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Bias+Inclusion Survey Report 1

Fall 2018 – Spring 2019

On the state of bias at the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts


Foreword 2


In the last few years, many universities have taken measures towards improving the methods of addressing bias and inclusion within their schools. While Sam Fox has many advocates and supportive peers, this survey was initiated and the results publishedbecause there needed to be a more comprehensive assessment of the sources, frequency and types of bias that existed within our school in order to best move forward and make changes in the way Sam Fox faculty, staff and students react to instances of bias. The conversation that initiated this project came from a WIAD coffee talk with Heather Corcoran, Director of the College & Graduate School of Art, in which it was agreed that collecting and publishing data from the

school would provide a strong platform for 3 anyone who wishes to make change within the Sam Fox community. This survey was initiated not because we felt the school did not feel concern around the continued presence of bias and discrimination, but because seeing the actual quantitative and qualitative feedback from students would make tangible these issues and give a greater sense of urgency in addressing them. We hope that this publication proves informative and inspiring to those who wish to make change.

Ruth Blair Moyers (BS Arch ’18)


Content


Preface

6

How Do You Define Bias?

10

What Is an Incident of Bias That Warrants Filing a Report? The Survey

16

Approaching the Survey

18

Our Survey Process

20

Demographics Content Analysis

26

Overview

28

Experienced vs. Witnessed

36

Gender Differences

40

Mental Health

42

International Students

44

Additional Quotes From the Survey

48

Conducted Survey Original

54

Closing Thoughts

58

Contributors

5


6

How Do You Define Bias?


7

In the survey, bias was not explicitly defined in order to not limit participants to one notion of bias, but to prompt them to think through all instances in which they felt prejudiced.

Top

An interior view of the Bixby architecture studio.


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People would often assume that their experiences—specifically in regards to their privileges —are the norm.

In doing so, we aimed to be 9 inclusive of all incidents of bias a student has experienced. For the purpose of this publication, we define bias as follows: preference or prejudice based on social identity that manifests in anything from under-the-radar statements of exclusion to overtly discriminatory behaviors. The categories of bias which we have identified were: (1) Race/ethnicity (2) Ability status/mental health (3) Gender identity (4) National origin/international student status (5) Socioeconomic background (6) Religious beliefs (7) Political beliefs (8) Sexual orientation (9) Age People would often assume that their experiences—specifically in regards to their privileges—are the norm. While they recognize some are disadvantaged, they do not recognize how their experiences and background provide them with advantages that others do not have access to. WIAD member Michelle Kim shares, “I think that everyone has bias, your bias is your background; however, it becomes an issue when that bias prevents you from knowing and understanding other people, their cultures and experiences and being open to them. Once you learn about them, it is important to be inclusive of them. I think it’s always important to be learning.”

Left

An image of the exterior of Steinberg Hall.


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What Is an Incident of Bias That Warrants Filing a Report?


According to official Washington University website, bias reporting is a system “through which students, faculty, staff and community members who have experienced or witnessed incidents of bias, prejudice or discrimination involving a student can report their experiences to the university’s Bias Report and Support System (BRSS) team.” The BRSS Team supports students who have witnessed or been the target of biasrelated incidents, refers community members to appropriate university and local resources and educates reporters on what to expect from each resource, and informs the university community about the frequency and nature of bias incidents through semesterly summary reports to drive discussion around making Washington University more diverse and inclusive. In addition to providing regular reports, the BRSS coordinator will meet with the vice chancellor for students and the vice provost to discuss our community’s climate and areas for potential improvement. A bias incident is any discriminatory or hurtful act that appears to be or is perceived by the victim to be motivated by race, ethnicity, age, religion, national origin, sex, disability, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, veteran status or socioeconomic status. To be considered an incident, the act is not required to be a crime under any federal, state or local statutes, nor does it have to violate the university policy.1 However, a lot of participants mentioned in their survey that they are unsure when it is appropriate to formally report to the University, and they often do not report. It does become ambiguous when an incident of bias is subtle rather than an explicit statement or action and someone’s intentions can’t be confirmed. This raises the question: where is the line when deciding what to report? Should we penalize people for being

unaware, and how do we raise awareness to the experiences of others?

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Any bias and/or discrimination incidents should be reported through this link: https://diversityinclusion.wustl.edu/brss/

1

Information references the Bias Report & Support System from Center for Diversity & Inclusion.

Next

Taken during one of WIAD’s weekly meetings.


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The Surv


vey

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Approaching the Survey


This project began as an independent 17 initiative within WIAD. We, Women in Architecture + Design, created a survey that listed social identities and backgrounds in which incidents of bias could presumably occur. The survey asked participants’ about their firsthand or witnessed experiences of bias. Beyond the content of the survey, it was also crucial that the language and the design of the survey prompted people to share. How would the format, what we included, and what questions we asked change the nature and openness with which the participants would respond? WIAD tried to collectively format questions that would ostensibly prompt participants to recall and share the experiences that were so pertinent to developing a discourse about bias at the Sam Fox school. However, many participants mentioned in their survey that they are unsure when it is appropriate to formally report to the University, and they often do not report. It does become ambiguous when an incident of bias is subtle rather than an explicit statement or action and someone’s intentions can’t be confirmed. This raises the question of where the line is when deciding what to report. Should we penalize people for being unaware, and how do we raise awareness to the experiences of others? In order to uphold the ethics of surveying anonymously every WIAD member who administered the survey received valuable training with Lisa Wiland who works

Should we penalize people for being unaware, and how do we raise awareness to the experiences of others? with surveys extensively in her professional career.2 To ensure that we could handle the data carefully and responsibly, WIAD met with Lisa to learn the foundation of survey writing and attended training for etiquette, ethics, administration, and analysis. Only WIAD members who have attended training are allowed to handle and analyze sensitive data collected from Sam Fox students.

2

Lisa Wiland is the Director of Institutional Research & Analysis at Washington University in St. Louis.


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Our Survey Process


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WIAD began the survey administration planning by compiling a comprehensive list of courses offered at Sam Fox. The survey was administered to core classes in art and architecture, graduate and undergraduate, that ranged from first year 3D Design to senior capstone studios. It is important to note that WIAD did not survey all courses nor students in Sam Fox. Visits to two classes with a significant amount of overlap in the students enrolled were excluded. As an example, instead of visiting both Word & Image I and Typography I, we only administered the survey to one of the two courses. Additionally, only students who were present during that class period were surveyed. Two of our WIAD trained members would begin the administration of the survey by reading the following instructions: The intent of the survey is to give stu- dents of Sam Fox School a space to voice their experiences in a safe and proactive way. The survey is anonymous. Your comments are very important to

this survey. Please be aware that any written statements you choose to provide could be shared exactly as they are written, as long as they do not reveal your identity. Please, do not share specific information that could reveal your identity. This survey is not an official channel to report bias or sexual assault. If you have become a victim of either, we strongly encourage you to contact Sexual Assault Team. Students were given 10 minutes to complete this survey. The survey was administered to students majoring within the Sam Fox school as students with majors at Sam Fox would have a more relevant working knowledge of Sam Fox culture and a larger range of their own experiences at Sam Fox to draw from.

Top

A student actively working in the second floor studio space in Givens Hall.


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Demographics


Out of a total of 824 students enrolled in Sam Fox School in the Spring semester of 2018, 526 students participated in the survey which is 64% of the entire Sam Fox School. 116 male undergraduate 263 female undergraduate 62 male graduate 52 female graduate 33 other 3

There are many more under21 graduate student participants due to the large number of undergraduate students at the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts. There is no statistically significant gender disparity at the graduate level; however, within the undergraduate department one-third of the participants are male and two-third are female. About a quarter

Other

Male Grad.

12%

6%

Female Grad.

10%

Female Undergrad.

50%

Male Undergrad.

22%

3

Other refers to those who did not identify their demographics or are non gender-binary


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of participants (137 students) self23 identified as a minority. A possible error that may have led to mis-reporting is that the box to check for I identify as a minority is in the same section as the fillin-the-blank section for gender. Participants might not have checked the box, even if do generally identity as a minority, because they assumed the box was regarding gender minority. Additionally, due to the open ended interpretation, they could have conceived of the question both in terms of within the Sam Fox community or a broader context. Some people who identify with minority groups may not have checked the option of I identify as a minority, because their definition of minority is more specific (i.e. do they identify as a racial minority, gender minority, etc.). There may have also been discrepancies as to whether survey participants defined minority as an identity that experiences bias, or as a numeric minority in Sam Fox.

Left

An Architecture student at work in the Givens studio space.


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Con Anal


ntent alysis

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26

Overview


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After administering the survey to both our undergraduate and graduate student body at Sam Fox, we ran our results through several tests to derive quantitative conclusions. To better address issues pertinent to each surveyed topic, we organized the content into individual sections of Experienced vs. Witnessed, Gender Differences, Mental Health and International Status. Top

Students reviewing their work during a Communications Design studio class.


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Experienced vs. Witnessed


29 On average, there were two types of bias incidents people have experienced. The first type was an instance that someone experienced directly, which means that the incident was personal to them. The other type was an indirect instance of bias which afflicted a person indirectly through witnessing the incident or was negatively affected by the instance told by others. The data analysis that immediately follows presents an overview of both types of incidents while the rest of this chapter is dedicated to presenting individual analysis and explanations for each type of incidents. Frequency and proportions of those who experienced and witnessed incidents of bias are presented in tables that immediately follow. For example, 13% of students—of the total of 520—reported experiencing bias incidents based on their ethnicity. Of those who reported experiencing these instances (i.e., n = 171), ethnicity was the most frequent category with 39% reporting that the incidents were based on their ethnic

social identity. Ethnicity-related incidents were also frequently witnessed coming as the second most witnessed category, with 28% of the total reporting witnessing an ethnicity-related bias incident.


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Types of Insult in Order of Frequency

Medium

Type

% from Reported

% from Total

Experienced

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

39 27 23 23 22 15 14 12 11

13 9 8 8 7 5 5 4 4

Witnessed

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

50 45 40 39 38 30 19 17 11

31 28 25 24 24 19 12 10 7

Note: % from Total refers to the percentage out of the total sample size of n=520. % from Reported refers to the percentage out of those who reported experiencing or witnessing bias. Sample size of n=171 experienced an insult, n=329. The percentages from the above data do not add up to 100% as items within type were not mutually exclusive (i.e., types were in the format of check all that apply). Instead, the inverse for each percentage reflects those who did not check each of the listed types. Even in light of all the above data, even fewer actually report instances of bias that they’ve experienced. This means that incidence of bias within Sam Fox often fly under the radar or are never brought to light. There was an issue in the language of the survey, the first line of directions stated insult or threat, while the chart said incident of bias. The threshold for what people consider to be an insult or threat might have discouraged people from writing about their minor experiences. People would also modify their fill-in-the-bubble section with

amendments in the short-answer section by stating that their answers were not reflective of a single instance, but instead a general culture that included underlying preconceptions, jokes and general attitudes toward minorities (i.e., international students).

Right

Students discussing their projects in the Givens studio space.


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Experienced (Direct Insult)

50

% from Total

20

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The fact remains that too many individuals within the Sam Fox community have reported incidents of experienced bias. Bias surrounding the survey participants’ ethnicity has registered as being the category with the highest frequency. With this selection of data in mind, the Sam Fox community may want to further investigate and quickly take action such that we address and minimize the frequency of this category of bias as it negatively affects the largest percentage of people. Nevertheless, the information gathered above demonstrates a need

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Too many individuals in the Sam Fox community have reported incidents of experienced bias. for the Sam Fox community to attend to the elimination of a large and ever-expanding selection of bias forms.


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Witnessed (Indirect Insult) 50

% from Total

31

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Similar to the previous summary, there are too many individuals in the Sam Fox community that have reported incidents of witnessed bias. Witnesses to bias have reported the highest levels of bias in categories including nationality and ethnicity. While all categories mentioned above demand attention and change, witnessed bias of targeting an individual or individuals’ nationality and/or ethnicity requires the most immediate attention as this form of bias have been witnessed as affecting the largest number of people.

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Although it is not possible to link specific incidents to its location or source, we found evidence that these reported incidents occurred most frequently in the Sam Fox Studio space and students were the most frequent source of bias incidents. The graphs shown in the following pages illustrates this fact.


34 Location

Frequency of Location of Insult 0

40

80

140

In Studio Non-Sam Fox In Class In Review Off Campus* Social Event Lecture Int. Location

Frequency of Source of Insult Location

0

40

80

140

Student Faculty Staff Invited* Syllabus Readings Note: *Off Campus refers to instances that occurred during Sam Fox related off-campus outings. Invited refers to professionals who are invited to Sam Fox as lecturers and/or reviewers. All other aforementioned categories refers solely to Sam Fox related events and locations.

Right

View of the Walker Hall exterior.


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36

Gender Differences


37

Means and SD. for Female 4.0

Mean Standard Deviation

2.0

0.8

Experienced Total

Witnessed Total

Location Total

Source Total

Means and SD. for Male 4.0

Mean Standard Deviation

2.0

0.8

Experienced Total

Witnessed Total

Location Total

Source Total

Note: The above two tables both present data with statistically significant difference; howevevr, it is clear that women reported more bias incidents in different situations (higher Standard Deviation) when compared to men.


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Types of Bias Incidents Related to Women

Medium

Type

% from Reported

% from Total

Experienced

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

38 30 24 24 22 17 11 10 8

14 11 9 9 8 6 4 3 3

Witnessed

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

48 42 48 45 28 37 13 10 20

33 29 33 31 19 25 9 7 13

Perception of Bias When asked how frequently people experienced or witnessed an incident of bias based on social identity, reported bias was greater for women compared to men. The survey operated with a scale from 1=Never to 5=Very Often. It is important to note that this finding accounts for unequal variances (i.e., the fact that there were more women than men).

Multiple Incidents Experienced/Witnessed When asked how frequently people experienced or witnessed an incident of bias based on social identity, reported bias was greater for women compared to men. The scale used

for the survey operated as such; 1=Never, 2=Rarely, 3=Sometimes, 4=Often, 5=Very Often. It is important to note that this finding accounts for unequal variances (i.e., the fact that there were more women than men). Regardless of type of bias instance, 37% of women and 27% of men reported experiencing at least one encounter with bias. On average, both reported experiencing approximately two events of bias (Ms = 1.84 and 1.64, respectively). Regardless of the nature of the bias, 30% of women and 53% of men reported witnessing at least one encounter. On average, both reported witnessing approximately three incidents (Ms = 2.91 and 2.92, respectively). Acknowledging that more men reported witnessing insults warrants further quali-


Types of Bias Incidents Related to Men

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Medium

Type

% from Reported

% from Total

Experienced

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

43 28 23 21 17 13 9 6 4

11 7 6 6 4 3 2 2 1

Witnessed

Ethnicity Ability/Mental Health Nationality Socioeconomics Gender Political Beliefs Religious Beliefs Age Sexual Orientation

42 37 57 37 38 32 21 13 26

22 19 29 19 24 16 11 7 13

tative data. This finding might suggest the presence of the bystander effect, where (male) students witness their friends, peers or authority insulting others but the witness chooses not to take action. The survey inquired whether adequate action was taken by any witness to an incident of bias, but the survey did not specifically ask if the survey respondent themselves took such action to stop or appease the event.

Gender Differences in Frequency of Incidents The results of the survey found all types of bias (e.g., ethnicity, nationality and etc.) listed in the survey to be experienced and/ or witnessed. Bias relating to ethnicity and

nationality were the most frequent. Women reported higher frequency of both experiencing and witnessing bias in almost all of these categories compared to data collected for men. When investigating the nature of bias, the most notable and varied data addressed topics such as: socioeconomic status, ability, and political beliefs. When it came to witnessed events of bias, the data was the same for age (7%) and sexual orientation (13%) between men and women. The data also shows that witnessed encounters of bias concerning religious identity was higher among men (13%). When calculating the incidents of experienced bias, 22% of women reported bias based on gender. It’s 8% of total women in the entire Sam Fox school.


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Mental Health


41 The written portion of the survey brought forth a heightened awareness of bias relating to mental health of students. Selected anecdotes below are directly quoted from collected surveys and are organized into four sub-themes. Ridicule “In a drawing studio, a faculty member poked fun at a student’s habits—those habits being due to OCD disorder and Anxiety. The faculty member made the “joke” in front of the class. This student felt insecure and uncomfortable after class, and throughout the semester.” “A faculty member told a long and detailed story about a previous student’s issues with mental health. He mocked her struggles and idiosyncrasies to amuse the class. It made me upset for the lack of privacy and respect given to the student, and made me feel that that professor was not a reliable person to approach with personal issues [about] mental health related or otherwisebecause I might be the but of a joke to future students.”

Unacknowledged “While I wouldn’t say I have witnessed explicit bias on mental health, I would say the faculty doesn’t consider it enough.” “Students struggling with mental health issues often struggle with their work, faculty unaware will treat them poorly.”

Carelessness “My sophomore year I was forced to attend therapy at SHS by an administrative faculty member and was told if I didn’t go that they would find me bring me themselves. Following this, I had my final review where professors I knew and didn’t know only asked about my mental health, if I was seeing someone and if I was on meds. I felt exposed and violated. I worked hard to improve my worth and no one saidanything.” “Not great reactions to mental health issues from faculty”

Minimized “[S]everal students have told me about faculty giving them a particularly hard time when they’ve been unable to fully complete assignments due to a physical or mental health disability. Often they are accused of being lazy and interrogated pertaining to why they can’t do more.”


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International Status


The issue of individuals’ forgetting or 43 mispronouncing of students’ names were repeatedly acknowledged in the survey’s part II short-answer section. The anecdotes below often express preconceptions towards international students’ identity and their cultural roots. Name “For example, during my freshman year a faculty member insisted on calling my classmate by her “Asian” name instead of her chosen name.” “Teachers not remembering and mixing up names of international students” “A professor I have freshmen year would mix up the names of international students regardless of gender and when corrected would say something along the lines of ‘I can’t tell the difference.’ This made me feel uncomfortable” “Mixing up Asian students’ names—the same two students multiple times.”

Ethnicity “The issue is that there is a divide [between Chinese and non-international students] and it is felt because of how professors treat you and them.” “I have occasionally heard faculty accidentally make comments with nationality undertones—although it is not meant to be offensive or threatening, but often comes out as such.”

Ability “Discussion among people about standards regarding international students usually from Asia regarding language abilities and abilities to pass language requirement tests.” “There is a divide in the school between the international Chinese students and non-international students…I feel there is a divide and most international students stick together and are treated differently not only by students but also the faculty. Some international students can barely speak English and professors and students are unable to communicate. I’ve heard professors say that they don’t understand how some of these students got into the program and it is actually hurting the program because they are struggling to produce work that the professor asked about. In a studio full of seven international students and three non-international, the professor would barely speak to the non-international students becausethey said they are not “worried” about them, and spend the majority of the time trying to communicate with the international students.”


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Conducted Survey Original


45


46


47


48


49


50

Additonal Quotes Taken from the Survey Part II Short-Answer Section


“I have had my ethnic identity pushed 51 upon me and my work when that was not the intention of my project. ‘Because I was ___, I should make art about____.’” “A professor I have freshman year would mix up the names of int’l students regardless of gender and when corrected would say something along the lines of ‘I can’t tell the difference’. This made me feel uncomfortable.” “One of my friends was told by a visiting reviewer that her piece about female empowerment was ‘irrelevant’ and that women in design don’t need to be highlighted as they have ‘done nothing to deserve’ their special places in the piece she designed for a showcase. The critiquer told my friend that women in architecture and design are ‘unjustified given a pat on the back for being female’ and that we wouldn’t have to ‘piss off the male architect visiting speakers’.”


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“When we can’t afford materials and approach professors, their attitude is often “you need to know where you need to invest,” suggesting cut spending elsewhere to make room for necessary material that would benefit my career. No one actively tries to suggest resource and I’ve come to the professor as last resort, not being able to afford grocery—and my choice has to be meal or material.” “Walking to campus and being stopped by people in the neighborhood. They felt the need to question what I was doing on WashU campus. They assumed I was a staff of janitorial services instead of a graduate student that was African American, who was smart enough or that could afford to attend WashU.” “We were watching a short film in class (where I was the only person of color) and the film used the term ‘colored people’—when I explained why this is


53 something that makes me, as a minority, uncomfortable, the instructor, a white man, responded with ‘I didn’t even think of that cause I don’t feel offended by that term’.” “Another student in my class condescendingly told me that I was ‘decent for a guy’ at drawing. I felt alienated especially because men are a minority in the Sam Fox School.” “I observed the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and I mentioned to my professor that I will be fasting all day and I’m not suppose to work and he/she said ‘God will understand’.”


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Closing Thoughts


This survey by WIAD was conducted 55 to fill a gap in tangible information for the Sam Fox community. This publication is a means of amplifying unheard voices regarding topics that are taboo or uncomfortable to talk about. Most importantly, it is an invitation for the Sam Fox community to engage in conversations concerning the unfamiliar and unspoken territories and implore change. Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts has nurtured a community reliant on both peer-to-peer and faculty-to-peer relationships. Such relationships are sustained and developed by cross-boundary collaboration, professional critiques and in-depth conversations held on a daily basis. These interactions are also more personal than other academic settings on Washington University in St. Louis’ campus as the work produced by Sam Fox students is often inspired


and fueled by personal experiences, background and emotion. It’s often desired and necessary to ask for advice and critique from other students and professors. This frequently occurring desire for input provides a heightened opportunity for the distribution of biased and sometimes unrefined commentaries and behaviors. We pass on this information to you in the hopes that it will be an impetus to start a dialogue or to reflect on the role of bias in our community. After reading our publication, please keep considering below questions, which could help you better reflect: (1) Do you think you are a source of bias? (2) How can we use the statistics and information to better understand and reflect on ourselves? (3) What can be done from here to

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57 start creating a more inclusive culture at Sam Fox? (4) How do you navigate those in- stances as a recipient, member of that community, as a bystander, or as a perpetrator? (5) How does this relate to the na ture of our professions and our desire to create things in the world and affect the world? (6) Why do we care? (7) What will you do?

Thank you, The WIAD Team (SP19)


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Contributors


Survey

Planning and Design Lead Ruth Blair Moyers Irina Pavlova

59

Assistance Michelle Kim Kaitlyn Schwalber

Administrators Linda Deng Jingqi (Jessica) Fan Allie Henner Michelle Kim Jenny Li Ruth Blair Moyers Anya Pawar

Kaitlyn Schwalber Olga Sobkiv Elise Wang Xuerong (Rita) Wang Audrey Western Kelly Whelan Claire Wiley

Data Analyst Isidro Landa Chancellor’s Fellow

Publication

Writers Lead Michelle Kim Xuerong (Rita) Wang

Assistance Jingqi (Jessica) Fan Ruth Blair Moyers Xuerong (Rita) Wang Irina Pavlova Anya Pawar

Editors Lead Jingqi (Jessica) Fan Allie Henner Xuerong (Rita) Wang

Assistance Mikaela Gatewood Andriana Levytsky Ruth Blair Moyers Olga Sobkiv Claire Wiley

Design Lead Jingqi (Jessica) Fan

Other Thanks

Faculty Heather Corcoran Kelley Murphy Lisa Wiland

Assistance Xuerong (Rita) Wang

Photography Mikaela Gatewood Olga Sobkiv Xuerong (Rita) Wang Claire Wiley


SP19 Women in Architecture +Design 60

From the WIAD Team

To the future of Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts

Profile for Women in Architecture + Design

Bias + Inclusion Survey Report  

A Women in Architecture + Design publication created to fill a gap in tangible information in regards to the state of bias at the Sam Fox Sc...

Bias + Inclusion Survey Report  

A Women in Architecture + Design publication created to fill a gap in tangible information in regards to the state of bias at the Sam Fox Sc...

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