Ÿªμ–¢ÕÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å∫π°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«·≈–°“√ª√“°Ø¢Õß√Ÿ‡ªî¥ °√–¥Ÿ°ÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å∑’Ë¡’æ—≤π“°“√∑’Ë¥’ √Ÿ‡ªî¥°√–¥Ÿ° ∑’˪î¥≈âÕ¡‡μÁ¡∑’ËÕ—πÀπ÷Ëßæ∫‰¥â „π‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° À≈“¬™π‘ ¥  ”À√— ∫ √Ÿ ‡ ªî ¥ °√–¥Ÿ ° „π

the bone, below the contact with the ilium, there is a well marked oval scar for the insertion of the musculus flexor tibialis internus part 3. The musculus flexor tibialis internus part 3 is a synapomorphy of an unnamed coelurosaurian taxon comprising the Tyrannosauridae and Bullatosauria. The shaft of the ischium bears a longitudinal ridge, as in Albertosaurus. There is no evidence of the distal thickening of the ischium that is seen in many Jurassic theropods. However, the ischiums distal tip is missing, so there is uncertainty as to whether distal thickening does occur. Distal thickening of the ischium is present in ornithomimosaurs but not in tyrannosaurids. There are fewer tyrannosaurid features in the preserved vertebrae than in the pelvis. The sacrum consists of five hourglass-shaped vertebrae, with fused centra and neural spines. The second and third sacrals have very narrow centra, as in Tyrannosaurus rex. Siamotyrannus has features that are not found in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids and, thus, may be considered as being primitive compared to other theropods. Two such features are the presence of a well-developed obturator hook on the pubis and the presence of a well-developed obturator foramen. A fully enclosed foramen is present in many Jurassic theropods. In Sinraptor, the obturator foramen is no longer completely enclosed in bone, but there is both a proximal and a distal hook, unlike only a proximal hook in Siamotyrannus. In Allosaurus, the proximal hook is much more reduced than that of 47


´‘π·√æ‡μÕ√å ‰¡àæ∫°“√ªî¥≈âÕ¡Õ¬à“ß ¡∫Ÿ√≥å‡≈¬ ·μà ¡’≈—°…≥–μ–¢Õ∑—Èߥâ“π‚§π·≈–¥â“πª≈“¬¢Õß∑àÕπ °√–¥Ÿ° ´÷Ë߉¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  ∑’Ë°√–¥Ÿ° ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–μ–¢Õ‡©æ“–∫√‘ ‡ «≥ à « π‚§π‡∑à “ π—È π „π Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√—  ≈—°…≥–μ–¢Õ∑’Ë∫√‘‡«≥ à«π‚§ππ’È¡’¢π“¥ ≈¥≈߉ª¡“°‡¡◊ËÕ‡∑’¬∫°—∫ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—   à « 𠉥‚π‡ “√åæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬ ‰¡àæ∫√àÕß√Õ¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ√Ÿªμ–¢Õ ∫π°√–¥Ÿ°À—«Àπà“«‡≈¬ ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë∫àß∫Õ°«à“‡°à“·°à Õ’°≈—°…≥–Àπ÷Ëß ”À√—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥ °Á§◊Õ °“√‰¡à¡’·π« —π∑’Ë™—¥‡®π∫π¢Õ∫¥â“π¢â“ßμ√ß  à « πÀπâ “ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° À— « Àπà “ «´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ∑’Ë ¬÷ ¥ μ‘ ¥ ¢Õß °≈â “ ¡‡π◊È Õ ·Õ¡‡∫’ ¬ π å  à « π„π ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   ¡’‡æ’¬ß·§àæ◊Èπ∑’ˬàπÊ ‡ªìπ≈Õπ ”À√—∫‡ªìπ∑’ˬ÷¥μ‘¥¢Õß °≈â“¡‡π◊ÈÕ‡∑à“π—Èπ ≈—°…≥–∑’ËÕ“®®–‡°à“·°àÀ≈“¬Ê Õ¬à“ߥŸ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“®–ª√“°Ø∫π°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß ∫√‘‡«≥  à « π°≈“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π°≈“ß≈”μ— « ¡’ °√–¥Ÿ ° ·°π°≈“ß√Ÿ ª √à “ ߧ≈â “ ¬π“Ãî ° “∑√“¬·≈–¡’ √Õ¬∫ÿã¡Àπ÷Ëß√Õ¬∫πº‘«Àπâ“¥â“π¢â“ß ‰¡à¡’™àÕ߇ªî¥ æ≈Ÿ‚√´’≈‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫æ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  μÕπª≈“¬ ‚æ√ß°√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß  à«πÀ“ß¡’≈—°…≥–‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫¢Õßæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥ √ÿàπÀ≈—ßÊ ∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬·μàπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå ‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—π °√–¥Ÿ°  — π À≈— ß  à « πÀ“ß∑à Õ π∑’Ë Àâ “ ∂÷ ß ∑à Õ π∑’Ë ‡ ®Á ¥ ®– Ÿ ß ·≈– ºÕ¡‡√’¬«´÷Ëߧ≈⓬°—π°—∫≈—°…≥–∑’Ëæ∫„π À¬“ß™«ππÕ´Õ√—   ·≈–Õ— ≈ ≈Õ´Õ√—   ¡“°°«à “ æ«°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ ¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬  μÕπª≈“¬ ´÷Ë ß πŸ √— ≈  ‰ªπå ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‡°◊ Õ ∫‡ªì π √Ÿ ª  ’Ë ‡ À≈’Ë ¬ ¡º◊ π ºâ “ „π¡ÿ ¡ ¡Õß ¥â“π¢â“ß °√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«πÀ“ß∑àÕπ∑â“¬Ê ¡’°√–¥Ÿ° ‡´πμ√— ¡ ‡μ’È ¬ ·≈–¡’ πŸ √— ≈ Õ“√å § ¬“«Àπ÷Ë ß Õ— π ∑’Ë ¡’ ‡ ¥◊ Õ ¬ ‡≈Á°Êμ√ß°≈“ß∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“¢ÕßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπåÀ≈—° ´÷Ëß ‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–Àπ÷Ëß∑’˧≈⓬°—∫¢Õß Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√— 

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Siamotyrannus. Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids have practically no vestige of a pubic hook. Another apparently primitive feature for tyrannosaurids is the lack of a well-defined anterolateral ridge on the anteroproximal edge of the pubis for the attachment of the ambiens muscle. In Siamotyrannus, there is merely a rugose area for muscle attachment. Several probably primitive features are apparent on the vertebrae. The dorsal vertebrae from the middle part of the dorsal series have hourglass-shaped centra and a dorsal depression on the lateral faces. There is no pleurocoelic opening as in Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids. The platycoelic centra of the caudals are similar to those of later tyrannosaurids, but their neural spines, when preserved, are not. Those of the fifth, sixth, and seventh caudals are tall and slender and more reminiscent of Yuangchuanosaurus and Allosaurus than of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids, in which the neural spines are roughly rectangular in lateral view. More posterior caudals have lower centra with a long neural arch bearing a small median spur anterior to the main neural spine, a condition reminiscent of Allosaurus.


μ”·Àπàß∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¢Õß ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—   “¡“√∂Õπÿ ¡ “π‰¥â ® “°À≈“¬≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‰ ¥â √— ∫ °“√ μ°∑Õ¥¡“ Àπ÷Ë ß „π≈— ° …≥–¥— ß °≈à “ «§◊ Õ √à Õ ß√Õ¬ Õ‘ ‡™’¬¥‘°´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“πÕ—πÀπ÷Ëß ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°´’≈Ÿ‚√´Õ√‘  ∑’˪√–°Õ∫¥â«¬æ«° ‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥’ · ≈–∫— ≈ ≈“μÕ´Õ‡√’ ¬ ´÷Ë ß ¡’ ° √–¥Ÿ ° ‡™‘ ß °√“π∑’Ë · μ°μà “ ß®“°¢ÕßÕÕ√å π‘ ‚ ∏¡‘ ‚ ¡´Õ√å · ≈– ¢Õßæ«°∑√Ÿ ‚ Õ¥Õπμ‘ ¥ °≈à “ «§◊ Õ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‡™‘ ß °√“π ¢ÕßÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å¡’°√–¥Ÿ° –‚æ°‡ªìπ√Ÿªμ–¢Õ ¥â “ πÀπâ “ ∑’Ë ‚ ¥¥‡¥à π ¡“°·≈–¡’ ° √–¥Ÿ ° °â π ·ºà ° «â “ ß ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ß à«πª≈“¬  à«π„π∑√Ÿ‚Õ¥Õπμ‘¥π—πÈ °√–¥Ÿ° °âπ¡’°“√·ºà°«â“ßÕÕ°·≈–‰¡à¡°’ √–¥Ÿ°°âπ√Ÿª√Õ߇∑â“∫ÿμä ≈—°…≥–πÕ°‡Àπ◊Õ®“°∑’Ë°≈à“«¢â“ßμâπ´÷Ëß√«¡∂÷ßæ«° ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬ “¡“√∂æ‘ Ÿ®πå ‰¥â«à“ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å Õ¬Ÿà„π«ß»å ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥’ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ≈—°…≥–√à«¡ ·∫∫‡æ≈ ´‘ ‚ Õ¡Õ√å ø ¢Õß¡— π · ¥ß„Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π «à “ ¡— π ¡’ §«“¡‡°à“·°à¡“°°«à“≈—°…≥–Õ◊πË „¥∑’æË ∫„π¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬   ¿“槫“¡‡°à“·°à¢Õß√àÕß∫“°ÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å∫π°√–¥Ÿ° À— « Àπà “ «„π ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√— π π—   ∑”„Àâ ¢— ¥ ·¬â ß °— ∫  ¡¡ÿμ‘∞“π∑’Ë«à“ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥‰¡à “¡“√∂ «‘ «— ≤ π“°“√¡“®“°æ«°Õ— ≈ ≈Õ´Õ√‘ ¥ ‰¥â ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“° ≈—°…≥–¥—ß°≈à“«‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë°â“«Àπâ“∑—π ¡—¬°«à“ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‰¡à ‰¥âÀ¡“¬§«“¡«à“®–‡ªìπ‰ª‰¡à ‰¥â∑’Ë®– «‘«—≤π“°“√¡“®“°æ«°´‘π·√æ‡μÕ√‘¥´÷Ëß¡’√àÕß∫“° ÕÕ∫∑Ÿ‡√‡μÕ√å∑¡’Ë §’ «“¡‡°à“·°à¡“°°«à“ ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’   “π‡Õπ´‘   ∂◊ Õ ‡ªì π æ«°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ ∑’Ë ‡ °à “ ·°à ∑’Ë ÿ¥‡∑à“∑’ˇ§¬§âπæ∫¡“∑”„ÀâμâÕß∫—π∑÷°§«“¡‡°à“·°à ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å«ß»åπ’È „Àâ‡°à“·°à¡“°¢÷ÈπÕ’°Õ¬à“ßπâÕ¬ 20 ≈â “ πªï §◊ Õ ‡°à “ ·°à ‰ ª∂÷ ß ¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬  μÕπμâ π ‰´·Õ¡Õ‰∑√—ππ—  Õ’ “π‡Õπ´‘  ¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡°à“·°à°«à“æ«° ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥√ÿàπ·√°Ê™π‘¥Õ◊ËπÊ®“°‡Õ‡™’¬∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ ·°à ° «à “ Õ–‡≈§μ√Õ´Õ√—   ®“°¡Õß‚°‡≈’ ¬ „π·≈– Õ‡¡√‘ ° “‡Àπ◊ Õ ·≈–‡°à “ ·°à ° «à “ øí π ®“°À¡«¥À‘ π

The systematic position of Siamotyrannus can be deduced from several of its derived features. One of these is the ischiadic scar, which characterizes a taxon within the Coelurosauris. Coelurosauris comprises the Tyrannosauridae and the Bullatosauria. The pelvis is otherwise quite different from that of either the ornithomimosaurs, which have either a different ilium with a very prominent anterior hook and a distally expanded ischium or troodontids, which have an expanded ischium and no pubic boot. Other abovementioned derived characters shared with Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids also justify the inclusion of Siamotyrannus isanensis in the family Tyrannosauridae. Its plesiomorphic characters show, however, that it is more primitive than any of the Late Cretaceous forms. Contrary to one hypothesis, because of the primitive state of the obturator notch of the pubis in Siamotyrannus, tyrannosaurids cannot be derived from allosaurids, in which this character is more advanced. However, this would not preclude derivation from sinraptorids, in which the obturator notch is more primitive. Siamotyrannus isanensis is the earliest known tyrannosaurid, moving back the record of the family by a least 20 million years, well down into the Early Cretaceous. Siamotyrannus isanensis pre-dates the other early tryannosaurid fossils from Asia, Alectrosaurus from Inner Mongolia, and from North America, and the teeth from the upper Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, which are considered Cenomanian in age. This shows that primitive tyrannosurids were 49


´’ ¥ “√å ‡ ¡“πå ‡ ∑πμÕπ∫π¢Õß¡≈√— ∞ ¬Ÿ ∑ “Àå ´÷Ë ß °”Àπ¥ ‰¥â «à “ ¡’ Õ “¬ÿ Õ ¬Ÿà „ π ¡— ¬ ´’ ‚ π¡“‡π’ ¬ π ¢â Õ ¡Ÿ ≈ ‡À≈à “ π’È · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“æ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥√ÿπà ‚∫√“≥‰¥âª√“°Ø „π‡Õ‡™’¬·≈â«„π™à«ßμâπÊ¢Õ߬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  ¥—ßπ—Èπ ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬®÷ß¡“®“°Õ‡¡√‘°“‡Àπ◊Õ·≈– ‡Õ‡™’¬·μà ‰¡à„™àÕ‘π‡¥’¬ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ ®“°¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ „πÕ‘π‡¥’¬·≈–·Õø√‘°“∫“ߧ√—Èß°Á ∂Ÿ ° ®— ¥ „Àâ ‡ ªì 𠉥‚π‡ “√å æ «°‰∑√— π πÕ´Õ√‘ ¥ À√◊ Õ ∑’Ë ‡°’Ë ¬ «¢â Õ ßπ—È π „πªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π ‰¥â · ¬°ÕÕ°‰ªÕ¬Ÿà „ π«ß»å Õ–‡∫≈‘ ´Õ√‘¥·’ ≈–§“√噓‚√¥Õπ‚μ´Õ√‘¥μ’ “¡≈”¥—∫·≈â« ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à∑’Ë√Ÿâ®—°°—π¥’∑’Ë ÿ¥®“° ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ¢ÕßÕ‡¡√‘°“‡Àπ◊Õ∑’™Ë Õ◊Ë «à“ Õ–‚§√ ·§π∏Õ´Õ√—  Õ–‚μ°‡Õπ´‘  °Á∂Ÿ°®—¥„À⇪ìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å æ«°Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√‘¥™π‘¥Àπ÷Ë߇™àπ°—π ®÷ß°≈à“«‰¥â«à“æ«° ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥Õ“®«‘«—≤π“°“√¢÷Èπ¡“‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√°„π ‡Õ‡™’¬„π™à«ß‡¥’¬«°—π∑’ËÕ‡¡√‘°“‡Àπ◊Õ‡μÁ¡‰ª¥â«¬æ«° Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√‘¥ ¥—ßπ—Èπ‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥Õ“®‡ªìπÀπ÷Ëß„π ‰¥‚π‡ “√åÀ≈“¬°≈ÿà¡∑’Ë√«¡∂÷ßæ«°‡´Õ√“∑Õª‡´’¬π ÕÕ√å π‘ ‚ ∏¡‘ ‚ ¡´Õ√å ·≈–Õ“®√«¡∂÷ ß ·Œ¥‚¥√´Õ√å ∑’Ë∂◊Õ°”‡π‘¥‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√°„π‡Õ‡™’¬„π™à«ß¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  μÕπμâ π ·≈–¿“¬À≈— ß ‰¥â ° √–®“¬ “¬æ— π ∏ÿå ‰ ª∂÷ ß Õ‡¡√‘°“‡Àπ◊Õ ´÷ßË Õ“®‡ªìπ™à«ßª≈“¬¢Õ߬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  μÕπμâπ °≈ÿà¡¢Õß´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æ宓°À¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬∂◊Õ«à“¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡°à“·°à°«à“°≈ÿà¡∑’Ëæ∫∑—Èß „π®’π·≈–¡Õß‚°‡≈’¬ ∑—Èßπ’È√«¡∂÷ßæ«°‰∑√—ππÕ´Õ√‘¥ ·≈–ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å√ÿàπ·√°Ê·≈–√«¡∂÷ß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπª≈“¬®“°¡Õß‚°‡≈’¬Õ’°À≈“¬°≈ÿà¡ ¢â Õ ¡Ÿ ≈ π’È ‡ ªì π π— ¬  ”§— ≠ ∑’Ë ™— ¥ ‡®πμà Õ §«“¡‡¢â “ „®‡√◊Ë Õ ß °“√°√–®“¬ “¬æ— π ∏ÿå ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å „ π¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬   μÕπμâπ¢Õ߇Շ™’¬

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present in Asia quite early in the Cretaceous, a finding that has biogeographical implication. All undoubted tyrannosaurids come from North America and Asia, but not from India. Cretaceous theropods from India and Africa, sometimes regarded as tyrannosaurids or related to tyrannosaurids, are now in families Abelisauridae and Carcharodontosauridae, respectively. The best known large theropod from the Early Cretaceous of North America, Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, is considered as an allosaurid. This suggests that tyrannosaurids possibly evolved in Asia, at a time when the dominant large theropods of North America were allosaurids. Tyrannosaurids may, thus, be one of the dinosaur groups that include ceratopsians, ornithomimosaurs, and, possibly, hadrosaurs that originated in Asia during a period of relative isolation in the Early Cretaceous and then later spread to North America, possibly late in the Early Cretaceous. The fauna from the Sao Khua Formation pre-dates most Chinese and Mongolian Early Cretaceous assemblages. It includes early tyrannosaurids and ornithomimosaurs, as well as sauropods possibly related to the Late Cretaceous forms from Mongolia, and is significant for understanding the Early Cretaceous radiation of dinosaurs in Asia.


√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå‰Õ Reconstructed dinosaur model of Isanosaurus attavipachi

3. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å °‘πæ◊™∑’Ë¡’Õ“¬ÿ‡°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ æ∫‡ªìπ §√—ßÈ ·√°∑’¿Ë πŸ °‡¢’¬π ∫â“π‚ππ∂“«√ Õ”‡¿ÕÀπÕß∫—«·¥ß ®—ßÀ«—¥™—¬¿Ÿ¡‘ ‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2541 ‚¥¬æ∫„πÀ‘π∑√“¬  ’·¥ß§≈È”¢ÕßÀ¡«¥À‘ππÈ”æÕß º≈°“√μ√«®æ‘ Ÿ®πå æ∫«à“ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°‘πæ◊™  °ÿ≈·≈–™π‘¥„À¡à ®÷ßμ—Èß ™◊ËÕ«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å«à“ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ‚¥¬ ™◊Ë Õ  °ÿ ≈ À¡“¬∂÷ ß ¿“§μ–«— π ÕÕ°‡©’ ¬ ߇Àπ◊ Õ μ“¡  ∂“π∑’Ë §â π æ∫  à « π™◊Ë Õ ™π‘ ¥ μ—È ß μ“¡π“¡ °ÿ ≈ ¢Õß π“¬ª√’™“ Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå Õ¥’μÕ∏‘∫¥’°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ·≈–Õ¥’ μ ª≈— ¥ °√–∑√«ßÕÿ μ  “À°√√¡ ´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ºŸâ ∑’Ë „Àâ°“√ π—∫ πÿπß“π«‘®—¬´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ∑”„Àâ°“√  ”√«®¢ÿ¥§âπ·≈–»÷°…“«‘®—¬‰¥‚π‡ “√凮√‘≠√ÿ¥ÀπⓉª Õ¬à“ß√«¥‡√Á«

3. Isanosaurus attavipachi Isanosaurus attavipachi is the oldest sauropod dinosaur of Thailand. It was found in 1998 at Phu Nok Khien, Ban Non Thaworn, Nong Bua Daeng District in Chaiyaphum Province. It is from a dark red sandstone outcrop of the Nam Phong Formation. Its generic name is derived from a Thai word, isan, that means northeastern, the region where the fossil was found. The species name honors Preecha Attavipach, a former Director General of the Department of Mineral Resources, who strongly encouraged paleontological research, including for dinosaurs.

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°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߴ⓬¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ Left femur of Isanosaurus attavipachi

°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߴ⓬¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ Left humerus bone of Isanosaurus attavipachi

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°“√∫√√¬“¬≈— ° …≥–¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ™ π‘ ¥ π’È ‰¥â®“°∫∑§«“¡‡√◊ËÕß The earliest known sauropod dinosaur ´÷Ë߇¢’¬π‚¥¬ Eric Buffetaut ·≈–§≥– „πªï æ.». 2543 (§.». 1999) ‚¥¬‰¥â°≈à“«∂÷ßÕπÿ°√¡ «‘∏“π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥π’È ‰«â¥—ßπ’È ™—πÈ : ‡√æ∑’‡≈’¬ Linne, 1758 Õ—π¥—∫„À≠à: ‰¥‚π´Õ‡√’¬ Owen, 1842 Õ—π¥—∫: ´Õ√‘ ‡™’¬ Seeley, 1888 Õ—π¥—∫¬àÕ¬: ´Õ‚√‚æ‚¥¡Õ√åø“ Huene, 1932 Õ—π¥—∫·¬°¬àÕ¬: ´Õ‚√‚楓 Marsh, 1878 «ß»å : ‰¡à·πà™—¥  °ÿ≈: Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Buffetaut et al., 1999 ™π‘¥: Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ Buffetaut et al., 1999 Buffetaut and others (1999) ‰¥â√“¬ß“π°“√ §âπæ∫‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë ‰¡à ¡∫Ÿ√≥å π— ° ®“°À‘ π ∑√“¬¬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° μÕπª≈“¬¢Õß ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ´÷Ë߉¥â „ ™â ‡ ªì π À≈— ° ∞“π∑“ß°“¬«‘ ¿ “§»“ μ√å¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥°àÕπ¬ÿ§ ®Ÿ·√ ´‘° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥π’È·μ°μà“߉ª®“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å √ÿàπ·√°Ê Õ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π ·≈–°≈à“«‰¥â«à“‰¥â¡’‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´Õ‚√æÕ¥«‘«—≤π“°“√¢÷Èπ¡“°àÕπÀπâ“π’Èπ“π·≈â«„π™à«ß ¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘° μ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫·√°À¡“¬‡≈¢ CH4 ‡ªì π μ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫∑’Ë ª √–°Õ∫¥â « ¬°√–¥Ÿ ° À≈“¬™‘È π §◊Õ °√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ 1 ™‘Èπ °√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß  à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—« 1 ™‘Èπ °√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°  —πÀ≈—ß à«πÀ“ß 6 ™‘Èπ °√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈Õ“√姢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°  —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«∑àÕπ∑â“¬Ê °√–¥Ÿ°‡™ø√Õπ 2 ™‘Èπ °√–¥Ÿ°´’Ë‚§√ß∑’Ë·μ°À—°À≈“¬™‘Èπ ·ºàπ°√–¥Ÿ° Õ°¥â“π¢«“ 1 ™‘Èπ °√–¥Ÿ° –∫—°¥â“π¢«“ 1 ™‘Èπ ·≈– °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߢ«“Õ’° 1 ™‘Èπ μ—«Õ¬à“ß μâπ·∫∫·√°„πªí®®ÿ∫π— ‡°Á∫√—°…“‰«â∑æ’Ë æ‘ ∏‘ ¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå

Type specimens of the species include 14 cervical, dorsal, and caudal vertebrae, chevron bones, the left femur, a scapula, the sternum, and rib fragments. The species description is in an article titled çThe earliest known sauropod dinosauré, written by Buffetaut and others (2000) and summarized here. Class: Reptilia Linne, 1758 Super order: Dinosauria Owen, 1842 Order: Saurischia Seeley, 1888 Sub order: Sauropodomorpha Huene, 1932 Sauropoda Marsh, 1878 Family: Indeterminant Genus: Isanosaurus Buffetaut et al., 1998 Species: Isanosaurus attavipachi Buffetaut et al., 1998 Buffetaut and others (1996) reported the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from a Late Triassic outcrop area in Thailand. This is the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. The holotype, CH4, is associated skeletal elements consisting of one cervical, one dorsal, and six caudal vertebral centra, the neural arch of a posterior dorsal vertebra, two chevron bones, fragmentary ribs, a right sternal plate, a right scapula, and a left femur. The holotype is now in the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum in Kalasin Province. 53


À¡«¥À‘ππÈ”æÕß ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬À‘π∑’ˇ°‘¥®“° °“√ – ¡μ–°Õπ·∫∫∑“ßπÈ” ®“°À≈— ° ∞“π¢Õß ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå¢Õ߇√≥Ÿ —≥∞“π∑”„Àâ∑√“∫«à“¡’Õ“¬ÿ ÕàÕπ°«à“‡√‡™’¬π «“ßμ—«Õ¬Ÿà∫πÀ¡«¥À‘πÀ⫬À‘π≈“¥ ∑’Ë ¡’ Õ “¬ÿ   ¡— ¬ πÕ‡√’ ¬ π μ“¡À≈— ° ∞“π®“°°≈ÿà ¡ ¢Õß ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå μ— «å¡°’ √–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß·≈–‡√≥Ÿ ≥ — ∞“π ¥— ß π—È π À¡«¥À‘ π πÈ” æÕß®÷ ß Õ“®¡’ Õ “¬ÿ ‡ ªì π πÕ‡√’ ¬ π μÕπª≈“¬À√◊Õ‰¡à°Á‡ªìπ‡√‡™’¬π π—∫∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π‡§¬¡’ °“√§âπæ∫´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå¢Õß —μ«å¡’°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß ®“°À¡«¥À‘ππÈ”æÕ߇撬ߧ√—È߇¥’¬« ‡ªìπ°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ À≈“¬™‘Èπ¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à ·μà°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ ‡À≈à “ π’È ® –‡ªì π ¢Õß Õ’   “πÕ´Õ√—   Õ√√∂«‘ ¿— ™ πå ‰ Õ À√◊Õ‰¡àπ—Èπ¬—߉¡àÕ“®¡—Ëπ„®‰¥â ‡π◊ËÕß®“°®π∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π ¬—ß‰¡à‡§¬¡’°“√§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ„π≈—°…≥–¥—ß°≈à“« ∑’Ë¿Ÿπ°‡¢’¬π‡≈¬ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å °‘ π æ◊ ™ √ÿà π ‡°à “ ·°à ‚ ∫√“≥™π‘ ¥ Àπ÷Ë ß ¡’ ° √–¥Ÿ ° ¢“À≈— ß ∑àÕπ∫π∑’Ë·¢Áß·√ß ¡’≈—°…≥–‡¥àπ∑’˪ÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ°‚§π¢“ ∑’Ë ’ˇªìπ√Ÿªμ—«‡Õ ·≈–ª≈“¬·À≈¡‡√’¬« ∑’˧√÷Ëß à«π ‚§π¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°¡’≈—°…≥–∫“ßÕ¬à“ß∑’Ë· ¥ß‰¥â Õ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π«à“‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¢≥–∑’Ë ≈—°…≥–Õ◊ËπÊ ∫àß™’È ‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å√ÿàπ·√°Ê ¿“¬„π °≈ÿ¡à ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ´÷ßË ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫‰¥â°∫— ‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëßæ«°‡¡≈“‚π√Õ´Õ√‘¥’∑’˧àÕπ¢â“ß®– °√–‡¥’¬¥‰ª∑“ß´Õ‚√æÕ¥·≈–´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿàπ‚∫√“≥ ·¡â «à “ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿà π ‚∫√“≥®–‡ªì π ∑’Ë √Ÿâ ®— ° °— π ¡“°à Õ π Õß§å ª √–°Õ∫μà “ ßÊ¢Õß‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ ° ∑’Ë ¡’ π— ¬  ”§— ≠ ·≈–¬—ߧ߄™â „π°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°Áæ∫„π°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ¥â«¬ ‡™àπ ¢Õß «—≈§“‚π ¥Õ𠧓√‘∫“‡Õπ´‘  (¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπμâπ ®“°´‘¡∫—∫‡«) ∫“√“æ“´Õ√—  ∑“‡°Õ√‘‰Õ ·≈–‚°μ“´Õ√—  ¬“¡—π æÕ≈≈‘‡Õπ´‘  [®“°À¡«¥À‘π‚°μ“¢ÕßÕ‘π‡¥’¬´÷ËßÕ“¬ÿ Õ“®‡ªìπ¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπμâπ ´÷Ëß®√‘ßÊ ·≈â«Õ“®ÕàÕπ ∂÷߬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ®“°À≈—°∞“π∑“߇√≥Ÿ«‘∑¬“ (®“°°“√μ‘¥μàÕ à«πμ—«°—∫ G.V.R. Prasad)] ´’®ß°Õ ´Õ√—  ™«π‡™ß‡Õπ´‘  ·≈–°ß‡´’¬ππÕ´Õ√—  ™’‡ªÜ¬ 54

The fluviatile Nam Phong Formation contains palynomorphs showing that it cannot be younger than Rhaetian. It overlies the Huai Hin Lat Formation, which is well dated as Norian on the basis of its vertebrate fauna and palynoflora. The formation is, therefore, well dated as late Norian or Rhaetian. The only vertebrate fossil hitherto reported from the Nam Phong Formation was fused ischia referred to a large prosauropod. Whether these ischia belong to Isanosaurus attavipachi cannot be ascertained because no ischia were found at Phu Nok Khian. Isanosaurus attavipachi is a primitive sauropod dinosaur with a robust femur bearing a very prominent, acuminate, S-shaped fourth trochanter located in the proximal half of the bone. Some characters of Isanosaurus attavipachi clearly place it among the Sauropoda, whereas other characters indicate a basal position within that group. It has been compared with prosauropods, especially the somewhat sauropod-like Melanorosauridae, and with primitive sauropods. Although other primitive sauropods are known, comparisons were made mainly with the following sufficiently well described forms, which have significant skeletal elements that are also present in the Thai specimen: Vulcanodon karibaensis (basal Jurassic, Zimbabwe), Barapasaurus tagorei and Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis (from the supposedly Early Jurassic Kota Formation of India, which may in fact be as recent as Early Cretaceous on the basis of palynology; G.V.R. Prasad, personal communication), Zizhongosaurus chuanchengensis and Gongxianosaurus


‡Õπ´‘  (¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπμâπ®“°ª√–‡∑»®’π) ·≈– ™Ÿ‚π´Õ√—  À≈’Ë ‰Õ (¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπ°≈“ß®“°ª√–‡∑» ®’π) ∑’Ë°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß¡’§«“¡·μ°μà“ß®“°¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ ·μà¡’À≈“¬·ßà¡ÿ¡∑’Ë¡’§«“¡∑—π ¡—¬ πâÕ¬°«à“°≈ÿà¡¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿàπÀ≈—ßÊ ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√— ¡ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ —È π ·≈–¡’ ‚ Àπ° æ“√“‚ª‰ø´‘ μ√ß°÷Ëß°≈“ߢÕߧ«“¡ Ÿß∑”„Àâμ”·Àπàß  à«π∑⓬‡ªìπ·∫∫‚Õæ‘ ‚∏´’≈— Õ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π ‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ °—∫°√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡·∫∫·Õ¡øî´’≈— ¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ À√◊ Õ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‡´πμ√— ¡ ∑’Ë · ∫π‰ª∑“ߥ⠓ πÀπâ “ ¢Õß °ß‡´’¬ππÕ´Õ√—  °√–¥Ÿ°‡´πμ√—¡π’È¡’ —π°≈“ß∑“ß ¥â “ π≈à “ ߇ÀÁ π ‰¥â ™— ¥ ‡®π´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‡ °à “ ·°à ¢ Õß ´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¥â“π¢â“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ°™‘Èππ’È‚§â߇«â“≈÷°‡¢â“‰ª ¡“°°«à“·∑π∑’Ë®–∫ÿã¡‚¥¬æ≈Ÿ‚√´’≈·∑âÊ ¥—ß∑’Ëæ∫„π ´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿàπÀ≈—ß °“√∫ÿ㡇«â“π’Èæ∫‰¥â∑“ß à«π∑⓬ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° ‡´πμ√— ¡ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « π°≈“ß ≈”μ—«‡™àπ°—π ¥—ßπ—Èπ°√–¥Ÿ°°àÕπ∂÷ß°√–¥Ÿ°°√–‡∫π ‡ÀπÁ∫¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ®÷ߧ≈⓬°—∫ ¢Õß ∫“√“æ“´Õ√—   ∑— § ‡°Õ√å ‰ Õ ·≈–™Ÿ ‚ π´Õ√—   À≈’Ë ‰Õ ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°°√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈Õ“√å§Õ¬ŸàÕ—πÀπ÷Ëß´÷ËßÕ“® ®–‡ªìπ°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«∑àÕπ∑â“¬Ê ∑’Ë¡’ §«“¡ Ÿß‡¥àπ‡À¡◊Õπ∑’æË ∫„π´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿπà À≈—ßÊ Õ¬à“߉√ °Áμ“¡ °√–¥Ÿ°π’È ‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫°√–‚¥ßπŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå‡μ’È¬Ê ¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·μà°√–‚¥ßπ’ȇªìπ®–ßÕ¬™’È ‰ª∑“ß ¥â“πÀ“ß ¡’§«“¡¬“«¡“°°«à“§«“¡°«â“ß„π·π«¢«“ß ´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑’ˇ°à“·°à‚∫√“≥ ”À√—∫´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‡¡◊ËÕ ‡ª√’ ¬ ∫‡∑’ ¬ ∫≈— ° …≥–¥— ß °≈à “ «·≈â « Õ’   “πÕ´Õ√—   ¡’≈—°…≥–∑—π ¡—¬πâÕ¬°«à“ ∫“√“æ“´Õ√—  ∑“‡°Õ√‘‰Õ ·≈–´’®ß°Õ´Õ√—  ™«π‡™ß‡Õπ´‘  ‚¥¬∑’Ë´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑—Èß Õßπ’È®–¡’°√–‚¥ß°«â“ß„π·π«¢«“ß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  ¡’≈—°…≥–§≈⓬°—∫´Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπ°≈“ß Õ¬à “ ߇™à π ™Ÿ‚π´Õ√—  À≈’Ë ‰Õ ·≈–·≈æ擇√πμÕ´Õ√—  ¡“¥“°“ °“√‘‡Õπ´‘  ®“°¡“¥“°“ °“√å·≈– ‚ø≈姉Œ¡å‡¡Õ√‘Õ“ ™Ÿ∫ÿμ‡Õπ´‘  ®“°æ— μ μ“‚°‡π’ ¬ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° μÕπ°≈“߇À≈à “ π’È ¡’ ° √–‚¥ß πŸ√—≈ ‰ªπå¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° —πÀ≈—ß à«π°≈“ß≈”μ—«∑’Ë·∫π

shibeiensis (Early Jurassic, China), and Shunosaurus lii (Middle Jurassic, China). The vertebrae differ from those of prosauropods, but in many respects are less advanced than those of later sauropods. A short cervical centrum, with parapophyses at mid-height, which suggest a posterior position, is markedly opisthocoelous, unlike the amphicoelous centra of prosauropods or the anteriorly flat ones of Gonxianosaurus. This centrum has a strong ventral median ridge, which is a primitive feature in sauropods. Its sides are deeply concave rather than excavated by real pleurocoels as in more advanced sauropods. Such lateral depressions also occur on a posterior dorsal centrum. Thus, the presacral vertebrae of Isanosaurus attavipachi resemble those of Barapasaurus tagorei and Shunosaurus lii. An isolated neural arch, probably from a posterior dorsal vertebra, is remarkably tall, as in some later sauropods. However, it is unlike the relatively low neural spines of prosauropods. This spine is longer, rostrocaudally, than it is transversely broad, which is primitive for sauropods. In this respect, Isanosaurus is less advanced than Barapasaurus tagorei and Zizhongosaurus chuanchengensis. In these two sauropods the spine is broadened transversely. Isanosaurus resembles Middle Jurassic sauropods, such as Shunosaurus lii and Lapparentosaurus madagascariensis from Madagascar and Volkheimeria chubutensis from Patagonia. These Middle Jurassic sauropods have laterally flattened dorsal neural spines. Incipient posterolateral laminae and ridges extending from the transverse process to the base of the spine 55


„π·π«¥â“π¢â“ß  —ππŸπ·≈–≈“¡‘π’¥â“π¢â“ßμ√ß à«π ∑â “ ¬·ºà μà Õ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°ªÿÉ ¡ ·π«¢«“߉ª¬— ß ∞“π¢Õß °√–‚¥ß´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ≈— ° …≥–¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë ‰ ¡à æ ∫„𠂪√´Õ‚√æÕ¥√«¡∂÷ ß æ«°∑’Ë ‡ À¡◊ Õ π°— ∫ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ¬à“߇™àπ ‡≈ ‡´¡´Õ√—  ¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘°μÕπª≈“¬ ®“°Õ“√凮πμ‘π“·μà¡’°“√æ—≤π“¡“°¢÷Èπ„π√ÿàπÀ≈—ßÊ √«¡∂÷ß ‚ø≈姉Œ¡å‡¡Õ√‘Õ“ ·≈–·≈æ擇√πμÕ´Õ√—  ∑’Ë ° √–¥Ÿ ° ‡´πμ√— ¡ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ °  — π À≈— ß  à « πÀ“߇ªì π ·∫∫·Õ¡øî´’≈—  °√–¥Ÿ° –∫—°∑’Ë ‰¡à ¡∫Ÿ√≥å¡’≈—°…≥– §≈⓬°—∫ ™Ÿ‚π´Õ√—  ´÷Ëß¡’¢π“¥ª“π°≈“ß ·ºà¢¬“¬ ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ß à«π‚§π·≈–‚§âß¡π∑“ߥâ“π∫π´÷Ë߇ªìπ ≈—°…≥–∑’ˇ°à“·°à‚∫√“≥¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥·≈–¡’°“√·ºà ¢¬“¬°«â “ ßÕÕ°§à Õ π‰ª∑“ß à « πª≈“¬ ·≈–·ºà π °√–¥Ÿ°Õ°‡ªìπ√Ÿª°÷Ëß«ß°≈¡¡’ —π‡μ’È¬Ê Àπ÷Ëß —π∫πº‘« ¥â“ππÕ° °√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“À≈— ß ∑à Õ π∫π¢Õß Õ’   “πÕ´Õ√—   Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ¬“« 76 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ ¡’§«“¡·¢Áß·√ß ·≈–μ√ß·∫∫¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‡ªìπ∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°·∫π „π·π«À—«∑⓬ ‰¡à¡’ ‘Ëß∫àß™’È¢Õß°“√‚§âßßÕ·∫∫√Ÿª μ—«´’´÷Ëߪ°μ‘·≈â«æ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥â„π‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ¬à“߇™àπ √‘‚Õ®“´Õ√—  Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‰¥‚π‡ “√凡≈“‚π√Õ´Õ√‘¥ ∫“ß°≈ÿà¡ ‡™à𠧓‡¡≈≈Õ‡μ’¬ ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π μ√ß ¡’≈—°…≥–À—«‡ªìπª≈âÕ߇√’¬ßÕ¬Ÿà¥â“π∫πμ“¡·π« °≈“ß∑’Ë  — ß ‡°μ‰¥â ™— ¥ ‡®π‰¡à ‡ À¡◊ Õ π°— ∫ À— « ‡ªì π ª≈â Õ ß √Ÿª√à“ߧ≈â“¬μ–¢Õ„π‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·¡â·μà „πæ«° ‡æ≈∑∑‘ÕÕ´Õ√‘¥·≈–‡¡≈“‚π√Õ´Õ√‘¥ ´÷ËߪÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ° ‚§π¢“∑’Ë „À≠à·≈–πŸπ°«à“ ·μà ‰¡àæ∫À≈—°∞“π¢ÕߪÿÉ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚§π¢“∑’Ë ‡ ≈Á ° °«à “ ·≈–‰¡à ‡ À¡◊ Õ π°— ∫ ≈— ° …≥– ∑’Ëæ∫„π‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥·≈–«—≈§“‚π¥Õπ ªÿÉ¡°√–¥Ÿ° ‚§π¢“ªÿÉ¡∑’Ë ’ËÕ¬Ÿà∑’Ëμ”·ÀπàߧàÕπ‰ª∑“ß à«π‚§π¢“¡“° ¥—ß∑’æË ∫„π‰¥‚π‡ “√å√πÿà ‡°à“·°à∫“ß™π‘¥ ·≈–¡’≈°— …≥– ‡ªìπ —ππŸπ√Ÿªμ—«‡Õ ∑’Ë™—¥‡®π∫πº‘«¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ° À“ß„°≈â°—∫¢Õ∫μ√ß°≈“߉ª ‘Èπ ÿ¥∑“ß à«πª≈“¬∑’Ë¡’ ª≈“¬·À≈¡‚§âߧ≈⓬√Ÿªμ–¢Õ§≈⓬°—∫ ∫“√“æ“´Õ√—  ·≈–«— ≈ §“‚π¥Õπ ·¡â ® –‰¡à ‡ ªì π √Ÿ ª ªï ° ¥— ß ∑’Ë æ ∫„π 56

are sauropod features not seen in prosauropods, including sauropod-like forms, such as Lessemsaurus, from the Late Triassic of Argentina, but are more developed in later forms, including Volkheimeria and Lapparentosaurus. The caudal centra are amphicoelous. The incomplete scapula is reminiscent of Shunosaurus, with a moderate, dorsally rounded proximal expansion, which is primitive for sauropods, and a slight distal expansion. The semicircular sternal plate has a low ridge on the outer surface. The 76-centimeter femur of Isanosaurus attavipachi is robust and has a sauropod-like straight, craniocaudally flattened shaft. There is no indication of the sigmoid curvature usually seen in prosauropods, including large forms such as Riojasaurus. However, some melanorosaurids, such as Camelotia, have fairly straight femora. There is a well defined, dorsomedially oriented articular head, unlike the more hooked-shaped articular head in prosauropods, even in large plateosaurids, and melanorosaurids. The greater trochanter is massive and bulging. There is no evidence of a lesser trochanter, unlike the condition in prosauropods and Vulcanodon. The fourth trochanter is in a very proximal position, as in some primitive dinosaurs. It forms a prominent S-shaped ridge on the caudal face of the shaft, close to the medial edge, ending distally in a slightly hook-shaped acute tip reminiscent of Barapasaurus and Vulcanodon. Although not wing-shaped as in prosauropods, the fourth trochanter of Isanosaurus is more


‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·μà ªÿÉ ¡ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚§π¢“ªÿÉ ¡ ∑’Ë  ’Ë ¢ Õß Õ‘ “πÕ´Õ√—  ¡’≈°— …≥–‡¥àπ™—¥°«à“∑’æË ∫„π «—≈§“‚π¥Õπ ©Ÿ ‚ Àπ´Õ√—   ·≈–∫“√“æ“´Õ√—   √Ÿ ª √à “ ß∑’Ë · ª≈° ·μ°μà“ßÕÕ°‰ª·≈–‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫∑’Ëæ∫„π´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ◊ËπÊ ∑”„À⇙◊ËÕ‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–¢ÕßÕÕ‚μ¡Õ√åøî° Õ— π Àπ÷Ë ß ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ° ≈ÿà ¡ π’È ‰¡à ‡ ™à π π—È π ®–· ¥ß ≈—°…≥–∑’ˇªìπ·∫∫‡æ≈ ´‘‚Õ¡Õ√åøî° ”À√—∫´Õ‚√æÕ¥  à«πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π∑’Ë·ºà°«â“ßÕÕ° Õ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π¡’μÿà¡„À≠à´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–¢Õ߇հ‡μ∫摧Õ𥓬≈å∑’Ëæ—≤π“‰¥â¥’·≈â« ´÷Ëߪ°μ‘·≈⫉¡à§àÕ¬æ∫ „π‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·≈–‰¡à¡’ —πμ“¡·π«¬“«∑“ß à«π ‚§π¢Õßμÿà¡¥â“π¢â“ß´÷Ë߉¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ  “¡“√∂®—¥„Àâ ‡ªìπ´Õ‚√æÕ¥‰¥âÕ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π¥â«¬≈—°…≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°  — π À≈— ß ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“À≈— ß ∑à Õ π∫π·≈– “¡“√∂ ·¬°ÕÕ°®“°‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥‰¥â ™— ¥ ‡®π ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë ‡°à“·°à‚∫√“≥¢Õß¡—π‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ≈—°…≥–∑’ˇ°à“·°à‚∫√“≥‡À≈à“π’È¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ®–· ¥ß„Àâ ‡ÀÁπ∂÷ß™à«ßμâπÊ™à«ßÀπ÷ËߢÕß«‘«—≤π“°“√ ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë æ—≤π“Õ¬à“߇μÁ¡∑’Ë¡“°°«à“„π™à«ßÀ≈—߇ªìπ´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑—π ¡—¬°«à“ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿàπ‡°à“·°à ‚∫√“≥Õ◊ËπÊ ‡ÀÁ𧫓¡·μ°μà“ß„πÀ≈“¬≈—°…≥–Õ¬à“ß ™—¥‡®π ∑’Ë‚¥¥‡¥àπ –¥ÿ¥μ“§◊Õ°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π ·μàπ¬—  ”§—≠∑“ß«‘«≤ — π“°“√™“μ‘æπ— ∏ÿå ‰¡à¡§’ «“¡™—¥‡®π ·¡â«à“®–¡’§«“¡‡ÀÁπ‰¡àμ√ß°—π‡°’Ë¬«°—∫§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’‡Ë °à“·°à∑ ’Ë ¥ÿ º≈°“√»÷°…“≈à“ ÿ¥‰¥â®¥— „Àâ «—≈§“‚π¥Õπ Õ¬Ÿà¥â“π≈à“ß¡“°Ê¢Õß “¬«‘«—≤π“°“√ ™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå °ß‡´’¬πÕ´Õ√—  °Á· ¥ß≈—°…≥–∫“ßÕ¬à“ß ∑’ˇ°à“·°à∑’˧≈⓬°—∫‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫ √–À«à “ ß Õ‘   “πÕ´Õ√—   °— ∫ «— ≈ §“‚π¥Õπ ·≈â « ÕÕ°®–‡ªì π °“√¬“°‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°™‘È π  à « π°√–¥Ÿ ° ∑’Ë ¡’ ≈—°…≥–π—¬ ”§—≠∫“ß™‘πÈ °Áæ∫„π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑ß—È  Õß™π‘¥ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ≈—°…≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß Õß¡’§«“¡·μ°μà“ß°—π °√–¥Ÿ°  — π À≈— ß  à « π≈”§Õ∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ·∫∫‚Õæ‘   ‚∏´’ ≈—   ¢Õß

prominent than in Vulcanodon, Shunosaurus, and Barapasaurus. Its very peculiar shape, unlike the condition in other sauropods, is considered as an autopomorphic character of this taxon, which otherwise mainly shows features that are plesiomorphic for sauropods. The strongly expanded distal end of the femur has massive condyles, a well developed ectepicondyle, which is not usually seen in prosauropods, and no longitudinal crest proximal to the lateral condyle, which is unlike prosauropods. Isanosaurus attavipachi can clearly be placed among the Sauropoda on the basis of the derived sauropod characters of its vertebrae and femur, which separate it from the Prosauropoda. Its primitive features are not particularly reminiscent of the Prosauropoda. Rather, these primitive features seem to illustrate an early stage in the evolution of characters more fully developed in later, more advanced sauropods. Comparisons with other primitive sauropods reveal differences, notably in the femur, but their phylogenetic significance is uncertain. Although there is no consensus about the relationships of the oldest sauropods, recent phylogenies consistently place Vulcanodon in a very basal position. Gongxianosaurus also exhibits a number of primitive features reminiscent of prosauropods. Comparisons between Isanosaurus and Vulcanodon are difficult because few significant elements are known in both. However, their femora are different. The opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae of Isanosaurus show that it is more advanced than 57


Õ‘   “πÕ´Õ√—   · ¥ß„Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π «à “ ¡— π ¡’ «‘ «— ≤ π“°“√∑’Ë ∑— π  ¡— ¬ °«à “ °ß‡´’ ¬ ßπÕ´Õ√—   °≈à “ «§◊ Õ °√–¥Ÿ °  —πÀ≈—ß à«π≈”§Õ¢Õß °ß‡´’¬πÕ´Õ√—  ‰¡à¡’≈—°…≥– ¢Õß‚Õæ‘ ‚∏´’≈ — °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑—È ß  Õßπ’È æ∫«à “ ¡’ § «“¡·μ°μà “ ß°— π ¥â « ¬ §«“¡ ‰¡à · πà π Õπ‡°’Ë ¬ «°— ∫ §«“¡ — ¡ æ— π ∏å √ –À«à “ ß°— π ¢Õß ´Õ‚√æÕ¥√ÿàπ·√°Ê ∑”„À⇪ìπ°“√¬“°∑’Ë®–ª√–‡¡‘π μ”·Àπà ß «‘ «— ≤ π“°“√™“μ‘ æ— π ∏ÿå ¢ Õß Õ‘   “πÕ´Õ√—   ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß∂Ÿ°μâÕß·¡à𬔠‡π◊ËÕß®“°°“√«‘‡§√“–ÀåÕ¬à“ß ≈–‡Õ’¬¥„π‡™‘ß«‘«—≤π“°“√™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ √ÿàπ·√°ÊÕ¬ŸàπÕ°‡Àπ◊Õ¢Õ∫‡¢μ‡π◊ÈÕÀ“¢ÕßÀπ—ß ◊Õπ’È Õ‘   “πÕ´Õ√—   ®÷ ß ‡ªì 𠉥‚π‡ “√å „ π°≈ÿà ¡ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑’ˬ—߉¡à “¡“√∂®—¥°≈ÿࡉ¥â™—¥‡®π °“√§âπæ∫ Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ · ¥ß „Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π «à “ „π™à « ߬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° μÕπª≈“¬‰¥â ¡’ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ª√“°Ø¢÷Èπ¡“·≈â« ´÷Ëß™’È „Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥μâÕß¡’¢÷Èπ¡“·≈â«π—∫‡ªìπ‡«≈“™â“π“π ·μà ª√–«— μ‘ «‘ «— ≤ π“°“√¢Õß¡— π „π™à « ߬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° μÕπª≈“¬¬—߉¡à¡’ºŸâ√ŸâÕ¬à“ß·∑â®√‘ß¡“°àÕπ‡≈¬ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ ™à«ß∑’Ë¡—πÕ“»—¬√à«¡°—∫°≈ÿà¡¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å≈”μ—«¢π“¥ „À≠à‚μ·∫∫´Õ‚√æÕ¥ §◊Õ‚ª√´Õ‚√æե櫰‡¡≈“‚π √Õ´Õ√‘¥ ®“°¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈¥—ß°≈à“««‘«—≤π“°“√™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥‰¥â ∂Ÿ ° ª√— ∫ ·°â „ Àâ ¡’ ª √–«— μ‘ » “ μ√å ∑’Ë ‡°à “ ·°à ≈ ߉ªÕ’ ° ∂÷ ß ™à « ßμâ π Ê ¢Õ߬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° μÕπª≈“¬ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ¢âÕ ¡¡ÿμ‘∞“ππ’ȇªìπ°“√ °≈à“«„π‡™‘ß∑ƒ…Æ’Õ¬Ÿà∫πæ’Èπ∞“𧫓¡§‘¥À≈—°Ê∑’Ë«à“ °≈ÿ¡à ¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥‡ªìπ≠“μ‘∑’Ë„°≈♥‘ °—∫‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ´“°‡À≈◊Õ¢Õß Õ’ “πÕ´Õ√—  Õ√√∂«‘¿—™πå ‰Õ ®÷߇ªìπ À≈— ° ∞“π∑“ß°“¬«‘ ¿ “§»“ μ√å ™‘È π ·√°∑’Ë ·  ¥ß„Àâ ∑√“∫«à“‰¥â¡´’ Õ‚√æÕ¥¢÷πÈ ¡“·≈â«„π™à«ß¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘° ¢≥–∑’Ë°àÕπÀπâ“π—ÈπÀ≈—°∞“π¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ  ´‘ ° æ∫‡ªì π ‡æ’ ¬ ßÀ≈— ° ∞“π¢Õß√Õ¬μ’ π ´÷Ë ß ‰¡à ¡’ § «“¡ ·πàπÕπ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß ¥‘«‡∑Õ‚√´Õ‚√æÕ‚¥ªí  ®“°‡≈‚´‚∑ ´÷Ë ß °“√°≈à “ «Õâ “ ß«à “ ‡ªì π √Õ¬μ’ π ¢Õß ´Õ‚√æÕ¥¬—ߧ߇ªìπ¢âÕ‚μâ‡∂’¬ßÕ¬Ÿà 58

Gongxianosaurus, in which there are no opisthocoelous vertebrae. The femora of these two sauropods also appear to be different. Uncertainties about the interrelationships of early sauropods, as expressed by the common use of the paraphyletic family Vulcanodontidae, make it difficult to assess the exact phylogenetic and systematic position of Isanosaurus. Since a detailed analysis of early sauropod phylogeny is outside the scope of this book, Isanosaurus is referred to Sauropoda incertae sedis. The discovery of Isanosaurus attavipachi shows that by late Triassic times the Sauropoda had already appeared. This suggests that Sauropoda must have had a relatively long and almost completely unknown evolutionary history in the Late Triassic, during which they coexisted with other group of large-bodied, heavily built sauropodomophs, the melanorosaurid prosauropods. This is not unexpected, since calibrated phylogenies of the Sauropoda all show the history of the group extending into earlier parts of the Late Triassic. However, this assumption was theoretical and based mainly on the idea that the Sauropoda are the sister-group of the Prosauropoda. The remains of Isanosaurus attavipachi are the first osteological evidence demonstrating the existence of Triassic sauropods. Previously, the only fossil evidence of Triassic sauropods tentatively consisted of footprints, particularly of Deuterosauropodopus from Lesotho, the attribution of which to sauropods is controversial.


à«πª≈“¬°√–¥Ÿ°°âπ¢Õß‚ª√´Õ‚√æÕ¥®“°®—ßÀ«—¥‡æ™√∫Ÿ√≥å Distal part of ischium bone of a prosauropod from Phetchabun Province

„π™à«ß¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘°μÕπª≈“¬ ¿“§μ–«—πÕÕ° ‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ¢Õߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬‰¥â‡™◊ËÕ¡μ‘¥°—∫º◊π·ºàπ¥‘π ®’π·≈â« ¥—ßπ—Èπ欓πÀ≈—°∞“π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑’Ë¥’·≈–‡°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥®÷ß∂◊Õ‰¥â«à“‡ªì𠓬æ—π∏ÿ宓°‡Õ‡™’¬ ·¡â®–¡’À≈—°∞“π®“°√àÕß√Õ¬«‘∑¬“®“°¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘° μÕπª≈“¬¢Õß·Õø√‘ ° “„μâ · μà °Á ¬— ß „Àâ ¢â Õ  √ÿ ª Õ¬à “ ß ·∑â®√‘߉¡à ‰¥â ´÷Ëß√«¡∂÷ß «—≈§“‚π¥Õπ ∑’Ë∂◊Õ‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ ´Õ‚√æÕ¥®“°·Õø√‘ ° “∑’Ë ∂◊ Õ °”‡π‘ ¥ ¢÷È π „π™à « ßμâ π Ê ¢Õ߬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°‡∑à“π—Èπ √«¡∂÷ß√Õ¬μ’π¢Õß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑’‡Ë ™◊ÕË ∂◊Õ‰¥â°Á‰¥â√∫— √“¬ß“π®“°™à«ßμâπÊ ¢Õ߬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘° (‡Œμ·∑߇°’Ȭπ) „π‚ª·≈π¥å·≈–Õ‘μ“≈’ ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥π’È °≈à “ «‰¥â «à “ „π™à « ß ‘È π  ÿ ¥ ¬ÿ § ‰∑√·Õ ´‘ ° ·≈–™à « ß ‡√‘Ë ¡ μâ π ¢Õ߬ÿ § ®Ÿ · √ ´‘ ° ‰¥â ¡’ ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ´ Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·ºà°√–®“¬æ—π∏ÿ凪ìπ«ß°«â“ß·≈â« ´÷Ë߇ªìπ‰ª‰¥â«à“ º◊π·ºàπ∑«’ª‰¥â√«¡°—π‡ªìπ¡À“∑«’ª·æπ‡®’¬·≈–®π∂÷ß ªí®®ÿ∫—π°≈à“«‰¥â«à“ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬‡ªìπ·À≈àß´Õ‚√æÕ¥ ∑’ˇ°à“·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥·ÀàßÀπ÷Ëß

Northeastern Thailand was already linked to China in the Late Triassic, and the earliest well attested sauropod is, thus, an Asian form. Even if ichnological evidence from the Late Triassic of southern Africa is inconclusive, Vulcanodon definitely indicates that sauropods occurred there at the very beginning of the Jurassic. Convincing sauropod footprints have been reported from the basal Jurassic, Hettangian, of Poland and Italy. All this suggests that at the end of the Triassic and the beginning of the Jurassic, sauropods already had a vast geographical distribution, which was made possible by Pangean palaeogeographical conditions.

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√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å‰Õ Reconstructed model of Psittacosaurus sattayaraki

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4. ‰¥‚π‡ “√媓°π°·°â« ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  4. Psittacosaurus sattayaraki  —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ Psittacosaurus sattayaraki is a ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ ‡ªì𠉥‚π‡ “√媓°π°·°â«™π‘¥„À¡à¢Õß‚≈° æ∫∫√‘‡«≥ √‘¡∑“ßÀ≈«ßÀ¡“¬‡≈¢ 2054 „π‡¢μ∫â“π¥ß∫—ßπâÕ¬ Õ”‡¿Õ§Õπ «√√§å Àà “ ß®“°®— ß À«— ¥ ™— ¬ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ‰ ª∑“ß ∑‘»μ–«—πÕÕ°ª√–¡“≥ 20 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ´“°∑’Ëæ∫‡ªìπ °√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√‡≈Á°Êæ√âÕ¡øíπ 5 ´’Ë æ∫„πÀ¡«¥ À‘π‚§°°√«¥ ™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈ ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  ·ª≈«à“ ‡À¡◊Õπ π°·°â« ·μà¡’≈—°…≥– ”§—≠‚¥¬√«¡·μ°μà“߉ª®“° ™π‘¥Õ◊ËπÊ ∑’ˇ§¬æ∫¡“°àÕπ ¥—ßπ—ÈπºŸâ«‘®—¬®÷ß®—¥„Àâ ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√媓°π°·°â«™π‘¥„À¡à¡™’ Õ◊Ë ∑“ß«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å «à “ ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ ‚¥¬ºŸâ«‘®—¬‰¥âμ—Èß ™◊Ë Õ ™π‘ ¥ ‡æ◊Ë Õ ‡ªì π ‡°’ ¬ √μ‘ · ¥à 𠓬π‡√»  — μ ¬“√— ° …å π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ºŸâ§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ° ™‘πÈ π’È Buffetaut and Suteethorn (1992) ‰¥â°≈à“«∂÷ß Õπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥π’È ‰«â¥—ßπ’È ™—πÈ : ‡√æ∑’‡≈’¬ Linne, 1758 Õ—π¥—∫„À≠à: ‰¥‚π´Õ‡√’¬ Owen, 1842 Õ—π¥—∫: ÕÕ√åπ‘∏‘ ‡™’¬ Seeley, 1887 Õ—π¥—∫¬àÕ¬: ‡´Õ√“∑Õª‡´’¬ Marsh, 1890 «ß»å: ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√‘¥’ Osborn, 1923  °ÿ≈: ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  Osborn, 1923 ™π‘¥: ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ Buffetaut & Suteethorn, 1992 ™‘È π  à « πμ— « Õ¬à “ ßμâ π ·∫∫·√°‡ªì π ¢“°√√‰°√ ≈à “ ߥ⠓ π¢«“ À¡“¬‡≈¢μ— « Õ¬à “ ß TF2449a ·≈– ™‘Èπ à«π·μ°À—°¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√∫π À¡“¬‡≈¢ μ—«Õ¬à“ß TF2449b ™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß∑—Èß Õßªí®®ÿ∫—π ‡°Á∫√—°…“‰«â∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ®—ßÀ«—¥ °“à‘π∏ÿå

new species of parrot beak-like dinosaur found along highway no. 2054 in Ban Dong Bang Noi, Khon Sawan District about 20 kilometers east of Chaiyaphum city. The fossil is a small jaw with five teeth from the Khok Kruat Formation. The name Psittacosaurus means a parrot beak-like dinosaur, though it has some significant differences from prior described species. Thus, a new species was erected as Psittacosaurus sattayaraki by Buffetaut and Suteethorn (1992). The species name honors Nares Sattayarak, a geologist of the Department of Mineral Resources, who discovered the fossil. Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1992 described the Psittacosaurus remains as: Class: Reptilia Linne, 1758 Suborder: Dinosauria Owen, 1842 Order: Ornithischia Seely, 1887 Suborder: Ceratopsia Marsh, 1890 Family: Psittacosauridae Osborn, 1923 Genus: Psitticosaurus Osborn, 1923 Species: Psittacosaurus sattayaraki Buffetaut & Suteethorn, 1992 The specimens are a right dentary, TF 2449a, which is the holotype, and maxilla fragment, TF 2449b. Both are now in the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum in Kalasin Province. The species possesses a small incipient ventral flange on the dentary, but this is less developed than in Psittacosaurus mongoliensis and Psittacosaurus meileyingensis. The alveolar 61


°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√≈à“ߢâ“ߢ«“¢Õß ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—   —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ Right dentary specimen of Psittacosaurus sattayaraki

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°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“°√√‰°√≈à “ ߢÕß ´‘ μ μ–§Õ´Õ√—    —쬓√—°…å ‰Õ ¡’√‘¡¢Õ∫‡ªìπªï°‡≈Á°Ê ¬◊ËπÕÕ°¥â“π≈à“ß ·μà‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë¡’æ—≤π“°“√πâÕ¬°«à“∑’Ëæ∫„π ´‘μμ– §Õ´Õ√—   ¡Õß‚°≈‘ ‡ Õπ´‘   ·≈–´‘ μ μ–§Õ´Õ√—   ‡À¡¬≈’À¬‘߇Õπ´‘  ∑’Ë¡’¢Õ∫¢Õ߇∫â“øíπ∫π¢“°√√‰°√ ≈à“ß‚§âßπŸπÕÕ°¡“™—¥‡®π¡“°°«à“™π‘¥„¥Ê „π °ÿ≈ ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  ´÷Ëß¡’øíπ´’ˇ≈Á°Ê 5 ´’ËÕ¬Ÿà∫π·μà≈–¥â“π ¢Õß —πª∞¡¿Ÿ¡‘∑’Ë·π«μ√ß°≈“ß ¢“°√√‰°√≈à“ß¡’≈°— …≥–‡°◊Õ∫ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å Õ¬à“߉√ °Áμ“¡ ¢Õ∫¥â“πÀ≈—ß∑’∫Ë “ß¡“°§àÕπ¢â“ß·μ°À—°‡ ’¬À“¬ ´÷Ë߇ªìπºπ—ߥâ“π„π¢Õ߇∫â“øíπ∑’Ë¡’øíπ‚º≈à¢÷Èπ¡“·∑π∑’Ë ¡’§«“¡¬“«¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° 53 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ¡’§«“¡ Ÿß∑’Ë ÿ¥ ∑’Ë√–¥—∫ªÿÉ¡‚§‚√πÕ¬¥å 31 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ·≈–¡’§«“¡ °«â“ß∑’Ë ÿ¥ 12 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ æ◊Èπº‘«¥â“π¢â“ߢÕߪ≈“¬ ¥â“πÀπâ“∑ŸàÊ ¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπæ◊Èπº‘«À¬“∫ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬  —π·≈–√àÕßμ◊ÈπÊ ‡ªìπæ◊Èπº‘«¢√ÿ¢√– ´÷Ë߇ªìπæ◊Èπ∑’Ë —¡º—   ”À√—∫°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√¥â“πÀπâ“ ∑’ˇªìπ≈—°…≥–ª°μ‘ ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å   °ÿ ≈ π’È ∑’Ë ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π®–¡’ ¢ 𓥄À≠à ·≈–ª°§≈ÿ ¡ æ◊È π ∑’Ë  à « π„À≠à ¢ Õߪ≈“¬¥â “ πÀπâ “ ¢Õß °√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√ ∂—¥‰ª∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬ ∂—¥‡≈¬‰ª‡ªìπ ™à«ß∑’Ë ‰¡à¡’øíπ´÷Ë߇ªìπ™à«ß·§∫Ê ¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ√àÕ߇«â“ ¡π‡ªìπ¢Õ∫¥â“π¢â“ߢÕß·π«‡∫â“øíπ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¢Õ∫¥â“π ∫π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¡’≈—°…≥–‚§âßπŸπ™—¥‡®π¡“°∑“ß à«π Àπâ“¢Õß¡—π·≈–§àÕπ¢â“ß‚§â߇«â“¡“°¢÷πÈ ‰ª∑“ß à«π∑⓬ ‡¢¬‘∫‰ª∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬ ¢Õ∫¥â“π∫π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¬°¢÷Èπ ∑”¡ÿ¡ 45 Õß»“·≈–· ¥ß≈—°…≥–¢ÕߪÿÉ¡‚§‚√πÕ¬¥å ∑’Ë™—¥‡®π  à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥§àÕπ¢â“ß®–·μ°À—°‡ ’¬À“¬ ¢Õ∫¥â “ πÀ≈— ß ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° ∫“ß¡“°·≈–∫“ß à « π°Á ·μ°À—°‡ ’¬À“¬ ¡’√àÕß∫“°‡≈Á°ÊÀπ÷Ëß√àÕß∑’ËÕ“®®– ‡°’Ë ¬ « — ¡ æ— π ∏å °— ∫  à « πÀπâ “ ¢Õß√Ÿ ‡ ªî ¥ ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“°√√‰°√∫π¥â “ ππÕ° ¢Õ∫¥â “ π≈à “ ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“°√√‰°√¡’≈°— …≥–‡°◊Õ∫μ√ß Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡  à«π∑⓬ ¢Õß¡— π ¡’ ¢ Õ∫∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ªï ° ¬◊Ë π ÕÕ°¡“‡μ’È ¬ ÊÕ— π Àπ÷Ë ß ´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑’˧≈⓬°—∫ ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  ™π‘¥Õ◊ËπÊ

edge of the dentary is strongly convex, more so than in other species of Psittacosaurus. The dentary teeth have five denticles on each side of the median primary ridge. The dentary is nearly complete. However, its very thin posterior edge is slightly damaged, as are the inner walls of the alveoli that expose replacement teeth. The length of the bone is 53 millimeters, its maximum height at the level of the coronoid process is 31 millimeters, and its greatest breadth is 12 millimeters. The lateral surface of the blunt anterior end is roughened and has irregular short grooves and ridges. This is the contact area for the predentary bone, which, as usual in Psittacosaurus, seems to have been large and to have covered a sizeable portion of the anterior end of the dentary. More posteriorly, after a short toothless interval that forms a rounded groove, the lateral edge of the alveolar row, which forms the dorsal edge of the bone, is very distinctly convex in its anterior part and slightly concave more posteriorly. Posteriorly, the dorsal edge of the bone rises at a 45 Ì angle and forms a welldeveloped coronoid process, the tip of which seems to be slightly damaged. The posterior edge of the bone is very thin and has suffered some damage. A small notch in it may correspond to the anterior part of the external mandibular foramen. The ventral edge of the dentary is nearly straight. In its posterior part, however, there is an incipient flange that is reminiscent of the situation in other species of Psittacosaurus. The lateral surface of the dentary has no marked 63


æ◊Èπº‘«¥â“π¢â“ߢÕß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√¡’≈—°…≥–‡√’¬∫ ¡’ —ππŸπ‡μ’Ȭʷ≈–‡√’¬∫·ºàÕÕ°‰ª∑“ߥâ“πÀπâ“ ∑”„Àâ ¢Õ∫¥â “ πÀπâ “ ¢ÕߪÿÉ ¡ ‚§‚√πÕ¬¥å ¬ “«¬◊Ë π ÕÕ°‰ª ≈— ° …≥–π’È ‰¥â®”°—¥«ßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë¥â“π∫π∑“ߥâ“π¢â“ߢÕß ¢Õ∫‡∫â“øíπ´÷Ëߢ¬—∫‰ªμ√ß à«π°≈“߇¡◊ËÕ‡∑’¬∫°—∫ à«π æ◊Èπº‘«¥â“π¢â“ß∑’ˇÀ≈◊Õ ¡’√Ÿ‡ªî¥°√–¥Ÿ°‡≈Á°Ê ‡√’¬ß‡ªìπ ·∂«°”Àπ¥¢Õ∫‡¢μ¥â“π≈à“ߢÕßæ◊Èπ∑’Ëπ’È ´÷ËߥŸ‡À¡◊Õπ ®–μ√ß°—∫μ”·Àπàß·°â¡ ·∂«¢Õßøíπ‰¥â‡¢¬‘∫‰ª∑“ß ¥â“π„π‡À¡◊Õπ∑’Ëæ∫°—π¡“°„π‰¥‚π‡ “√åÕÕ√åπ‘∏‘ ‡™’¬π ‡¡◊ËÕ¡Õß„π·π«°≈“ß °√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√¡’√àÕß ‡¡°‡§‡≈’¬π¢π“¥„À≠à¡“° ¡’≈—°…≥–‡°◊Õ∫‡ªìπ√Ÿª  “¡‡À≈’¬Ë ¡·≈–‰ª ‘πÈ  ÿ¥μ√ߥâ“πÀ≈—ߢÕßæ◊πÈ ∑’´Ë ¡‘ ‰ø´‘  æ◊Èπ∑’Ë´‘¡‰ø´‘ π’Ȫ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬æ◊Èπº‘«∑’Ë¡’√Õ¬μ–‡¢Á∫‡ªìπ √àÕß≈÷°¡’√Ÿª√à“߇°◊Õ∫ “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡ ”À√—∫‰ªª√–°∫°—∫ ¢“°√√‰°√¥â“π´â“¬ √–À«à“ßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë´‘¡‰ø´‘ °—∫∫√‘‡«≥ ‡∫â“øíπ‡Àπ◊Õ√àÕ߇¡°‡§‡≈’¬π¡’æπ◊È ∑’Ë‚§â߇«â“·§∫Ê æ◊πÈ ∑’Ë Àπ÷Ëß ¢Õ∫‡¢μ¥â“π≈à“ß´÷Ë߇ªìπ‰ªμ“¡·π«‚§âߪ°μ‘‰ª  ‘Èπ ÿ¥∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬∑’Ë∞“π¢ÕߪÿÉ¡‚§‚√πÕ¬¥å ∫√‘‡«≥ ·π«μ√ß°≈“ß∑’Ë·μ°À—°‡ ’¬À“¬‡ªìπ¢Õ߇∫â“øíπ·≈– ¡’ øí π ∑’Ë ¢÷È π ¡“·∑π∑’Ë ‚ º≈à „ Àâ ‡ ÀÁ π ™— ¥ ‡®πÀ≈“¬´’Ë æ∫  à«π¢Õ߬եøíπ “¡´’ˬ—ߧßÕ¬Ÿà „π‡∫â“øíπ¡’≈—°…≥– ·μ°À—°‡ ’¬À“¬∫àß™’È™—¥‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–¢Õßøíπºÿ ‡ªìπ‚æ√ß¢π“¥„À≠à ¡’‡∫â“øíπ 7 ‡∫â“´÷Ëß¡’‡ âπºà“π »Ÿπ¬å°≈“߇æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ®“°´’Ë∑’ËÀπ÷Ë߉ª¬—ß´’Ë∑’Ë ’Ë·≈–®“°π—Èπ ¡’¢π“¥‡ âπºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß≈¥≈߉ª∑“ߥâ“πÀ≈—ß ‡∫â“ øíπ∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬ ÿ¥¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°∑’Ë ÿ¥·≈–Õ¬Ÿàμ√ß°≈“ß ‰ª∑“ß à«πÀπâ“¢ÕߪÿÉ¡‚§‚√πÕ¬¥å ºπ—ß√–À«à“߇∫â“ øíπ¡’≈—°…≥–·¢Áß°√–¥â“߇π◊ËÕß®“°‡∫â“øíπ∑’ËÕ¬Ÿàμ‘¥ °—π‰¥âÀ≈Õ¡√«¡°—π ‡∫â“øíπ∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬‡√’¬ß°—π‡ªìπ·π« ‡ âπμ√ߥ⫬§«“¡¬“« 31 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ¬Õ¥øíπ¢Õßøíπ ∑’Ë ¢÷È π ¡“·∑π∑’Ë ‡ ÀÁ π ‰¥â „π‡∫â“øíπ∑’Ë Õß ‡∫â“øíπ∑’Ë “¡ ·≈–‡∫â“øíπ∑’ËÀâ“ æ◊Èπº‘«μ√ß à«π°≈“ߢÕ߬եøíπ„𠉥‚π‡ “√å   °ÿ ≈ π’È ∑ÿ ° ™π‘ ¥ ®–¡’ · π« — π ª∞¡¿Ÿ ¡‘ μ √ß  à«π°≈“ߧ≈⓬°√–‡ª“–·π«Àπ÷Ëß ‚¥¬·μà≈–¥â“π¢Õß 64

relief. A low smooth ridge extends forward, prolonging the anterior edge of the coronoid process. This delimits a dorsal area lateral to the alveolar border, which is displaced medially compared to the rest of the lateral surface. A row of small foramina marks the ventral limit of this area, which apparently corresponds to the cheek region, the tooth row being displaced inward as in many ornithischians. In medial view, the dentary shows a very large Meckelian groove, which is roughly triangular and ends just posterior to the symphyseal area. This symphyseal area consists of a more or less triangular, deeply furrowed sutural surface for union with the left dentary. Between the symphysis and the alveolar region above the Meckelian groove, there is a narrow concave area. The alveolar region forms an incipient dental battery, the ventral limit of which follows a regular curve ending posteriorly at the base of the coronoid process. The damaged medial was of the alveoli and exposes several fairly well-preserved replacement teeth. The crowns of the three functional teeth still present in alveoli are broken, revealing large pulp cavities. There are seven alveoli, which increase in diameter from the first to the fourth and then decrease rearward. The most posterior alveoli is the smallest and is medial to the anterior part of the coronoid process. The walls between the alveoli must have been poorly ossified, since the alveoli now appear to be confluent. The alveolar row is straight. It is 31 millimeters long. Crowns of replacement teeth are visible


—ππ’È®–¡’øíπ¬àÕ¬´’ˇ≈Á°Ê 5 ´’Ë∑’Ë≈“¥‡Õ’¬ßμàÕ‡π◊ËÕßμË” ≈߉ª‚¥¬°“√≈¥√–¥—∫≈ߢÕß —π∑ÿ쑬¿Ÿ¡‘ øíπ¬àÕ¬´’Ë ‡≈Á°Ê ‡À≈à“π’È ‰¡à ‰¥âμàÕ‡π◊ËÕß≈߉ª®π∂÷ߥâ“π≈à“ߢÕß ¬Õ¥øíπ à«π∫π ‰¡àæ∫≈—°…≥–∑’Ë·μ°μà“ß°—πÕ¬à“ß ™—¥‡®π√–À«à“߬եøíπ·≈–√“°øíπ ¬Õ¥øíπ®– Õ∫ ·§∫≈߉ª·≈–§àլʰ≈“¬‰ª‡ªìπ√“°øíπ∑’Ë¡’√Ÿª√à“ß §≈⓬√Ÿª∑√ß°√–∫Õ° æ◊Èπº‘«¥â“π√‘¡Ω望°¢Õßøíπ‰¡à  “¡“√∂ —߇°μ‰¥â ‡»…·μ°À—°¢Õߢ“°√√‰°√∫π¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°·≈–  ¿“æ‰¡à   ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ·¡â «à “ ®–‡§¬‰¥â √— ∫ °“√«‘ π‘ ® ©— ¬ ¡“°à Õ π·≈â « «à “ ‡ªì π  à « π¢Õߢ“°√√‰°√∫π¥â “ π´â “ ¬ (Buffetaut and others, 1989) ·μà°Á ‰¡àßà“¬π—°∑’Ë®–  √ÿ ª ‰¥â Õ ¬à “ ßπ—È π ¡— π Õ“®®–‡ªì π  à « π¢Õß°–‚À≈° ¥â “ π¢«“°Á ‰ ¥â øí π ∑—È ß 5 ´’Ë ¬— ß §ßμ‘ ¥ Õ¬Ÿà ∫ π°√–¥Ÿ ° ¢“°√√‰°√·≈–¡’´’ËÀπ÷Ë߇ªìπøíπ´’ˇ≈Á°Ê∑’Ë¢÷Èπ¡“·∑π∑’Ë Õ¬Ÿà„π‡∫â“øíπ °√–¥Ÿ°¡’°“√‚§â߇ÀÁπ‰¥â™—¥‡®π∑“ߥâ“π ∫π¢Õß¡— π ´÷Ë ß Õ“®¡’ § «“¡ — ¡ æ— π ∏å ‚ ¥¬μ√ß°— ∫ ¡ÿ ¡ √–À«à“ßæ◊Èπ∑’ˇ∫â“øíπ°—∫ à«π∫π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√ ∫π´÷Ë ß æ∫‡ÀÁ π ‰¥â ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª„π‰¥‚π‡ “√å °ÿ≈π’È °“√ ‡≈◊Ë Õ π¢¬— ∫ ‰ª∑“ߥ⠓ π„π¢Õß·∂«øí π ‡À≈à “ π’È ¡’ § «“¡ ‡°’ˬ«‚¬ß°—∫μ”·Àπàß∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¢Õß°√–æÿâß·°â¡ æ◊Èπº‘« ¥â“π„π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“°√√‰°√∫π¡’ ¿“æ∑’Ë ‰¡à ¡∫Ÿ√≥å Õ¬à“ß¡“° ·μࠗ߇°μ‡ÀÁπ à«π¢Õß√“°øíπ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß ™—¥‡®π øíπ¡’ ¿“扡à·μ°À—°°Á ÷°À√Õ „π à«π¢Õß øíπ∫π¢“°√√‰°√≈à“߬եøíπ®– Õ∫·§∫≈߉ªÕ¬à“ß μà Õ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®π‰ª‡ªì π √Ÿ ª ∑√ß°√–∫Õ° ¬Õ¥øí π ‡Õ’ ¬ ß ∑”¡ÿ¡°—∫·°π°≈“ߢÕß√“°øíπ´÷Ë߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑’Ëæ∫„π ´‘μμ–§Õ´Õ√—  ‡À¡¬≈’À¬‘߇Õπ´‘  (Sereno and others, 1988) ¬Õ¥øíπ ÷°À√ÕÀ√◊Õ‰¡à°Á·μ°À—°¡“° ‡°‘π°«à“®–· ¥ß≈—°…≥–„π√“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥ ¡’‡æ’¬ßøíπ ∑’Ë ¢÷È π ¡“·∑π∑’Ë À ≈«¡Ê´’Ë ‡ ¥’ ¬ «‡∑à “ π—È π ∑’Ë ¡’  — π ª∞¡¿Ÿ ¡‘ ™—¥‡®π·≈–¡’øíπ¬àÕ¬´’ˇ≈Á°Ê  Õß “¡´’Ë∫π¥â“π∑—Èß Õß ¢Õß¡—π

in the second, third, and fifth alveoli. As in all Psittacosaurus, the medial face of the crown bears a bulbous median primary ridge. On each side of this median ridge, there are five denticles that continue downward by descending secondary ridges. These denticles do not extend below the upper half of the crown. There is no sharp distinction between the crown and the root. The crown tapers downward and merges gradually into the more or less cylindrical root. The labial face of the dentary teeth is not visible. The maxilla fragement is small and poorly preserved. Because of this, although originally identified as part of a left maxilla (Buffetaut and others, 1989), its original position is not easy to determine. It may be from the right side of the skull. Five teeth are still attached to the jawbone and one loose replacement tooth is in the alveolus for the smallest tooth. The bone, as preserved, has a fairly marked curvature in its dorsal part. This may correspond to the distinct angle between the alveolar region and the dorsal part of the maxilla generally observed in Psittacosaurus. This inward displacement of the tooth row is linked to the occurrence of a cheek pouch. The inner surface of the maxilla is very poorly preserved and the roots of the teeth are clearly visible. The functional teeth are either broken or worn. As in the dentary teeth, the crown gradually tapers into the cylindrical root. The crowns are set at an angle to the axis of the roots, this having been described in Psittacosaurus meileyingensis by Sereno and others (1988). The crowns are too worn or broken to show any details. Only the loose replacement tooth has a relatively strong primary ridge and a few additional denticles on both sides of it. 65


√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  Reconstructed dinosaur model of Compsognathus sp.

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5. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ °ÿ≈ §Õ¡æå´Õ° 5. Comsognathus sp. ‡π∏—  Compsognathus is a small dinosaur and is ‰¥‚π‡ “√å °ÿ≈ §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  ‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¢π“¥‡≈Á ° ·≈–∂◊ Õ ‰¥â «à “ ‡ªì 𠉥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡’ ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ∑’Ë ÿ¥„π‚≈° ¡’≈”μ—«¬“«ª√–¡“≥ 70 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ °√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ëæ∫¡’®”π«π 2 ™‘È𠇪ìπ°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âߢâ“ߴ⓬ ·≈–°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߢ«“´÷Ë߬“«ª√–¡“≥ 3 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ º≈°“√«‘®—¬¢—Èπ√“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥æ∫«à“‡ªìπ °√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åμ—«‡μÁ¡«—¬ ¡’√Ÿª√à“ß≈—°…≥– §≈⓬°—π°—∫ §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  ®“°¬ÿ‚√ª¡“° Õ¬à“߉√ °Áμ“¡ ¬—߉¡à “¡“√∂«‘π‘®©—¬≈߉ª∂÷ß√–¥—∫™π‘¥‰¥â ‡π◊ËÕß®“°°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ëæ∫‰¡à ¡∫Ÿ√≥å‡æ’¬ßæÕ Buffetaut and Ingavat (1984) ‰¥â√“¬ß“π °“√§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ° Õß™‘Èπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¢π“¥‡≈Á°´÷Ëß¡’≈—°…≥–§≈⓬‰¥‚π‡ “√å™π‘¥ §Õ¡æå ´Õ°‡π∏—  ≈Õß°‘‡ª  ®“°À‘πªŸπ¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπ ª≈“¬·Ààß∫“«“‡√’¬«à“ °√–¥Ÿ°æ∫∑’Ë¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“ „π ¿“æ∑’Ë · μ°À— °  “¡“√∂√–∫ÿ ‰ ¥â «à “ ‡ªì π ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥‡≈Á ° Õ¬Ÿà „ πÕ— π ¥— ∫ ¬à Õ ¬ ´’≈Ÿ√Õ´Õ‡√’¬ „π®”π«π∑’Ëæ∫  à«π‚§π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° ·¢â ß ¢â “ ß´â “ ¬∂◊ Õ «à “ ¡’ § «“¡πà “  π„®¡“°‡ªì π æ‘ ‡ »… ∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°∑’Ë·μ°À—°π’È¡’≈—°…≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°°≈«ß ·≈–¡’ºπ—ßÀπ“πâÕ¬°«à“ 1 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ¡’¿“§μ—¥¢«“ß ‡ªì π √Ÿ ª «ß°≈¡ æ◊È π º‘ « ¢â Õ °√–¥Ÿ °  à « π‚§π ”À√— ∫ √Õß√—∫°√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¡’≈—°…≥–§àÕπ¢â“߇ªìπ √Ÿª “¡‡À≈’ˬ¡¡’¡ÿ¡·À≈¡¡ÿ¡Àπ÷Ëß∑“ߥâ“πÀπⓇªìπ ∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¢ÕßÀßÕπ§’‡π’¬≈ ∑“ߥâ“π∑⓬¡’º‘«ÀπⓇ°◊Õ∫ ‡∑à “ °— π  Õߥ⠓ π·¬°ÕÕ°®“°°— π ‚¥¬√à Õ ß∫“°μ◊È π Ê √àÕßÀπ÷Ëß º‘«Àπâ“∑—Èß Õߥâ“ππ’ȇªìπ∑’˪√–°∫¥â«¬μÿà¡ ∑“ß à«πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°πàÕß º‘«Àπâ“μ√ß°≈“ߢÕß °√–¥Ÿ°‡√’¬∫·≈–‚§âßπŸπ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ º‘«Àπâ“¥â“π¢â“ß¡’  — π μ“¡·π«¬“«Àπ÷Ë ß ·π«´÷Ë ß ‡√‘Ë ¡ ®“° à « π‡°◊ Õ ∫∂÷ ß ª≈“¬ à«π‚§π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ° √–À«à“ß —ππ’È°—∫ —π§’‡¡’¬≈

the worldûs smallest dinosaur. It is about 70 centimeters long. The discovery was a left tibia and a right humerus that is 3 centimeters long. These fossils are regarded as being from a mature dinosaur. Their characteristics closely resemble Compsognathus from Europe. However, the species level is unknown because the specimens are incomplete. Buffetaut and Ingavat (1984) reported the discovery of a few isolated bones of a very small theropod dinosaur. This dinosaur was about the size of, and very similar to, the smallest known theropod dinosaur, Compsognathus longipes, from the Late Jurassic lithographic limestone of Bavaria. The two fragmentary bones from Phu Pratu Teema can be referred to a very small theropod dinosaur of the infraorder Coelurosauria. The proximal part of a left tibia is the most interesting of these two bones. The broken shaft is hollow, with walls less than 1 millimeter thick. Its cross section is rounded. The proximal articular surface for the femur is roughly triangular and has an acute anterior angle corresponding to the cnemial crest. Posteriorly, there are two subequal facets separated by a shallow notch. These facets articulate with the distal condyles of the femur. The medial face of the bone is smooth and slightly convex. The lateral face has a longitudinal ridge that starts some distance below the proximal end of 67


‡ªìπæ◊Èπº‘«‚§â߇«â“´÷Ë߇ªìπ∑’Ë√Õß√—∫ à«πª≈“¬ ÿ¥¢Õß ‚§π°√–¥Ÿ°πàÕß ·≈–‡ÀÁπ —π§’‡¡’¬≈™—¥‡®π¡“°·¡â«à“  à«π‚§π¢Õß¡—π§àÕπ¢â“ß®–∂Ÿ°§√Ÿ¥‡ªìπ√Õ¬ √«¡∑—Èß §à Õ ¬Ê‚§â ß °≈— ∫ ÕÕ°‰ª∑“ß à « π‚§π·≈–§à Õ ¬Ê ≈¥≈߉ª∑“ß à « πª≈“¬‚¥¬‰¡à æ ∫§«“¡‰¡à μà Õ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß ·∫∫©—∫æ≈—π ‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å´’≈Ÿ‚√´Õ√å ∑’Ë ¡’ ¢ 𓥄À≠à ° «à “ Õ¬à “ ߇™à π Õ’ · ≈ø√Õ´Õ√—   ·∫¡‡∫‘√å°‰Õ ¬ÿ§®Ÿ·√ ´‘°μÕπª≈“¬®“°‡∑𥓰Ÿ√ÿ ‰¥‚π‰π§—  ·Õπ‡∑Õ‚√ªí  ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ®“° ¡Õπ·∑π“ ·≈–°—≈≈‘¡‘¡—  ∫—≈≈“μ—  ¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  μÕπª≈“¬®“°¡Õß‚°‡≈’¬ · ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“¡’§«“¡ §≈â “ ¬§≈÷ ß °— π „π√Ÿ ª ≈— ° …≥å  — ≥ ∞“π∑—Ë « ʉª√–À«à “ ß °√–¥Ÿ°·¢âß∑’Ë·μ°À—°π’È°—∫¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åÕ◊ËπÊ¢â“ßμâπ ·¡â«à“°√–¥Ÿ°∑’˧âπæ∫∑’Ë¿Ÿ‡«’¬ßπ’È®–¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“¡“° ‡¡◊Ë Õ ‡ª√’ ¬ ∫‡∑’ ¬ ∫°— ∫ §Õ¡æå ´ Õ°‡π∏—   ≈Õß°‘ ‡ ª  ®“°‰∑‚∏π‘°¢Õß∫“«“‡√’¬ æ∫«à“‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫‰¥â¬“° °«à“¡“°‡æ√“–«à“°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âß¡’¥â“πª≈“¬¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°  à«π‚§π‰¡à§àÕ¬ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‡¡◊ËÕæ‘®“√≥“ ®“°´“°‡À≈◊Õ¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°∫π·ºàπÀ‘π∑’Ë∫“«“‡√’¬·≈â« ™‘È π  à « π°√–¥Ÿ ° ®“°¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß¡’ § «“¡ Õ¥§≈â Õ ßÕ¬à “ ß  ¡∫Ÿ√≥奒·≈–¡’§«“¡‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—π¥’°—∫μ—«Õ¬à“ß®“° ∫“«“‡√’¬‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ¢π“¥·≈–√Ÿª√à“ß∑—Ë«‰ª ™‘Èπ à«π μ— « Õ¬à “ ߉¥‚π‡ “√å   °ÿ ≈ π’È ® “°‡∫Õ√å ‡ √’ ¬ ‡´’ ¬ π·Àà ß §Õß®— « √å ∑ “ßμ–«— π ÕÕ°‡©’ ¬ ß„μâ ¢ ÕßΩ√—Ë ß ‡» ´÷Ë ß ªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π ∂Ÿ ° ‡°Á ∫ √— ° …“‰«â ∑’Ë æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ª √–«— μ‘ » “ μ√å ∏√√¡™“μ‘„π°√ÿߪ“√’ Õ“®‡ªìπÕ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷Ëß·¬°ÕÕ° ‰ª§◊ Õ §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  §Õ√—≈‡≈ ∑√‘  ´÷Ëߢ—¥°—∫ §«“¡§‘ ¥ ¢Õß Ostrom °√–¥Ÿ ° ·¢â ß ¢Õß™‘È π  à « π μ—«Õ¬à“߇À≈à“π’È¡’ ¿“æ∑’Ë¥’°«à“·¡â«à“®–·∫π¡“°®“° °√–∫«π°“√°≈“¬‡ªìπ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ·μàæ—≤π“°“√ ¢Õß — π §’ ‡ ¡’ ¬ ≈°Á ‡ ÀÁ π ‰¥â „ πμ— « Õ¬à “ ß®“°‰∑¬‡™à π °— π Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡  —ππ’È∑’Ëæ∫„π´’≈Ÿ√Õ´Õ√å´÷Ëß¡’¢π“¥„À≠à °«à“¡’§«“¡‡¥àπ™—¥°«à“∑’Ë à«π‚§π·≈–≈¥§«“¡‡¥àπ™—¥

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the bone. Between this ridge and the cnemial crest, there is a concave surface that accommodated the proximal part of the fibula shaft. The cnemial crest is well marked, although its proximal part has been somewhat abraded. It recurves slightly outwards proximally and decreases very gradually distally, without any sudden discontinuity. Comparison with well described larger coelurosaurs, such as the Late Jurassic Elaphrosaurus bambergi from Tendaguru, the Early Cretaceous Deinonychus antirrhopus from Montana, and the Late Cretaceous Gallimimus bullatus from Mongolia, shows that there is a general morphological similarity between this fragmentary tibia and those of these other dinosaurs, although the Thai specimen is much smaller. Comparison with Compsognathus longipes from the Tithonic of Bavaria is more difficult because the tibiae of the only known specimen have very poorly preserved proximal ends. Nevertheless, to judge from the impressions left on the slab containing the Bavarian fossil, the fragment from Phu Wiang would almost perfectly fit this specimen as far as size and general shape are concerned. The French specimen of Compsognathus, from the Berriasian of Canjuers in southeastern France, and now kept in the Museum National dûHistorie Naturelle in Paris, may actually represent a separate species, Compsognathus corallestris, contrary to Ostromûs opinion. The tibiae of this specimen are better preserved, though much flattened by fossilization. Despite this crushing, the relative


°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âߢâ“ߴ⓬¢Õß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  Left tibia of Compsognathus sp.

Õ¬à“ß√«¥‡√Á«‰ª∑“ß à«πª≈“¬ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ °√–¥Ÿ° ·¢âߢÕß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  ®“°Ω√—Ë߇» ¡’¢π“¥„À≠à °«à“°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âߢÕ߉∑¬ª√–¡“≥ 2 ‡∑à“ μ—«Õ¬à“ß °√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉∑¬‰¥â√—∫°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âß ¢Õß Õ“√姒ÕÕæ‡∑Õ√‘°´å ¥â«¬‡À¡◊Õπ°—π æ∫«à“°√–¥Ÿ° ·¢â ß ¢Õß Õ“√姒ÕÕæ‡∑Õ√‘°´å ¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ∑àÕπ ‡√’¬«∫“ß°«à“¡“°‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—π∑’Ë∫√‘‡«≥¢âÕμàÕ  à«π‚§π¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°

development of the cnemial crest is visibly the same as in the Thai specimen. However, in the larger coelurosaurs this crest is more prominent at its proximal part and decreases much more abruptly distally. However, the tibia of the French Compsognathus is about twice as large as the Thai specimen. The Thai specimen has also been compared with the tibia of Archaeopteryx. In this early bird, this bone has a much more slender shaft compared to the proximal articular region. 69


°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߢ«“¢Õß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  Right humerus of Compsognathus sp.

°√–¥Ÿ ° ∑à Õ π∑’Ë   Õß∑’Ë §à Õ π¢â “ ß·μ°À— ° ®“° ¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“´÷Ëß≈ߧ«“¡‡ÀÁπ‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ´’ ≈Ÿ ‚ √´Õ√å ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ¡“°μ— « Àπ÷Ë ß ∑’Ë ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π®–‡ªì π  à«π‚§π¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¢“Àπâ“∑àÕπ∫π¢â“ߢ«“ ∑àÕπ °√–¥Ÿ ° ‚§â ß °≈«ß·≈–¡’   ¿“æ∑’Ë ‰ ¡à §à Õ ¬ ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ¡’ ∫√‘‡«≥¢âÕμàÕ·ºà°«â“ßÕÕ° ‡ÀÁπ —π‡¥≈‚μ‡æ§‚∑√—≈ ™— ¥ ‡®π¥’ §«“¡‰¡à   ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ¢ Õß™‘È π  à « πμ— « Õ¬à “ ßπ’È ∑”„À⬓°μàÕ°“√»÷°…“‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫ ™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß °√–¥Ÿ°¢“À≈—ß∑àÕπ∫π¢Õß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  §Õ√—≈ ‡≈ ∑√‘   ®“°‡¬Õ√¡π’ · ≈–Ω√—Ë ß ‡» ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–‚§â ß ‡ªìπ√Ÿªμ—«´’™—¥‡®π·≈–‡ÀÁπ≈—°…≥–°“√·ºà¢¬“¬ÕÕ° ∑“ß à«π‚§π¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ° ·μà ‰¡àæ∫≈—°…≥–„π √“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥¥—ß°≈à“«®“°μ—«Õ¬à“ߢÕ߉∑¬ 70

The second fragmentary bone from Phu Pratu Teema, which can be referred to a very small coelurosaur, is apparently the proximal part of a right humerus. It has a curved hollow shaft and an incompletely preserved, strongly expanded articular region. The deltopectoral crest seems to have been well marked. The poor preservation of this fossil makes a comparison difficult. The humeri of German and the French specimens of Compsognathus corallestris have a fairly marked sigmoid curvature and a noticeable proximal expansion, but no details are visible on this fossil.


™‘È π  à « πμ— « Õ¬à “ ß‡æ’ ¬ ß Õß™‘È π ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ´’≈Ÿ√Õ´Õ√宓°¿Ÿª√–μŸμ’À¡“π’È¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°¡“°‡À¡◊Õπ °—∫™‘πÈ  à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß §Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏—  ®“°¬ÿ‚√ª π—∫‡ªìπ °“√‡ ’Ë ¬ ß∑’Ë ® –∫√√¬“¬≈— ° …≥–Õ¬à “ ߇ªì π √–∫∫∑’Ë ∂Ÿ°μâÕ߇π◊ËÕß®“°™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß¡’ ¿“æ∑’Ë ‰¡à ¡∫Ÿ√≥å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´’ ≈Ÿ‚√´Õ√å¢ Õ߉∑¬®÷ ß ‰¥â ∂Ÿ°®—¥‰«â ‡ ªì π °“√ ™—Ë«§√“««à“‡ªìπ¢Õßæ«°§Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏‘¥∑’ˬ—ß«‘π‘®©—¬ ‰¡à ‰¥â  ”À√—∫‡√◊ËÕߢπ“¥π—Èπ °√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉∑¬¡’¢π“¥ ‡≈Á°°«à“μ—«Õ¬à“ߢÕßΩ√—Ë߇» ·μà¡’§«“¡„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π ¡“°°— ∫ μ— « Õ¬à “ ß®“°∫“«“‡√’ ¬ §Õ¡æå ´ Õ°‡π∏—   ≈Õß°‘‡ª  ´÷Ëß¡’§«“¡¬“«ª√–¡“≥ 70 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ ·≈–ª√–¡“≥πÈ”Àπ—°μ—«‰¥â 3 ∂÷ß 3.5 °‘‚≈°√—¡ ∂◊Õ‰¥â «à“‡ªìπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˇ≈Á°∑’Ë ÿ¥‡∑à“∑’ˇ§¬æ∫¡“ Õ¬à“߉√ °Áμ“¡ ‡¡◊ËÕ‡√Á«Êπ’È ‰¥â¡’°“√§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’ˇ≈Á°°«à“π’È ¥—߇™àπ ¡ÿ ´Õ√—  ¬ÿ§‰∑√·Õ ´‘°®“° Õ“√凮πμ‘π“·≈–μ—«Õ¬à“ß°√–¥Ÿ°™‘Èπ‡≈Á°Ê ¢Õß ´‘μμ– §Õ´Õ√—   ¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬   ·μà ∑—È ß À¡¥π’È °Á ‡ ªì π ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˬ—߇¬“«å«—¬¡“° μ—«Õ¬à“ß°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉∑¬ ¡’   ¿“æ∑’Ë · μ°À— ° ¡“°®π‰¡à   “¡“√∂§“¥§–‡πÕ“¬ÿ ‰¥â·πàπÕπ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ °√–¥Ÿ°¡’ ¿“æ°≈“¬‡ªìπ ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå∑’Ë·¢Áß·√ߥ’‰¡à‡ª√“–∫“ß·≈–¡’ ¿“æ ≈«¥≈“¬∫πæ◊Èπº‘«¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°™—¥‡®π¥’´÷ËߥŸ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“ ®–‰¡à ‰¥â‡ªìπ™‘Èπ à«π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å√ÿàπ‡¬“«å ¥—ßπ—È𠉥‚π‡ “√åæ«°§Õ¡æå´Õ°‡π∏‘¥¢Õ߉∑¬®÷ß®—¥‰¥â«à“Õ¬Ÿà „π°≈ÿà¡¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˇ≈Á°∑’Ë ÿ¥

The scanty coelurosaur material from Phu Pratu Teema, thus, indicates a very small form quite similar to European specimens of Compsognathus. Because of the incompleteness of the available material, a precise systematic assignment would be hazardous. The Thai coelurosaur is, therefore, provisionally designated as an indeterminate compsognathid. As for size, the Thai bones are smaller than their counterparts in the French specimen but very close to those of the Bavarian specimen. Compsognathus longipes, with a length of about 70 centimeters and an estimated weight of 3 to 3.5 kilograms, is one of the smallest known dinosaurs. Smaller dinosaur specimens have recently been described, such as the Triassic Mussaurus from Argentina and minute specimens of the Cretaceous Psittacosaurus, but these are all very young juveniles. The Thai fossils are so fragmentary that conjecture about their age is bound to be tentative. However, since they are well ossified and have well defined reliefs, they likely do not belong to juveniles. The compsognathid from Thailand, which is about the size of Compsognathus longipes, thus, ranks among the smallest known dinosaurs.

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√Ÿª®”≈Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» Reconstructed dinosaur model of Ornithomimosaur

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6. ‰¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» ‰¥‚π‡ “√åÕ’°™π‘¥Àπ÷ËߢÕ߉∑¬∑’Ëæ∫®“°À≈ÿ¡ ¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 5 „πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡ªìπ°√–¥Ÿ°ΩÉ“μ’π ∑’¡Ë ≈’ °— …≥–∫àß∫Õ°«à“‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» (ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘‚¡´Õ√å) ´÷Ë߉¥‚π‡ “√å „π°≈ÿà¡π’È·∫àßÕÕ° ‰¥â‡ªìπÀ≈“¬ °ÿ≈ ‡™àπ æ«°∑’˧≈⓬°—∫π°π—°«‘Ëß¡’ ™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈«à“ ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏¡‘¡—  æ«°∑’˧≈⓬π°°√–®Õ°‡∑» ¡’™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈«à“  μ√Ÿ∏‘‚Õ¡‘¡—  æ«°∑’˧≈⓬π°Õ’¡Ÿ¡’™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈ «à “ ‚¥√¡‘ ‰ ´‚Õ¡‘ ¡—   æ«°§≈â “ ¬§√ÿ ± ¡’ ™◊Ë Õ  °ÿ ≈ «à “ °“√Ÿ¥‘¡‘¡—  ·≈–æ«°∑’˧≈⓬‰°à¡’™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈«à“ °—≈≈‘¡‘¡—  °√–¥Ÿ°¢Õ߉∑¬‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫ °ÿ≈„¥Ê ∑’°Ë ≈à“«¡“∑—ßÈ À¡¥ ·≈–‡ÀÁπ«à“§«√®–®—¥„À⇪ìπ °ÿ≈„À¡à ·μà‡π◊ËÕß®“° À≈—°∞“π∑’Ëæ∫¬—ß¡’‰¡à¡“°æÕ∑’Ë®–√—∫√Õß°“√μ—Èß °ÿ≈ „À¡à ‰¥â ¥—ßπ—Èπ®÷ßμâÕß√Õ°“√§âπæ∫À≈—°∞“π‡æ‘Ë¡‡μ‘¡ „Àâ ™— ¥ ‡®π°«à “ π’È ®÷ ß ®–μ—È ß ™◊Ë Õ  °ÿ ≈ ·≈–™π‘ ¥ „À¡à ‰ ¥â ¢≥–π’ºÈ «Ÿâ ®‘ ¬— ‰¥â®¥— „À⇪ìπæ«°§≈â“¬π°°‘π√’ ·≈–‡μ√’¬¡ ™◊ËÕ °ÿ≈«à“ °‘π√’¡‘¡—  ‰«â‡ªìπ°“√≈à«ßÀπâ“

°√–¥Ÿ°·¢âߢÕ߉¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» Tibia bone of Ornithomimosaur

6. Ornithomimosaur Metatarsal dinosaur bones found at site no. 5 in the Phu Wiang National Park are of an ostrich mimic Ornithomimosaur. This Ornithomimosaur group of dinosaurs has many genera, including speedy bird mimic Ornithomimus, ostrich mimic Struthiomimus, emu mimic Dromiceiomimus, garuda mimic Garudimimus, and chicken mimic Gallimimus. The Thai specimen is unlike any of these genera and could be a new genus, though evidence for this is insufficient. Additional good specimens are needed to designate this Thai specimen as a new taxon. Nonetheless, the generic name Ginnareemimus is erected in advance.

°√–¥Ÿ°Õÿâßμ’π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åπ°°√–®Õ°‡∑» Metatarsal bone of Ornithomimosaur

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7. ‰¢à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å

7. Dinosaur eggs

Buffetaut and others (2005) √“¬ß“π°“√ §âπæ∫‰¢à¢π“¥®‘Ϋ®“°¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ´÷Ëß¡’Õ¬Ÿà øÕßÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë¡’μ—«ÕàÕπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥Õ¬Ÿà¥â«¬ ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ‰¢à∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 4 øÕß∂Ÿ°§âπæ∫„π™à«ßªï æ.». 2545 ·≈– 2546 ®“°À‘π∑√“¬·ªÑß ’·¥ß¢Õß À¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—« ∑’Ë¿ŸæÕ° ®—ßÀ«—¥ °≈π§√ ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È ‡ªì π¿“æμàÕÕ—πÀπ÷Ëß∑’Ë≈—°…≥–¢Õ߇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à‡ªìπ∑—Èß ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥·≈–‡ªìπ∑—Èßπ° ´÷Ëß π—∫ πÿπ °“√¥”√ßÕ¬Ÿ¢à Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å≈”μ—«‡≈Á°∑’¡Ë √’ –¥—∫«‘«≤ — π“°“√§“∫‡°’ˬ«√–À«à“߉¥‚π‡ “√å°—∫π° ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°‰¢à ∂Ÿ ° ‡°Á ∫ ®“°æ◊È π º‘ « ¥‘ π ·≈–æ∫ °√–®— ¥ °√–®“¬À≈ÿ ¥ ®“°À‘ π ‚¥¬Õ¬Ÿà √ «¡°— ∫ °√–¥Ÿ ° ·≈–øí π ¢Õߪ≈“√«¡∑—È ß ‡μ∑μâ “ æÕ¥Õ’ ° À≈“¬™π‘ ¥ ·≈–‰¡à æ ∫À≈— ° ∞“π‚§√ß √â “ ߢÕß√— ß „π∫√‘ ‡ «≥π—È π Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“®–¡“®“°§√Õ° ‡¥’ ¬ «°— π ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°‰¢à ‡ À≈à “ π’È ¡ “®“°æ◊È π ∑’Ë ‡ ≈Á ° Ê ∑’Ë ‡ ¥’ ¬ «°— π ·≈–‚¥¬√Ÿ ª ≈— ° …≥å  — ≥ ∞“π¢Õ߉¢à · ≈â « ¡’ ≈—°…≥–‡ªìπæ«°‡¥’¬«°—π ¿“§μ—¥¢«“ߢÕ߉¢à‡À≈à“π’È ™’È™—¥«à“‰¢à∂Ÿ°∑”„Àâ·μ°·μà¡’Õ¬Ÿà ÕßøÕß∑’Ë¡’ ¿“æ∑’Ë¥’ ‡æ’ ¬ ßæÕ∑’Ë ® –ª√–‡¡‘ π ¢π“¥·≈–√Ÿ ª √à “ ߥ—È ß ‡¥‘ ¡ ‰¥â √Ÿ ª √à “ ߢÕ߉¢à ‡ ªì π √Ÿ ª √’ · ∫∫‰¢à ∑—Ë « ‰ª∑’Ë ‰ ¡à   ¡¡“μ√ ‡ª√’ ¬ ∫‡∑’ ¬ ∫‰¥â ¥’ °— ∫ ‰¢à ‰ °à ·°≈≈—   ·°≈≈—   ‰¢à ¡’ §«“¡¬“« 18 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ‡ âπºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß∫√‘‡«≥ »Ÿπ¬å Ÿμ√ 11 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ·≈–ª√–‡¡‘πª√‘¡“μ√‰¥â 1.15 ≈Ÿ°∫“»°å‡´π쑇¡μ√ ´÷Ëßμ√ß°—π°—∫ª√‘¡“μ√¢Õß ‰¢àπ°‚°≈¥åøîπ™å §“√奟‡Õ≈≈‘  §“√奟‡Õ≈≈‘  ·≈– π°μ‘Íμ„À≠à æ“√—  ‡¡‡®Õ√å ‡»…™‘Èπ à«π¢Õ߇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à ∫“ß™‘Èπ∫àß™’È«à“¡’°“√·μ°√â“«¿“¬À≈—ß®“°∂Ÿ°Ωíß°≈∫ ·≈â« °“√·¢Áßμ—«°≈“¬‡ªìπÀ‘π¢Õßμ–°Õπ„π™à«ß·√°Ê ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π«à “ ®–‡ªì 𠂧√ß √â “ ߧȔ ¬— π ∑’Ë ™à « ¬ªÑ Õ ß°— π ‰¡à„Àâ¡’°“√·μ°√â“«‡æ‘Ë¡‡μ‘¡ ¿“¬À≈—ß°“√·μ°À—°¢Õß ‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à‡°‘¥°“√ – ¡μ—«¢Õß·√à·§≈‰´μå ‚¥¬‡ÀÁπ

Buffetaut and others (2005) reported the discovery in Thailand of extremely small Early Cretaceous eggs that had a theropod embryo in ovo. Four fossil eggs were found in 2002 and 2003 in an outcrop of red siltstone of the Sao Khua Formation at Phu Phok in Sakhon Nakhon Province in northeastern Thailand. These eggs have a remarkable mosaic of avian and non-avian theropod eggshell characters, which support the retention of a small body size at this critical evolutionary transition. Since the eggs were surface-collected, together with abundant bones and teeth of various fish and tetrapods that were eroding out of the rock, no evidence of nesting structure was discovered. However, they are likely from the same clutch since they all come from the same small area and are morphologically identical. The cross sections of these eggs indicate that they have been crushed, but two of them are sufficiently well preserved to assess their original size and shape. Their asymmetric oval shape best compares with that of Gallus gallus, thus, departing from the bauplan of other positively identified non-avian theropod eggs. Their length of 18 millimeters, their equatorial diameter of 11 millimeters, and their estimated volume of 1.15 cubic centimeters match those of Carduelis carduelis, a goldfinch, and Parus major, a great tit. Some eggshell fragments had slid on top of each other and this indicates that cracking occurred after burial. Early sediment


‰¥â®“°‡§√◊ËÕߧ“‚∏‚¥≈Ÿ¡‘‡π ‡´π´å·≈–¿“¬„μâ°≈âÕß ®ÿ≈∑√√»πå· ß ‚¥¬‡ÀÁπ‡ âπ ’¥”≈“ßÊ ∑’ˇ âπ√Õ∫πÕ° ¢Õߺ‘«¥â“ππÕ°¢Õ߇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à °“√‡μ‘∫‚μ¢Õß·√à ·§≈‰´μ凪ìπ·∫∫Õ’æ‘·∑°‡´’¬≈ ´÷ËßÕ“®‡ªìπ·∫∫©∫—∫ ¢Õ߉¡‚§√‡∫’¬≈ §«“¡Àπ“¢Õ߇ª≈◊ Õ °‰¢à ‡ ¡◊Ë Õ ‰¡à √ «¡≈«¥≈“¬ μà“ßÊ ∫πæ◊Èπº‘«¡’§à“‡©≈’ˬª√–¡“≥ 354 ‰¡§√Õπ ´÷Ë߇ªìπ§à“§«“¡Àπ“∑’Ë„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π¡“°°—∫‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à ‰°à ·°≈≈—  ·°≈≈—  ·≈–¡’§«“¡Àπ“¡“°°«à“‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à π°ÕÕ√å π‘ ‚ ∏∏Õ‡√´’ π ¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬  μÕπª≈“¬®“° Õ“√凮πμ‘π“ª√–¡“≥√âÕ¬≈– 30 ≈«¥≈“¬∫πæ◊Èπº‘« ¥â“ππÕ°¡’≈—°…≥–‡ªìπªÿÉ¡‡≈Á°Ê ´÷Ëßæ∫‰¥â „π‰¢à¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å®”π«π¡“°∑’Ë ‰¡à¡ ’ “¬ —¡æ—π∏凰’¬Ë «¢âÕß°—∫π° ¡’ª¡ Õß¢π“¥ ¢π“¥∑’ Ë ߟ °«à“¡’§“à ‡©≈’¬Ë 183 ‰¡§√Õπ ¢≥–∑’˪¡∑’Ë¡’¢π“¥‡≈Á°°«à“·≈–¡’®”π«π¡“°°«à“®–¡’ §«“¡ Ÿßª√–¡“≥§√÷ËßÀπ÷Ëߧ◊Õª√–¡“≥πâÕ¬°«à“ 92 ‰¡§√Õπ √Õ¬√â“«∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–§≈⓬√Ÿ∫πª¡∑’Ë¡’¢π“¥  Ÿß°«à“¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“®–‡ªìπº≈¡“®“°°“√∫’∫Õ—¥„π™à«ß ∑â “ ¬Ê¢Õß°√–∫«π°“√°≈“¬‡ªì π ´“°¥÷ ° ¥”∫√√æå ¡“°°«à“®–‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑“ß™’««‘∑¬“¥—È߇¥‘¡ ·¡â«à“°“√  — ß ‡°μ®“°§“‚∏‚¥≈Ÿ ¡‘ ‡ π ‡´π´å ® –∫à ß ™’È «à “ ¡’ ° “√ ‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß√–¬–‡¥’¬«À√◊ÕÕ“®®–¡’ Õß√–¬–°Á ‰¥â ´÷Ë ß °“√·∑π∑’Ë „π‚§√ß √â“߇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à°Á ‰ ¡à ¡’ º ≈∑”„Àâ ‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à‡°‘¥°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß„π‚§√ß √â“ß√–¥—∫ ®ÿ≈¿“§ ‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à∑—Èß “¡™—Èπ¡’‚§√ß √â“ß√Ÿªª√‘´÷¡  — ß ‡°μ‡ÀÁ π ‰¥â „ π¿“§μ— ¥ ¢«“ßμ“¡·π«√— » ¡’ ‡ªì π ≈—°…≥–∑’Ë√Ÿâ®—°°—π„πªí®®ÿ∫—π«à“‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–√à«¡·∫∫ ‰´·πª‚æ¡Õ√åøî°°—∫æ«°π°ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√‡´ ·Ààß ¡À“¬ÿ§¡’‚´‚´Õ‘°·≈–√«¡∂÷ßπ°¬ÿ§„À¡àÊ ≈—°…≥– ¥—ß°≈à“«·μ°μà“߉ª®“°‚§√ß √â“ß„π‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë ‰ ¡à ‡ °’Ë ¬ «¢â Õ ß — ¡ æ— π ∏å °— ∫ π° ´÷Ëß®–¡’ Õß™—È𠇪≈◊Õ°‰¢à™—Èπ·√°´÷ËßÕ¬Ÿà¥â“π„π ÿ¥ ¡’ ¿“扡ࠡ∫Ÿ√≥å·≈–¡’‡æ’¬ßº≈÷°¬Õ¥¥â«πÊ‡æ’¬ß 2-3 º≈÷°‡∑à“π—Èπæ∫‡ÀÁπ‰¥â∑“ߥâ“π∞“π¢Õß¡—𠧫“¡

lithification apparently prevented extensive flattening of the shells. Crushing was followed by calcite deposition, this being indicated by cathodoluminescence and, in light microscopy, by a faint black line that outlines the outer surface of the shell and shows calcitic epitaxial growth, possibly of microbial origin. The egg shell thickness, without the surficial ornamentation, averages 354 microns, a value very similar to that of the much more voluminous Gallus gallus eggs and 30 percent more than that of an ornithothoracine bird from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. The outer surface ornamentation is markedly nodular, as in many non-avian dinosaur eggs. The taller nodes average 183 microns, while the smaller and more numerous nodes are half as tall, being less than 92 microns. Pore-like fissures at the level of the taller nodes are likely the result of compression during a late diagenetic phase rather than being of biological origin. Although cathodoluminescence observations indicate one, and possibly two diagenetic phases, the resulting ultrastructural replacement did not alter the eggshell microstructure. Three prismatic structural layers are still visible in radial section, a character presently known to be synapomorphic to Mesozoic Ornithothoraces and more modern birds. This contrasts with the two-layered condition of non-avian theropod eggs. The innermost layer, layer 1, is poorly preserved and only a few truncated crystals are visible at its base. The width and cross section of some of these crystals show that they are blade-like, as in troodontids and 75


°«â “ ß·≈–¿“§μ— ¥ ¢«“ߢÕߺ≈÷ ° ∫“ߺ≈÷ ° · ¥ß ≈—°…≥–§≈⓬„∫¡’¥¥—ß∑’Ëæ∫„πæ«°∑√Ÿ‚Õ¥Õπ∑‘¥·≈– ‡Õ‡«’¬·≈π∑’√Ë ®Ÿâ °— °—𠧫“¡Àπ“¢Õ߇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à¡§’ “à ‡©≈’¬Ë 207 ‰¡§√Õπ Àπ“¡“°°«à“™—Èπ∑’Ë Õß´÷ËßÀπ“‡æ’¬ß 136 ‰¡§√Õπ ≈—°…≥–π’È ‰¡à ‰¥â‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–∑—Ë«‰ª„ππ° ªí ® ®ÿ ∫— π À√◊ Õ „π‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥∑’Ë ‰ ¡à ‡ °’Ë ¬ «¢â Õ ß  —¡æ—π∏å°∫— π° ·μà¡≈’ °— …≥–√à«¡°—∫‰¢à„π¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬  ®“°π‘ « ‡§«π¢ÕßÕ“√å ‡ ®πμ‘ π “´÷Ë ß ¡’ μ— « Õà Õ π¢Õßπ° ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√´’πÕ¬Ÿà¥â«¬ ‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à™—Èπ∑’Ë “¡´÷ËßÕ¬Ÿà ¥â“ππÕ° ÿ¥¡’≈—°…≥–∑’Ë –¥ÿ¥μ“πà“ π„® §◊Õ¡’§«“¡ Àπ“‡æ’¬ß 32 ‰¡§√Õπ °“√®–«‘π‘®©—¬´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ‰¢à‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ ‰¥â∂÷ß √–¥—∫∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π∑’Ë·πàπÕππ—Èπ μâÕß¡’μ—«ÕàÕπ Õ¬Ÿà „π‰¢àπ—Èπ¥â«¬ À√◊Õ‡ªìπ‰¢à∑’Ëæ∫Õ¬Ÿà „ π§√√¿å ¢ Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ 滇¡’ ¬ ‡¡◊Ë Õ ‡√Á « Êπ’È ‰ ¥â ¡’ ° “√§â π æ∫‰¢à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥À≈“°À≈“¬ “¬æ—π∏ÿå∑’Ë¡’´“°μ—« ÕàÕπÕ¬Ÿà¥â«¬ À√◊Õ¡’§«“¡‡°’ˬ«æ—π‚¥¬μ√ß°—∫‚§√ß °√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë‚ μ‡μÁ ¡ «— ¬ ·≈â « ∑’Ë «‘ π‘ ® ©— ¬ ‰¥â Õ ¬à “ ß πà“‡™◊ËÕ∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ‰¢à¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°Õ—≈≈Õ´Õ√Õ¬¥å ‚Õ«‘·√æ‡μÕ‚√´Õ√å ∑√Ÿ‚Õ¥Õπ∑‘¥ ‚¥√¡“§Õ´Õ√‘¥ ‡∑Õ√‘´‘πÕ´Õ√å ·≈–π°Õ’π—π∑‘ÕÕ√åπ‘∏’π Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ¡’‡æ’¬ß 2-3 ™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“߇∑à“π—Èπ∑’Ë¡’√Ÿªæ√√≥∑’Ë¥’ ‡æ’ ¬ ßæÕ∑’Ë ® –«‘ π‘ ® ©— ¬ ≈߉ª∂÷ ß √–¥— ∫  °ÿ ≈ À√◊ Õ √–¥— ∫ ™π‘¥‰¥â ™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß∑’Ë ‰¡à —¡æ—π∏凰’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫π° ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥‡À≈à“π’Èæ∫√«¡Õ¬Ÿà°—∫°≈ÿà¡¢Õß·¡π‘·√æ‡∑Õ√—π ∑’Ë¡’·π«‚πâ¡«à“®–¡’≈”μ—«∑’Ë„À≠à‚μ ´÷Ë߇ªì𧫓¡®√‘ß  ”À√— ∫ π°√ÿà π ·√°Ê∑—È ß À¡¥´÷Ë ß √«¡∂÷ ß Õ“√å §’ Õ Õæ‡∑Õ√‘ ° ´å ·≈–§ÕπøŸ ‡ ™’ ¬  μ√Õ√å π‘   °√–π—Èπ°Áμ“¡ °≈ÿ¡à ¢Õß·¡π‘·√æ‡∑Õ√—π Õ¬à“߇™àπ ´‘μª‘ “μ‘ ÕÕ ‚¡≈°’ ·≈–∑√Ÿ ‚ Õ¥Õπ øÕ√å ‚ ¡´—   ‰¥â ¡’ ° “√æ∫∑—È ß ‰¢à · ≈– μ—«ÕàÕπÕ¬Ÿà¥â«¬°—π∑”„Àâ«‘π‘®©—¬‰¥âÕ¬à“ß·¡à𬔷≈– ‰¥â· ¥ß„Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“≈—°…≥–°“√ ◊∫æ—π∏ÿå·∫∫π°‰¥â‡°‘¥ ¢÷Èπ·≈â« ‰¢à´÷Ëß¡’≈—°…≥–‰¡à ¡¡“μ√∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬‡À≈à“π’È

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known avialans. Layer 1 averages 207 microns thick and is thicker than layer 2, which is 136 microns thick. This is not a common feature in modern birds or in the known non-avian theropods but is shared with the Late Cretaceous egg from Neuquen, Argentina, which contains an ornithothoracine embryo. Layer 3 is conspicuous and is 32 microns thick. Fossil eggs can only be taxonomically identified with certainty by embryos in ovo or by the preservation of a gravid female dinosaur with eggs in its reproductive system. Recent discoveries of a variety of fossil theropod eggs containing embryonic material, or in direct association with adult skeletons, have provided reliable documentation on the taxonomic significance of egg morphology and eggshell microstructure in allosauroids, oviraptorosaurs, troodontids, dromacosaurids, possibly in therizinosaurs, and in enantiornithine birds. However, only a few specimens were diagnostic enough to allow identification at the generic or specific level. Most of these non-avian specimens are associated with derived members of maniraptoran taxa and, thus, are biased toward relatively large body size. This is also true for most known very early birds, including Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis. Nevertheless, the maniraptorans Citipati osmolkae and Troodon formosus, for which egg/embryo associations allow precise identifications, already exhibit incipient avian reproductive traits. Their asymmetrical eggs indicate the presence of a proto


∫àß™’È«à“‰¢à¡’‡´≈≈åÕ“°“» (‚ª√‚μ·Õ√凴≈≈å) ·≈–¡’°“√ «“߉¢à·∫∫§√—Èß≈–Àπ÷ËßøÕß Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È ¡’ª√‘¡“μ√¡“°°«à“∫√√¥“‰¢à∑’Ë ‰¥â√—∫°“√√—∫√Õß«à“‡ªìπ ¢ÕßÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√´’πÕ¬à“ßπâÕ¬ 200 ‡∑à“ ·≈–¡’ ª√‘¡“μ√¡“°°«à“‰¢à®“°¿ŸæÕ°∂÷ß 400 ‡∑à“ ¬‘Ë߉ª °«à“π—Èπ ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È ‰ ¡à ‰ ¥â ·  ¥ß≈— ° …≥–∑—Ë « ‰ª∑’Ë ‡ ªì π ∑—Èß·∫∫π° ´÷Ëß¡’≈—°…≥–‰¡à ¡¡“μ√‡æ√“–¡’‡´≈≈å Õ“°“»·≈–°Á ‰ ¡à ‰ ¥â ·  ¥ß≈— ° …≥–¢Õ߇ª≈◊ Õ °‰¢à ∑’Ë ¡’  “¡™—Èπ ≈—°…≥–∑—Èß ÕßÕ¬à“ßπ’ȇªìπ≈—°…≥–∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õß ‰¢àπ°¡À“¬ÿ§¡’‚´‚´Õ‘°·≈–‰¢àπ°ªí®®ÿ∫—π·≈–√«¡∂÷ß ‰¢à®“°¿ŸæÕ°¥â«¬ °√–¥Ÿ°¢Õßμ—«ÕàÕπ : ¥â“π„π¢Õ߉¢à®“°¿ŸæÕ° øÕßÀπ÷ßË (μ—«Õ¬à“ßÀ¡“¬‡≈¢ SK1-1) ¡’°√–¥Ÿ°™‘πÈ ‡≈Á°Ê 3 ™‘ÈπΩíßÕ¬Ÿà „ π‡π◊È Õ ¢ÕßÀ‘ π ∑√“¬·ªÑ ß ªπ‡π◊È Õ ªŸ π ´÷Ë ß ÀàÕÀÿ⡇ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à∑’Ë·μ°À—° °“√‡μ√’¬¡™‘Èπ à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß ‰¢à ‡ æ◊Ë Õ »÷ ° …“„π√“¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥π—È π ‡ªì π  ‘Ë ß ¬“°¬‘Ë ß ·≈– ‡ ’ˬßμàÕ§«“¡‡ ’¬À“¬ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°§«“¡∫Õ∫∫“ߢÕß ™‘πÈ  à«πμ—«Õ¬à“ß ·≈–°“√∑” ·°π°Á‰¡àª√– ∫º≈ ”‡√Á® ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‡π◊ÈÕÀ‘π°—∫‡π◊ÈÕ°√–¥Ÿ°¢Õßμ—«ÕàÕπ¡’§«“¡ Àπ“·πà π ‰¡à · μ°μà “ ß°— π °√–¥Ÿ ° ™‘È π Àπ÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ∑à Õ π °√–¥Ÿ°°÷Ëß«ß°≈¡· ¥ß≈—°…≥–‡ªìπ∑àÕπ°≈«ß  à«π °√–¥Ÿ°Õ’° Õß™‘Èπ∑’Ëæ∫√à«¡Õ¬Ÿà¥â«¬π—Èπ· ¥ß≈—°…≥– §≈â “ ¬°— ∫ «à “ ®–‡ªì π μ”·Àπà ß ∑“ß°“¬«‘ ¿ “§‡¥‘ ¡ ¢Õß μ—«ÕàÕπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å °√–¥Ÿ°∑àÕπ∑’Ë„À≠à°«à“∫π¥â“πÀπ÷Ëß ¡’∑àÕπ‡ªìπ√Ÿª‰¢à∑’Ë¡’√Ÿ°≈«ßμàÕ‡π◊ËÕ߉ª·≈–‚§âß Õ∫ ·§∫ª≈“¬‡√’¬«‰ªÕ’°¥â“πÀπ÷ßË ¢π“¥‡ âπºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß ∑’Ë „À≠à∑’Ë ÿ¥¢Õß∑àÕπ°√–¥Ÿ°π’ȧ◊Õ 0.37 ¡‘≈≈‘‡¡μ√ ‡¡◊ËÕ«—¥∫√‘‡«≥μ”·Àπàß∑’˪Ÿ¥πŸπ °√–¥Ÿ°Õ’°™‘Èπ∑’Ëæ∫Õ¬Ÿà ¥â«¬°—π‡ªìπ√Ÿª°÷Ëß®—π∑√几’Ȭ«„π·π«μ—¥¢«“ß ≈—°…≥– √Ÿ°≈«ß¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°¡’§«“¡™—¥‡®π∑’Ë®–°≈à“«‰¥â«à“‡ªìπ °√–¥Ÿ ° ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·μà ° “√«‘ π‘ ® ©— ¬ „π∑“ß°“¬«‘¿“§π—Èππ—∫‡ªìπ ‘Ë߬“°¬‘Ëß ∑”„Àâ®”°—¥ π—¬ ”§—≠ ”À√—∫´“°μ—«ÕàÕπ„π°“√∑’Ë®–𔉪쒧«“¡ À¡“¬„π·ßà¡ÿ¡„¥Ê ‡°’ˬ«°—∫‰¢à

air cell and monoautochronic ovideposition. However, their eggs are at least 200 times more voluminous than the first well-attested ornithothoracine eggs and 400 times bigger than the Phu Phok eggs. Moreover, they do not exhibit either the typical avian oval shape associated with the asymmetry caused by the presence of a fully developed avian air cell or the three-layered eggshell. Both of these characters are typical of known Mesozoic and modern bird eggs and of the Phu Phok eggs. Embryonic bones: Inside one of the eggs from Phu Phok, SK1-1, there are three small bones in section in the hard, partly calcitic siltstone matrix that fills the crushed shell. Further preparation of such extremely delicate fossils would be highly hazardous, and scanning attempts have not been successful because of the lack of density difference between the matrix and the embryonic bones. One of the bones just shows the outline of a hollow subcircular shaft. The other two appear to be associated in what may be roughly their original anatomical position. The larger bone has a hollow oval shaft continued on one side by a long curved tapering process. In section, its greatest dimension is 0.37 millimeter at the level of the process. The associated bone is subcrescentic in cross section. The hollow nature of the bones is consistent with referral to Theropoda, but anatomical identification is difficult. This limits the significance of these embryonic remains for the interpretation of the eggs.

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‘ßË ∑’‡Ë °’¬Ë «¢âÕß ”À√—∫«‘«≤ — π“°“√°È”°÷ßË √–À«à“ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°—∫π°: π°„πªí®®ÿ∫—π®–«“߉¢àμ“¡≈”¥—∫ ∑’≈–øÕß ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È¡’πÈ”Àπ—°·ª√º—π‡ªìπÕ¬à“ß¡“° ®“° 0.86 ®π∂÷ß 1500 °√—¡·≈–¬—ß·ª√º—π„π√Ÿª√à“ß ®“°‡°◊Õ∫∑√ß°≈¡‰ª®π∂÷ߧ≈⓬≈Ÿ°·æ√å ‚¥¬¬—ß§ß · ¥ß√Ÿ ª √à “ ß≈— ° …≥–∑—Ë « ‰ª‡ªì π ·∫∫‰¢à √Ÿ ª ∑√߉¡à  ¡¡“μ√·∫∫‰¢àπ° √Ÿª√à“ß·≈–¢π“¥¢Õ߉¢à∑’Ë·ª√º—π ¥—ß°≈à“«‡ªìπº≈‡π◊ËÕß¡“®“°°“√º ¡º “π√–À«à“ß ·√ߢ—∫®“° ‘Ëß·«¥≈âÕ¡´÷Ëß¡’Õ‘∑∏‘æ≈μàÕ«‘«—≤π“°“√ ¢Õß “¬æ—π∏ÿåÀπ÷ËßÊ °—∫≈—°…≥–¢Õß°√–¥Ÿ°‡™‘ß°√“π ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°¡’ § «“¡ — ¡ æ— π ∏å √ –À«à “ ßπÈ” Àπ— ° ‰¢à · ≈– πÈ”Àπ—°μ—«‡μÁ¡«—¬¢Õßπ° ·≈–¡’§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏åÕ¬à“ß ¡“°√–À«à“ߢπ“¥∑àÕπ”‰¢à∑’Ëμ—Èߧ√√¿å°—∫¢π“¥‡ âπ ºà“π»Ÿπ¬å°≈“ß Ÿß ÿ¥¢Õ߉¢à ‰¢à¢π“¥‡≈Á°¡“°Ê ®“° ¿ŸæÕ°π’È∫àß™’È ‰¥âÕ¬à“ß™—¥‡®π«à“‡ªìπ‰¢à¢Õß —μ«å¢π“¥ ‡≈Á ° ¡“°Ê μ— « Àπ÷Ë ß ∂â “ √–∫∫°“√ ◊ ∫ æ— π ∏ÿå ¢ Õß¡— π ‡À¡◊Õπ°—∫¢Õßπ°ªí®®ÿ∫—π¢π“¥≈”μ—«¢Õß —μ«åπ’ÈÕ“® ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫‰¥â°—∫¢π“¥¢Õßπ°°√–®Õ°π°°√–®‘∫ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ∂â“¡—π¡’ Õß√—߉¢à ´÷Ëß∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ≈—°…≥– ∑’Ë ‚∫√“≥≈—°…≥–Àπ÷Ëß¡—π°Á “¡“√∂¡’¢π“¥„À≠à°«à“ ‰¥â ‡ ≈Á ° πâ Õ ¬ „π°√≥’ π’È  — ¥  à « π¢Õߪ√‘ ¡ “μ√‰¢à °— ∫ πÈ”Àπ—°μ—«¢π“¥‚μ‡μÁ¡«—¬®–¡’§à“πâÕ¬°«à“ ·¡â«à“®– ‡§¬¡’ ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥‡≈Á ° °≈ÿà ¡ §Õ¡æå ´Õ°‡π∏‘¥μ—«Àπ÷Ëß®“°À¡«¥À‘π‡ “¢—«∑’Ë¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ·μà ‰¥‚π‡ “√åμ—«π’È°Á¡’¢π“¥„À≠à‡°‘π‰ª∑’Ë®–«“߉¢à¢π“¥ ‡≈Á°∑’æË ∫∑’¿Ë æŸ Õ°π’È Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ æ«°¡“π‘·√æ‡μÕ√—π ´÷Ëßμ—«‡≈Á°¡“°Ê‡∑à“Ê°—∫ ‰¡‚§√·√æ‡μÕ√å ‡®â“‡®’¬ππ—  ·≈–Õ’ æ‘ ‡ ¥π‚¥√´Õ√—   Àπ‘ ß ‡™ß‡Õπ´‘   ∂Ÿ ° §â π æ∫ „πÀ¡«¥À‘π¢Õߪ√–‡∑»®’π∫àß∫Õ°«à“¡’§«“¡‡ªìπ‰ª ‰¥â ∑’Ë ® –«“߉¢à ∑’Ë ¡’ ¢ 𓥇∑à “ °— ∫ ‰¢à ∑’Ë æ ∫®“°¿Ÿ æ Õ°π’È ´÷Ë ß À¡«¥À‘ π ®“°®’ π π’È æ Õ®–‡∑’ ¬ ∫‡§’ ¬ ߉¥â °— ∫ À¡«¥ À‘π‡ “¢—«¢Õ߉∑¬ ®π∂÷ß∑ÿ°«—ππ’È ‡¡◊ËÕæ‘®“√≥“¢π“¥·≈–≈«¥≈“¬ ≈— ° …≥–‚§√ß √â “ ߢÕ߇ª≈◊ Õ °‰¢à ¢ Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å 78

Implications for the dinosaur-bird transition: Extant bird eggs are sequentially ovideposited from only one functioning ovary. They vary greatly in mass from 0.86 to 1500 grams and in shape from pseudo-spherical to pear-shaped, though still displaying the typical avian asymmetrical shape. Egg shape and size are the result of a compromise between environmental forces that have influenced the evolution of a species and the morphology of the hen pelvis. Since there is a relation between egg weight and adult body weight in birds and a strong correlation between canal opening of a gravid female and maximum diameter of eggs, the very small size of the Phu Phok eggs indicates that they were laid by a very small animal. This animalûs body size may have been comparable to that of a modern goldfinch if its reproductive system was similar to that of modern birds. However, it could have been slightly larger if it had retained two functioning ovaries, which is a primitive character. In this case, the ratio of egg volume to adult weight would be smaller. A few bones of a small theropod among the fossils from the Sao Khua Formation were tentatively referred to a compsognathid but this animal is too large to have laid such small eggs. However, very small maniraptorans similar to Microraptor zhaoianus and Epidendrosaurus ningchengensis were found in Chinese formations and could easily have laid the Phu Phok eggs. These Chinese formations are roughly equivalent to the Sao Khua Formation. To date, the Early Cretaceous theropod eggs from Phu Phok, by their size and mosaic of


‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ®“°¿ŸæÕ°·≈â«æ∫«à“ ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë · μ°μà “ ߉ª®“°‰¢à „ ¥Ê∑’Ë ‡ §¬‰¥â √— ∫ °“√ »÷°…“∑“ßÕπÿ°√¡«‘∏“π¡“°àÕπ ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’È¡’≈—°…≥– ‡°’ˬ«æ—π∏å°—∫‰¢àπ° ¡’√Ÿª√à“ß·≈–‚§√ß √â“ß®ÿ≈¿“§ ¢Õ߇ª≈◊ Õ °‰¢à · ≈–¢π“¥‡∑’ ¬ ∫‡∑à “ ‰¥â °— ∫ ‰¢à ¢ Õßπ° æ“ ‡´Õ√’ π „πªí ® ®ÿ ∫— 𠇪≈◊ Õ °‰¢à ¡’   “¡™—È π ·≈–¡’ ‚§√ß √â“ßæ√‘ ¡“μ‘° ™—Èπ∑’ËÀπ÷ËßÀπ“°«à“™—Èπ∑’Ë Õß ‰¢à∑’Ëæ∫√«¡Õ¬Ÿà°—∫´“°‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°π’È∑”„Àâ∑√“∫‰¥â«à“ ‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å„π°≈ÿà¡ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√´’  ∫πº‘«¢Õß ‡ª≈◊ Õ °‰¢à ¬— ß ¡’ ≈ «¥≈“¬‡ªì π ≈— ° …≥–‡©æ“–¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ´ Õ√‘   ‡™’ ¬ π∑’Ë ‰ ¡à ¡’ § «“¡‡°’Ë ¬ «æ— π ∏å °— ∫ π° ≈—°…≥–≈«¥≈“¬∫πº‘«‰¢àπ’È ‰ ¡à „™à≈—°…≥–¢Õ߉¢àπ° ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√´’π ‡¡◊ËÕæ‘®“√≥“„π‡™‘ß«‘∑¬“¢Õ߉¢à ·≈â « ‰¢à ® “°¿Ÿ æ Õ°¡’ ≈— ° …≥–∑’Ë Õ “® ◊ ∫ ∑Õ¥∑“ß «‘«—≤π“°“√™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå¡“®“°æ«°‚Õ«‘·√æ‡μÕ√‘¥·≈– ∑√Ÿ‚Õ¥Õπ∑‘¥ ·μà≈—°…≥–¢Õ߉¢à ‰¡à‡∑’¬∫‡∑à“°—∫‰¢à ¢Õßæ«°π°ÕÕ√åπ‘‚∏∏Õ‡√´’π ‚¥¬Õߧå√«¡„π¿“æμàÕ ∑’¡Ë ≈’ °— …≥–§“∫‡°’¬Ë «√–À«à“߉¢à·∫∫π°°—∫‰¢à∑’Ë ‰¡à„™à·∫∫ π°·≈â« ‰¢à®“°¿ŸæÕ°∫àß™’È≈—°…≥–‰¡àÕ—π„¥Õ—πÀπ÷Ëß §◊Õ‰¡à‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–§≈⓬‰¢àπ°°àÕπ∑’®Ë –∂÷ß™à«ß§“∫‡°’¬Ë « √–À«à“߇∑Õ‚√æÕ¥°—∫π° ∂â“¡—π‡ªìπ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ´’≈Ÿ‚√´Õ√å°Á‡ªìπ≈—°…≥–‡ª≈◊Õ°‰¢à∑’Ë ‰¡à‡ªìπ·∫∫π°¢Õß ‡Õ‡«’¬·≈π‚∫√“≥∂â“¡—π‡ªìπ¢Õßπ°°√–π—Èπ°Áμ“¡ ‰¢à ‡À≈à “ π’È ∫ Õ°„Àâ ∑ √“∫‰¥â «à “ §«“¡§“∫‡°’Ë ¬ «√–À«à “ ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°—∫𰇪ìπ≈—°…≥–¢Õß«‘«—≤π“°“√‡™◊ËÕ¡μàÕ „π√–¥—∫√–∫∫°“√ ◊∫æ—π∏ÿå ‰¢à‡À≈à“π’Ȭ—ß∫Õ°∂÷ß¢π“¥ ≈”μ— « ∑’Ë ≈ –¡â “ ¬§≈â “ ¬§≈÷ ß °— ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ¢π“¥‡≈Á°¡“°Ê „π™à«ß«‘«—≤π“°“√§“∫‡°’ˬ«√–À«à“ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°—∫π° ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈‡À≈à“π’ȇªìπ‡æ’¬ß ¡¡ÿμ‘∞“π Õ— π Àπ÷Ë ß ∑’Ë   Õ¥§≈â Õ ß°— ∫ °“√»÷ ° …“«‘ ‡ §√“–Àå ∑ “ß «‘«—≤π“°“√™“μ‘æ—π∏ÿå·≈–‰¥â√—∫°“√∫—π∑÷°‡¡◊ËÕ‡√Á«Êπ’È ¥â«¬°“√§âπæ∫‰¥‚π‡ “√åæ«°¡“π‘·√æ‡∑Õ√—π¢π“¥®‘Ϋ ∑’Ë¡’¢π·∫∫π°®“°™—ÈπÀ‘π¬ÿ§§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ¢Õß ª√–‡∑»®’ π ´÷Ë ß ‡ªì π ·À≈à ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë Õÿ ¥ ¡‰ª¥â « ¬ ‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°

eggshell structural characters, differ from any reported eggs that have been taxonomically identified. These eggs have the avian characters of oval shape and eggshell microstructure and are the same size as eggs of extant passerine birds. The eggshells have a prismatic structure of three layers, with layer 1 being considerably thicker than layer 2. Among theropod eggs clearly associated with skeletal remains, this combination of characters has been found only at the phylogenetic level of Ornithothoraces. The eggshells also have a surficial ornamentation typical of non-avian saurischians. This surficial ornamentation is not known in ornithothoracine eggs. By their oological characters, the Phu Phok eggs are, thus, phylogenetically more derived than those of oviraptorids and troodontids but they are not as avian as those of ornithothoracine birds. By their mosaic of avian and non-avian characters, the Phu Phok eggs indicate either the acquisition of some oological avian characters prior to the theropod-bird transition if they belong to a non-avian coelurosaur or the retention of some non-avian eggshell characters in primitive avialans if they were laid by a bird. Nonetheless, they suggest that the dinosaur-bird transition was characterized by mosaic evolution at the reproductive level. They also suggest the retention of a body size similar to that of very small theropods during the dinosaur-bird transition. This is a hypothesis that is congruent with phylogenetic analyses and has been recently documented by the discovery of small feathered arboreal maniraptorans in the Chinese Early Cretaceous Lagerstatten. 79


√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å√–¬–„°≈â ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¡’ “¡π‘È« ∑’ˇ¢μ√—°…“æ—π∏åÿ —μ«åªÉ“¿ŸÀ≈«ß ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬ Closure look on a well complete theropod dinosaur footprint with three toes at Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province.

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8. √Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å

8. Dinosaur footprints

¡’°“√§âπæ∫·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑» ‰∑¬À≈“¬·Ààß ∑’ˬ—ߧߠ¿“æ√լ摡æåμ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥å √Õ¬μ’π‡À≈à“π’Èæ∫„πÀ‘πμ–°Õπ¡À“¬ÿ§ ¡’ ‚ ´‚´Õ‘ ° ·≈–∂◊ Õ ‡ªì π À≈— ° ∞“π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å Õ’ ° ª√–‡¿∑Àπ÷ËßπÕ°‡Àπ◊Õ®“°‚§√ß°√–¥Ÿ°·≈–‰¢à·≈â« Õ¬à “ ߉√°Á μ “¡ „π∑’Ë π’È ® –°≈à “ «∂÷ ß ·À≈à ß √Õ¬μ’ π ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡æ’¬ß‰¡à°’Ë·Ààß ‚¥¬‡©æ“–Õ¬à“߬‘Ëß·À≈àß √Õ¬μ’ π ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ À ≈«ß´÷Ë ß  ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√— μ π√“™ ÿ ¥ “œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ ¡ “√’ ‰ ¥â ‡  ¥Á ® œ ‰ª∑Õ¥ æ√–‡πμ√ ·≈–∂◊Õ‡ªìπ·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë¡’ °“√§âπæ∫‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√°„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ ·≈–¬—߇ªìπ °“√§âπæ∫‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√°„π¿Ÿ¡‘¿“§‡Õ‡™’¬μ–«—πÕÕ° ‡©’¬ß„μ⥫⠬

There are many localities in Thailand that have well-preserved dinosaur footprints. These footprints occur in Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and are evidence of dinosaurs, apart from bones and eggs. Only a few dinosaur footprint sites are described herein. These include the Phu Luang site visited by Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. The footprints at the Phu Luang site are regarded as the first dinosaur footprints discovered in both Thailand and Southeast Asia.

·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿ŸÀ≈«ß ‰¥â¡’°“√§âπæ∫√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å 15 √Õ¬∫πº‘« ¢ÕßÀ‘ π ∑√“¬¬ÿ § §√’ ‡ ∑‡™’ ¬  μÕπμâ π ∑’Ë ¬ Õ¥¿Ÿ À ≈«ß ®— ß À«— ¥ ‡≈¬ Buffetaut and others (1985) ‰¥â √“¬ß“π«à“√Õ¬μ’π‡À≈à“π’ȇªìπ√Õ∫μ’π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à∑’Ë°”≈—߇§≈◊ËÕπ∑’˥⫬§«“¡‡√Á« ª√–¡“≥ 8 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√μàÕ™—Ë«‚¡ß Õ—μ√“§«“¡‡√Á«¢Õß °“√‡§≈◊ËÕπ∑’Ë¥—ß°≈à“«π’È Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫∑à«ß∑à“°“√‡¥‘π ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ˇ¥‘π¥â«¬ Õߢ“ ´÷Ëß√Õ¬μ’π∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬ ‡À≈à“π’È¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ®–‡ªìπ¢ÕßΩŸß‰¥‚π‡ “√å 7 μ—«∑’Ë°”≈—ß ‡¥‘π‰ª„π∑‘»∑“߇¥’¬«°—π ´÷ßË  Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫°“√§“¥‡¥“ ‡¡◊ËÕ°àÕππ’È∑’Ë«à“‰¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥Õ¬Ÿà√«¡°—π‡ªìπΩŸß ·¡â «à “ √Õ¬μ’ π ‡À≈à “ π’È ® –¡’ √Ÿ ª √à “ ß·ª√º— 𠉪∫â “ ß ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°°“√°— ¥ ‡´“–∑”≈“¬ ·μà √ Õ¬μ’ π ‡À≈à “ π’È ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π®–‡°‘ ¥ ¢÷È π ®“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å ™ π‘ ¥ ‡¥’ ¬ «°— π §◊ Õ ‰¥‚π‡ “√凥‘π Õߢ“¢π“¥„À≠à √Õ¬μ’π∑’ˬ—ߧߠ¿“æ  ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ¬— ß ¡’ √ “¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥‡æ’ ¬ ßæÕ∑’Ë ® –«‘ π‘ ® ©— ¬ ‰¥â Õ¬à“ß·¡à𬔠√լ摡æå¢ÕßΩÉ“μ’π¡’≈°— …≥–‡ªìπ “¡π‘«È

Phu Luang dinosaur footprints Fifteen dinosaur footprints occur within an 8-square meter area on the surface of an Early Cretaceous sandstone outcrop in Phu Luang mountain. Buffetaut and others (1985) reported that these footprints were made by large bipedal theropods and that these theropods moved at about 8 kilometers per hour. This rate of movement agrees with recent conclusions about the walking gait preferred by bipedal dinosaurs. Several animals were apparently walking together in the same direction, which supports previous speculations about group behaviour in carnosaurs. Although these footprints have some variations in shape because of weathering, they all seem to have been produced by the same kind of animal, this being a large bipedal dinosaur. The best preserved footprints have enough detail for relatively accurate identification. The prints are three-toed and have no hallux depression. The middle toe is larger than the side toes, which 81


√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∫πæ◊ÈπÀ‘π∑√“¬∫π¿ŸÀ≈«ß ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬ ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫¢π“¥¢Õߧπ Dinosaur footprints on a sandstone slab at Phu Luang, Loei Province, compared with a human size.

‚¥¬‰¡à¡’√àÕß√լ摡æå¢Õßπ‘È«À—«·¡àμ’π π‘È«°≈“ß¡’ ¢π“¥„À≠à ° «à “ π‘È « ¥â “ π¢â “ ß∑—È ß  Õß´÷Ë ß ª√“°Ø‡°◊ Õ ∫  ¡¡“μ√ π‘È « ‰¡à ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–πŸ 𠇪ì π ª≈â Õ ßÀ√◊ Õ ‡ªì π ·ºàπ π‘È«∑—Èß “¡™’ÈÕÕ°‰ª ¡’√àÕߪ√“°ØÕ¬Ÿà∑“ߥâ“π ∑⓬¢Õß√լ摡æåπ‘È«´÷ËßÕ“®‡°‘¥®“°°“√°√–∑”¢Õß Õÿâ߇≈Á∫∑’ˇ¢’ˬ‡ªìπ√Õ¬∫πæ◊Èπ¥‘π¢≥–∑’Ë ‰¥‚π‡ “√å°”≈—ß ¬°μ’π¢Õß¡—π¢÷Èπ √Õ¬μ’π®“°ÕÕ ‡μ√‡≈’¬°Á¡’≈—°…≥– ‡™àππ’ȇÀ¡◊Õπ°—π √Õ¬μ’π®“°¿ŸÀ≈«ß∑’Ë¡’ ¿“æ ¡∫Ÿ√≥å ∑’Ë ÿ¥¡’§«“¡¬“« 36 ‡´π쑇¡μ√·≈–¡’§«“¡°«â“ß 31 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ √Õ¬μ’π≈—°…≥–‡¥’¬«°—ππ’È®“°À≈“¬  à « π¢Õß‚≈°‰¥â ∂Ÿ ° Õâ “ ßÕ‘ ß «à “ ‡ªì π ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ ·≈–√Õ¬μ’π®“°¿ŸÀ≈«ß‡À≈à“π’È°Á‡°‘¥®“° ‰¥‚π‡ “√åª√–‡¿∑‡¥’¬«°—ππ’ÈÕ¬à“ß·πàπÕπ √Õ¬μ’π ‡À≈à “ π’È ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π«à “ ®–§≈â “ ¬°— ∫ √Õ¬μ’ π ∑’Ë Õ ¬Ÿà „ π °ÿ ≈ ‰Õ√’π‡π‡´Õ√‘ªí  ´÷Ë߉¥â¡’°“√»÷°…“‡ªìπ§√—Èß·√°®“° À‘πÕ“¬ÿ§√’‡∑‡™’¬ μÕπμâπ®“°∫√‘μ‘™‚§≈—¡‡∫’¬·≈– ‡∑°´—  „π À√—∞Õ‡¡√‘°“ 82

appear almost symmetical. There is no indication of articular bulges or digital pads. The toes are pointed. Grooves occur along the bottom of the toe impressions and were probably made by claws trailing on the ground when the dinosaur lifted its foot. Australian dinosaur footprints have these grooves. The best preserved Phu Luang footprints are 36 centimeters long and 31 centimeters wide. Similar footprints from other parts of the world have been referred to large theropod carnosaurs and there is no doubt that the Phu Luang footprints have been left by such animals. These footprints seem especially to resemble footprints of species of the ichnogenus Irenesauripus Sternberg, which was originally described from the Early Cretaceous of British Columbia and Texas.


√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿ŸÀ≈«ß¬—ß„À⧫“¡‡¢â“„®∂÷ß æƒμ‘°√√¡°“√¥”√ß™’«‘μ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥ √Õ¬μ’π∑’Ë¡’ ¿“æ ¡∫Ÿ√≥奒∑—ÈßÀ¡¥¡’°“√«“ßμ—«‡°◊Õ∫ ‰ª„π∑‘»∑“߇¥’¬«°—π ´÷Ëß™’È „Àâ‡ÀÁπ«à“Õ¬à“ßπâÕ¬¡’Õ¬Ÿà  “¡√Õ¬∑’ËÀ—π‰ª„π∑‘»∑“߇¥’¬«°—π§◊Õª√–¡“≥∑‘»„μâ Õ¬à“߉√°Áμ“¡ ¡’√լ摡æå∑’Ë¡’§«“¡ ¡∫Ÿ√≥åπâÕ¬≈ß ∫“ß√Õ¬¡’∑‘»∑“ß∑’Ë·μ°μà“ßÕÕ°‰ª ·μà ‰¡à “¡“√∂ ∑√“∫‰¥â«à“√Õ¬∑“߇¥‘π∑’Ë¡’Õ¬ŸàÀ≈“¬√Õ¬·μà≈–√Õ¬ ∑“߇¥‘π¡’§«“¡·μ°μà“ߥâ“π‡«≈“¡“°πâÕ¬‡æ’¬ß„¥ ·μஓ°√Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß√Õ¬∑“߇¥‘π¥Ÿ‡À¡◊Õπ«à“ —μ«å‡À≈à“π’È °â“«‡¥‘π¥â«¬§«“¡‡√Á«∑’Ë„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π ¡’§Ÿà¢Õß√Õ¬μ’π  ÕߧŸà ∑’Ë ¥Ÿ ‡ À¡◊ Õ π«à “ ®–‡°‘ ¥ ®“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å   Õßμ— « ∑’Ë ‡¥‘ 𠇧’ ¬ ߧŸà °— π ‚¥¬μ— « Àπ÷Ë ß ‡¥‘ π μ“¡À≈— ß ‰ª„°≈â Ê °— ∫ √Õ¬μ’π¢ÕßÕ’°μ—«Àπ÷Ëß‚¥¬‡¥‘π¡ÿàßÀπⓉª∑“ß∑‘»„μâ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß Õß¡’¢π“¥„°≈⇧’¬ß°—π·¡â«à“§«“¡¬“« ¢Õß√Õ¬μ’π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß Õßμ—«®–·μ°μà“ß°—π ‡≈Á°πâÕ¬ ·≈–‰¡à¡’À≈—°∞“π«à“®–¡’‰¥‚π‡ “√åμ—«πâÕ¬ √ÿàπ‡¬“«å√à«¡‡¥‘πÕ¬Ÿà„π°≈ÿࡥ⫬ √Ÿª·∫∫¢Õß√Õ¬μ’𠉥‚π‡ “√å ® “°¿Ÿ À ≈«ß¡’ § «“¡™— ¥ ‡®π«à “ ‡ªì π ¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å‚μ‡μÁ¡«—¬°≈ÿࡇ≈Á°Ê ‡¥‘π‡ªìπΩŸß‰ª¥â«¬°—π„π ∑‘»∑“߇¥’¬«°—π ®“°À≈—°∞“π¥—ß°≈à“«√«¡∂÷ß√àÕß √Õ¬μ’π∑’ˇ√’¬ß¢π“π‰ª‡ªìπ∑“ß∑’ˇ§¬¡’ºŸâ»÷°…“¡“°àÕ𠉥â π—∫ πÿπ·π«§‘¥¢Õßø“√å ‚≈«å‡°’ˬ«°—∫æƒμ‘°√√¡ °“√≈à “ ‡À¬◊Ë Õ ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‡ ∑Õ‚√æÕ¥¢π“¥„À≠à ´÷ËßÕ“®‡ªìπ°“√√ÿ¡‡À¬◊ËÕ °“√≈à“‡À¬◊ËÕ‡ªìπ°≈ÿà¡°Á‡ªìπ æƒμ‘°√√¡∑’Ëæ∫‰¥â „π®√–‡¢âªí®®ÿ∫—𠉥‚π‡ “√å‡∑Õ‚√æÕ¥Õ¬à “ ßÕ“√å ‚ §´Õ√å ´÷Ë ß  Ÿ ≠ æ— π ∏ÿå ‰ ª·≈â « °Á Õ “®¡’ æƒμ‘°√√¡≈à“‡À¬◊ËÕ‡ªìπΩŸß‰¥â‡™àπ‡¥’¬«°—π

The Phu Luang footprints also provide some information about the behaviour of carnosaurs. All the well preserved footprints point in nearly the same direction. This indicates that at least three individuals were moving in the same direction, roughly south. A few less well preserved prints, however, show different orientations. There is no knowing how much time elapsed between the formation of the various track paths, but it seem likely from the pattern of the tracks that the animals travelled together at about the same speed. There are two pairs of footprint that seems to have been made by two dinosaurs walking close to each other, with the one behind treading almost in the otherûs footsteps. The dinosaurs that were walking together towards the south were of similar size, although there is a slight difference in footprint length of the two animals. There is no evidence of smaller individuals accompanying the large ones. The pattern of the Phu Luang footprints, thus, strongly suggests a small group of adult carnosaurs walking together in the same direction. This, together with previously described parallel track paths, lends support to Farloûs speculations about the foraging behaviour of large carnivorous dinosaurs, that they may have hunted in packs. Group predation, with cooperation between several individuals, has been reported in living crocodiles. Extinct carnivorous archosaurs, such as carnosaurs, may also have had some form of group hunting.

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√àÕß√Õ¬∑“߇¥‘π¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å æ∫∫√‘‡«≥≈”À⫬„π«πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ·Ω° °‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õπ“§Ÿ ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå Dinosaur trackway found along an intermittent stream in Phu Faek National Forest Park, Na Khu Minor District, Kalasin Province.

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√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑à“Õÿ‡∑π ·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë‚¥¥‡¥àπμ√–°“√μ“ Õ’ ° ·À≈à ß Àπ÷Ë ß Õ¬Ÿà ∑’Ë ‡ À¡◊ Õ ßÀ‘ π ∑√“¬√â “ ß∑’Ë ∫ √‘ ‡ «≥ À≈—°°‘‚≈‡¡μ√∑’Ë 257 ¢Õß∂ππÀ≈«ßÀ¡“¬‡≈¢ 212 √–À«à “ ßÕ”‡¿Õ∑à “ Õÿ ‡ ∑π-Õ”‡¿Õ∫â “ π·æß ®— ß À«— ¥ π§√æπ¡ ·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’ππ’È∂Ÿ°§âπæ∫‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2546 ‚¥¬π“¬π‡√»  —쬓√—°…å π—°∏√≥’«‘∑¬“ ¢Õß°√¡ ‡™◊ÈÕ‡æ≈‘ß∏√√¡™“μ‘ √Õ¬μ’π∑’Ëæ∫¡’∂÷ß 199 √Õ¬‡ªìπ ¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√凥‘π Õ߇∑â“¢π“¥‡≈Á°°√–®—¥°√–®“¬ ∫πæ◊ÈπÀ‘π∑√“¬§√Õ∫§≈ÿ¡æ◊Èπ∑’˪√–¡“≥ 30 μ“√“ß ‡¡μ√ √լ摡æ凪ìπ≈—°…≥–¢Õß√Õ¬μ’π¡’ “¡π‘È«¥â«¬ §«“¡¬“«ª√–¡“≥ 10 ∂÷ß 12 ‡´π쑇¡μ√ æ∫‡ªìπ √Õ¬∑“߇¥‘π 32 ·π« πÕ°®“°π’È∫πæ◊ÈπÀ‘π∑√“¬ ¬—ßæ∫≈—°…≥–¢Õß√‘È«√Õ¬§≈◊Ëπ·≈–√Õ¬√–·Àß‚§≈π ∑”„Àâ∑√“∫‰¥â«à“¡’‰¥‚π‡ “√凥‘π‡ªìπΩŸß¡ÿàßÀπⓉª∑“ß ∑‘ » μ–«— π ÕÕ°‡©’ ¬ ß„μâ Õ “®‡ªì π ∫√‘ ‡ «≥√‘ ¡ Ωíò ß ·¡à π”È  “¬Àπ÷Ëß √Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑à“Õÿ‡∑π∑’Ëæ∫π’Èæ∫Õ¬Ÿà„π∑’Ë¥‘π ¢Õß𓬻—°√æß…å ·≈–π“ß “«®‘√“¬ÿ ∑»∑‘»√≥™—¬ ´÷Ë߉¥â∫√‘®“§∑’Ë¥‘π®”π«π 8 ‰√à „À⇪ìπ ¡∫—μ‘¢Õß√—∞ ‡¡◊ËÕªï æ.». 2549 ‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‡¢â“‰ª »÷°…“«‘®—¬ Õπÿ√—°…å·≈–æ—≤π“„À⇪ìπ·À≈àß∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ« ·≈–·À≈à߇√’¬π√Ÿâ¢Õß®—ßÀ«—¥π§√æπ¡μàÕ‰ª πÕ°®“°π’È ¬—ß¡’°“√æ∫·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å Õ’°À≈“¬·À≈àß‚¥¬æ∫‡©æ“–Õ¬Ÿà„πÀ‘πμ–°Õπ¡À“¬ÿ§ ¡’‚´‚´Õ‘° ∫“ß·Ààß°ÁÕ¬Ÿà√–À«à“ß°“√æ—≤𓇪ìπ·À≈àß ∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ« ‡™àπ ∑’Ë¿Ÿ·Ω° ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå ·≈–∑’Ë¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ πÕ°®“°π’È ‰¥â¡’°“√§âπæ∫√Õ¬μ’𠉥‚π‡ “√å„πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“쑇¢“„À≠à ®—ßÀ«—¥ª√“®’π∫ÿ√’ ∑’Ë æ ∫Õ¬Ÿà „πæ◊Èπ∑’˪ɓ∑÷∫´÷Ë߇¢â“∂÷߉¥â¬“° √«¡∂÷߇¡◊ËÕ ‡√Á « Êπ’È ¡’ √ “¬°“√§â π æ∫·À≈à ß √Õ¬μ’ π ‰¥‚π‡ “√å „πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿ŸÀ‘π√àÕß°≈â“ Õ”‡¿Õ¥à “ π´â “ ¬ ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬

Tha Uthen dinosaur footprints Another outstanding dinosaur footprint site is an abandoned sandstone quarry located near kilometer 257 of highway 212, between Tha Uthen and Ban Phaeng in Nakhon Phanom Province. This site was discovered by Nares Sattayalak, a geologist of the Department of Mineral Fuel, in 2003. This site has 199 footprints of small bipedal dinosaurs widely distributed on the surface of a sandstone outcrop within an area of about 30 square meters. The prints are mostly three-toed, 10 to 12 centimeters long. They are arranged in 32 track paths. Ripple marks and mudcracks on the sandstone outcrop suggest that the dinosaurs were walking in groups, mainly heading to the southeast, probably along a river bank. The Tha Uthen footprints are in land owned Mr. Sakarapong and Ms. Jirayu Tosatisronachai. These persons donated the land as a state property in 2006, thus allowing the Department of Mineral Resources to study and conserve the site and to develop it for tourism. Other dinosaur footprints have been found in many areas. They are exclusively in Mesozoic rocks. Some of these footprint outcrops are being developed into tourist attractions, including those at Phu Faek in Kalasin Province and Phu Wiang in Khon Kaen Province. Dinosaur footprints also have been found at Khao Yai in Prachinburi Province, but these are in a heavily forested area and access to them is difficult.

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º≈¢Õß°“√§âπæ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√

RESULT OF THE DISCOVERY OF Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae

°“√§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“  ‘√‘π∏√ „πªï æ.». 2525 ∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 1 „πÕÿ∑¬“π ·Ààß™“μ‘¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡ªìπ¢à“«∑’˺Ÿâ ◊ËÕ¢à“«·≈–ª√–™“™π „π∑âÕß∑’Ë„À⧫“¡ π„®„π°“√∑”ß“π¢ÕßÀπ૬¢ÿ¥§âπ ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‡ªìπÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß ∑ÿ°§√—Èß∑’ËÀπ૬ ”√«®≈ßæ◊Èπ∑’ˇæ◊ËÕ§âπÀ“´“°°√–¥Ÿ° ‡æ‘Ë¡‡μ‘¡„π™à«ßÀ≈—߃¥ŸΩππ—Èπ ®–¡’ª√–™“™π„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë μ‘¥μ“¡‡¢â“‰ª‡ΩÑ“¥Ÿ‡ªìπ®”π«π¡“° „π√–¬–À≈—ßÊ ºŸâ∑’ˇΩÑ“¥Ÿ®π√Ÿâ®—°Àπâ“μ“¢Õß´“°°√–¥Ÿ°·≈â« ·≈–√Ÿâ«à“ ∑’Ë „ ¥∑’Ë À πà « ¬ ”√«®‡§¬æ∫À√◊ Õ ‰¥â ¢ÿ ¥ §â π §â “ ߇Փ‰«â „π°“√ ”√«®§√—ÈßÀπ÷ËßÊ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°°“√¢ÿ¥§âπ´“° ¢π“¥„À≠à Õ Õ°®“°™—È π À‘ π μâ Õ ß„™â ‡ «≈“∑’Ë μà Õ ‡π◊Ë Õ ß ∫“ߧ√—ßÈ ‡ªìπ·√¡‡¥◊Õπ ·μà°“√ÕÕ°ªØ‘∫μ— ß‘ “π„π π“¡ ¢ÕßÀπà « ¬ ”√«®·μà ≈ –§√—È ß ¡’ ™à « ߇«≈“®”°— ¥ ‡ªì π ™à « ß —È π Ê ·≈–¡— ° ‰¡à   “¡“√∂°”Àπ¥‰¥â «à “ ®–ÕÕ° ªØ‘∫—μ‘ß“π‰¥âÕ’°‡¡◊ËÕ„¥ À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’˧â“߉«â®÷ß∂Ÿ°∑‘Èß ‰«â‡ªìπ‡¥◊Õπ ∑”„Àâ∫ÿ§§≈∑’Ë ‰¡àª√– ß§å¥’≈—°≈Õ∫¢ÿ¥À“ ´“°°√–¥Ÿ°À≈—ß®“°Àπ૬ ”√«®°≈—∫°√ÿ߇∑æ¡À“π§√ ‰ª·≈â« ¥—ßπ—Èπ„π√–¬–ªïÀ≈—ßÊ °√–¥Ÿ°∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ ∫“ß·Ààß ‡™àπ À≈ÿ¡∑’Ë 4, 6 ·≈– 7 ´÷ËßÕ¬ŸàÀà“߉°≈®“° ºŸâ§π®÷߇ ’¬À“¬‰¡à “¡“√∂𔉪„™â»÷°…“‰¥â À√◊Õ·¡â °√–∑—Ëß°√–¥Ÿ°§Õ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 2 ´÷Ë߇ªìπ  ∂“π∑’Ë ‰¡àÀà“߉°≈·≈–‡ªìπ∫√‘‡«≥∑’Ë ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ √—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ·≈– ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“ æ’Ëπ“߇∏Õ °√¡À≈«ßπ√“∏‘«“ √“™π§√‘π∑√å ‰¥â‡ ¥Á®œ ‰ª∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√´“°°√–¥Ÿ°„πªï æ.». 2532 ·≈– 2533 μ“¡≈”¥—∫ °Á‰¥â∂°Ÿ ºŸÕâ ¬“°√ŸÕâ ¬“°‡ÀÁπ¢ÿ¥§ÿ¬â ®π‡ ’¬À“¬ „™â »÷ ° …“«‘ ®— ¬ ‰¡à ‰¥â®π∂÷ß∑ÿ°«—ππ’È °“√‡ ¥Á®œ ¢Õß  ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ·≈–  ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“æ’Ëπ“߇∏Õ °√¡À≈«ßπ√“∏‘«“ √“™π§√‘ π ∑√å „π§√—Èßπ—Èπ∑”„ÀâÀ≈“¬Àπ૬ߓπ‡ÀÁ𧫓¡

The news of the discovery of Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae in 1992 at site no. 1 in Phu Wiang National Park greatly interested people living in surrounding localities. They wanted to see the Department of Mineral Resources dinosaur hunters. Many people always followed the dinosaur teams to watch them at work. Inevitably, people soon became able to recognize a dinosaur fossil bone and they learned where the fossil sites being excavated were located. This led to fossil bones being damaged and stolen by people when Department of Mineral Resources personnel were temporarily absent from fossil sites. As a result, fossils from sites no. 4, 6, and 7 were so disturbed that it became impossible to identify some of them. At site no. 2, which was visited by Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn in 1989 and by Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana in 1990, some fossils were also damaged by people to the point of being unidentifiable. The visits of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana Krom Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra caused many government agencies to realize the importance of dinosaur fossils. Agencies that became interested were the Tourism Authority of Thailand, Phu Wiang National Park, the Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Phu Wiang District, and Khon Kaen Province. In 1993,


”§—≠¢Õß°“√¡’´“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑» ‡™àπ °“√ ∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ«·Ààߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬ (∑∑∑.) Õÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘ ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß  ”π—°ß“ππ‚¬∫“¬·≈–·ºπ ‘ßË ·«¥≈âÕ¡·Ààß™“μ‘ ( º.) Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ·≈–®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ ‚¥¬  º. ‰¥â „Àâß∫ª√–¡“≥°àÕ √â“ßÕ“§“√§≈ÿ¡À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 2 „πªï æ.». 2535 ´÷Ëß„π¢≥–°àÕ √â“ß∑”„Àâ°√–¥Ÿ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ËÀπ૬ ”√«®¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â∑” ‡ΩóÕ°≈âÕ¡‰«â∂Ÿ°∑”≈“¬ „πªï æ.». 2536 ∑∑∑. ‰¥âμ—Èß ‚§√ß°“√æ—≤π“æ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å®ß— À«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ¢÷πÈ ‰¥â ¢ Õß∫ª√–¡“≥ÕÕ°·∫∫√“¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥°à Õ  √â “ ß ‚§√ß°“√·≈–¢Õß∫ª√–¡“≥°àÕ √â“ß ‚§√ß°“√¢Õß ∑∑∑. ‰¥â√—∫ß∫ª√–¡“≥°àÕ √â“ßÕ“§“√§≈ÿ¡À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥ §âπ∑’Ë 3 ·≈–À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 9 „πªï æ.». 2541 ·≈– ‰¥â√—∫ß∫ª√–¡“≥°àÕ √â“ßÕ“§“√§≈ÿ¡À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë 1 ª√— ∫ ª√ÿ ß À≈ÿ ¡ ¢ÿ ¥ §â π ∑’Ë 2 ª√— ∫ ª√ÿ ß ∑“߇¥‘ π »÷ ° …“ ‚∫√“≥™’««‘∑¬“·≈–°àÕ √â“ßÕ“§“√æ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å „πªï æ.». 2542-2543 ‚¥¬Õ“§“√§≈ÿ ¡ À≈ÿ ¡ ·≈– ∑“߇¥‘πÕ¬Ÿà„πÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘œ ·μàÕ“§“√æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ´÷Ë ß ‡¥‘ ¡ °”Àπ¥„Àâ Õ ¬Ÿà „ πÕÿ ∑ ¬“π·Àà ß ™“μ‘ ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß·μà ‡π◊ËÕß®“°  º. ‰¡à‡ÀÁπ¥â«¬∑’Ë®–¡’°“√°àÕ √â“ßÕ“§“√ æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å „πæ◊Èπ∑’ËμâππÈ”≈”∏“√ ®÷߉¥â®—¥„Àâ¡“Õ¬Ÿà„π æ◊Èπ∑’Ë “∏“√≥ª√–‚¬™π傧° π“¡∫‘π ´÷ËßÕ¬Ÿà°àÕπ∂÷ß Õÿ∑¬“πœ ª√–¡“≥ 3 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ·≈–‡π◊ËÕß®“°æ◊Èπ∑’Ë ‚§° π“¡∫‘π‰¡àÕ¬Ÿà „π‡¢μÕÿ∑¬“πœ ∑∑∑. ®÷ߢՄÀâ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’√—∫º‘¥™Õ∫¥”‡π‘π‚§√ß°“√∑—Èß„π ¢≥–°àÕ √â“ß·≈–∫√‘À“√®—¥°“√À≈—ß‚§√ß°“√·≈⫇ √Á®  ”À√— ∫ æ◊È π ∑’Ë °à Õ  √â “ ß°Á „ Àâ ° √¡∑√— æ ¬“°√∏√≥’ ‡ ªì π ºŸâ ¢ Õ„™â ® “°®— ß À«— ¥ ¢Õπ·°à π ‚¥¬√“…Æ√„π∑â Õ ß∑’Ë Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ ‡ «’ ¬ ß√à « ¡°— π ≈ß≈“¬¡◊ Õ ™◊Ë Õ ¬‘ π ¬Õ¡„Àâ ° √¡ ∑√—欓°√∏√≥’„™â∑’Ë¥‘ππ—Èπ‰¥â °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’®÷߉¥â ¥”‡π‘π°“√æ—≤π“æ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√忇Ÿ «’¬ßμ—ßÈ ·μàππ—È ¡“®π∂÷ßªí®®ÿ∫—π º≈¢Õß°“√§âπæ∫°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’ËÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥ §âπ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ «—¥ —°°–«—π Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥ °“à‘π∏ÿå „πª≈“¬ªï æ.». 2537 ´÷Ë߇ªìπªï∑’˺≈°“√

the Tourism Authority of Thailand launched the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum project and secured a budget for architectural design and construction. The Office of Environmental Policy and Planning provided financial support for constructing a building to cover site no. 2, which had been damaged. The Tourism Authority of Thailandûs budget covered constructing buildings over sites no. 3 and 9 in 1998 and for constructing a building over site no. 1, for constructing a dinosaur museum, for improving the building over site no. 2, and for a paleontological walking path in 1999 and 2000. The buildings covering sites and the walking path are in Phu Wiang National Park. The museum is at Khok Sanam Bin, about 3 kilometers outside the park, because the Office of Environmental Policy and Planning did not want the museum built at the fossil site because the fossil site was regarded as a watershed area. The Tourism Authority of Thailand turned the construction and administration of the museum over to the Department of Mineral Resources. The land the museum building is on is provincial public property but had been used by local people for farming. However, the local people agreed to allow the Department of Mineral Resources to use the land for the museum site. In 1994, a dinosaur site was found at Phu Kum Khao, Wat Sakawan, Amphoe Sahat Sakhan, in Kalasin Province. At this site, Department of Mineral Resourcesû personnel, in three months, excavated the most complete dinosaur found in Thailand. More than 600 87


«‘®—¬¢Õß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ‰¥â√—∫°“√ ¬Õ¡√—∫·≈–μ’æ‘¡æ出¬·æ√àπ—Èπ ∑”„ÀâÀπ૬ ”√«® ´“°¥÷ ° ¥”∫√√æå μâ Õ ß„™â ‡ «≈“∑—È ß À¡¥„π°“√¢ÿ ¥ §â π 3 ‡¥◊Õπ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°‡ªìπÀ≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ∑’Ë ¡∫Ÿ√≥å∑’Ë ÿ¥ „πª√–‡∑» ‚¥¬æ∫´“°°√–¥Ÿ°¢π“¥„À≠à ‡ªìπ®”π«π ∂÷ß 600 ™‘Èπ π—∫®“°«—π‡√‘Ë¡∑”°“√„π‡¥◊Õπ∏—𫓧¡ 2537 °“√æ∫´“°°√–¥Ÿ°Õ¬à“ß¡“°¡“¬„π™à«ß‡«≈“  —ÈπÊ ∑”„Àâ°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’μâÕß„™âß∫ª√–¡“≥ ‡À≈◊Õ®à“¬®—¥´◊ÈÕ«— ¥ÿÕÿª°√≥å®”‡ªìπμà“ßÊ ∑—Èß„π°“√ ¥”√ß™’ «‘ μ ·≈–°“√ªØ‘ ∫— μ‘ ß “π¢ÕßÀπà « ¬ ”√«® ´÷Ë ß μâ Õ ß∑”ß“π·¢à ß °— ∫ ‡«≈“‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“°¡’ ª √–™“™π ®”π«π¡“° π„®·≈–μâÕß°“√„À⇪ìπ·À≈àß∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ« ∑’Ë ”§—≠ª√–®”®—ßÀ«—¥ °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â®—¥∑” ‚§√ß°“√«‘®—¬·≈–æ—≤π“æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ¢÷Èπ ‡æ◊ËÕ„À⇪ìπ ∂“π∑’Ë»÷°…“«‘®—¬„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë  ∂“π∑’Ë Õπÿ√°— …å·≈–‡°Á∫√—°…“´“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å√«¡∑—ßÈ ‡ªìπ ∂“π∑’Ë ‡º¬·æ√à¢â Õ ¡Ÿ≈«‘™“°“√„π√Ÿª·∫∫¢Õßæ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥±å „π ·À≈àßæ∫´“° °“√¥—ß°≈à“«∑”„Àâ°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ¡’Àπâ“∑’Ë√—∫º‘¥™Õ∫¥Ÿ·≈æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å∂÷ß Õß·Ààß §◊Õ æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß∑’Ë√—∫‚Õπ®“°°“√∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ« ·Ààߪ√–‡∑»‰∑¬·≈–æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ ∑’Ë ®”‡ªì π μâ Õ ßμ—È ß ¢÷È π ‡æ√“–‰¡à Õ “®π”´“°°√–¥Ÿ ° ®”π«π¡“°¡“¬‡À≈à “ π—È π ‡¢â “ ‰ª¬— ß Àâ Õ ßªØ‘ ∫— μ‘ ° “√ ∑’Ë  à « π°≈“ß´÷Ë ß ¡’ ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ·≈–‰¡à ¡’ æ◊È π ∑’Ë ‡ æ’ ¬ ßæÕ ∑’Ë ® –¢¬“¬¢π“¥‰¥â À≈ÿ ¡ ¢ÿ ¥ §â π ¿Ÿ °ÿâ ¡ ¢â “ «π’È   ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ ∑√ß„Àâ §«“¡ πæ√–∑— ¬ ·≈–‰¥â ‡  ¥Á ® œ ‰ª∑Õ¥æ√–‡πμ√ ‡¡◊ËÕ«—π∑’Ë 24 惻®‘°“¬π 2538 ¥—ßπ—Èπ®÷ß°≈à“«‰¥â«à“ æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑—Èß  Õß·Ààß∑’Ë°≈à“«¡“¢â“ßμâπ ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‰¥â®“°°“√§âπæ∫ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ ·≈–Àπÿππ”¥â«¬ æ√–∫“√¡’¢Õß ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡∑æ√—μπ√“™ ÿ¥“œ  ¬“¡ ∫√¡√“™°ÿ¡“√’ √«¡∑—ßÈ  ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“æ’πË “߇∏Õ ‡®â“øÑ“ °— ≈ ¬“≥‘ «— ≤ π“ °√¡À≈«ßπ√“∏‘ « “ √“™π§√‘ π ∑√å ‚¥¬·∑â 88

dinosaur bones were unearthed. This short period of work by the Department of Mineral Resources personnel was in response to authorities of Kalasin Province wanting to develop the site as an important provisional tourist attraction. The Department of Mineral Resources also set up a project to develop a dinosaur museum for fossil research, conservation, and collection at Phu Kum Khao. This resulted in the Department of Mineral Resources directing all activities concerning dinosaurs at two museums, the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum and the Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum. Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn visited the Phu Kum Khao dinosaur site on 24 November 1995. These two museums resulted from the interest and encouragement that Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Her Royal Highness Princess Galyani Vadhana Krom Luang Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra gave to Thailandûs dinosaur fossils.


æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum

æ‘æ‘¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß

Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum

æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß μ—ÈßÕ¬Ÿà „ π∑â Õ ß∑’Ë μ”∫≈„π‡¡◊Õß °‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ‡«’¬ß‡°à“ (μ—È߇ªìπ°‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õ „πªï æ.». 2549) ¿“¬„π·Õàß¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß´÷Ëß≈âÕ¡√Õ∫¥â«¬ ‡∑◊ Õ °‡¢“ Ÿ ß ª√–¡“≥ 600-800 ‡¡μ√®“°√–¥— ∫ ∑–‡≈ª“π°≈“ß ‚¥¬¡’∑“߇¢â“ÕÕ°‡æ’¬ß∑“߇¥’¬« æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±åÕ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“°°‘ËßÕ”‡¿Õª√–¡“≥ 3 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ Õ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“°Õ”‡¿Õ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ßª√–¡“≥ 15 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ·≈– Õ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“°®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπª√–¡“≥ 87 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ®— ¥ ‡ªì π æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ¡’ æ◊È π ∑’Ë ∑—È ß À¡¥ 5,500 μ“√“߇¡μ√  √â “ ߢ÷È π „πªï æ.». 2542-2543 „™â ß∫ª√–¡“≥„π°“√°àÕ √â“ß·≈–®—¥∑”Àÿàππ‘∑√√»°“√

The Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum is located in Nai Muang Sub-district, Wiang Kao Minor-district, in Khon Kaen Province. It is 3 kilometers from the minor-district, 15 kilometers from Phu Wiang District, and 87 kilometers from Khon Kaen city. It is a small museum of about 5,500 square meters and was constructed in 1999-2000. It cost 47,119,000 baht to construct and 10,120,000 baht to set up the exhibits. The museum has been open to the public daily since 2001. Visitor numbers have increased each

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®”π«π 47.12 ≈â“π∫“∑ ·≈– 10.12 ≈â“π∫“∑ μ“¡≈”¥—∫ ‡ªî¥„Àâ∫√‘°“√¡“μ—Èß·μàªï æ.». 2544 ‚¥¬‡ªî¥„À⇢ⓙ¡ ∑ÿ°«—π ®”π«πºŸâ‡¢â“™¡π‘∑√√»°“√‡æ‘Ë¡¢÷Èπ∑ÿ°ªï „πªï æ.». 2548 ¡’ºŸâ‡¢â“™¡∂÷ß 100,000 §π √Ÿª·∫∫°“√ ®—¥· ¥ß·∫à߇ªìπ 15 ‡√◊ËÕß∑’ËμàÕ‡π◊ËÕß°—π §◊Õ ®—°√«“≈ ‚≈°  à«πª√–°Õ∫¿“¬„π‚≈° ≈—°…≥–¢Õߺ‘«‚≈° °“√°”‡π‘¥·≈–«—Ø®—°√À‘π °“√°”‡π‘¥·≈–«‘«—≤π“°“√ ¢Õß ‘Ë ß ¡’ ™’ «‘ μ μ— « Õ¬à “ ß´“°¥÷ ° ¥”∫√√æå - ·√à - À‘ 𠇙◊ÈÕ‡æ≈‘ß∏√√¡™“μ‘ ª√–«—μ‘°“√¢ÿ¥§âπ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å „πª√–‡∑»  —μ«å√à«¡ ¡—¬ ‰¥‚π‡ “√å  «π‰¥‚π‡ “√å «‘«—≤π“°“√¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å °“√„™â ª √–‚¬™πå ® “°∑√— æ ¬“°√∏√≥’ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ª √–‡∑» ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß·≈–¿Ÿ¡‘ªí≠≠“∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ‚¥¬®—¥· ¥ßÕ¬Ÿà„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë ª√–¡“≥ 3,000 μ“√“߇¡μ√ πÕ°®“° à«ππ‘∑√√»°“√ ¬—ß¡’ à«π∫√‘°“√Õ◊ËπÊ ‡™àπ ÀâÕߪ√–™ÿ¡ ÀâÕß ¡ÿ¥ ÀâÕߪؑ∫—μ‘°“√Õπÿ√—°…å´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå Õ“§“√§≈—ß μ—«Õ¬à“ß´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ÀâÕß ”π—°ß“π μ‘¥μàÕ Õ∫∂“¡-ª√–™“ —¡æ—π∏å ÀâÕߢ“¬¢Õß∑’Ë√–≈÷° ·≈– ‚√ßÕ“À“√ °√¡∑√— æ ¬“°√£∏√≥’ ¡’ · ºπ®— ¥  √â “ ß §à“¬‡¬“«™π‡æ◊ËÕ„Àâ∫√‘°“√§«“¡√Ÿâ·°à‡¬“«™π„π∑âÕß∑’Ë Àà“߉°≈´÷Ë߉¡à “¡“√∂‡¥‘π∑“ß¡“»÷°…“¿“¬„π√–¬– ‡«≈“Àπ÷Ëß«—π‰¥â ·≈–¡’·ºπª√—∫ª√ÿßæ—≤π“„À⇪ìπ Õÿ∑¬“π‰¥‚π‡ “√å„πÕ’° 3-4 ªï¢â“ßÀπâ“

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year and there were 100,000 visitors in 2005. The exhibition area has 15 sections. Exhibit subjects are the universe, planet earth, earth structure, earth surface, origin and rock cycle, origin and evolution of life, samples of rocks, minerals, and fossil fuels, background of the Phu Wiang dinosaur site, Thailand dinosaur sites, contemporaneous creatures with dinosaurs, the dinosaur park, human evolution, uses of mineral resources, Phu Wiang topography, and local peopleûs lore. The museum also has a conference room, library, paleontological laboratory, collection house, office, information booth, souvenir shop, and canteen. The Department of Mineral Resources plans to build a youth camp at the museum for children from remote areas who cannot visit the museum and return home in one day. There is a master plan to develop the museum into a dinopark in the future.


æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫ Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum

æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫

Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum

æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫լŸà„π∑âÕß∑’Ëμ”∫≈ ‚ππ∫ÿ√’ Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå Õ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“° Õ”‡¿Õ À— ¢—π∏åª√–¡“≥ 2 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ Õ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“°μ—« ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿåª√–¡“≥ 25 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ Õ¬ŸàÀà“ß®“° ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπª√–¡“≥ 100 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ ·≈–Àà“ß ®“°æ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√忇Ÿ «’¬ßª√–¡“≥ 187 °‘‚≈‡¡μ√ æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ °ÿâ ¡ ¢â “ «‡ªì π æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ¢ π“¥ °≈“ß∂÷ß„À≠à ¡’æ◊Èπ∑’Ë∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 8,800 μ“√“߇¡μ√ ÕÕ°·∫∫¢÷πÈ μ“¡§«“¡ª√– ß§å¢Õß°√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ à«πμà“ßÊ §◊Õ  à«ππ‘∑√√»°“√  à«π «‘®—¬·≈–§≈—߇°Á∫μ—«Õ¬à“ß´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå ·≈– à«π ∫√‘°“√ πÕ°®“°π’È ¬—ß¡’Õ“§“√«‘®—¬À≈—߇°à“∑’Ëªí®®ÿ∫—π

The Phu Kum Khao Dinosaur Museum is located in Nonburi Sub-district, Sahatsakhan District, in Kalasin Province. It is 2 kilometers from Sahatsakhan, 25 kilometers from Kalasin city, 100 kilometers from Khon Kaen city, and 187 kilometers from the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum. The museum is medium sized, with an area of 8,800 square meters. It has areas for exhibition, research and collection, and service. Also, there is a building for cleaning and storing fossils that have been collected in the field. This building is also a temporary laboratory and 91


„™â‡ªìπ∑’Ë√—∫ àß §—¥·¬°μ—«Õ¬à“ß®“°¿“§ π“¡ ≈â“ß ∑”§«“¡ –Õ“¥°àÕπ à߇¢â“ÀâÕߪؑ∫—μ‘°“√„πÕ“§“√ æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ·≈–¡’Õ“§“√§≈ÿ¡À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ´÷Ëß®—¥‡ªìπ  à « π¢Õßπ‘ ∑ √√»°“√· ¥ß§«“¡‡ªì π ¡“¢Õß·À≈à ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å·Ààßπ’È à«πÀπ÷Ëߥ⫬ ªí®®ÿ∫—πÕ“§“√§≈ÿ¡ À≈ÿ¡¢ÿ¥§âπ¡’ÀâÕß∫√√¬“¬¢π“¥‡≈Á° ”À√—∫„Àâ∫√‘°“√ §«“¡√Ÿâ · °à ºŸâ ‡ ¢â “ ™¡ πÕ°‡Àπ◊ Õ ®“° ´“°°√–¥Ÿ ° ‰¥‚π‡ “√å „ π ¿“æ∑’Ë Ωí ß Õ¬Ÿà „πÀ‘π‡¡◊ËÕ·√°æ∫ ¬—ß¡’ Õ“§“√«‘®—¬∑’Ë„™â‡ªìπÀâÕߪؑ∫—μ‘°“√·≈–ÀâÕß ”π—°ß“π ‡π◊ÕË ß®“°Õ“§“√æ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å¬ß— Õ¬Ÿà„π√–À«à“ß°“√μ°·μàß ‚¥¬°“√μ°·μà ß ∑—È ß À¡¥®–‡ √Á ®  ‘È π ≈ß·≈–‡ªî ¥ „Àâ ∫√‘°“√‰¥â¿“¬„πªï æ.». 2550 °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’ ‰¥â ∑”Àπ— ß  ◊ Õ °√“∫∫— ß §¡∑Ÿ ≈  ¡‡¥Á ® æ√–‡∑æ√— μ π√“™ ÿ ¥ “œ  ¬“¡∫√¡√“™°ÿ ¡ “√’ ¢Õæ√–√“™∑“π æ√–π“¡“¿‘‰∏¬ ç ‘√π‘ ∏√é ‡ªìπ™◊ÕË ¢Õßæ‘æ∏‘ ¿—≥±å·Ààßπ’È ´÷Ëߢ≥–π’ȇ√◊ËÕßÕ¬Ÿà√–À«à“ß°“√π”°√“∫∫—ߧ¡∑Ÿ≈‡æ◊ËÕ æ√–√“™«‘π‘®©—¬ ·À≈àߢÿ¥§âπ¿Ÿ°ÿ⡢⓫¡’π—°∑àÕ߇∑’ˬ« ·≈–π— ° ‡√’ ¬ π‡∑’Ë ¬ «™¡ªï ≈ –¡“°°«à “ 200,000 §π °√¡∑√—欓°√∏√≥’‰¥â®—¥„Àâ¡’°“√Õ∫√¡π—°‡√’¬π„π ≈–·«°„°≈⇧’¬ß‡ªìπª√–®” ‚¥¬„À⇢ⓡ“»÷°…“ß“π Õπÿ √— ° …å ´ “°¥÷ ° ¥”∫√√æå Ωñ ° °“√‡μ√’ ¬ ¡μ— « Õ¬à “ ß ´“°°√–¥Ÿ° ‡¢â“¡“¡’ «à π√à«¡„π°“√μâÕπ√—∫π—°∑àÕ߇∑’¬Ë « √«¡∂÷ß∫√√¬“¬§«“¡√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕß·À≈àߢÿ¥§âπ·≈–§«“¡ ‡ªì π ¡“¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑—È ß ∑’Ë ¿Ÿ °ÿâ ¡ ¢â “ «·≈–∑’Ë æ ∫„π ∑’Ë ÕË◊ π Ê ‚¥¬°√¡∑√— æ ¬“°√∏√≥’ ‰ ¥â ®— ¥ ‚§√ß°“√ Õ∫√¡¬ÿ«¡—§§ÿ‡∑»°å∑—Èß∑’Ëæ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ·≈–æ‘ æ‘ ∏ ¿— ≥ ±å ‰ ¥‚π‡ “√å ¿Ÿ °ÿâ ¡ ¢â “ «‡ªì 𠇫≈“ 3 ªï μàÕ‡π◊ËÕß°—π®”π«π 6 √ÿàπ ¡’π—°‡√’¬π„π∑âÕß∑’ˇ¢â“√—∫ °“√Õ∫√¡√ÿàπ≈–‰¡àμË”°«à“ 100 §π π—°‡√’¬π∑’Ë ‰¥â√—∫ °“√Õ∫√¡ “¡“√∂∑”Àπâ “ ∑’Ë ¡— § §ÿ ‡ ∑»°å ™à « ¬‡À≈◊ Õ æ‘æ‘∏¿—≥±å‡ ¡ÕÊ „π™à«ß«—πÀ¬ÿ¥

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office, being utilized until new facilities become available in 2007. A third building covers a fossil site and serves as a site museum, displaying in situ fossils. It has some exhibits and a small meeting room. This dinosaur site has over 200,000 visitors of all ages a year. The museum regularly conducts comprehensive training courses for students and teachers in studying fossil conservation, fossil preparation, participating as a tourism receptionists, and as youth guides. In the past three years, the Department of Mineral Resources conducted six of these training courses. There were about 100 participants in each course.


1. ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ®—ßÀ«—¥¢Õπ·°àπ Phu Wiang, Khon Kaen Province 2. ÀπÕß«—«´Õ ®—ßÀ«—¥Õÿ¥√∏“π’ Nong Wua Sor, Udonthani Province 3. ‡μà“ßÕ¬ ®—ßÀ«—¥ °≈π§√ Tao Ngoi, Sakorn Nakhon Province 4. §Õπ «√√§å ®—ßÀ«—¥™—¬¿Ÿ¡‘ Khon Sawan, Chaiyaphum Province 5. °ÿ©‘π“√“¬≥å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå Kuchinarai, Kalasin Province 6.  À— ¢—π∏å ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå Sahatsakhan, Kalasin Province 7. ¿ŸÀ≈«ß ®—ßÀ«—¥‡≈¬ Phu Luang, Loei Province 8. ¿Ÿº“‡∑‘∫ ®—ßÀ«—¥¡ÿ°¥“À“√ Phu Pha Thoeb, Mukdaharn Province 9. ‡¢“„À≠à ®—ßÀ«—¥ª√“®’π∫ÿ√’ Khao Yai, Prachinburi Province 10. ‚§°°√«¥ ®—ßÀ«—¥π§√√“™ ’¡“ Khok Kruat, Nakhon Racha Sima Province 11. πÈ”Àπ“« ®—ßÀ«—¥‡æ™√∫Ÿ√≥å Nam Nao, Petchabun Province 12. ‚ππ∑—π ®—ßÀ«—¥ÀπÕß∫—«≈”¿Ÿ Non Tan, Nongbua Lamphu Province 13. ®—ßÀ«—¥Õÿ∫≈√“™∏“π’ Ubonratch Thani 14. ∑à“Õÿ‡∑π ®—ßÀ«—¥π§√æπ¡ Tha Uthen, Nakhon Phanom Province 15. ®—ßÀ«—¥æ‘…≥ÿ‚≈° Phitsanulok Province 16. ¿Ÿ·Ω° ®—ßÀ«—¥°“à‘π∏ÿå Phu Faek, Kalasin Province 17. Õÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“쑪“ß ’¥“ ®—ßÀ«—¥ √–·°â« Pang Sida National Park, Sra Kaew Province 18. ‡™’¬ß¡à«π ®—ßÀ«—¥æ–‡¬“ Chiang Muan, Payao Province 19. §≈Õß∑àÕ¡ ®—ßÀ«—¥°√–∫’Ë Khlong Thom, Krabi Province

·ºπ∑’˪√–‡∑»‰∑¬· ¥ßμ”·Àπàß∑’˧âπæ∫‰¥‚π‡ “√å Map of Thailand showing dinosaur discovery localities.

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¡ÿ¡Àπ÷ËߢÕß¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß„π™à«ß 130 ≈â“πªï¡“·≈â« 1. ‰¥‚π‡ “√å¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß ‡®â“øÑ“ ‘√‘π∏√ 2. ‚ª√°“πÕ‡™≈‘  √ÿ®“Õ’ 3. ‰´·Õ¡Õ´Õ√—   ÿ∏’∏√‰Õ 4. ‚°π‘ÕÕ‚ø≈‘  ¿Ÿ‡«’¬ß‡Õπ´‘ 

A scenery of the Phu Wiang at about 130 million years ago. 1. Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae 2. Proganochelis ruchae 3. Siamosaurus suteethorni 4. Goniopholis phuwiangensis

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·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å „πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬

DINOSAUR SITES IN THAILAND

´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ æ∫‡©æ“–„πÀ‘πμ–°Õπ – ¡μ—«∫π∫°¡À“¬ÿ§¡’‚´‚´Õ‘° æ∫·ºà°√–®“¬§√Õ∫§≈ÿ¡æ◊Èπ∑’Ë¿“§μ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õ‡°◊Õ∫∑—Èß¿Ÿ¡‘¿“§ „π¿Ÿ¡‘¿“§Õ◊ËπÊ °Á¡’√“¬ß“π °“√§âπæ∫∫â“ß ‰¥â·°à¿“§‡Àπ◊Õæ∫∑’ËÕ”‡¿Õ‡™’¬ß¡à«π ®—ßÀ«—¥æ–‡¬“ ¿“§μ–«—πÕÕ°æ∫∑’ËÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘ ª“ß ’¥“ ®—ßÀ«—¥ √–·°â« √«¡∂÷ß„π®—ßÀ«—¥ª√“®’π∫ÿ√’ ¿“§„μâ æ ∫¥â “ πΩíò ß ∑–‡≈Õ— 𠥓¡— π ∑’Ë ®— ß À«— ¥ °√–∫’Ë  à«π„π¿“§μ–«—πμ°æ∫À‘π„π™à«ßÕ“¬ÿ¥—ß°≈à“«¥â«¬ ·μà‡ªìπÀ‘π∑’ˇ°‘¥®“°°“√ – ¡μ—«„π∑–‡≈ ¥—ßπ—Èπ®÷ß ‰¡àæ∫´“°°√–¥Ÿ°‰¥‚π‡ “√å´÷Ë߇ªìπ —μ«å∫° „π¿“§ μ–«—πÕÕ°‡©’¬ß‡Àπ◊Õæ∫´“°‰¥‚π‡ “√å„π 9 ®—ßÀ«—¥ ·À≈à ß ‰¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë  ”§— ≠ ∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ Õ¬Ÿà ∑’Ë ®— ß À«— ¥ ¢Õπ·°à π „π‡¢μÕÿ∑¬“π·Ààß™“μ‘¿‡Ÿ «’¬ß´÷ßË ∂◊Õ‡ªìπ·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡’ ° “√§â π æ∫§√—È ß ·√°„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬·≈–¡’ § «“¡ À≈“°À≈“¬„𠓬æ—π∏ÿå¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ ·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å ∑’Ë ¡’ ‚ §√ß°√–¥Ÿ ° ∑’Ë ¡’   ¿“æ ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ æ∫∑’Ë ®— ß À«— ¥ °“à‘π∏ÿå ‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë·°à∑’Ë ÿ¥·≈–ÕàÕπ∑’Ë ÿ¥æ∫∑’Ë ®— ß À«— ¥ ™— ¬ ¿Ÿ ¡‘ ¡’ ‡ æ’ ¬ ß®— ß À«— ¥  °≈π§√‡∑à “ π—È π ∑’Ë ¡’ °“√§âπæ∫‰¢à ‰¥‚π‡ “√å  à«π®—ßÀ«—¥π§√æπ¡∂◊Õ«à“ ¡’·À≈àß√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å∑’Ë¡’®”π«π√Õ¬μ’π¡“°∂÷ß 199 √Õ¬´÷ßË ∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ·À≈àß∑’¡Ë ®’ ”π«π√Õ¬μ’π‰¥‚π‡ “√å ¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ °“√ ”√«®μàÕ‰ª„πÕπ“§μ Õ“®§âπæ∫·À≈à߉¥‚π‡ “√å‡æ‘Ë¡‡μ‘¡∑’Ë®–‰¥â‡√’¬ß√âÕ¬ ‡√◊Ë Õ ß√“«¢Õ߉¥‚π‡ “√å ‰ ∑¬„Àâ   ¡∫Ÿ √ ≥å ¡ “°¬‘Ë ß ¢÷È π μàÕ‰ª

Fossil dinosaurs discovered in Thailand occur in Mesozoic terrestrial rocks that were deposited 200 to 65 million years ago. These fossils are of terrestrial animals and are widely distributed over much of northeastern Thailand. They have also been found in the north in Chiang Muan in Phayao, in the east in Pang Sida National Park in Sra Kaew and in Prachinburi, and in the south along the Andaman Sea coast in Amphoe Nua Khlong in Krabi. No dinosaur fossils have been found in the Mesozoic rocks in western Thailand. The dinosaur sites of northeast Thailand are in nine provinces but the most important dinosaur site is in Khon Kaen Province. This site is the first discovery that has diversified species. The most complete dinosaur skeleton is from Kalasin Province. The youngest and the oldest dinosaurs are from Chaiyaphum Province. Dinosaur eggs have only been found in Sakon Nakhon Province. The site of the 199 dinosaur footprints in Nakhon Phanom Province is the most famous. Further investigations may discover additional dinosaur fossil sites in other areas of Mesozoic rock outcrops.


‡Õ° “√Õâ“ßÕ‘ß (REFERENCES) ∑«’»—°¥‘Ï ªî¬–°“≠®πå (2530) °“√®”·π°·≈–®—¥≈”¥—∫À¡«¥À¡Ÿà¢Õß —μ«å.  “√“πÿ°√¡‰∑¬ ”À√—∫‡¬“«™π‚¥¬ æ√–√“™ª√– ß§å„πæ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“Õ¬ŸàÀ—« ‡≈à¡ 2 (æ‘¡æå§√—Èß∑’Ë 5) Àπâ“ 3-27 ‰æ∑Ÿ√¬å æß»–∫ÿμ√ (2549) ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå „πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬.  “√“πÿ°√¡‰∑¬ ”À√—∫‡¬“«™π‚¥¬æ√–√“™ª√– ß§å „πæ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“Õ¬ŸàÀ—« ( à«π‡¥Á°‡≈Á°·≈– à«π‡¥Á°°≈“ß) ‡≈à¡ 31 Àπâ“ 161-168  ¡»—°¥‘Ï ‚æ∏‘ —μ¬å ·≈– ‡¬“«≈—°…≥å ™—¬¡≥’ (2549) ´“°¥÷°¥”∫√√æå„πª√–‡∑»‰∑¬.  “√“πÿ°√¡‰∑¬ ”À√—∫‡¬“«™π ‚¥¬æ√–√“™ª√– ß§å„πæ√–∫“∑ ¡‡¥Á®æ√–‡®â“Õ¬ŸàÀ—« ( à«π‡¥Á°‚μ) ‡≈à¡ 31 Àπâ“ 169-197 Buffetaut, E., and Ingavat, R., 1984. Paleontologic-Un Dinosaurien theropode de tres petile dans le Iurassique superieur du nord-est de la Thailand. Not, a la langue dominante anglaise. C.R Aead. Sc. Paris, t. 298, Serie II, No. 20. Buffetaut, E., Ingavat, R., Sattayarak, N., and Suteethorn, V., 1985. Early Cretaceous dinosaur footprints from Phu Luang (Loei Province, northeastern Thailand) and their significance. In Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources Development of the Noutheast Thailand (Khon Kaen): pp. 71-76. Buffetaut, E., and Ingavat, R., 1986. Unusual Theropod Dinosaur teeth from the Upper Jurassic of Phu Wiang northeastern Thailand. Revue de Paleobiologie 5(2): pp. 217-220. Buffetaut, E., and Suteethorn, V., 1992. A new species of the ornithischian dinosaur Psittacosaurus from the early Cretaceaus of Thailand. Paleontology 35(4): pp. 801-812. Buffetaut, E, Suteethorn, V., and Tong, H., 1996. The earliest known tyrannosaur from the lower Cretaceous of Thailand. Nature 381(20). Buffetaut, E, Grellet-Tinner, G., Suteethorn, V., Cuny, G., Tong, H., Kosir, A., Cavin, L., Khitsing, S., Griffiths, P.J., Tabouelle, J., and Loeuff, J.L., 2005. Minute theropod eggs and embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand and the dinosaur-bird transition. Short Communication Naturwissenschaften 00 DOI 10.1007/s00114-005-0022-9 Ingavat, R., Janvier, R., and Taquet, P., 1978. Decouverte en Thailande dûune portion de femur de dinosaure sauropode (saureschia, Reptilia). C.R. Soc. Geol. France, 3: pp. 140-141. Martin V., Buffetaut, E., and Suteethorn, V., 1994. A new genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Sao Khua Formation (Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous) of northeastern Thailand. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris t. 319, serie II: pp. 1085-1092. McIntosh, B., 1990. Sauropoda. In D. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmolska (eds.), The Dinosauria, pp. 354-401, University of California Press, Los Angeles. Ostrom, J.H., 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. 30: pp. 1-165. Sereno, P., Cheng, Z., and Rao, C., 1988. Psittacosaurus meileygensis (Ornithisia, Ceratopsia), a new Psittacosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern Chaina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14: pp. 366-367. 97


¥—™π’»—æ∑å«‘∑¬“»“ μ√å (INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES) A Acrocanthosaurus atokensis Albertosaurus Alectrosaurus Allosaurus Apatosaurus Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Archaeopteryx

I ç50é ç44, 45é ç49é ç44, 45, 47, 48é ç28é ç29, 30, 31é ç29é ç69, 76é

B Barapasaurus tagorei Barosaurus Barosaurus africanus Barosaurus lentus Brachiosauridae Brachiosaurus Brachiosaurus brancai

ç54é ç28é ç30, 31é ç29é ç32é ç28é ç11, 29, 30é C

Camarasauridae Camarasaurus Camarasaurus lewisi Camarasaurus supremus Camelotia Carduelis carduelis Citipati osmolkae Compsognathus Compsognathus corallestris Compsognathus longipes Confuciusornis

ç31é ç28é ç29é ç29, 30, 31é ç56é ç74é ç76é ç32, 33, 34, 66, 67é ç68, 70é ç67, 68, 71é ç76é D

Deinonychus antirrhopus Deuterosauropodopus Dicraeosauridae Dicraeosaurus Dimetrodon Diplodocus Diplodocus carnegii Diplodosidae Dromiceiomimus E Elaphrosaurus bambergi Epidendrosaurus ningchengensis Euhelopodidae Euhelopus Euhelopus zdanskyi G Gallimimus Gallimimus bullatus Gallus gallus Garudimimus Ginnareemimus Gongxianosaurus Gongxianosaurus shibeiensis Goniopholis phuwiangensis

98

ç68é ç58é ç32é ç28é ç11é ç12, 28é ç30é ç32é ç73é ç68é ç78é ç28é ç28é ç29, 30é ç73é ç68é ç74, 75é ç73é ç73é ç55, 57é ç54é ç37, 95é

Irenesauripus Isanosaurus attavipachi

ç82é ç34, 35, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58é K

Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis

ç54é L Lapparentosaurus madagascariensis ç55é Lessemsaurus ç56é M Mamenchisaurus ç28é Microrapter zhaoianus ç78é Microraptor ç12é Mussaurus ç71é O Omeisaurus ç28é Ornithomimosaur ç32, 34é Ornithomimus ç73é P Parvicursor ç12é Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae ç23, 28, 34, 35, 86, 95é Proganochelis ruchae ç95é Psittacosaurus ç71é Psittacosaurus meileyingensis ç61, 65é Psittacosaurus mongoliensis ç61é Psittacosaurus satayaraki ç34, 35, 60, 61, 62é R Riojasaurus ç56é S Shunosaurus ç28é Shunosaurus lii ç55é Siamosaurus suteethorni ç32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 95é Siamotyrannus isanensis ç32, 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 49é Sinraptor ç44, 47é Struthiomimus ç73é T Tarbosaurus ç44é Titanosauridae ç32é Troodon formosus ç76é Tyrannosauridae ç47é Tyrannosaurus ç44, 45é Tyrannosaurus rex ç33, 47é V Valcanodon ç56, 57é Valcanodon karibaensis ç54é Volkheimeria ç56é Y Yuangchuanosaurus

ç45, 48é

Z Zizhongosaurus chuanchengensis ç54, 55é


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We sincerely thank Sidney L. Rieb, an invited instructor in Petroleum Geology, of the Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University who read over the first draft manuscript to edit and improve the English.

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