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World Health Organization

G aza Co mmunity Men ta l Heal th Pro gra mme

f@s„? ,,,ÎÊkÀ¡? ÎXs¡?Ç

fĂˆkƒ?Ç iS?ĂˆÂ„?

Siege

and Mental Health‌ Walls vs. Bridges  ÎŽË°Ë°Ë°Î‘ĎŽË°Ë°Î˜Ë°Ë°Ď›Îƒ    27 - 28 October 2008 Ĺ›Ç˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç§  ǞºǴdzƥ ÇľĆĄÇ  ƧDŽººǣ Gaza - Ramallah - Palestine


ǂŤƚŭơ ǹƢŪ  ƨȈǸȈǜǼƬ dzơ ƨǼƴǴdzơ ƨnjȈǟ ȂƥƗ ƽȂǸŰ

ƨȈǸǴǠdzơ ƨ ǼƴǴdzơ ȅƽȂdzƗ Ȃ ǰȇǁƾǧ

ƨȇǁƢnjƬ LJȏơ ƨǼƴǴdzơ ƨǫƽ ȂƥƗ ƔƢǼLJ

ĈȅȂǏ ȂƥƗ ƢȈƳơǁ ȂǻȂǼdzơ ǵƢLjƷ

ȂǴūơ ƾǸŰ ŜŹ ƱƢūơ ƾǸŰ

ƨǼȈƷơȂǗ ȂƥƗ ƾŧƗ ƨǴȈųȂƥƗ ǹƢȈǨLJ

ƢǻȂǻǁƗ ĿƢǿǃ

ȆNjƢƥ ȅǁƢLJ

śǿ Ȃƥơ Dzǔǧ

ƣƢȇƽ ǹơȁǂǷ ƱǂƥƾdzȂƳ DZƢnjȈǷ

ƪƥƢƯ DŽȇDŽǠ dzơƾƦǟ džȈŨ ǹƢǨȈǧ

ƱơǂLjdzơ ƽƢȇƛ ňơǁȂǐdzơ ȆƳơǁ

ƨŻƢǏ ƔƢȈǓ

ǹȂLJŚ ǼȇǁƾȈƫ

œȈNjƢnjǼdzơ Ƣǻǁ

ȂǼȈNjơǂLJ ȂƬȇƽƢǼȈƥ ƾǴȈǧǂũ Ǯȇǂȇƽ

ŗǰǼƳ ǹȂƳ Dz ȇȂƸLJ ƽȂǸŰ

ǁȂũ NJȇƢǟ ǺȇŚǷȁơ ǹƢǧ ǭǁƢǷ

ǂǿƢǓ ƽȂǸŰ ƅơƾƦǟ ŚLjȈƫ

ǁȂǐǼǷ ƅơƾƦǟ

DZ ȂǬLjǟ ƾǸŰ

ǁơƾǿ ȅǁȂȇ džǻȂȇ ǵƢǐǟ

ƨNjƢǰǟ ƾŧƗ ƧƽȂǟ ƨǻƢŦ ƨƫȂǫ Śũ ȅơǁȂǷ ȆLj ǻƢǻ

Conference Committees Adviso ry Committee Taysir A bdallah Sanna'a Abu Daga Fadel A bu Hein Sufian Abu Neje la Ahmad Abu Taw ahina Moham ad Asqool Mahmoud Daher Eyad El-Sarraj John J enkins Nancy Murray Rana N ashashibi Ahmad Okasha Jumana Ouda Samir Q outa Mahmoud Sehwa il Raji Sourany

Scientific Committe e Federico Allodi Sari Bashi Mohammad El-Helou Uri Hadar Muhammad Haj-Yahia Vivian Kh amis Abdallah Mansour Ted Ryenerson Benedetto Saraceno Dereck Su mmerfield Ayesh Samour Abed Aziz Thabet Mark Van Ommeren Issam Yonis

Org anizing C ommittee : Mahmoud Abu Aisha Rajiah Abu Sway Zah avi Arnona Marwan Diab Husam El-Nounou Michal Goldberg Dyaa Saymah

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Acknowledgement Gaza Community Men tal H ealth Progr amme (GCMHP) has decid ed to hold its fifth interna tional conferenc e "Siege and Ment al Hea lth‌ Walls vs. Bridges" in p artner ship w ith World Health Organ izatio n (WHO) to address a critic al iss ue which i s the Siege . Isra el has imp osed a tighte ned unprece dented siege on th e Gaz a Strip sinc e June 15th, 2007. As par tof ou r miss ion, w e at GCMHP and WHO are organizing this confere nce in attempt to high light the impact of the siege on mental health and hum an rig hts of the Pa lestin ian po pulation in Gaza. At this stag e, we would ackn owled ge the follo wing persons and orga nizati ons for the ir hard wor k and supp ort, w ithout who m this event would not b e possible. First a nd for emost, we would like to extend our sin cere a ppreciation to the conferenc e don ors for their generous cont ributio ns to GCMHP's 5th I nternational. Also , we are so grate ful to WHO - Cosponsor of the co nferen ce - for its financial and logistic help. We would also like to express our s pecial than ks to Dr. Nancy Murray fo r her sincer e effo rts in promoting the confere nce pa rticipation in the USA, a s well as for her financ ial contribution. In addition, w e wou ld like to extend than ks and ap precia tion to the foll owing volu nteers for th eir he lp and assistance o n the variou s tasks requ ired to make this c onfere nce a succes s: Ms . Lisa Welze, PhD Cand idate from the Un iversi ty of Oxford , for e diting and administrat ive as sistance; Prof. Ai da Seif El-Dawla, from Al-N adim Cente r for the Reh abilitation o f Vict ims of Violence, Egyp t, an d Ms . Am al El-Shant y for their assistance with transla tions. We w ould like to express our than ks to the Pal estinian Inte rnatio nal Campaig n to End the Sieg e for its effo rts in organizing an internation al action day and solida rity ac tivitie s simu ltaneo usly with the confe rence. Also, we would than k all indiv iduals and organi zation invo lved in fa cilitati ng th e field visits its effo rts in facilitating the f ield v isits for our confe rence. Finally, we wou ld like to ex tend o ur gen uine thanks and gratitud e to all of th ose w ho pa rticipa ted in this c onfere nce and exp ressed their solid arity with the Pa lestin ian pe ople living under sieg e.

3 S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges

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ʼnƾǬƫ ǶȀǔǠºƦdz ƆƢǸǟƽ ȁƗ Ɔơ ƾǓƢǠƫ ǂưǯƗȁ ǒǠºƦdzơ ǶȀǔǠºƦdz ƣǂºǫƗ ơȂºƸƦǏƗDžƢǼdzơ ǹƗ ǾƫƢ ȈǗ Ŀ DzǸƬºnjȇ ȅǀdzơ ǂǷȋơ ƧŚǤǏ ƨȇǂºǫ ƶƦǏƗ ŃƢǠdzơ ǹƗ Ƕǣǁ Ƨƽơǁƛȁ ƨººƦǣǂƥ ǶƬȇ ȏ ơǀǿ  ŃƢǠdzơ ƨȈººǬƥȁ ƧDŽǣ śºƥ ƧȂŮơ ȁƗ ƧȂƴǨdzơ ƽơƽDŽƫ ƢǼdzȂºƷ ǺǷ ŃƢǠdzơ ǂǤǏ ǶǣŐǧ ƢȀǴǿƗȁ ƧDŽǣ DZƢºƷ džȈdz ơǀǿ ǾǻƗ ȏƛ ǒǠºƦdzơ ǁƢǐūơ Ǿǻƛ  ǶȀǼǟ ƆƢǸǣǁ Ǻǰdzȁ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ śǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈƯǁƢǰdzơ ǽǁƢƯƕ ƾƥƢǰȇ ǺǷ ȏƛ ǁƢǐūơ ƨǬȈǬƷ ǥǂǠȇ ǹƗ ƾƷƗ ȅȋ ǺǰŻ ȏ ǾǻƗ řǠȇ ȅǀdzơ ǂǷȋơ ǥǂǟ ǩơƿ ǺǷ DZȂǬǻ ƨȈƥǂǠdzơ ƢǼƬǧƢǬƯ Ŀ ŸƨǷǃȐdzơ ƨȈºƦǘdzơ ƩƢǷƾŬơȆǬǴƫ ǵƾǟ Ǻǟ ƨŦƢǼdzơ ƩƢȈǧȂdzơ ƽƾǠƥ ǺǷ ƗƾƦǻ Dzǿ  ƗƾƦǻ ǺȇƗ ǺǷ ǝȂǓȂŭơ ơǀŮ ǩǂǘƬdzơ ƾǼǟ ǁƢŹ DzǬǠdzơ ǹƗ ǂǷȋơ ƨǬȈǬƷȁ ƽȂºǫȂdzơ ǎºǬǻ Ǻǟ ƮȇƾūƢºƥ ƗƾºƦǻ Dzǿ Ÿƨȇȁƽȋơȁ ƨȈƟơǀǤdzơ ƽơȂŭơȁ ƽǁơȂŭơ ǎºǬǻ ǵƗ ŸDzȈưǷ ǂǏƢǠŭơ ƺȇǁƢƬdzơ Ǿdz ǥǂǠȇ Ń ȅǀdzơ ƨdzƢǘƦdzơ ȃȂ ƬLjǷ ǺǷ ƗƾƦǻ ǵƗ ŸǾƬƠȈƥȁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ DzǸnjƫ ƨȈƸǏȁ ƨȈƠȈƥ ƨƯǁƢǰƥ ƽƾē ȅǀdzơ ƨǷƢǸǬdzơ ǞŦȁ ȅǁƢĐơ ƺǓ ƩƢǘŰ DzǘǠƫ ǵƗ ŸǮdzǀdz ƨƴȈƬǼǯ ƧDŽǣ ǾnjȈǠƫ ȅǀdzơ ǵȐǜdzơȁ ŸƤǠnjdzơ ƔƢǼƥƗ ǺǷ Ƕǜǟȋơ ƽơȂLjdzơ ȃƾdz ǕƢƦƷȏơȁ ǂȀǬdzơ ǂǟƢnjŭƢƥ ǵƗ ơǀđ ơƾƦǻ ŸśǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨǷƽƢǬdzơ DZƢȈƳȋơ ȃƾdz Ǯdzƿ Ǻǟ ǶƴǼƫ ƾǫ Ŗdzơ ƨȈƦǴLjdzơ ǁƢƯȉơ Ǻǟ ǵƗ ǹȉơȁ ƢǼǿ ȅǂŸ ƢǸǟ ƮȇƾūƢƥ ƗƾƦǻƗ śǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȃƾdz DžƢºLjƷȍơ ƾdzȁ ƾºǫ ȆȀƬǼȈºLJ ŕǷ ǁȂǜǼŭơ ȃƾŭơ Ŀ ȅǂȇ ȏȁ ƆơǂȀºNj ǂnjǟ ƨLjŨ ȄǴǟ ƾȇDŽȇ ƢǷ ǀǼǷȁƧDŽǣ ȄǴǟ ǑȁǂǨŭơ ǁƢǐūơ ǹƛ ƨƳǁƾdz  ƔƢºǬƦdzơ Ŀ ǂǸƬºLjȇ Ȇǯ ƨǷǃȐdzơ ƩƢƦǴǘƬŭƢƥ ȏƛ ǶƬȀȇ ȏ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DzǠƳ ŃƢǠdzơ Ǻǟ DZơDŽǠǻȏơȁ ƨƥǂǤdzƢƥ ǁȂǠnjdzơ ơǀǿ ǶȀǼǟ ȆǴƼƬdzơ Ļ ǶĔƘƥ DzǷȋơ ƨƦȈƻ ƢĔƗ Ǻǰƫ Ń ǹƛơǀǿ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǞǸƬĐơ Ŀ ƨǷƢǿƨǸȈǫ ƶƦǏƗ ƔƢǬƦdzơ ƽǂů ǹƗ ŸǮdzǀǯ ƨdzƢūơȁ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǞǸƬĐơDzƦǬƬLjǷ ǁȂǐƬǻ ǹƗ ƢǼdz ǦȈǯ Ŀ ǁơǂǬǴdz ƆƢǟƢǼǏ ƆƢƥƢƦNj ǹȂ��Ʀǐȇ śƷ ȆƳǁƢŬơ ǞǸƬĐƢƥ ǶȀƬǫȐǟ ǹȂǰƬLJ ǦȈǯ ƤǠnjdzơ ƔƢǼƥƗ ƨȈǬƦǯ ƆƢȈǟƢŦ ǹȂƦǫƢǠȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ DzȈƳ Ǻǟ ơƿƢǷ ǺǷ ƆơƾȇDŽǷ Ľ ǺǷȁ ƤǔǤdzơȁƨȈǿơǂǰdzơ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽǷƗ ŸƨºƦǗƢƼŭơ ƨǤdz Ȇǿ ƢǷȁ ŸǾǻȂºƦǗƢƼȈLJ ǦȈǯ ŸǶŮȂºƷ ǺǷŃ ƢǠdzơ ńƛ ǹȁǂǜǼȈLJ ǦȈǯ ŸǶȀǠǸƬů ŸƽƢǔŭơ ǦǼǠdzơȁ ǦǼǠdzơ ŸƨºƥȂǴǘŭơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ńƛ ȅƽƚƬLJ Dzǿ ŸśǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ǺȇƽƢȈŭơ ǺǷ ƢǿŚǣȁ ǶȈǴǠƬdzơȁ ƨƸǐdzơ DZƢů Ŀ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơȁ ƨȈǴƄơ ƩƢLjLJƚ ŭơ ǽǂǸưƬLjƫ ƢǷ ŚǐǷ Ȃǿ ƢǷ ŸDznjǨdzƢƥ ƢȀȈǴǟ ǶǰƸȈLJ ƢĔƗ ǵƗ ƨdzƢºƷ ǺǷ ǾƳơǂƻƗȁ ȆŭƢǠdzơ ŚǸǔdzơ ǙƢºǬȇƛ ǺǰŻ ǦȈǯ ŸǪºƦǘŭơ ƪǸǐdzơ ơǀǿ ơƿƢŭ ŸƧDŽ ǣ Ŀ ƭƾŹ ƢǷ ǽƢš ȆƳǁƢŬơ ŃƢǠdzơǂ Ǡnjȇ ơƿƢŠ ǂƻȉơ ƤǻƢŪơȄǴǟȁ ǵƗ ŸƢȀǴǿƗȁ śǘºLjǴǧ ƩơƾǿƢǠŭơ ǽǀǿ DzǸºnjƫ Dzǿ ŸǾƫơƾǿƢǠǷȁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬƷ Ǻǟ ơƿƢǷ ŸƔȏƚǿ ȃƾdz DzƴŬƢƥ ǁȂǠnjdzơ ƩƢǷ Dzǿ ŸƢȀnjȈǠȇ Ŗdzơ ƩƢƦLjdzơ ŸǵƢǸƬǿȏơ ǒǠƦƥ ȄǜŹ Ȇǯ ƆƢ ȈŭƢǟ ƨƥȂǴǘŭơ ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơȃȂƬLjǷ ńƛ ƾǠƥ ǩǂȇ Ń řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǹƗ ŸǺȇƾdzơ Ŀ ǶēȂƻƛ ơȂǻȂǰȇ Ń ǹƛ ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơ Ŀ ǽȂƻȋ ƭƾŹ ƢǷ ǽƢš ǁƢǠdzƢƥ ǽǁȂǠNj Śưƫȁ ȆŭƢǠdzơ ŚǸǔdzơ ǚǫȂƫ ƨƻǂǏ ǺǷ Dzǿ Ǻǟ ǁƢºƦǤdzơ ǒǨǼdz ƨdzȁƢŰ ȂŮ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂºƥ ǾǸǜǼȇ ȅǀdzơȁ ǽǁƢƯƕȁ  ǁƢǐūƢºƥǍƢŬơ Ņȁƾdzơ ǂŤƚŭơ ǹƛ ǵȂȇ ƾǠƥ ƆƢǷȂȇ ƽơƽDŽƫ Ŗ dzơƨȈƯǁƢǰdzơ ǽǁƢƯƕ ƶȈǓȂƬƥ Ǯdzƿȁ ȆŭƢǠdzơ ǁȂǠnjdzơ NJǷƢǿ Ŀ ƪƸƦǏƗ Ŗdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ƨȈǔǫ ƢǸǯ ǶēƢǻƢǠǷ ǒǠºƥ ƢȀǴǿƗ ƨǯǁƢºnjŭ ƧDŽǣ ńƛ ǁȂǔūơ ƧƢǻƢǠǷ ƨǨǴǰƫȁ ǂŤƚŭơ ơǀǿ Ŀ ǭǁƢºNj ǺǷ ǞȈǸŪ ǂǰºnjdzƢƥ ǵƾºǬƬǻ ǹƗ ȏƛ ƲǷƢǻŐdzơ Ŀ ƢǼǠLjȇ ȏȁ ȆǓơǁȋơȁ ƨǻDŽǣ Ŀ ƭƾŹ ƢŠ ƆƢǠȈŦ Ɣȏƚǿ ǵƢǸƬǿƢǧǂŤƚŭơ ơǀŮ ǶĔƢǔƬººººƷƛ ȄǴǟ ƲǷƢǻŐdzơ ŅȂŲ ǞȈŦȁ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨººººƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ ǂǰººººnjǻȁ ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ NJȈǠȇ ǞǸƬĐ ƧƾȈƷȂdzơ DzǷȋơ ƨǫǁƢƥ DzưŻ ǵƢǟ Dzǰnjƥ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ

ƨǼȈƷơȂǗ ȂƥƗ ƾŧƗ ƽ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥ  ǵƢǟ ǂȇƾǷ

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

4


Preface Despite the fact that the world is becoming smaller and more interconnected, the people of Gaza rem ain distanced from the global community. Despite the fact that the divisions between nations are being bridged, the gap between the world and Gaza is w idening. These circumstances are not the result of the will of the Palestinians in Gaza, but rather, have been forced upon them in the form of the siege. Only those who have experienced it firsthand can truly understand the nature of the siege. In fact, the siege remains somewhat incomprehensible to the mind. Where should we begin? Shall we start by trying to explain the death of individuals who are not able to receive much needed medical services? Shall we attempt to describe the breadth of poverty thathas risen to an unprecedented level in history? Shall we talk about the lack of basic materials andsupplies, including food and medicines, that are not able to enter into ourcities? Or shall we consider the lackof fuel and the ensuing darkness experienced as a result of that scarcity? Shall we discuss the paralysis of the waste and sewage systems that threaten disaster toboth humans and the surrounding environment? Can we convey the feelings of frustration and suppression prevailing among our people? Or shall we describe the everyday living conditions and the effects that will be embodied within our young people for generations tocome? The siege on Gaza, imposed for a period of over 15 months and with no foreseeable end in sight, has fostered feelings of alienation and abandonment by the Palestinian people, which has made Palestinians unable to care for anything except their basic needsof survival.These conditions have reached the extent to which survival has become animportant value in Palestinian society, in and of itself, and has elucidated clear signs of hopelessness and despair. How can we imagine the future of the Palestinian community under such conditions? How can we understand the generation of children who are being collectively punished, as are the remainder of the Palestinian population? How will their relationships with their neighborhoods and communities develop as they become full members of society? How will they see the world around them? H ow willthey addresstheir insecurities and needs? What language canthey use? Will it be expressed as hatred and anger, which in turn w ill become expressions of violence and counter violence? What is the destiny of the programmes developed by the international and local organizations in the area of health and education? Will such investment lead to the expected results or will it ultimately become a failure? On the other hand, how doesthe outside world feel about w hat is happening in Gaza? Why has there been such an absolute silence? How can we awaken the international conscience and free it from its slum ber? Did the feelingof compassion and empathy die for them ? And what about the human rights treaties? Do such treaties include Palestine and its people or does this reign of silence mean that Palestinians are not fully human in the international point of view? Will it take screams to wake up the international consciousness and incite a feeling of duty towards their fellow human beings? The international conference, organized by GCMHP and WHO, specifically designed to tackle the issue of the siege and its impacton the Palestinians population, is a first attempt to dust off the issue of siege, which has become a marginalized issue among the international community. Clarification about the disastrous impacts of the siege that are rising day by day. At GCM HP we are in gratitude to all those who areparticipating in the conference and who have endured the difficulties of coming to Gaza and have shared in the suffering of the people of Gaza. We would also like to thank the WHO and all the donors for their support and sponsorship in this conference. The attention by thesepeople, concerning what is happening in the Palestinian territories, represents the solehope for a comm unity living under abrutal siege. Dr. Ahmad Abu Tawahina Director Gen eral - G aza Community Mental Health Progr amme

5 S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


ʼnƾǬƫ ƨȈǴ ȈƟơǂºººLJȏơ ƩơǂƟƢǘdzơ ȅ ȁƽ ǹȁƾȀºººnjȇ ƢŠǁ ȁƗ ƨdzDŽǟȁ ƨȈǿơǂǯ ƆƢǨǼǟȁ ƆƢǟ ơǂǏ ǭƢǼǿ ǹƗ ǹȂǸǴǠȇ ƢŠǁ Ÿ ƧDŽǣ DZƢºººƷ Ǻǟ ŃƢǠdzơ ǥǂǠȇ ơƿƢǷ ȅǀdzơƢǷ Ǻǰdz ƢȀȈǴǟ ǑȁǂǨŭơ ǪǻƢŬơ ǁƢǐūơ ơǀǿ ǂºLjǯ ȅǀdzơ  Ƨǂūơ ƧDŽǣ  ƣ ŚȀnjdzơ ƣǁƢǬdzơ ȁ ǁƢǐūơ Ǻǟ ǞǸLjƫ ƢŠǁȁ ƧǁƢƴūơ ǥǀǬƫ Ŗdzơ ŚǿƢǸ Ūơȁ Dzǰ ººƥ ƾǷȋơ Dz ȇȂǗ ǂȇǂŭơ ǝ ơǂǐdzơ Ǯdzƿ ƤºǫơȂǟ Ǻǟ ŃƢǠdzơ ǾǧǂǠȇ ȅǀdzơ ƢǷ ȁŸ ƧDŽǣ DzǿƗ ƢȀºnjȈǠȇ Ŗdzơ ǥȁǂǜ dzơȁ ǞǓȂdzơ ƨºǬȈǬƷ Ǻǟ ŃƢǠdzơ ǾǧǂǠȇ ơǀǿ ȆǴǟ DzºƸƬLJŖdzơ ƾǷ ȋơ ƨǴȇȂǗ ƽƢǠºƥȋơȁ ȅǂŸ ƢǷ ƨºǬȈǬƷ ǭơǁƽƛ  Ƣ ǻƔƾºƥ ȁƗ  ơȁƔƾƥ Dzǿ ŸǞǸƬĐơ ƨȈǿƢǧǁȁƨȈLjǨǼdzơƨƸǐdzơ Ǟǫơȁ ȆǴǟ ǽƽƢǠƥƗ ȁƗ Ƕ ȀƬǧƢȈǓ ǵǂǯ Ǻǟ Ŗº ƷȁƗ ƢȀǠǸƬůȁ ƢēȐƟƢǟ ƨºƥȐǐ ƥ ƧDŽǣ Dzǿȋ ĺƢŸȍơ ƤǻƢ ŪƢºƥ ƨǧǂǠǷ ňƽƗ ǶȀȇƾdzDzǿȁ ŸƢȀƬǷǂºƥ ƨºǬǘ Ǽŭơ Dzƥ ƤǠnjdzơ ƩȐ ȇȁ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƤǠºnjdzơ ŇƢǟ ƧŚƻȋơ ƽȂºǬǠdzơ ǂǷ ȆǴǟ . ƣƢǠǐdzơ ƨđƢů Ŀ Ƣđ ǹȂǠƬǸ Ƭȇ Ŗdzơ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƧƽȐ ǐdzơ ǺǟȁƗ ƨºƷǂŭơ ǶȀƷȁǁ ǶȀǓǂǨƫ ȅǀdzơǁƢǐūơȁ ǩ Ȑǣȍơ ǦǴƻ ƾººǬdz ǶȀȇƾdz ƨȈǿƢǧǂdzơȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ Ǟºǫơȁ ȄǴǟ ƵȂǓȂºƥ ǽǁƢƯƕ ƪǴš ȆƳǁƢƻȁ ȆǴƻơƽǦǼǟȁ ǝơǂ Ǐ ǞǓȂdzơ ȆǴǟ Dz ưŭƢºƥȁ ȆºLJ ƢȈLjdzơ ȁ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƾȈǠǐdzơ ȆǴǟ ƨǸȈƻȁ ƤºǫơȂǟ ƧŚƻȋơ ƆơǂȀºNj ǂºnjǟ ƨƬºLjdzơ DZȐƻ ƧDŽǣ ȆǴǟ ƨȈǴƟơǂºLJȍơ ƩƢǘǴLjdzơ ƔƢºǬdzƛ ńƛ ȆǷǂȇ Ņȁƾdzơ ǂŤƚŭơ ơǀǿ ǺǷ ȆºǬȈǬūơ ǥƾŮơ ǹƛ ƽơǂǧȏơ ȅƾdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ DzǯƢnjǷ ǁȂȀǛ ƧǁȂǘƻ Ņơ ƨǧƢǓƛ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ȅƽƢǐƬǫȏơ ȄǴǟ ƔƢǘºººnjǼdzơȁ śȈƟƢǐƻȋơȁ ƔơŐŬ ơǺǷ ƽƾǟ ǽǂǔŹ ƔƢººǬdzƾººǬǟ DZȐ ƻǺǷ Ǯdzƿȁ ƢǿŚǣȁ ƨǴƻơƾƬŭơ ƢȇƢǔ ººǬdzơơȁ ƩƢǟȂǓȂŭơ ǽǀǿȆǴǟ ƔȂǔdzơ ƨǯ ǂƬººnjŭơ ǁȂǷȋơ ƨǯǁƢººnjǷ ǥƾđ ŃƢǠdzơ ǺǷ ȃ ǂƻƗ ƔƢŴƗȁ ƧDŽǣĿ ǦǼǠdzơȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷƾǐdzơǁƢƯƗ ƨºLJơǁƽȁƨºnjǫƢǼŭ ȆǴƄơȁ Ņȁƾdzơ ǺȇƾȈǠǐdzơ ƧƽȂƳ ȄǴǟ ǦǼǠdzơ ǁƢƯƗ ƨºLJơǁƾdz Ǻǰdzȁ ƤºLjƷȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ǦǼǠdzơ ǁƢƯƕ ȆǐºǬƬdz ǖǬǧ džȈdz ƨ dzȂȀĐơ ǁȂǷ ȋơ ȄǴǟ ǥǂǠƬdzơȁ ƨǧȁǂǠŭơȁ ǩơǁȁƗȁ ǂŤƚŭơ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ DzǷƘǻ ƢǼǻƛ ƣȂǴǘŭ ơŚȈǤƬdzơ ƭ ơƾººƷƗ ǾǻƘººNjǺǷ ȅǀdzơ ǂǷȋơ ƨȈǟ ƢǸƬƳƛdžǨ Ǽdzơ ƩƢǷƾŬ ơȁƨȈºLjǨǼdzơƨºƸǐdzơ ƩƢǷƾƻ ʼnƾºǬƫ ȃƾǷ Ǻǟ ǦºnjǰƬLJ ŖdzơȁƨǷƾºǬŭơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƩƢǷƾƻ Ŀ ǞȇǂLJ ǵƾǬƫ ƭơƾƷơȁ ƭƢŞȋơ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽŭ ƆơDŽ ǨŰȁ ƆƢǠǧơƽ ǾȈǧ ǵƾǬƬLJŖdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ǺǷ ƔDŽƴǯ ǂŤƚŭơ ơǀǿ :+ 2 ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ƨ ǸǜǼǷ Ƕǟ ƾƫ ƨºƸǐǴdzƨǷƢǠdzơ Ʃ ơƽƾƄơȁ ȁ ǁƢǐūơȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ śºƥ ƨºǬȈƯȂdzơ ƨǴǐdzơ DžƢºLJƗ ȄǴǟ Ƨǂ ǏƢǠǷ ƨȈLjǨǻ ƨƸǏ ƩƢǷƾƻ ʼnƾ Ǭƫ ǂȇȂǘƬdz ƨǴƬƄơ ƨǼȈǘȈLjǴǨdzơ ȆǓơǁȋơ Ŀ Ǻȇǂƻƕ ƔƢǯǂNj ǞǷȁ ƨƸǐdzơ Ƨǁơǃȁ ǞǷ ǞLJȂŭơ ƢȀǴ Ǹǟ ƨȈŷƗ ǂưǯȋơȁ ȃ Ȃǐºǫ ƨ ȈdzȁƗ ȄǘǠȇȁDzǏơȂƬȇ ǹƗƤŸ ƨǠƳ Ƣǻȁ ƨºƦLJƢǼǷƨǬȇǂǘƥ ƨ ȈǸƬĐơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƩƢǷƾƻ ǁȂǘƫ ȁ ŚǧȂƫǹƛ ȆǠǸƬů Ǿǧơƾǿơ ƤǻƢƳ Ņơ ǂŤƚŭơ ǥ ƾȀȇ Ǯdzǀdz DZȂǴūơ ƤººººLjǻƗ ńƛ Dz ǏȂƬdzơȁ ǝơǂǐdzơ ƢȀǨǴź Ŗdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ǁƢƯƕ ȄǴǟ ǥǂǠƬǴdz ƨȇ ǁǀŪơ ƣƢºººƦLJȋơ ƵǂǗ Ȃǿ Dzǰ ºnjƥ ǺǸǔƬƫ ǥȂºLJ DzǸǠdzơ ǩơǁȁƗ ƢȀǼǟ ƭƾºƸ Ƭƫ Ŗ dzơ DzƟƢºLJǂdzơȁ ƩƢǸǴǰdzơ ǹƛ ƆƢǠȈŦ ƢǼȈǴǟ ǽƽƢǠºƥƗȁ ƧDŽǣ ǞǓȂdz ŃƢ Ǡdzơ ǽƢºƦƬǻơ ƣǀŪ ƨȈǸǴǠdzơ Ǫǧȋơ Ŀ ƢǿơƾǏ ƵȂǴȇ ŕ dzơƨdzƢººººººLJǂdzơ ǹȂǰƫ ǹƗDzǷƘǻ ƢǼǻƛ ƭǁơȂǰdzơ ǺƄơ ƤǔǤdzơ ǂƫȂƬdzơ ǖǤǔdzơ ǹƢǷǂūơ ǦǼǠdzơ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ƶǓơȁ ǁơǂǬƬLJȋơȁ ƨūƢǐŭơ ƨȈǻƢǰǷơȁǺǬȈƬdzơȁ ǶȀǨdzơ ƨȈŷƗ DZȂƷ ƨȈƥƢŸơ džǻơǁȂdz ňȂƫ ƾȈLjdzơ ƧDŽǣȁ ƨȈƥǂǤdzơ ƨ Ǩǔdzơ Ŀ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ ƤƬǰǷ ǂ ȇƾǷ

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

6


Preface What does the world know of Gaza? It may know of the conflict andviolence, the heat and isolation. It may see Israeli jets screaming and stone throwing crowds. It may hear of the siege and the boat of celebrities- "Free Gaza" -which broke the blockade. But what does theworld really know about the place and the conditions in which Gazans live? W hat do people know about the effects of the long-standing conflict, in all its dimensions, on the mental health and well being of the population? Do they - or we - begin to understand what is really going on and what the long-term implications for the population and the region may be? What also do they know also of the positive side of the Gaza, of the strength of family and community, the hospitality and humour and the incredibleresilience ofthe people? Over the last several decades, Palestinian people have suffered from internal and external conflict and violence affecting their mental health and well being. The closure and effective siege of Gaza by the Israeli authorities over the past 16 months have haddevastating consequences on the social, politicaland economic environment in Gaza, adding to the risk of individuals' developing serious mentalhealth problems. The aim of this international conference is tofocus attention on theseand related issues and questions. Bybringing together local and international experts who have studied the effects on mental health of trauma and violence, in Gaza and other settings, it seeks to share what is known and identify what is unknown; to explore not only the effects of violence on mental health but the kind of mental health and psycho-social services w hich can make a difference. Wealso hope that the conference,, and the m any papers which are being presented at it, will act as a stimulus for further research and for the development of responsive mental health services which recognize the links between mental health, the closureand the wider determinants of health. WHO is supporting this conference as part of its widerwork with the Ministry of Health and other partners in the occupied Palestinian territory to develop m odern, community- based mental health services. The development and provision of appropriate and effective mental health and psycho-social services must continue to be given high priority. But even more important is to address the root causes, to recognize theconsequences of the conflict and to find a resolution The conference therefore seeks, over and above its scientific purpose, to draw the w orld's attention to the situation in Gaza and its im plications for all of us. The words and themes which recur through the abstracts m ay be bleak: siege, trauma, violence, loss, stress, anger, adversity, catastrophe. But w e hope that the message w hich shines through will be a positive one -about the importance of evidence and understanding and the possibility ofreconciliation and recovery. Mr. Tony Laurance H ead of W HO O ffice in West Bank and Gaza

7 S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


ǂǸºƫƚºŭơ DZȁƾºƳ  ǂƥ ȂƬǯƗ  śǼƯȏơ DZȁȋơ ǵȂȈdzơ ƨȈƷƢƬƬǧȏơ ƨ LjǴŪơ    ƤȈƷǂƫȁ ƵƢƬƬǧơ ƨǸǴǯ º ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥ džȈƟǁ ƱơǂLjdzơ ƽƢȇƛƽƨLjǴŪ ơ džȈƟǁ ƤȈƷǂƫȁ ƵƢƬƬǧơ ƨǸǴǯ  ƧDŽǣȁ ƨȈƥǂ Ǥdzơ ƨǨǔdzơ Ŀ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ ƤƬǰ Ƿ ǂȇƾǷ džǻơǁȂdzňȂǗ ƾȈLjdzơ

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 ƨȈǰȇǂǷ ȋơ ƧƾºƸƬŭ ơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ƨȈƳǁƢŬơ ƨǷ ƢǠdzơ ƩƢǫȐ Ǡdzơ džǴů Ŀ ǖLJȁȋơ ǩǂnjdzơ ǝȁǂ njŭ ǪƥƢLjdzơ ȅǀȈǨǼƬdzơ ǂȇƾŭơǹƢǸ ƴȈLJ ȅǂǼǿ ƾȈLjdzơ śƬdzȁƾdzơ Dz ū ƧŚƻȋơ ƨǏǂǨdzơ

ǁȂȀǛ Ƨƾȇƾºnjdzơ ƝǁơȂǘdzơ ƾǠºƥ ȁ ƔƢǼƯƗ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ȆºLj ǨǼdzơǶǟƾdzơȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ǦȈǼƳ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ ǹǂǷȁƗ ǹƢǧ ǭǁƢǷƽ

ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ƨȈǯ ȂǴLjdzơ ƩƢǠƦƬdzơ ȁ ƨȈLjǨ Ǽdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƺȇǁƢƬdzơ Őǟ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐƷ  ơƾǼǯƨȈƥǂƬdzơȁŇƽȋơ ǩǂnjdzơ ƨLjLJƚǷȅƽȂdzƗ Ȃǰȇǁƾǧ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ ƨƷơǂƬLJơ

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 ǂƥȂƬǯƗ śǼƯȏơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨ LjǴŪơ  ǁƢǐūơ ǞǷ ƨȈdzȁƽ ƩơŐƻ ńȁȋơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNj ǁȁ    ƨ ȈŭƢǠdzơƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ  ŗǰǼƳ ǹȂƳƽ ƨLjǴŪơ džȈƟǁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬū ƧƾȇƾƳ ƨǯǂƷ ƔƢǼƥ ȂǷƢǻƢƬǻ ơȂƳ ńƛ ƧDŽǣ ǺǷ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸ ǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƨ LjLJƚǷ dž ȈƟǁ ȅơǁȂǷ Ȇ LjǻƢǻƽ ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ Ŀ ǹȁǂǏ ƢŰ  ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƨǰǴǸŭơ  ƨǴǬƬLjǷ ƨƦƫƢǯśƬȇǂ ƥ ƢȇǁȂƬǰȈǧ ƧƾȈLjdzơ

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ƾǠºƥ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ Ǒ ơǂǟȋơ ƨ��dzƢǸ njdzơơƾǼdzǂȇơ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳ ȏơȁ ƨȈƸǐ dzơ ƨȇƢǟǂǴdz ƪ LJƢǨǴƥ DŽǯ ǂǷ  ƢƬƥȂƳ NJȈǻƢǷ DzƦǷƢǯ ƢnjȇǂƫƢƥ ǂƻƢǷȂNj Ʈ ȈƥơDŽȈdzơ ƪLJƢǨǴƥ ƣǂǣ ǺǷ ƩȏƢƷ ƨLJơǁƽ ǝơǂǐdzơ

ǶǷȋơ ȃƾdz ƨȈǟƢǸŪơ ƧƽƢƥȍơ ǶƟơǂƳ ĿǝȂǴǔdzƢƥ ǹȂǸȀƬŭơ ǃƢƴƬƷơ ƨƠȈƥȁ ǥȁǂǛ ƢȈǻơŗƫ ƨȈƟƢǼŪơ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ƨǸǰƄơ  ȂǯȂǰǻȁƗ ȅ ȂƥƢƬȈǯȁơ DzȈnjȈǷƽ ƢȈǻơŗƫ ơƾǻơȁǁ Ŀ ƣǂūơ ǶƟơǂƳ ƨǸ ǰŰǵƢǷƗ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ljƢǬǻ

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Ɣơǀǣ   ǂƥȂƬǯƗ śǼƯȏơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨ LjǴŪơ ƨȈLj ǨǼdzơƨƸǐ dzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ  ƨȈǻƢưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNj ǁȁ    ƨ ȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƽǂǧǁƢǿ ƨȈǴǯ ǂƫȂǴLJ DzȈƥƽ ƨLjǴŪơ džȈƟǁ ǞººǫơȂdz dž ǨǼdzơ ǶǴǟ ǁȂǜǼǷ ǺǷ ƨȇƾººǬǻ ƨººLJơǁƽǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ ǹȂȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ  ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾºƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ DŽ ȇȂǼȈdzơƨǠǷƢƳ B džǯȂǧ džȈǻƽƽ ƨdzơƾǠdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƧƢȈūơ ƧƽȂ Ƴȁ ǁƢǐūơ śºƥ ƨǫȐǠdzơ DZȂƷ ƨLJơǁƽ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz Ƨ DŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥȁ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈǷȐLJȍơ ƨǠǷ ƢŪơ ƣƢLjǯ ƧƾȇƢǟ ƧƾȈLjdzơȁƨƫȂǫ Śũƽ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ǥȁǂǜdzơȁ

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ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ Ƕǟƾdzơ ƲǷơǂƥDzƦǬƬLjŭơ ƔƢǼƦdz Ȇ ǓƢŭơ ƣǁƢš ǺǷ ƧƽƢǨƬLJ ȏơ ƨȈǰ ȇǂǷȋơƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ŅDŽȈdz ƨǠǷƢƳ ǹƢǸǧȁǁ ǁȂǻƢȈdzƛƽ ƣȁǂūơ ǪǗ ƢǼǷ Ŀ

DZƢǨǗȋơ ȃƾdz ƩơǂƫȂƬdzơȁ ƨȈǨǗƢǠdzơȁ ƨȈǯȂǴººLjdzơDzǯƢººnjŭơƨȈºLj ǨǼdzơƨºƸǐ dzơȁ ǁƢǐū ơ ƧDŽǣ Ȅǐ ºǫȋơƨǠǷƢƳ śǿ Ȃºƥ Ɨ Dzǔǧ ǁȂºLjȈǧȁǂƥ

ƧDŽǣ ƨƥǂš ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ ǶȀƟƢƥƕȁ śȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ ljƢǬǻ Ɣơǀǣ

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i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

8


  ǂƥȂƬǯƗśǼƯȏơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨLjǴŪơ ȅǂ ǰLjǠdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘ ƫ ƪŢ ƧǂLJ ȋơȁ DZƢǨǗȋơȁ ƔƢLjǼdzơ  ƨưdzƢưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNj ǁȁ    ơƾǼdzȂǿ  ƪƻǂƫȁƗ ƨǠǷƢƳ  ǃǂƬdzȁ ʼnȁ ƽ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ DZƢ ǨǗȌdz ǝƢǸ ƬLJȏơ ƨȈǰ ȇǂǷȋơƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ǭǁȂȇȂȈǻ ƨǠǷƢƳ ƪLJ Śǧ ƢLjȈdzƛ ǁȂLjǧȁǂƥ ǶȈǴǠƬdzơ Ŀ Ǫūơ ƩƢǬȈǠǷȁ ǁƢǐ ūơ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơȁ ƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơȁ ƨǧƢǬưdzơ ƨȇ ƽȂǠLjdzơ  ƨȈdzȁƾdzơƨȈǰ ȇǂǷȋơ ƨLJǁƾŭơ ǺšƢƫ ǮȇǁƾǼǿ ƽ DzǷƢǠǯ ƨ ȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƥȐǐdzơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢǷƾ ǐdzơ ƧDŽǣ  ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥ  ȆLjȈƟǁ ƮƷƢ ƥ ƪƥƢƯ DŽȇDŽǠ dzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ƧDŽǣǝƢǘ ǫ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZ ƢǨǗȋơȃƾdz ǖȈLJȁ DZƢǨǗȋơ ȃƾdz ȆǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơȁ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ȃƾǷ ƧDŽǣ  ǶǐǴdz ƢǼdzƢǨǗƗ ƨȈǠŦ  ǃơǂǯ Ǻŧǂdzơ ƾ ºƦǟ ǶºLJƢƥ Ɨ ƨƳƢºƦǯ ȅƽƢŮơ ƾºƦǟ ǶȈǠǻ Ɨ ǁƢǐūơDzǛ Ƕǐdzơ ljƢǬǻ Ɣơǀǣ

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 ǂƥȂƬǯƗśǼƯȏơ ƨȈƟƢLjŭơ ƨLjǴŪơ ňƾŭơ Ǟ ǸƬĐơȁƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơȁ ƨǧƢǬưdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ń ȁȋơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ    ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨ ƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥ  ƪ ƥƢƯ DŽȇDŽǠdzơ ƾ Ʀǟ ƽ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ȄǴǟƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǫǁƢǐ ºƷ ǁƢƯƕ ƧDŽ ǣ  ǁƢǐūơ ǮǨdz ƨȈºƦǠnjdzơ ƨǴǸūơ ǪºLjǼǷ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȆǠȇǂnjƬdzơ džǴĐơ Ŀ Ȃǔǟ ȅǂǔ Ŭơ ȆƳƢǻ DZƢŦ ǵ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƨƴǘǴƦdzơ ǭȂǴLjdz ȏ ƢưǷ śǘLj Ǵǧ Ŀ ǦǼǠ dzơ DzȈǴŢƢȈǻƢƦLJơ  ǾȈǴȈƦNjƛ ƨǠǷƢƳ ơŚdz ǾȇǃȂƻ ƢȇǁƢǷ ƽ ǶȀƬȈƥ ǂƫȁ DZƢǨǗȋ ơ ǶȈǴǠƫ ȄǴǟ ǽǂƯƗȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝ Ƣǘǫ ȄǴǟ Ǒ ȁǂǨŭơ ǁƢǐūơ  ƧDŽǣ  ƨƷȂƬǨŭơ Dž ƾǬdzơƨǠǷ ƢƳ  ƣƢȇƽ DzȈȀLJ ƽ ǁƢǐ ūơ ƨǷǃƗ ƨȀƳơȂŭ ƨȈƷȁǂdzơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ  ƧDŽǣ ƨȈǷȐLJȍơ ƨǠǷƢŪơ  ǎ ǸŮơ řǤdzơ ƾƦǟ ƵƢƬǨ dzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ljƢǬǻ

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 ǂƥȂƬǯƗśǼƯȏơ ƨȈƟƢLjŭơ ƨLjǴŪơ ǹƢLj ǻȍơ ǩȂǬƷȁ Ņȁƾdzơ ǹ ȂǻƢǬdzơ ǁȂǜ ǼǷ ǺǷ ǁƢǐ ūơ  ƨȈǻƢ ưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ    ƧDŽǣ  ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩ ȂǬū řȈǘ LjǴǨdzơDŽǯǂŭơ  ňơǁȂǐ dzơ ȆƳơǁ ƾ ȈLjdzơ ƨLjǴŪơ džȈƟǁ Ŀ ƧǂǏ ƢǼŭơȁ ƧƾººƸ Ƭŭơ ǶǷȋơ Ƣ ǸƟơƽ ǺǰŲ ǹƢººLjǻȍơ ǩȂ ººǬƷ Ǻǟ ǝƢǧƾdzơ ǹơǂȇƛ  ǹơǂȀǗĿ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨº ºƸǐdzơ ƨǸ ǜǼǷ DzưŲ Ŗ ǼȈǻƢǷ ȂȈƳ ȁŐǷƗ ƽ ƨǴƬƄơ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǪǗƢǼŭơ

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ƨȇȂŮơȁ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐ ơ ǮȈǰǨƫ ǁƢǐūơǥơƾǿƗ ƨȈǰȇǂǷ ȋơ ƧƾººƸƬŭ ơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ƨǘȈººLJȁƗ ǩǂººnjdzơ ƩƢºLJơǁƾdzơ Ʋ ǷƢǻǂºƥ ǺȇƢƬºnjǼȇȂdz ƱǂǨȈǼƳ ƽ ƨȈǼǗȂdzơ

ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ƨȈdzȁƚºLjŭơ ǁȂǘƬƫȁƧƘnjǻ DzȈƟơǂLJȍ ƨȈǻƾŭơȁ ƨȈǻȂǻƢǬdzơ ƨȈdzȁƚLjŭơśƥ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐƷ ƧDŽǣ  DzǬƬLj Ƿ ƮƷƢƥ  ǾǗ ȂƥƗƾŧ ȅǃȂǧƔȐǟ ƾȈLjdzơ

Ņȁƾdzơ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơ Ŀ ƨȈƟƢǼŪơȁ ƨȈǻƾŭơ ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƾȇȂLjdzơ  ƨǴǬƬLjǷ ƨưƷƢƥ ƩȂdzǁƢnjƫ ǹƕ ƽ ljƢǬǻ

9 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges

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 ǂƥȂƬǯƗśǼƯȏơ ƨȈƟƢLjŭơ ƨLjǴŪơ DZȐƬƷȏơ ǹȂƴLJ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ȃǂLJȋơ  ƨưdzƢ ưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ    ƧDŽǣ ǹȁƢǠƬdzơȁ ƨȈǸǼƬǴdz ƨȇǂLjȇȂLjdzơ ƨdzƢǯȂdzơ  ƧǁȂǬNj ǹǃƢǷ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ƢǸȈººLJȏ ǶȀȇȁƿȁ śȈǼȈǘººLjǴǨdzơ śǴºǬƬǠŭơ ȄǴǟ DŽƳ ơȂūơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ƩơŚƯƘƫ  ƧDŽǣ  ǺȇǁǂƄơȁ ȃǂºLJȋơ Ƨǁơǃȁ  ƨǻơȁǂǧ ňȂǟ ǂǏƢǼdzơ ƾºƦǟ ƾȈºLjdzơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ ȆǴǬƬǠǷ džǨǼdzơ ȄǴǟ ƧǂǘȈºLjdzơȁ ƨȇƢǟǂǴdzřȇƽ ǥǂǠǯ ǹƕǂºǬdzơ ƧƔơǂºǫ  ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ǺǷ ƾǠƥƗȂǿ ƢǷ ńƛ ǭǁƢŶƾdzơ  ǺƳƢȀǼƥȂǯ ƨǠǷƢƳ Ȇnjƫ Ȃƥ ƩȂdz ƧƾȈLjdzơ ƔơƾȀnjdzơȁ śȈLJƢȈLjdzơ ƔƢǼƴLjdzơ ȅȁƿ ǺǷ ƨȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ ƩȐƟƢǠdzơ śƥ

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ƨȈǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ǹȂƴLjdzơ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ śǴǬƬǠŭơ ǝƢǓȁƗ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘƫ  ƧDŽǣ  ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬū ƨǴǬƬLjŭơ ƨƠȈŮơ  ǹƢƷǂLJ DzȈŦ ȆǷƢƄơ ǁƢǐūƢƥƧǂƯƘƬǷ DzǬ ƬǠǷ ǺǷ ƨdzƢƷ Ǒǂǟ

ljƢǬǻ

 ǂƥȂƬǯƗ  ƔƢƯȐưdzơ ňƢưdzơ ǵȂȈdzơ ƨȈǻƢưdzơ ƨȈƷƢƬƬǧȏơ    ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzƢƥ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐ Ǵdz ƧDŽǣ ƨLjLJƚǷ džȈƟǁ  ȅơǁȂǷ ȆLjǻƢǻ ƽ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ 

ǶȀƬǷȐººLJ ȄǴǟ ǙƢǨūơ ǶȀƬǟƢǘƬººLJƢƥ ǦȈǯȁ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈººLjǨǼdzơ ƨººƸǐdzơ ȂȈǼȀǷ DzǸǟ ơƾǼdzȂǿ ƪƻǂƫȁơƨǠǷƢƳ  ǃǂƬdzȁ ʼnȁ ǁȂººLjȈǧȁǂƥ

ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǬdz DzȈƟơǂLJƛǁƢǐƷ DZȂƷ ƨȈǴȈǴŢ ƨȈLjǨǻ ƨȇƙǁ  ơƾǼǯ  ȆLjǨǼdzơ DzȈǴƸƬǴdz ȂƬǻǁȂƫ ƾȀǠǷ  NJƬȇȁƽ ƮȇƽȂƳ ƧƾȈLjdzơ ƩȐǔǠŭơȁ ƩơǁƢȈŬơ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐū ƨȈǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ƨȇƙǂdzơ  ƤȈƥƗ Dzƫ ƨǠǷƢƳ  ǁơƾǿ ȅǁȁƗ ǁȂLjǧȁǂƥ Ņȁƾdzơ ǩƢȈLjdzơ Ŀ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈǔǬdzơ ȄǴǟ ǽǂƯƗȁ ƧDŽǣ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ  ǂƬLjǯơ ƨǠǷƢƳ  ȆǷǂǯ ƧƽƢǣ ƽ ljƢǬǻ ƨƷơǂƬLJơ

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 ǂƥȂƬǯơ  ƔƢƯȐưdzơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨLjǴŪơ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơȁ ƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơȁ ƨǧƢǬưdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ  ńȁȋơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ  ǭǁƢŶƾdzơ  ǺƳƢȀǼƥȂǯ ƨǠǷƢƳ Ȇnjƫ Ȃƥ ƩȂdz ƧƾȈLjdzơ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ǁƢǐūơ Dz ǛĿ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ DzƦǬƬLjǷ  ƧDŽǣ  ǂǿǃȋơ ƨǠǷƢƳ  ƨǴƴǠdzơ ƵȐǏ ǹǃƢǷ ƾȈLjdzơ ƨǴƬƄơśǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƽȂǸǐdzơȁ ǺǷƢǔƬdzơȁ ȆǠǸƬĐơ ǺǨdzơ  ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ȂǰLjȈLjǻơǂǧ ǹƢLjƥ řǨdzơ ƾȀǠŭơ  ǺȇǂƳ ǹơǃȂLJ ƽ ƧDŽǣ ƩƢǜǧƢŰ Ŀ ĿƢǬưdzơ ǞǓȂ dzơ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯƗ  ƧDŽǣ  DzǨǘǴdz ǹƢǘǬdzơ DŽǯǂǷ  ƅơ ǂǐǻ ǩǃǁ ƽƢǸǟ ƾȈLjdzơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƲȈLjǻ ƧƾƷȁȄǴǟ ǙƢǨūơ Ŀ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜǼǷ ǁȁƽ  ƧDŽǣ  ȆǟơǁDŽdzơ ǂȇȂǘƬǴdz ĺǂǠdzơ DŽǯǂŭ ơ ǹƢǔǷǁ ȂƥƗ ǺLjŰ ƾȈLjdzơ ljƢǬǻ Ɣơǀǣ

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i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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 ǂƥȂƬǯơ  ƔƢƯȐưdzơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨLjǴŪơ ƨ ǷƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ  ƨȈǻƢưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ  ơƾǼǯ  ƨȈƥǂƬdzơȁ ƨȈǧƢǬưǴdz Ňƽȋơ ǩǂnjdzơ ƨLjLJƚ Ƿ ȅƽȂdzƗ Ȃ ǰȇǁƾǧ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ȆǴƻơƾdzơ ǵƢLjǬǻȏơȁ ǁƘưdzơȁǁƢǐūơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ ƨƸǐdzơ  ƧDŽǣ  ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƨƯƢǣȍơ  ǁȂNjƢǟ ȅƾů ƽ ƨºƸǐdzơDŽǯơǂǷ Ŀ ƨȈǟȐǘƬLJơƨLJơǁƽ  ƧDŽǣ  ƨȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ Ƨǁơǃȁ ȆLjǨǼdzơ Ƥǘdzơ ȄǨnjƬLjǷ  DzȈƸǯ ƽƢǸǟ ƾȈLjdzơȁ ǁȂũ NJȇƢǟ ƽ ƨǷƾ Ǭŭơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƩƢǷƾƻ ȄǴ ǟǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘƫ DZȂƷ ƨƸǐdzơ ƧǁơǃȂƥ ƨȈǠǸƬĐơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ǞǓȂdzơ ƧDŽǣ  ǒȇǂǸƬdzơ ƨȈǴǯ ǝȁǂºnjǷȁ ś ǘºLjǴǧ  ƨǷȂǷȋơȁ ƨdzȂǨǘǴdz ǹƢǼūơ ƨȈǠŦ  ƽơȂŪơ ƾºƦǟƧDŽŧ ƾȈºLjdzơȁ ƾȈŧ ǶºLJƢƳ ƾȈLjdzơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ ƨLjǷƢŬơ ǺLJ ǹȁƽ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȌdz ȆƟơǀǤdzơ ƨȈƸǐdzơȁ ƨȈƠȈƦdzơǽǁƢƯƕȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ ȄǴǟ ňȂȈȀǐdzơ ǁƢǐūơ  ƧDŽǣ  ƨȈǷȐLJȍơ ƨǠǷƢŪơ Ǿƥǁ ƾƦǟ ȆǸǜǻ ƵƢƬǨdzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ljƢǬǻ Ɣơǀǣ

     

 ǂƥȂƬǯƗ  ƔƢƯȐưdzơ ƨȈƷƢƦǐdzơ ƨLjǴŪơ ǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘƫ ƪŢ ƧǂLJȋơȁ DZƢǨǗȋơȁ ƔƢLjǼdzơ  ƨưdzƢưdzơ DzǸǠdzơ ƨNjǁȁ   ǹƾǼdz  ƾǴ Ȉǧ ǂũ Ǯȇǂȇƽ ƽ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ś ǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ DZȐǜdzơ ƣƢǠȈƬLJơ ƨƯǁƢǰdzơ ǵȏƕ  ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ  ƨȈƦǘdzơƽǁƢǧǁƢǿ ƨLJǁƾǷ  ǂƫȂǴLJ DzȈƥ ƽ ƨƦǗǂǫ ƨLJǁƾǷ ƩƢƦdzƢǗ ńƛ ǝƢǸƬLJȏơ ƅơ ǵơǁ  ƪȇǃŚƥ ƨǠǷƢƳ  ƨǻȂǨǟ ƧƾƟƢLJ ƽ ƨdzƢººƷ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǦǼǠǴdz DZƢǨǗȋơ ǑǂǠƫȄǴǟ ƨºƦƫǂ Ƭŭơ ǁƢƯȉơ ƨº LJơǁƽ Ŀ ƩƢȇƾŢȁ ƢȇƢǔºǫ  DžƾºǬdzơ  ƨȇŐǠdzơ ƨǠǷƢŪơ  ŜŹ ƱƢūơ ƾǸŰ ƽ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƨǼǷDŽŭơ ƩƢǷƾǐǴdz ǑǂǠƬdzơ ƔơǃƛDzǠǨdzơƽȁƽǁǥȐƬƻȏ ƨǴǸƬƄơ ƣƢƦLJȋơ  ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƨǰǴǸŭơ ŚNj ƽǁȂǧƩŚǿ ƨǠǷƢƳ DzȇȂǘdzơ ƾǸŰ ƽ Dz Ȉǻ ǂƬȈƥ ƽ ljƢǬǻ Ɣơǀǣ  ǂƥȂƬǯƗ  ƔƢƯȐưdzơ ƨȈǷƢƬŬơ ƨLjǴŪơ

  

  

   ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ ƲǷƢǻǂƥ  ƨǼȈƷơȂǗ Ȃƥơ ƾŧƗ ƽ ƨLjǴ Ūơ džȈƟǁ ƨȈǿơǂǰdzơ ƧǂǏƢŰ ǹơȂǼǠƥ DzǸǟ ƨǫǁȁ ƨǼȈƷơȂǗ ȂƥƗ ƾŧƗ ƽ ǺǗơȂǸǯȁ ƤȈƦǘǯ ƤȈƦǘdzơ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƩƢȈǫȐƻȋơ  ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƨǰǴǸŭơ  ƾǴȈǧǂũ Ǯȇǂȇƽ ƽ

  

ȆǨƸǏ ǂŤƚǷ    ǂŤƚǸǴdz ȆǷƢƬŬơ ǹƢȈƦdzơ ƧƔơǂǫȁ ȆǨƸ Ǐ ǂŤƚǷ

11S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Schedule Conference

First Pan el: Monday 27 October, 2008 9:00 - 11:30 Chairp erson :Dr. Eyad El-Sarraj - President of G aza Comm unity Mental Health Programme - Gaza .  Dr. Ey ad El-Sarraj - Pres ident of G aza Comm unity Me ntal Health Programme and Head of th e Palestinian International  Campa ign to End the Siege. (Welcom ing Remarks). Mr.Ton y Laurence - Head of World H ealth Organization o ffice in the West Bank and Gaza. (Welcoming Rem arks).  Mr. He nry Siegm an - Form er President of the U .S. Middle East Project (USM EP) and Research Professor at SOAS - L ondon.  TheTw o-State Solution's L ast Chance Dr. Mark Van Om meren - World Hea lth Organization - G eneva. M ental Health and Psychosocia l Support During and After  Acute E mergencies: Emerging Consensus Prof. F ederico Al lodi -Near East Cultural and Educational Foundation - Canada. The Sie ge of Gaz a in Histo ry: Mental Health  andBehavioral Im plications. Break.  Morning Session , Monday 27Ocober,2008 11:30 - 1:30 Work shop1 "In ternationa l Experien ces of Siege" Chairp erson :Mr. John Jenkins - Worl d Health O rganizatio n.  Dr.Nan cy Murray - President, Gaza M ental Hea lth Found ation - USA. From G aza to Guant?namo: Building a New Mo vement  for Hum an Rights. Ms. Vic toria Brittain -Independent Wr iter - UK. Besieged in Britain.  Ms. Elizabeth Sc humacher, Department of Psy chiatry, M ater Hospital, Msr. Patricia Campbell, Communi ty Mental Health  Team, Ms. Mane esh Gupta, Community Mental Health Team - Ireland, Unite d Nations Detention Environm ent and A ccused for Gen ocide at the International Criminal Tribu nal forRwanda (ICT R) in Arusha, Tanzania Discus sion  Morning Session , Monday 27Ocober,2008 11:30 - 1:30 Work shop2 "Siege andM ental Health" Chairp erson :Dr. Bill Slaughter - Harv ard Medical School - USA  Dr. Den nis Fox -University of Illinoi s at Spring field - USA. Palestinians Under Siege: A Critical Psycholog y Perspec tive on  Mental Healthand Justice. Dr.Sam ir Qouta and Ms. Ai da Kassab - The Islamic University and Gaza Comm unity Mental Health Program me - Gaza . Study  on the R elationship Betwee n the Siege, Quality of Lifeand Psychological Conditions in Gaza Dr.Ele anor Roffman - Lesley University - USA - Learning from the Past to Bu ild for the Future: Reflection s on Psych osocial  Support Programs in War Torn Countries Prof. F adel Abu Hein -Al-A qsa University and Communi ty Training Center an d Crisis M anagement - Gaza Discussion. Siege  and Mental Health, Siege Stress, Emo tional and Behavior al Problems of Pal estinian C hildren an d their Parents Livin g under Siege: "Gaza Exp erience" Discus sion 

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Morning Session , Monday 27Ocober,2008 11:30 - 1:30 Work shop3 "Women , Children and Familyunder Siege" Chairp erson :Dr. Wilhelmus Wolters - Prof.State University Utrecht The Netherlands  Prof. E lsa First - New York University - USA. L istening to Children Under Sie ge  Dr.Hen drik Taatg en and M s. Marga K apka - The America n Internat ional School - Saudi Arabia Cu lture, Dem ocracy an d Civil  Society: Siege an d the Obstruction to the Right of Education Dr. Ab del Aziz T habet - Senior Researcher, Gaza Com munity M ental Hea lth Programme - Gaza Traum a, PTSD, Mental  Health and Resilience asa M ediating Factor for Palestinian Children in theGaz a Strip Mr. Naim Kabag a and Ba ssem Kor az- Atfalu na Society For Deaf Children - Gaza - P sycholog ical and S ocial Adjustment  among Deaf Children under Siege Discus sion  Lunch Break  Afterno on Session, Monda y 27Ocober,2008 3:00 - 5:00 Workshop1 "Siege, Culture, Democr acy, and C ivil Society" Chairp erson :Dr. AbdelAziz Thabet - Gaza Com munity M ental Hea lth Program me - Gaz a  Mr.Jam al El-Khodary, PLC Member and Head of the Pale stinian Popular Com mitteeto End the. Im pacts of the Gaza S iege on  Develo pment Dr.Ma ria-Jose Le ra - University of Seville -Spa in Analysis of Viole nce in Palestine as an Example of Bullyin g Behavior.  Dr.Suhail Diab - A l-Quds O pen Unive rsity -Ga za Impact of the Gaza Siege on Children's Education and Deve lopment  Dr.Abd El-Fattah Al-Hamss - The Islamic University -Mental and Sp iritual Mechanisms in Confronting Siege Crisis in Gaza  Discus sion  Afterno on Session, Monda y 27Ocober,2008 3:00 - 5:00 Workshop2 "Siege in International Law and Hu man Rights" Chairp erson: Mr. Raji Soura ny - Pales tine Center for Hum an Rights - Gaza  Dr. Am brogio M anenti, - WHO Rep resentative in Teh ran - Iran Promotin g Human Rights is Always F easible, U N and  Advoc acy in the OPT Dr.Jennifer G. Lo ewenstein - Middle East Studies Program Univers ity of Wisc onsin - USA Targets of the Sie ge: Eroding Civil  Society and National Identi ty Mr. Ala a Fawzi Hamad Abu Taha - Independe nt Researcher - Gaza Th e Siege of Gaza: Between the Legal an d Civil  Responsibility of Israel Dr.Ann Charlotte Nilsson - Independe nt Researcher - Swe denChildr en under Siege  Discus sion 

13S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Afterno on Session, Monda y 27Ocober,2008 3:00 - 5:00 Workshop3 "Palestinian P risoners in Israeli Jails" Chairp erson: Mr. MazenShagoura- S wiss Agency for Dev elopment Cooperation - Gaza  Mr. Ab del Nasser Awni Ferwana - P alestinian Ministry of Prisone rs and Ex-Detainees- Palestin e The Impact of Sie ge and  Blocka de on Palestinian De tainees and their Fam ilies,in p articular, the Gaza Detainees Ms. Lo tte Buch Institute of Anthro pology, University of Copenh agen - D enmark Beyond Care: Reading the Qu r'an as  Religio us Practices of Care and (self-) Control in Palestinian Familie s of Political Prisoners and Martyrs Mr.Jameel Sarha n Palestinian Indepe ndentCom mission for Citizen Rights The Palestin ian Prisone rs in the I sraeli Jails From a  Legal P erspective A Priso ner's story  Discus sion  S econd Panel: Tuesday 28 Oc tober, 200 8 9:00 - 11:15 Chairp erson: Dr. NancyMurray - The Gaza Men tal Health Foundation - USA  Prof. W ilhelmus Wolters - State Univ ersity Utr echt - The Netherlan ds Mental health workers in G aza, How can they do their  job? Ho w can the y survive m entally? Mrs. Ju dith Deutsch - Toronto Psychoanalytic Institute and President of Scie nce for Pe ace - Canada Psycho analytic Insights  about Israel and the Gaza Siege Prof. U ri Hadar- Tel Aviv University - Israel An Israeli Perspective on the Siege : Options and Dilem mas  Dr. Gh ada Karm i - Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies , University of Exeter - UK T he Impact of the G aza Siege on the  Palesti ne Issue in the InternationalContext Coffee Break  Morning Session Tuesday 2 8 Octobe r, 2008 11:30 - 1:30 Workshop 1"S iege, Culture, Demo cracy,and Civil Society" Chairp erson: Ms. Lotte Buch - Univer sity ofCopenhagen - Denmark  Mr.Mazen Salah El Ejla - Al-Azhar U niversity - Gaza The Future of Developm ent under Siege  Dr.Susan Greene - San Fran cisco Art Institute - U SA Public Art, Solidarity and Resilience in Occup ied Palestine  Mr.Em ad Nasral lah - Qattan Center fo r Childen - GazaCultural Situ ation Unde r Siege in the Gaza S trip  Mr.Mohsen Abu Ramadan - Arab Cen ter forAgricultural D evelopment - Gaza The Role of Civil Society in the Mainten ance of  Comm unity Cohe sion Discus sion 

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Morning Session Tuesday2 8 October, 2008 11:30 - 1:30 Workshop 2" S iege and Public Hea lth" Chairp erson: Dr. Federico A llodi  Dr. Ma jdi Ashour - Palestin ian Medical Relief S ociety- G aza. Health in theGaza Strip under Siege, Fire and Internal Division  Dr.Ayesh Sammour andDr. EmadKuhail - Ministry of He alth - Gaz a Impact of Siegeon Mental Health Servi ces in Gaz a Strip  Mr. Jasem Humeid , Mr. H amza Abd eljawad- Maternal a nd Child Health an d Nutritio n (MCHN ) Palestine and College of  Nursin g Project - GazaNutr itionalStatus of Und er-Five Pa lestinian C hildren in the Gaza Strip Dr.Ab del Fattah Nazmi Abd Rabbo -The Islam ic University - Gaz a Environm ental and Health C onsequences of the Zionist  Siege o n Gaza Discus sion  Lunch Break  Morning Session Tuesday 2 8 Octobe r, 2008 11:30 - 1:30 Wor kshop3 "Women, C hildren an d Family under Siege" Chairp erson: Dr. DereckSummerfield - South London and Maudsley - UK  Dr.Bill Slaughter MD, Harv ard Medical School - USAGrieving the Catastrophe: Comin g to Terms with the American Shadow  in Pales tine Dr.Saida Jaser Affouneh Birzeit University,Ram allah- Pa lestineThe Impact o f the Siege on Palest inian Girl s: Listenin g to the  Girls of Qurtoba School Dr. Mu hammad M. Haj-Yahia- The Hebrew U niversity - Jerusalem Issues and Chall enges in Studying th e Mental Health  Consequences of Children's Exposure to Political Violence: TheCase of Palestinian Children Dr. Mohamed Altawil and Pieter Nel, Univers ity of Hertfordshire, Hatfield - UK- Presented by Membe r from Palestine  Trauma Center - G aza What are the Po ssible Reasons for D ifferent R e-actions t o Chronic Trauma? Discus sion  Lunch Break  Closing Panel Tu esday28 October, 2008 3:00 - 4:00 "Conc luding Re marks" Chairp erson: Dr. AhmadAb u Tawahin a - Gaza C ommunity Mental H ealth Prog ramme D irector Ge neral - Gaza  Dr.Ahm ad Abu Twahena "B esieging H atred”   Dr.Dereck Summ erfield - S outh Lon don and M audsley - UK Medic al Ethics i n Conflict Zones :Th e Doctor as Doctor and the Doctor as Citizen.

Press Co nference 4:00 - 5:00  Press C onference

15S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


mgĬ·?  

ǁƢǐūơ Ś ƯƘƫ ƪŢ ƧǂLJȋơȁ DZƢ ǨǗȋơȁ ƔƢ LjǼdzơ



ƢǰƥƢǯ ƢƳǁƢǷȁ ǺšƢƫ ǭǁƾǼǿ ƽ ƪƥƢƯ DŽȇDŽǠdzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ǃơǂǯ Ǻŧ ǂdzơ ƾƦǟ ǶLJƢƥ ƨƳƢƦǯ ȅƽƢŮơ ƾƦǟ ǶȈǠǻ

 

ƪLJŚǧ ơDŽǴȇƛƽ

ǂƫȂǴLJ DzȈƥ ƽ

     

ȆǬȇĈƾ Ǐ ƨȇƽƢǻ ȁ ǂǴƬǻƢnjƫ ƨŸƾƻ ȁ ǹƢǷǁȂƥ Ƣǰȇǂȇƛ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơȁ ƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơȁ ƨ ǧƢǬưdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ

 

ȃǂǔŬơ ȄƳƢǻ DZƢŦ ơŚdz ǾȇǃȂƻ ƢȇǁƢǷ ƽ

   

ƣƢȇƽ ǩǃǁ DzȈȀLJƽ ǎǸ Ůơ řǤdzơ ƾƦǟ ƵƢƬǨdzơ ƾƦǟƽ ƨǴ ƴǠdzơ ƵȐǏ ǹǃƢǷ

ƨǻȂǨǟ ƧƾƟƢLJ ƽ ŜŹ ƱƢūơ ƾǸŰ ƽ DzȈǻ ǂƬȈƥ ƽȁ DzȇȂǘdzơ ƾǸŰ ƽ

 

ǺȇǂƳ ǹơǃȂLJ ƽ ƅơ ǂǐ ǻ ƽƢǸǟ ǹƢǔǷǁ Ȃƥơ ǺLjŰ

 

DZȐƬƷȏ ơ ǹȂƴLJ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ ȃǂLJȋơ

  

ƪȈǯơƽ DZȂƥ ƽ ƨǻơȁǂǧ ňȂǟ ǂǏƢǼdzơ ƾƦǟ NJƫȂƥ ƩȂdz ǹƢƷǂLJ DzȈŦ

                                

ƨȈǷ ƢƬŬơȁ ƨȈƷƢƬƬǧȏơ ƩƢLjǴŪơ ǹƢǸǤȈLJ ȅǂǼǿ ƾȈLjdzơ ǹǂǷȁƗ ǹƢǧ ǭǁƢǷ ƽ ȅƽȂdzƗ Ȃǰ ȇ ǁƾȈǧƽ ǃǂ Ƭdzȁ DŽǸȈǴȇȁ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ NJƬȇȁƽ ƮȇƽȂƳ ǁơƾǿ ȅǁȁƗ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ ȆǷǂǯ ƧƽƢǣ ƽ ƨ ǼȈƷơȂǗ ȂƥƗ ƾŧƗ ƽ ƾǴȈǧ ǂũ Ǯȇǂȇƽ ƽ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁǁƢǐūơ džǯȂǧ džȈǻƽ ƽ ƣƢLjǯ ƧƾȇƢǟȁ ƨƫȂǫ Śũ ƽ ǹƢǸǧȁǁ ǁȂǻƢȈdzƛ ƽ śǿ ȂƥƗ Dzǔǧ ƽơ ǂnj ƫƢǷȂǰLJ ƪȈƥơDŽȈdzơ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬƷȁ Ņȁƾdzơ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơ ǁȂǜǼǷ ǺǷ ǁƢǐūơ ŖǼȈǻƢǷ ȂȈƳȁŐǷƗ ǺȇƢƬnjǼȇȂdz Ʊ ǂǨȈǼƳ ǾǗ ȂƥƗ ȅ ǃȂǧ ƔȐǟ ƩȂdzǁƢnjƫ ǹƕ ǁƢǐū ơ ǞǷ ƨȈdzȁƽ ƩơŐƻ ȅơǁȂǷ ȆLjǻƢǻ ƽ śƬȇǂƥ ƢȇǁȂƬǰȈǧ ƢƬƥȂƳ NJȈǻƢǷ DzƦǷƢǯ ƢLjȇǂƫƢƥ ǂnjƫƢǷȂǰLJ ƪȈƥơDŽȈdzơ ȂǯȂǯȂǻȁ Ɨ ȅȂƥƢƬȈǯȁƗ DzǰȇƢǷ ƽ ȅǂǴȈǤǻƛ ƣ ȁ ƢǧȁƽǁȂǯ ȅƽ ǥ ȆǣǁȂǷ ǥ ȂƬȇƽǂǧȁǁ ǁ ƢŹǁ ƅơ ƾLJƗ ƽ ǺȇȐǯ ȆǷȂǠǻ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ǁȂNjƢǟ ȅƾů ƽ DzȈƸǯ ƽƢǸǟȁ ǁȂũ NJȇƢǟ ƽ ƽơȂŪơ ƾƦǟ ƧDŽŧ ȁ ƾȈŧ ǶLJƢƳ Ǿƥǁ ƾƦǟ ȆǸǜǻ ƵƢƬǨ dzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ

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TABLE OF CONTENT

First Pa nel Mr. Henry Siegman Dr. Mark Van Ommeren Prof.Federico Allodi Second Panel Prof.Wilhelm us Wolters Mrs.Judith Deutsch Pr of. Uri Hadar Dr. Ghada Karmi Closing Panel "C oncluding Remark s" Dr. Ahmad A buTwahena Dr. Dereck S ummerfield Siege andMental Health Dr. Dennis Fox Dr. Samir Qo uta and M s.Aida Kassab Dr. Eleanor Roffman Pr of. Fadel A bu Hein El izabeth Schumachera Siege in International Law and Huma nRights Dr. Ambrogio Manenti Dr. Jennifer G. Loewen stein M r. Alaa Faw zi Hamad Abu Taha Dr. Ann Charlotte Nilss on International Experiences o fSiege Dr. Nancy M urray Ms. Victoria Brittain Ms. Elizabeth Schuma cher, Ms. Patricia Campbell, M s. Manee sh Gupta Dr. Michel O kitapoy O n'okoko Dr. Assaddullah Reha Naomi Klein Siege andPublic H ealth Dr. Majdi As hour Dr. Ayesh Sammour and Mr. Ema d Kuhail Mr. Jasem Humeid and Mr. Hamz a Abdeljaw ad Dr. Abdel Fattah Nazm i Abd Rabou Women , Children and Fam ily under S iege Prof. Elsa First Dr. Hendrik Taatgen and Ms. MargaKapka Dr. Abdel AzizThabet M r. Naim Ka baga and Mr. Basse mKoraz Dr. Bill Slaughter

17S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 60 61

D r.Saida Jas er Affoun eh D r.Muhammad M. Ha j-Yahia D r.MohamedAltawil and Dr.Pi eter Nel Erica Burma n, Khatidja Chantle r and Nad ia Siddiqui Siege, Culture, Democracy,and Civil Society M r.Jamal E l-Khodary, D r.Maria-Jose Lera D r.Suhail D iab D r.Abd El-F attah Al-H ams M r.Mazen S alah El Ejla D r.Susan G reene M r.Emad N asrallah M r.Mohsen Abu Ram adan D r Paul S. Duckett Palestinian Priso ners in Is raeli Jails M r.Abdel N asser Awn i Ferwana M s. Lotte Buch M r.Jameel S arhan

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The Two-State Solution's Last Chance

śƬdzȁƾdzơ Dzū ƧŚƻȋơ ƨǏǂǨdzơ ǹƢǸǤȈLJ ȅǂǼǿ ƾȈLjdzơ

Mr. Henry Siegman*

The next occupan t of the O val Offic e will be t he last American preside nt to have the possi bility of saving a tw o-state solution to theIsrael-Palestine conflic t. If he do es not pursue and achieve this goal during the first year of his presidency, th e two-stat e "horizon" that Pres ident Geo rge W. Bush p ursued so ineffectively is likely to disappear for good. Howev er, even a quick an d intense engagem ent by the new preside nt will fare no better than prev ious U.S. peace initia tives all of w hich hav e gotten nowhere - if he a nd his advisors approach the task believing that som e more "p eace proce ssing" and "co nfidence-building m easures" will achie ve the go al that eluded his predecessors. Th e Israel-Palestine conflict has defied U.S. "facilitation" over these many years not because of procedural shortcomings, nor because of a pauc ity of idea s. The terms of a workable agreement - f ormulated in the Clinton Parameters of 2001 and elaborated in the Taba discussio ns that followed - are well-known, and enj oy near-un iversal su pport. What h as been m issing is t he political will to ta ke the measures necessary to get th e parties to accept th ese param eters - a p olitical and moral failure that has doomed all previous effort s. This failure has not been the res ult of ignorance but of coward ice - a willful disregard by much of the in ternationa l community of certain unchangi ng fundam entals th at underlie this co nflict. Peace in itiatives t hat seek an agreement on the c heap, and seek to avoid th e pricede manded by these fun damentals cannot succeed. A U.S. initiative that goes beyond the failed "facilitation" of previous administrations to vigorous and determ ined diplomacy can still end this conflict, bu t only a president wh ose politi cal and moral horizon e xtends beyond the next U.S. Congressional election - and un derstands that by the time that election o ccurs, the two -state solu tion will h ave disapp eared -will be able to bring this mu lti-generat ional trage dy to an end.

ǹȂǰȈºLJ ƮȈƷ ǶȈLjƳ ÇƾŢ ǵƽƢǬdzơ ȆǰȇǂǷ ȋơ džȈƟǂdzơ ǾƳơȂȈLJ ƿƢºǬǻƛ ǾƬǟƢǘƬºLJƢƥ ǒȈƥȋơ ƪȈƦdzơ Ŀ ȅȁƢǔȈƦdzơƤƬǰŭơ DzƬŹ dž ȈƟǁ ǂƻƕ Ń ơƿƛ ȆǴȈƟơǂººLJȍơ řȈǘººLjǴǨdzơ ǝơǂǐ dzơ ƔƢĔƛDzƳ Ɨ ǺǷ śƬdzȁƾdzơ DzºƷ ǪǧƗ ǹƜǧ  ǾƬºLJƢƟǁ ǺǷ ńȁȋơƨǼºLjdzơ DZȐƻ ǥ ƾŮơ ơǀǿ ǪȈºǬŢ ńƛ ȄǠºLjȇ ǵƢǸƬǿƛ ŇƽƗ ǹȁƾƥ lj Ȃƥ ƱǁȂƳ ȆǯŚǷȋơdž ȈƟǂdzơ ǾƴȀƬǻơ ȅǀdzơ śƬdzȁƾdzơ DzƷ ǺǷ ǦưǰǷȁ ǞȇǂºLJ Dzƻƾƫ ǹƛ Ǻ ǰdzȁ Ǫǧȋơ Ŀ ȄNjȐƬȈLJ ƶƳǁȋơ ȄǴǟ ǾǻƜǧ ƢȀƬºƷǂǗ Ŗdzơ ǵȐºLjdzơ ƩơǁƽƢƦǷ ǺǷ DzǔǧƗ ǹȂǰƫ Ǻdz ƾ ȇƾŪơ džȈƟǂdzơ ƤǻƢƳ ƾȇƾŪơ dž ȈƟǂdzơ ǀƻƗ ơƿƛ ƢǷƗ  ƵƢȇǂdzơ ƱơǁƽƗƤǿǀƬLJȁ ƆƢǬƥƢLJ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ǭƢǼǿ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ ƤŸ ǾǻƘºƥ śǼǷƚǷ ƨǸȀŭơ ǽǀ ǿ ǶȀºǬƫƢǟ ȄǴǟ ǽȁǁƢnj ƬLjǷȁ ȅǀdzơǥ ƾŮơ ơǀǿǪºǬƸƬȇ Ǯdzǀ ºƥ ƨºǬưdzơ ƔƢǼºƥ ȁ ǵȐLjǴdz ŚǔƸƬdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ŘȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȄǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơǝơǂǐdzơ ȃƾŢ ƾºǬdz ǾǧȐºLJƗ ȄǴǟ Ȅǐ ǠƬLJơ ǶǴǧ Ƨƾȇƾǟ ƩơȂǼLJ ȃƾǷ ȄǴǟ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ǾƬƴȀƬǻơ ȅǀdzơDz ǿƢLjƬdzơ ƝƽƢºƦǷ ǹƛ ǁƢǰǧȋơ Ƨǁƾǻ ƤºƦLjƥ ȏȁ  ƨȈƟơǂƳ ȍơ ǁȂǐºǬdzơ ǾƳȁƗ ƤºƦLjƥ Ǻǰȇ ƪǤȈǏ ŕdzơ ǹȂƬǼȈǴǯ DzȈºƥdž ȈƟǂdzơ ŚȇƢǠǷ Ŀ ǺǸǰƫ ƧƢȈƸǴdz ƨǴƥƢǫ ƨȈǫƢǨƫơ ǞȈǸƴǴdz ƧǁȂȀººnjǷ ƢȀƬǠººƦƫ Ŗdzơ ƢºƥƢǗ ƩƢƯƽƢŰ Ŀ ƪǴǐǧȁ  ǵƢǟ Ƨƽơǁȍơ Ȃǿ ƩƢººǫƢǨƫȏơ ǽǀǿ Ǻǟ ƣƢǣ ƾºǫƢǷ ǹƛ ȆŭƢǟ ǾºƦNj Ƕǟƾºƥ ȄǜŢȁ ŚȇƢǠŭơ ǽǀǿ DZȂºƦǫ ȄǴǟ ǥơǂǗȋ ơ DzǸū ƨǷǃȐdzơ ŚºƥơƾƬdzơ ƿƢţȏ ƨȈºLJƢȈLjdzơ ƽȂȀŪơ ǞȈŦ Dzººnjǧ ńƛ ȃƽƗ ȅǀdzơ ȆººǫȐƻ ȋơȁ ȆººLJ ƢȈLjdzơ Dzººnj Ǩdzơ Ǿǻƛ  őŪ ơ Ǻǰdzȁ DzȀƴ Ǵdz ƨƴȈƬǻ Ǻǰȇ Ń Dzºnj Ǩdzơ ơǀǿ ƪ dzǀºƥ Ŗdzơ ƨǬƥƢLjdzơ ǒǠººººƥ ǽƢš Ņȁƾ dzơ ǞǸƬĐơ ǺǷ ŚºººƦǯ ƔDŽƳ ƤǻƢƳǺǷ ƾǸǠƬǷ Dz ǿƢš Ȃǿȁ ǝơǂǐdzơ ơǀǿ ƪŢ ȆǨƬţ Ŗ dzơ ƨƼLJơǂdzơ džLJȋơ ƨǨǴǰƬdzơ DzǿƢƴƬƫȁ ǎȈƻǁ ǩƢǨƫơ ńƛ ȄǠººLjƫ ŖdzơǵȐººLjdzơ ƩơǁƽƢººƦǷ ǹƛ ǃȁƢƴƬƫ ƨȈǯŚǷƗ ƧǁƽƢºƦǷ ǁȁƾǏ ǹƛ DznjǨdzƢƥ ƔȂƦƬLJ džLJȏơ ǽǀŮ ƨƥȂǴǘŭơ ǽƢš ƨǬƥƢLjdzơ Ʃơǁơƽȍơ ƢȀƬƴȀƬǻơ Ŗdzơ ƨǬƥƢLjdzơ DzǿƢLj Ƭdzơ ƨLJƢȈLJ Dznjǧ ǺǷ ǶǣǂdzƢºƥȁ ǝơǂǐ dzơ ơǀǿ ƔƢĔ ƛ ƢĔƢǰǷƜº ƥ ƨǷǃƢºƷȁ ƨ ǘºnjǻ ƨȈLJƢǷȂǴƥƽ ƩƢººƥƢƼ ƬǻȍƢƥ ƧƾȈºǬǷ Śǣ Ƣŭ ȆºǫȐƻƗȁ ȆºLJ ƢȈLJ ǪǧƗ Ǿȇƾdz džȈƟǁ ǹƜǧ Ǯdzƿ  śƬdzȁƾdzơ DzºººƷ ƔƢĔơ ǾººƥƢƼƬǻơ ǶƬȇ ƢǷƾǼǟ ǾȈǴǟǹƗ ǭǁƾȇȁ  ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƨƦǫƢǠƬŭơ DZƢȈƳȌdz ƧƢLJƘŭơ ƨȇƢĔ ńƛ DzǏȂƬȇ ǥȂLJ

ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ƨȈƳǁƢŬơ ƩƢǫȐǠdzơ džǴů ľ ǖLJȁȋơ ǩǂnjdzơ ǝȁǂnjŭ ǪƥƢLj dzơ ȅǀȈǨǼƬdzơ ǂȇƾŭ ơ * Form er Presiden t of the U.S ./M iddle East Project (U SMEP) an d R esearch Professor at SOAS, Lon don - Email : gisraelson@usmep.us

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Mental health and Psychosocial Support During and After Acute Emergencies: Emerging Consensus Dr. M ark van Om m eren *

Mental health care program mes during and after acute emerge ncies in resource-p oor countries have been con sidered controversial. Thereis no ag reement o n the publ ic health v alue of the post-traumatic stress disorder con cept and no agreem ent on the ap propriaten ess of v ertical ( separate) trauma-focused service s. A range of soc ial and m ental hea lth intervention strategies and prin ciples see m, however,to have support o f broad expert o pinion. Despite continuing debate, there is em erging agreement on what entails good public health practice in respect of mental he alth. In terms of early interventions, this agree ment is exemplified by the recent i nclusion o f 'a mental and socia l aspects of health' standard in the Sphere h andbook's revision on minim al standards in disaster response and the IA SC Guidelines on M ental Hea lth and Psycho social Su pport in Emergencies. This affirmation of emergin g agreem ent is impo rtant and should giv e clear messages to plann ers in diver sectors.

ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ȆLjǨǼdzơ Ƕǟƾdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ǁȂȀǛ Ƨƾȇƾnjdzơ ƝǁơȂǘdzơ ƾǠƥȁ ƔƢǼƯƗ ǹǂǷȁƗ ǹƢǧ ǭǁƢǷ ƽ ƝǁơȂǘdzơ ƩȏƢºƷ ƾǠºƥȁƔƢǼƯƗ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ƲǷơǂºƥ ŐƬǠƫ ǾǻƗ ƮȈƷ DZƾƴǴdz ƧŚưǷ ƨȈǔǫ ƽȁƾƄơ ƽǁơȂŭơ Ʃơƿ ƧŚǬǨdzơǹơƾǴƦdzơ Ŀ ƧƽƢūơ ƢǷ ƣơǂǘǓơ ǵȂȀǨ Ƿ Ŀ ƨǷƢǠ dzơ ƨººƸǐdzơ ƨǸȈºǫ ȄǴǟ ǩƢǨƫơ ǭ ƢǼǿdžȈdz ȄǴǟ DŽǯ ǂƫ Ŗdzơ ƩƢǷ ƾŬơ ƨǷƔȐǷ ȃƾǷ ȄǴǟ ǩƢǨƫơ ȏȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠººººººººƥ DzƻƾƬdzơ ƝƽƢºƦǷȁ ƩƢȈƴȈƫơǂƬºLJơ ǺǷ ƨǟȂǸ ůǭƢǼǿ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ Ʃ ƢǷƾǐdzơ ƔơŐŬơ ȅƗǂdz ǞLJơȁ Ƕǟƾƥ ȄǜŢ Ŗdzơ ȆǠǸƬĐơ ȁ ȆLjǨǼdzơ ǭƢǼǿ ǹƗ ȄǴǟ ǪǧơȂƫ Ɣơǁƕ Ƙººnjǻ ƾººǬǧ DZƾŪ ơ ơǀǿ ǁơǂǸƬºLJơǺǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ ȄǴǟȁ ƨºººƸǐdzƢƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ƢǸȈǧ ƨǏƢƻȁ ƨǸȈǴººLjdzơƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨººƸǐǴdz ƨººLJǁƢŲ ƧŚƻȋơ ƨǻȁȉơ Ŀ DzưǸƬȇ ǩƢǨƫȏơ ơǀǿȁ ǂǰºƦŭơ DzƻƾƬdzơ Ʈ ȈºƷ ǺǷ ƨ ȈLjǨǼdzơ Ŀ  ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨ ȈººººLjǨǼdzơ ƨººººƸǐdzơ ƤǻơȂƳ Ś ȇƢǠǷ Ʊơǁƽƛ DZ Ȑƻ ǺǷ ƝƽƢºƦǷȁ ƨǷƾǐǴdz ƨºƥƢƴƬLJȌ dz ƢȈǻƾdzơ ŚȇƢǠŭơDZȂƷ ŚǨLJ ƣƢƬǯ ƨǠƳơǂǷ ơǀǿȁ Ʃ ƢǷǃȋơ ƩƢºǫȁƗ ĿȆºLjǨǼdzơǶǟƾdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨ Ƹǐdzơ DZȂƷ ,$6& ńƛ ƨººƸǓơȁ DzƟƢºLJǁ ȆǘǠȇ ǹƗ ƤŸ ȁ ǾƬȈŷƗȁ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ǁȂȀǛ ȄǴ ǟ ƾȈǯƘƫ ƨǨǴƬƼŭơ ƩƢǟƢǘǬdzơ Ŀ ǖȈǘƼƬdzơ ȄǴǟ śǸƟƢǬdzơ

ǦȈǼƳ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ

* WH O. Gen eva- vanommerenm@who.in t

19S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


The Siege of Gaza in History: Mental Health and Behavioural Implications. Professor Federico Allodi *

This paper studies the sieg e of Gaza in the context of the long history of sieges in war. It lists and reviews the best known sieges in antiquity and modern times particular those which took place in Middle East and Mediterranean cou ntries. Historical and information sources are ranked, and sieges analyzed using a crisis conceptual model. The independent and intermediate vari ables considered are: characte r of the besieged population, duration and severity of the siege, preparation, and community spirit, network of support, symptom prevalence, and individual and social v ulnerabili ty behav iours. Outcome variabl es measured include the prev alence of mental disorders and social integration, resistance and negotiation, surrender or the lifting of the s iege. The same variables are a nalyzed b oth for the besieged and the attackers. This method is applied to the ongoin g siege of Gaza. It is concluded that although the blockade has bee n prolon ged and s evere it has not been comp lete or effectiv ein achieving surren der or termination of the siege .There has been help to the besieged from the intern ational so lidarity movem ent and, a bove all, from the internal network of soc ial and personalsupport. The toll of the siege has been g reat in term of the high of prevalence grief stress reacti ons, PTSD and ado lescent and children behaviours, family and commun ity tensio ns and divisions. Similar findings are referred to in the besieging forces and pop ulations.

* Near East Cultural and Educational Fou ndation Canada - fallodi@pobox.com

ƺȇǁƢƬdzơ Ŀ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐƷ ȆǯȂǴLjdzơ ǹȂǸǔŭơ ȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ȅƽȂdzƗ Ȃǰȇ ǁƾȈǧ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ ȃƾŭơ Ņ ƛ ǂǜǼdzƢºƥ ƧDŽ ǣǁƢǐºƷ Ņ ƛƨLJǁơƾdzƢƥ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǩǂǘƬƫ ƢǸǯ  ƣ ǂūơ ƨdzƢºººººººƷ Ŀ ƢȀȈǴǟ Ǒǂǧ ȅǀdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ǺǷ DzȇȂǘdzơ ȆźǁƢƬdzơ ƨŻƾºǬdzơ ǁȂǐǠdzơ Ŀ ƧǂȀºNj ǂưǯȋơ ƩơǁƢǐºƸǴdz ƨǠƳ ơǂǷȁ ƨǸƟƢǫ DzǸnjƫ ǂƸƦdzơ ǹƾǷȁ ǖLJȁȋ ơǩǂnjdzơ Ŀ ƨǻƢǰǷ ƪǴƬƷơ Ŗ dzơ Ǯ Ǵƫ ƨǏƢƻȁ ƨưȇƾūơȁ ǮǴƫ DzǴŢȁƩƢǷȂǴǠŭơȁƨȈźǁƢƬdzơ ǁƽƢǐŭơ Ǧ Ǽǐƫ ǥȂºº ºººLJ  ǖººººLJȂƬŭơ ƨǴºººººǬƬLjŭơ ƩơŚ ǤƬdzơ ǹƛ ƨǷ ǃȌdz ȅǁȂǐƫ ƱƿȂŶ ǵơƾƼ ƬººººLJƢƥ Ʃ ơǁƢǐūơ ƨǷơǂǏ ȁ ƨȈǼǷDŽdzơ Ƨƾŭơ ǂǏƢƄơ ƤǠºnjdzơ ƨȈǐƼNj  Dz ưǷ Ȇǿ ƨǘLJȂƬŭơȁ ǑơǂǟƗ ƨȈƳǁƢŬơ Ƕǟ ƾdzơ ƨǰººƦNj ǞǸƬĐơ Ƶȁǁȁ ƽơƾǠƬº ºLJȏơ ȁ ǁƢǐ ūơ ơǀǿ ƩơŚǤƬdzơ ǽǀǿ ƱƢƬǻ ǹƛ ǞǸƬĐơȁ ƽǂǨǴdz ȆǯȂ ǴºººLjdzơ ǂƯƘƬdzơȅƾǷ ǁƢº ººnjƬǻȏơ ƱƢǷƾǻȏơ ȁƨȈºLjǨǼdzơƩƢºƥơǂǘ Ǔȏơ ǽǀǿ ǁƢºnjƬǻơ ȅƾǷ ǺǸǔƬƫ ƨ ºLJƢǬŭơ  ǁƢǐū ơ Ǯdzƿ ǝƢnjǬǻơ ȁƗ ǵȐLjƬLJȏơ ȁ ƩƢǓȁƢǨŭơȁ ƨǷ ȁƢǬŭơȁ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ǂǏƢƄơ ƤǠºººnjdzơ ȆǴǟ ƢȀǴȈǴŢ ǶƬȇ ǥȂºº ºLJ ƩƢººƦǴǬƬdzơȁ ƩơŚǤ Ƭdzơ džǨǻ  ȅƾƬǠŭơȁ ǹƗ ǺǷ Ƕ ǣǂdzƢºƥȁ  ƧDŽǣ ĿƢȈdzƢºƷ ȅǁƢŪơ ǁƢǐū ơȆǴǟ ƨºǬȇǂǘdzơ ǽǀǿ ǪºƥƢǘƬƫ Ŀ ƆȏƢǠ ǧȁƆȐ ǷƢǯ Ǻǰ ȇ Ń Ǿǻơ ȏƛ ǾƫŚƫȁ ƾƬºNjƗȁ DzȇȂǗ ƾǷȋ ǂǸƬºLJ ơ ǁƢǐūơ ǺȇǂǏƢ ººƸǸǴdz ƧƾǟƢºLjǷ ǭƢǼǿ ǹƢǯ ǁƢǐūơ ơǀǿ Ǧºǫȁȁ ƹȂǓǂdzơ ǪȈºǬŢ Ƕǟƾdzơ Ʃ ƢǰººƦNj ǺǷ Ǯdzƿ Dzǯ ǩȂǧȁ ƨȈdzȁƾ dzơǺǷƢǔƬdzơ ƨǯǂººƷ ƢȀ ƬǷƾººǫ ǩƢǘǻ Ȅ Ǵǟ ƪǻƢǯȁ ǁƢǐūơ ǁƢƯƕ ƪ ǟȂǼƫ ƨȈǴƻơƾdzơ ȆǟƢǸ ƬƳȋơȁ ȆººººLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷƾǐ dzơƣǂǯ DzǠǧ Ʃơƽǂdz ǞººººLJơȂdzơ ǁƢºº ººnjƬǻȍƢƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ƢǸȈǧ ǞºººLJơȁ ǂƫȂƬdzơȁ DZƢǨǗȋơȁ ś Ǭǿơǂŭơ ƩƢ ȈǯȂǴLJȁ 37 6' ƢŮ ƨȈdzƢƬdzơ ƩƢƥơǂǘǓȋơȁ ǝƢǓȁȋơ ǒǠººƥ ŅƛƧǁƢººNjȍơ ƪŤȁ  ǞǸƬĐ ơȁ ǂºLJȋơ Dz ƻơƽ ƩƢǷƢºLjǬǻȏơȁ  ƧǂǏƢƄơ Ʃ ơȂǬdzơȁ ƣȂǠnjdzơ ȃƾdz ƨđƢnjŭơ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Mental Health Workers in Gaza, How Can They Do Their Job? How Can they Survive Mentally?

ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ȆȈǼȀǷ DzǸǟ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ǶȀƬǷȐLJ ȄǴǟ ǙƢǨūơ ǶȀƬǟƢǘƬLJƜƥ ǦȈǯȁ ǃǂƬdzȁ DŽǸȈǴȇȁ ǁȂLjȈǧȁǂƥ

Prof. W.H.G.Wolters *

Since 1994 a group of international teachers of several International Uni versities t ook part in the dev elopment of the training programm e of the G MMP. Fo r years they took par t in the teaching programm e, gave s upervision and worked with the local staff. O ne of the questions was how our coll eagues ca n and friends g o on for y ears and in extreme circumsta nces maintain a minimum psycho logical balance necessary to help and support people w ho are traumatised and or suffering fro m the secondary very negativecons equences of thewar. Even fo r mental health workers, working in rather qui et and econom ically pro sperous c ountries the specific stress of working with tra umatised patients g ets a lot of attention in Literature: See Counter tran sference in the Treatment of PTSD, Ed. John P. Wilson and Jacob D.Lindy. The Mental Healt h worker who treats traumati sed patien ts can become a (inter)ac tive partner in th e transfere nce and counter transfer ence pro cess. Th ey can suffer from seco ndary traumatisation; these reactions will be d iscussed. In Gaza in the working context ofour colleagues characterised by special stressors: 1 -The basic physical and econom ical safety does not exist 2- Political an d military factors 3- Lack of pro fessional support an d supervi sion 4- Concerns a boutfood and incom e 5- Specific v ulnerabili ty connected with the fact th at the patient popu lation con sist partly in friends, family, and acquaintances. 6- Logistic pr oblems 7- Stressors on the level of the organisation 8- Continuing confron tation with dead b odies, wounded people etc.

ǺǷ śȈŻ ƽƢǯȋơǺ Ƿ ƨǟȂǸ ů ƪǯǁ ƢºººººNj  ǵƢ ǟ ǞǴǘǷ Ŀ Ŀ ȆưºƸ Ʀdzơȁ œȇǁƾƬdzơ ƲǷƢǻŐdzơ ƔƢ njǻƛȁ džȈ LJƘƫ ĿŃ ƢǠdzơ ƩƢǠǷƢƳ Ǧ ǴƬű ƲǷơǂºƥ ǞǓȁ Ŀ ƨǟȂǸŪơ ǽǀǿ ƪǯ ǁƢºNjȁƨ ȈºLjǨǼ dzơ ƨºƸǐǴdz ƧDŽǣ Ʋ ǷƢǻǂºƥ Ŗdzơ ƩƢ ȇƾºƸƬdzơ ƾƷƗ ǹƢǯ ȁ ȆǴƄơœ ȇǁƾƬdzơ ǶǫƢǘdzơ ȄǴǟ ǥơǂ Njȍơȁ ƨȈǸȈǴǠƫ ȄǴǟ Ƨǁƾ Ǭdzơ Ȇǿ ƾȈǬǠƬdzơ Ŀ ƨȇƢǣ ǥȁǂǛ Dz Ǜ Ŀ ƢǼƟ ƢǫƾǏƗȁ ƢǼƟȐǷǃ ƪ ȀƳơȁ ǶǟƽȁƧƾ ǟƢºLjŭ ȅǁȁǂǔdz ơ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ ǹǃơȂƬdz ơ ǺǷ ňƽȏơ ƾūƢºƥ Ȃdzȁ ǁơǂǸƬºLJȋơ ƨȇȂǻƢưdzơ ǁƢƯȋơ ǺǷ ǹȂǻƢǠȇ Ǻ ȇǀdzơ ȁƗƨ ȈºººLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢǷƾ ǐdzơȁǦ ǼǠdzơ ƢȇƢº ºƸǓ ƣȁ ǂūơ Ǻǟ ƨ šƢǼdzơ ƨȈƦǴLjdzơ ƢǿƽȂººLjȇ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ƨȈººLjǨǼdzơ ƨººƸǐdzơ DzººǬƷ Ŀ śǴǷ ƢǠdzơ ǹƜǧ Ǯdzǀǯ ǞǷ DzǷƢ ǠƬdzơ Ŀ Ƨ ƽƾŰ ǕȂǤǓ ǹȂ ȀƳơȂȇ ȅƽƢǐƬºº ºººººǫȏơ ƔƢƻǂdzơȁƔ ȁƾŮơ ǢdzƢºƥ ǵƢ ǸƬǿƢºƥ Ǯ dzƿ ȆǜƷ ƮȈƷ ƨ ȈLjǨǻ ƩƢǷƾǏ Ǻ Ƿ ǹȂǻƢǠ ȇ ǺȇǀdzơȄǓǂŭơ ƩƢǷƾǐdzơ ƱȐǟ Ŀ ƽƢǔŭơ ǢȇǂǨƬdzơ ƣƢƬǯ ńƛ ǂǜǻƗ  ƨȈººLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢȈºƥ ƽȋơ Ŀ ȅƾ ǼȈdz ƽ ƣȂǯƢƳȁ ǹȂ LjǴȇȁ ƣ ǹȂƳ ƤƫƢǰǴdz ƨȈ LjǨǼdzơ

What kind of peop le, with w hat kind o f qualities, with wha t kind of copin g style c an surviv e and do their job? What kind of leadership is required for a mental health organi sation in time of war? Ho w can w e develop a system to support our colleagues who do t heir job in the field? These and other q uestion could be disc ussed in our panel.

ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ǶȀƬǟƢǘ ƬºººººLJ Ƣƥ ǦȈǯ ȁ ŸǶǿƩ ƢǨǏơȂǷ ȅƘººººƥ ȁ Ɣȏƚǿ DžƢǻƗ ȅƗ ƨƸǐdz ơ ƩƢǸǜǼŭ ƨƥȂǴǘ ŭơ ƧƽƢȈǬdzơ ƨȈǿƢǷ ƢǷȁ Ÿơǀǿ ǶȀǴǸǟ Ŀ ǁơǂǸƬ LJȏơȁ ƢǼƟȐǷǃ Ƕ ǟƾdz ǵƢǜ ǻ ǂȇȂǘƫ ƢǼƬǟƢǘ ƬºLJƢƥ Ǧ Ȉǯ Ÿƣȁǂūơ ƩƢºǫ ȁƗ Ŀ ƨȈLj ǨǼdzơ ǹƗ ƤŸ Dz ƟƢºLjŭơ ǽǀǿ Dzǯ ƣƢǠǐdzơ Ƕǣǁǹ ơƾȈŭơ Ŀ ǶȀƦƳơȂ ƥ ǹȂǷȂǬȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ ƨȈLjȈƟǂ dzơ ƨLjǴƴǴdzơ ƔƢǼƯƗ NJǫƢǼƫ

21 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges

ǹƗ ƤŸ ƨ ȈººLjǨ Ǽdzơ ƨºƸǐ dzơ ȄǓǂǷ ǹȂŪƢ Ǡȇ Ǻȇǀdz ơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ȆȈƟƢǐ ƻƗ ǹƛ ƽƢǔŭơ ǢȇǂǨƬdzơȁ ŅƢǠǨǻȍ ơ ǢȇǂǨƬdz ơ ƨȈǴǸǟ Ŀ śǴǟƢ ǨƬǷ ƔƢǯ ǂºNj ơȂºƸ Ʀǐȇ ƨºnjǫƢǼǷ ǶƬȈºLJ ȁ ƮȈºƷ ƩƢǷƾǐdzƢƥ ȅȂǻƢƯ ǂƯƘƫ ǺǷ ǹȂǻƢǠȇ ƾǫȁ ǒȇ ǂŭơ śƥ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘ ººººǫĿ ƢǼƟȐǷǃ ȃƾdz DzǷơȂǟ DzǸǠ dzơ ȂƳ ǶººººLjƬȇ ƩȐǟƢǨƬ dzơ ǽǀǿ ƨȈdzƢƬdzơǎƟƢ ǐŬƢƥ ȅƽƢ ǐƬǫȋơ ȁơ ȅƽƢŭơǹ ƢǷȋơ ǂǧȂƫ ǵƾǟ  ƨȇǂǰLjǟȁ ƨȈLJƢȈLJ DzǷơȂǠ ƥ ǂƯƘƬdzơ řȀŭ ơ ǥơǂNjȋ ơȁ Ƕǟƾdz ơ ƣƢȈǣ  Dzƻƾ dzơȁ ǵƢǠǘdzơ ǽƢšǥ ȁƢű ƧǂººLJȋơȁ ƔƢººǫƾ Ǐȋơ ǶȀȈǧ ǺŠ ǒȇǂŭơǹơǂººǫƗ ǑǂǠƫ ƨȈdzƢ ǸƬºƷƛ  ƨȈƬ LjƳȂdzDz ǯƢnjǷ ǥǁƢǠŭơȁ ƨLjLJƚŭơ ȃȂƬLjǷ ȄǴǟ ǕȂǠǓ  ȄƷǂŪơ ǁȂǏȁǵ Ȑǧȋơ DZȐ ƻ ȄǴƬǬdzơ ƧƢǧǂdz Dz ǏơȂƬǷ ǑǂǠƫ 

* Clinical Psychologist State University Utrecht Holland - whgwolters@c asema. nl


ǹƘnjƥ ƨȈǴȈǴŢ ƨȈLj Ǩǻ ƨȇƙǁ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐƷȁ DzȈƟơǂLJƛ

"Psychoanalytic Insights about Israel and the Gaza Siege"

NJƬȇȁƽ ƮȇƽȂƳ

Judith Deuts ch*

This paper looksa t several psychological determinants of impo sing a sieg e. Psycho analyticc oncepts clarify how Israeli adults forcefully inculcate in Jewish youth the military ideals that lead to, and rationalize, imposing a siege. Involved in this are distortions of reality testing especially in the direction of reversing roles of victim and aggressor, interference in the ability to empa thize, cur tailment of conscience devel opment, a nd the permissive stimulation of a ggression. Generational boundaries are breached as adults use yo uth for their own en ds. The function of the family unit to help children mast er a ran ge of developmental tas ks is curtailed by sel f-idealizat ion couple d with the projective identification of unwanted psychological content onto Pa lestinians. Historically, cen tral to s iege is starvation , disease , and humiliation. Siege is a seem ingly ana chronistic form of warfare but fits in well with Israel 's evasive sidestepp ing of UN and Geneva conventions. Hist orian Jam es Ron discusses various forms o f Israeli aggression, depending on whet her a Palestinian area is t echnically occupied or a frontier. Freud, Dr. El- Sarraj, and Nu rit Peled -Elhanan similarly describe the devastating impact for a child of seeing one's parents humiliated by foreign soldiers. The documentary "Avenge but one of m y two ey es," by Israeli director Avi Mograbi, shows how Israeli youth are taught the Mas ada myth about sieg e and the Samson my th about suicide terrorism . This paper provides detailed examp les of how adults evoke th e anxieties of each developmental phase when teaching these myths. Central to teac hing these myths is the evocation of humiliation and th e admonition to be the aggres sor. As well, the paper looks at the handling of aggress ion in "Arna's Children", a documentary about an Isra eli woma n's work with children in Jenin. The examples from these films about siege illustrate the complex psychol ogical com ponents, and the interferences, in helping youth develop a sense of pers onal respo nsibility, a sense of realit y, and the ability todeal with aggression.

ǁƢǐūơ Ǒ ǂǨdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƩơƽƾƄơ ǺǷ ơƽƾǟ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ DZȁƢǼƬƫ śȈǴȈƟơǂ ººLJȍơ śǤdzƢºƦdzơ ǹƗ ǦȈǯ ƶǓȂƫȆºLjǨǼdzơDzȈǴºƸƬdzơ ǶȈǿƢǨǷ ǹƛ ǁŐƫȁ ńƛ ȅƽƚƫ Ŗdzơ ƨȇǂǰººLjǠdzơ ƱƿƢǸǼdzơȅƽȂȀȈdzơ ƣƢººƦnjdzơ Ŀ ǹȂºLJǂǤȇ džǰǟǽƢšơ Ŀ ƨǏƢƻ ǪƟƢººǬƸ Ǵdz ƢȀȇȂºnjƫ ǺǸǔƬȇǮdzƿ ǹƛ ǁƢǐūơ Ǒǂǧ ƨȈǴǸǟ Dz ȈǘǠƫȁ ǦǗƢǠƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ƧǁƾºǬdzơǕ ƢºƦƷƛȁ ȅƾƬǠŭơȁ ƨȈƸǔ dzơ ǁơȁƽƗ śºƥ ƽȁƾ ūơ ǹƛ ǦǼǠdzơȁ ǹơȁƾǠdzơ ǵơƾƼƬºLJơ ǞǷ ƶǷƢLjƬdzơȁ ŚǸǔdzơ ǺȇȂǰƫ ǪȈººǬƸ Ƭdz ƣƢºƦnjdzơ ǹȂǤdzƢºƦdzơ ǵƾƼƬºLjȇ ś ǐºƷ ƢȀºǫơǂƬƻơ ǶƬȇ DZƢȈƳȋơ ƽƾǟ ǃƢųƛ ȄǴǟ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ƧƾǟƢLjǷ Ŀ ƧƾƷȂǯ ƧǂLJȋơ ǁȁƽ ǹƗ ƢǸǯ ǶȀǓơǂǣƗ ƾººººººƷ ȂƬdzơ ǞǷ Ʃơǀdzơ ǶȈǜǠƫ ƨȈǴǸǟ ƢȀǐ ǴºººººǬƫ ƨȇǁȂǘƬdzơǵ ƢȀŭơ ǺǷ ƢȈźǁƢƫ ś ȈǼȈǘºLjǴ Ǩdzơ ȄǴǟ ǾȈǧ ƣȂǣǂǷ Śǣ ȆLjǨǻ ǹȂǸǔŠ ȆǗ ƢǬLJȍơ ǁƢǐūơ ȁƾºƦȇ ƾºǫǁƢǐūơ Ŀ ƨȇ ǁȂŰ ǂǏƢǼǟ DZȏƿȍơȁǑ ǂŭơȁ ǞȇȂƴ Ƭdzơ ǹƢǯ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ǩǂƻ ǞǷ ƢǷ ƢŤ ǶƴºLjǼȇ ǾǼǰdz ƣǂūơ DZƢǰºNjƗ ǺǷ ƢºǫǁƢǨǷ ȐǰºNj ȏƢǰººNj Ɨ NJººǫƢǼȇ ǹȁǁ džǸȈƳ ƹǁƚŭơ ǦȈǼƳȁ ƧƾººƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơ ƩƢ ȈºǫƢǨƫȏ ƨȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƨǬǘ Ǽŭơ ƪǻƢǯ ơƿƛ Ƣŭ ƢǠƦƫȆ ǴȈƟơǂLJȍơǹơȁƾǠdzơ ǺǷƨ ǨǴƬű ƾȇǁȂǻȁƱ ơǂºLjdzơ ƽƢȇƛȁ ƾȇȁǂǧ ƨȇƽȁƾƷ ƨǬǘǼǷ ȁƗ DZȐƬƷȏơ ƪŢ ƢȈǼǬƫ ƨȈǼǠŭơ śººƷ DzǨǘdzơ ȄǴǟ ƧǂǷƾŭơ ǁƢƯȊ dz ƢđƢºnjǷ ƢǨǏȁ ǹȂǷ ƾºǬȇ śǻƢū ơ ƾȈǴȈºƥ ǾƥƢnjǷ Dzǰnjƥ ƤǻƢƳȋơ ƽȂǼŪ ơ ȅƾȇƗ ȄǴǟ DZȏƿȎdz ǹȂǓ ǂǠƬȇ ǾǴǿƗ ƾǿƢnjȇ ĺǂǤǷ Ŀ ƕ ȆǴȈƟơǂºLJ ȍơ ƱǂƼǸǴdz řȈǟ ǺǷ ƧƾºƷơȂƥ ǁƘ Ươ ȆǬƟƢƯȂdzơ ǶǴȈǨdzơ DZȂººƷ ơƽƢººLJƢǷ ƧǁȂǘºLJƗ ǹȂǸ ǴǠƬȇ ȆǴȈƟơǂ ºLJȍơ ƣƢºƦnjdzơ ǹƗ ǦȈǯ ǂȀǜȇ ǵƾºǬƫ ƨºǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ śȇǁƢºƸƬǻȏ ơ ƣƢǿǁƛ DZȂºƷ ǹȂnjſ ƧǁȂǘLJƗȁ ǁƢǐūơ Dzǯ ĿǪ ǴººººǬdzơ ǾƳ ȁƗ ǹȁŚưȇś ǤdzƢºººƦdzơǹƗ ǦȈǯ ƶǓ Ȃƫ ƨȈǴȈǐǨƫ ƱƿƢŶ Ǯdzǀǯ Ś ǗƢLJȋơǮǴƫ ǶŮƢǨǗ Ɨ ǶȈǴǠƫ DZȐ ƻ ǺǷ ȂǸǼdzơ DzƷơǂǷ ǺǷ ƨǴƷǂǷ DZƢǨǗƗ ǪƟƢƯȂdzơ ǶǴȈǨdzơ Ŀ ǹơȁƾ Ǡdzơ ǝȂǓȂǷ DZȁƢǼƫ Ŀ ǂǜǼƫ ƨººººǫǁȂdzơ ǹƜǧ Ŀ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ǞǷ ƩƢȈǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ƔƢºLjǼdzơ ȃƾºƷƛ DzǸǟ ƨǐ ºǫ ȅȁǂȇȅ ǀdzơ ƢǻǁƗ ǂºǏƢǼǠdzơ ƶºǓȂƫ ǁƢºǐū�� DZȁƢǼƬƫ Ŗdzơ ǵȐǧȋơ ǺǷ ƱƿƢǸǼdzơ ǮǴƫǹƛ śǼƳ ǁȂǠºnjdzơ ƣƢLjƬǯơ ȄǴǟ ƣƢƦnjdzơ ƧƾǟƢLjǷ Ŀ ƩƢƦǬǠdzơȁ ƨƦǯǂŭơƨ ȈLjǨǼdzơ ǹơȁƾǠdzơ ǞǷ DzǷƢǠƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ƧǁƾǬdzơȁ ǞǫơȂdzơ ǭơǁƽƛȁ ƨȈǐƼnjdzơ ƨȈdzȂƠLjŭƢƥ

* Clinical Socia l Worker and Psyc hoanalyst, Private Pract ice, M ember ofCa nadia n Psychoana lytic Society an d Pres ident Scienc e for Peace - j.de utsch@ utoronto.ca

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

22


An Israeli perspective on the siege: Options and Dilemmas

Professor Uri Hadar *

The current siege situation is very frustrating for Israeli activists: There is very little we can do in the large picture, having no influence on p olicy mak ers and, t o make th ings worse , most Israelis view G aza as H amas-lan d, and therefore support everyth ing that the army su ggests. W hile there were som e very powerf ul actions- such as th e big 'bre ak the sieg e' demonstration held in Erez and Gaza, in collaboration with the Palestinian Interna tional Campaign to End the Si ege. Similar elemen ts were enacted in the break-the-siege boat: both actions have more of a symbolic value, but little im mediate influence o n policy makers. In this state of affairs, what one should have in mind in the way one inv olves with public ac tions is more the sy mbolic nature of the activity, and le ss the immediate possible effects. To my mind, the main objective of symbolic action is precisely the brea king of the sieg e, the breaking of the imagina tive line t hat separates the inhabitants of Gaza from th e rest of the world. This mea ns that any me aningful action ought to be coordina ted with people within Gaza, and ought to bring out as much as possi ble the coordinated effort across the border lines. Ind eed. Both of the actions that were mentione d- the demonstratio n at Erez and the arrival of the Sieg e Boat we re of that nature. In th esame ve in, this particu lar conference also carries the same symbolic force, by being s taged inside Gaza and outside it at the s ame time. In this respect, it could have bee n better if we were able to have a conferencing branch in Israel itself, as well a s in Egyp t. The symbolic signific ance of such branching- for th e participants as well as the med ia- would be the el imination of border s. The breakin g of the si ege. I will argue that there is a particular mental influen ce to this kind of symbolic action that empower s those who take part in it and ma y give them the strength to continue their action witho ut losing faith and without falling prey to the siege m entality itself, nam ely, to the feeling that the world has abando ned one.

ƧDŽǣ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤ Ć¨Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ Ć¨Č‡Ć™Ç ĆŠČ?Ç”Ç Ĺ­ĆĄČ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘ČˆĹŹĆĄ Ç ĆĄĆžÇż Č…Ç Č Ć— Ç Č‚ÇˆČˆÇ§Č Ç‚ĆĽ Ć”Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŒ ǟǴdz Ć¨ÂşÂşĆŚÇˆÇźÇłĆ˘ĆĽ ƨȇƢǤǴdz ǖººƌŰ ŅƢōƥ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ÇžÇ“Č ÇšĆ› Â?Śºƌǰdzƥ ĆžČ€ÂşÇŒĹ­ĆĄ ƥǀǿĿ Ç˛ČˆÇ´ÇŹÇłĆĄÇ˛ČˆÇ´ÇŹÇłĆ˘ĆĽ Č?Ć› ÇľĆ˘ČˆÇŹÇłĆĄ Ƣǟǟǰŝ Č?  Ĺ›ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşĆŚÇłĆ˘ÇŁ ǚƗ ƨǴººƼ Ĺ› Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Ć˝ĆĄÇƒ Ć˘ÇˇČ Â?Ç ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄ ȆǠǝƢÇ? Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ ŇƽƗ Ƣǟȇƞdz Ç†ČˆÇł Ƣǡ Dzǯ ǚȂǸÇ&#x;ƞȇ ÇśČ€Ç§Ĺ…Ć˘ĆŹÇłĆ˘ÂşĆĽČ Ç…Ć˘Ĺ§ ǜǰ ōǞƌƏƍ ƧDŽǣ ÇšĆ—ÇšČ Ç‚Č‡ Ĺ›ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ Ç­ Ƣǟǿ ÇŠČˆĹŞ ĆĄ ǞƼ ǾȂǏȇ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǎǧ Ć§Ç‚ÇżĆ˘ÇœÇˇ Dzưǡ ƧǂƯƚŭƥ ǹƢǠǧȋƥ ǒǠººººƼ ǭƢǟǿǚƢǯ śººººơ ÄżČ Ć¨Ç´Ç¸ĹŤĆĄ Ǟǡ ÇšČ Ć˘Ç ĆŹÇłĆ˘Âş ººƼ ÇŽÇłĆżČ Â?Ƨ Ç„ÇŁČ ÇƒÇ‚Č‡Ć› Ǻǡ Dzǯ ƢēƞȀººNj Ĺ– dzƥ ƨ ǸƟǔdzƥ Dzưǡ Ƣđ ÇľĆ˘ČˆÂşÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄ Äť ƨǴƯƢŲ Ç Č‚Çˇ Ć— ÇšĆœÇ§ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤ ĆĄ ǎǨdz Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇşÇ°ÇłČ Â? Ć¨Č‡Ç„ÇˇÇ Ć¨Ç¸ČˆÂşÂş ÇŤČ ÇžÂşÂşĆĽĆ˘Ç— ƢǸŎ ǚƢǯ Ĺ› Ưƞōƥ Č?ÇŻ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǎǧ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ¨ÂşÇ‡ Â?ƨdzƢōƥ Ç˝ ǀǿĿ ĆžČˆÇ ĆŚÇłĆĄ ČƒĆžÇ?dzƥ ǎdzƿ Ç€ĆťĆ˜Č‡ Ĺƒ Ç ĆĄÇ‚ÇŹÇłĆĄ ȆǠ ǝƢÇ? Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć˘ĹˇĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Ƣđ Ç•Ç‚ Ɵǟȇ Ŗdzƥ ƨº ÇŹČ‡Ç‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ÇšĆ˜ÂşÇŒĆĽ Ç Ć˘ĆŚĆŹÇ&#x;Č? ĆĄ śǠƼ Ç˝Ç€ĆťĆ˜ ȇ ǚƗ ƽǂǨǴdz ȆǤƌǟȇ Ƣǡ Č†ÂşÇŹČˆÇŹĹŤĆĄÇ˝ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Ǻǡ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ— Ç•Ć˘ÇŒÇźÇ´Çł ƨȇDŽǡǂdzƥ Ć¨Ç¸ČˆÇŹÇłĆĄ Č‚Çż Č… ŚǿƢǸŪƥ Dz ǸǠdzƥ Äż Č‚Çż ȅDŽǡ ǂdzƥDzǸǠǴdz ȆºººLJƢLJȋ ĆĄ ǼƞŎƥ ǚƛ Â?Č…Ç‚ÇœÇť ƨȀƳ Č Ć¤ÂşÂşÂşÇˆĆˇ DzǸƏƄƥ ĹƒĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄ Çş Ç&#x;ƧDŽǣ DzǿƗ DzÇ?Ǩȇ ȅǀdzƥȆšȂdzƥ Ç–ĹŹĆĄ ǎdzƿ Ç‚ÇˆÇŻČ Â?Ç Ć˘Ç? ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ÇˆÇŻ Ǟǡ ÇŞČˆÂşÇˆÇźĆŹÇłĆ˘ĆĽ ǜƏȇ ǚƗƤŸ ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Č…Ćż DzǸÇ&#x; Č… Ć˜ĆĽ ÇľĆ˘ČˆÇŹÇłĆĄ ǚƗ řǠȇ ĆĄÇ€ÇżČ Č†ĆłÇ Ć˘ĹŹĆĄ Äż Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŹÇłĆĄ Ć˝Č ĆžĆˇ ĆąÇ Ć˘Ćť ČŒÇ¸Ç´Çł Ç˝Ç Ć˘Č€Ç›Ć› ƤŸ Č Â?ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ DzƝƥƽ Ǻǡ Ç?ƢƟNjƗ Â?ƧDŽǣ Ĺ„Ć› Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ÂşÇˆ ÇŻ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ¨Ç‡ ǹȂÇ? Č Č ÇƒÇ‚Č‡ Ć› Ć§Ç‚ÇżĆ˘ÇœÇˇ Â?Ĺ› Ưƞōƥ Č?ÇŻ ǚƛǞǍƥȂdzƥ džǨǝ Dz ǸŚǂŤƚŭƥ ĆĄÇ€ ÇżÇšĆœÇ§ Â?ÇžÂşÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť ÇŠĆ˘ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ÄżČ Ç Ć˘Ç— Č?ĆĄ ǎdzƿ ǺǸǓ ƢǝƢǯ ĆĄÇ€Ä‘Č Ǟƍƥƿ ƪºººǍȂdzƥĿ Ć˘Č€ĆłÇ Ć˘ĆťČ Ć§Ç„ÇŁ DzƝƥƽ ǾƢººǏǡ Ǟǝ Č‚ÇŻ ȅDŽǡǂdzƥ ÇžÂşÂşĆĽĆ˘Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Äż ǂŤƚǸ Ç´ÇłÇ?ǂǧ DzǸÇ&#x; Ć˘ÇźÇťĆ˘Ç°ÇˇĆœÂşÂş ºººººººƼ ǚƢǯ Č‚Çł Dzǔǧȋ ĆĄ Ǻǡ ǚƢǯ Â?Ç? Č‚Ç?ĹŹĆĄ ƔƥȂºººººLJ Â?ƊƥǂŤƚŭƥ ÇŽÇ´ĆŹÇł ƨȇDŽǡ ǂdzƥ ƨdzČ?ƞdzƥ ǚƛƢǔȇƗ Ç‚Ç? ÇˇÄżČ Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂººººLJƛ Ć˝Č Ćž ĹŤĆĄ ƔƢǤdzƛ Ĺ™ Ç ĆŤÂ?ÇľČ?Ç&#x;Č?ĆĄ DzĆ&#x;ƢLJȂdz Č Ć— ǺȇǂǓƢƸǴdz Ć¨ĆŚÇˆÇźÇłĆ˘ĆĽ Ć¨Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŒ ǝȋƥ Ǻǡ Ç?Č‚ ǟdzƥ ƥǀŎ śǠǡ ȆǴºǏÇ&#x; ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ ǭƢǟǿ ǚƗ ČƒÇ Ć— Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇˆÇŻ ƧȂºººǏdzƥ ÇśČ€ÂşÂşÂşĆ¸ÇźĹťČ ÇžČˆÇ§ ÇšČ‚ÇŻÇ Ć˘ÂşÂşÇŒČ‡ ÇşČ‡Ç€ÇłĆĄÇŽĆ ÇłČ Ć— Ǟǧƞȇ ȅǀdzƥ Č‚ÇżČ Ć¨Č‡Ç„ÇˇÇ‚ÇłĆĄ ǚƗ ÇšČ Ć˝Č ÇśČ€Ç´Ç¸Ç ÂşÂşĆĽ ǜĔƢŝƛ ĆĄČ ĆžÂşÇŹÇ¨Č‡ ǚƗ ÇšČ Ć˝ Ć¨Ç˜ÂşÇŒÇťČ‹ĆĄ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ Äż Ç ĆĄÇ‚Ç¸ĆŹÂşÇ‡Č?Çł ƞºǍ ĹƒĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄ ÇšĆ˜ÂşĆĽ Ç Č‚Ç ÇŒÇłĆĄ Č‚ÇżČ Ƣēƥƿ ƞơ Äż Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ´ÇŹÇ Çł Ć¨ČˆĆ¸Ç“ ƥȂǠǏȇ ǜȀǟÇ&#x; Č„Ç´ĹŁ

Tel Aviv University - Israel - uri-h@freud.tau.ac.il

23

S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


The Impact of Gaza's Siege on the Palestinian Issue in the International Context

ƧDŽ ǣ ǝƢǘǫ ȄǴǟ ǑȁǂǨŭơ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯƗ Ņȁƾdzơ ǩƢȈLjdzơ Ŀ ƨȈǼȈǘLj ǴǨdzơ ƨȈǔ Ǭdzơ ȄǴǟ ȆǷǂǯ ƧƽƢǣ ƽ

Dr. Ghada Karm i The sie ge of Gaza which Israel imposed in its latest and harshest form has been allowed to contin ue withou t any interference from external forces. It is remarkable that Israel has been ab le to main tain a sieg e widely condemned by international humanitarian and aid agen cies. No attempt has been m ade to prevent Israel fro m pursuing this cour se, no real pressure exerted to force Israel to end the sie ge, and no sanctions imposed against Israel. O n the con trary, in June the European Union upgraded its relations with Israel which will allow Israel special ac cess to many in ternal EU committe es and to decision ma king. It is im portant to understan d the basis and reasons for Israel's apparent impunity from prosecution. This pape r will arg ue that the main cause of internatio nal inaction is connected to the image of Gazans as a special spe cies of h uman who can be treated differen tly. This in turn is associated with the western view of Israelis as 'peop le like us '. While Israel ahs been skilful in cultivating this im age ofitself in the West, theAr ab world has also been complicit. The paper will analyse the reasons for Arab inaction.

ƾºNjƗȁ ȄǐºǫƘƥ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ǾǓ ǂǨƫ ȅǀdzơȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ ǁƢǐƷ ǹƛ ȅƗ ƢŶȁƽ ǁơǂǸƬºLJȏƢƥ ǂǔƻȋơ ƔȂǔdzơ DZƢǻ ƾºǫ ƧŚƻȋơ ƨ ǴºƷǂŭơ Ŀ DZ ƢǰNjȋơ DzȈƟơǂººLJƛ ǹƗ ǂǜǼǴ dz ƪǧȐdzơ ǺǷ ǾǴǠdzȁ ȃǂƻȋơ ƨȈƳǁƢŬ ơ ȃȂººǬdzơ ǺǷ Dzƻƾƫ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ƩȏƢǯȂdzơ Ƥ ƴººNjȁ ƨǻơƽƗ Ƕǣǁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǬdz ƢǿǁƢǐºƷ ȄǴǟ ȆºǬƦƫ DzȈƟơǂºLJ ƛ ǝƽǂdz Ʃȏ ȁƢŰ ƨȇƗ ȅǂš ǶǴǧǹƢºLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬ Ʒ DZƢů Ŀ ƨǴǷƢǠdzơ DzȈƟơǂºLJ ƛ ǁƢƦƳȍ ȆǬȈǬƷ ƽȂȀů DZǀƦĄȇ Ńȁ  DzǸǠdzơ ơǀ ǿ DzưǷ ƨǴǏ ơȂǷ Ǻǟ ȆǨǧǒ ȈǬǼdzơ ȄǴǟ Dzƥ ƢȀȈǴǟ ƩƢƥȂǬǟƨȇƗ ǑǂǨƫŃȁ ǁƢǐūơơǀǿ ȆȀǼƬdz ȄǴǟȋ DzȈƟơǂLJƛǞǷ ǾƫƢǫȐǟ ȃȂƬLjǷ Ǟǧǂƥ ĺ ȁǁȁȋơ ƽƢŢȏ ơ ǵƢǫ ǹơǂȇDŽƷ ȂȈǻȂȇ ĺȁǁȁȋơ ƽƢŢȏơ ǹƢŪ Ǻ Ƿ ƾȇƾǠǴdz DZȂǏȂǴdz Dz ȈƟơǂºLJƛDZȂƼȈºLJ ƢŲƩƢȇȂƬLjŭơ ƢǔȇƗ ǁơǂǬdzơ ƨǟƢǼǐdzȁ ƨȈǴƻơƾdzơ ǺǷ ƶǓ ơȂdzơ DzȈƟơǂLJ ƛ ƩȐǧƛ Ɣơǁȁ ƣƢƦLJȋơȁ džLJȋơǶȀǨǻ ǹƗ ǵƢŮ ơ ǺǷ Ǿǻƛ džȈƟǂdzơ ƤººƦLjdzơ ǹƗ ƩƢººƦƯƛ DZȁƢŢ ƨººLJơǁƾ dzơ ǽǀȀǧƨ ȈƟƢǔºǬdzơ ƨºǬƷȐŭơ ƨǴȈǐǧ ǶĔƗ ȄǴǟ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘººǫ ǹƢǰºLJ ƧǁȂǐºƥ ǖºƦƫǂǷ Ņȁƾdzơ ȆƻơǂƬǴdz ơǀǿȁ Ǧ ǴƬű Dzǰºººnjƥ ǶȀǠǷ DzǷƢǠƬdzơ Ƥ Ÿ Ǻȇǀdzơȁ ǂººnjƦdzơ ǺǷ ƨǏƢƻ Ŀ ƢǼǴưǷ ƤǠNj ǶĔƗ ȄǴǟ śȈǴȈƟơǂLJȎ dz ƨȈƥǂǤdzơ ƧǂǜǼdzƢƥǖƦƫǂȇ ǽǁȁƾƥ ȃƾdzƢē ơƿ ƾººƷ Ŀ ƧǁȂǐdzơǽǀǿ džȇǂǰƫ Ŀ ƪǟǂººƥ ƾºǫ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ǹƗ śºƷ DzǴƸƬLJ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ǽ ǀǿ ǹƜǧ ƨŻǂŪơ Ŀ ǭǂƬnjȇ ƢǔȇƗ ĺ ǂǠdzơ ŃƢǠdzơȁ ƣǂǤdzơ

* Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter, UK - Ghada.karmi@ btinte rnet.com

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Besieging Hatred Dr. Ahm ad Ab u Tawahina *

Not al l Israeli J ews hate Palestinians and not all Palestinians hate Jews, but t he ones th at do have various re asons. Many I sraeli Jews believe that the Palestinians main goal is to "drive t he Jews into the sea". Howeve r, Palestin ians belie ve that Israel's continued settleme nt expans ion into P alestine land is slowly destroying any hope of an ind ependent Palestinia n state promised to them by both Isr ael andth e internatio nal community. The irony is that Palestinians often cite that it's the Israe li state through continued expansionism which is actively deriving the Palestinians into the sea. In 1948, Israel de clared inde pendence in what w as once Palestine over 40 0 Palestinian villages were destroyed and their people forced to flee their homelan d. There a re many re corded instances of mass acres bein g carried out by Jewish terror ist organizations against Palestinian civilian s. The hatred and v iolence b etween Palestinians and I sraeli Jew s was born.This vio lence and hatred are incr easing as long as the conflict do es not be resolved. The pu rpose of this pape r is to present a psycho-analytical interpretation for ways of th inking am ong both parties an d their states of mind, their fears an d anxieties in relation to the fu ture of conflict.

25

S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges

Ć¨ČˆÇżĆĄÇ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄ ƧǂÇ?ƢŰ Ć¨ÇźČˆĆˇĆĄČ‚Ç— Č‚ĆĽĆ— ƞŧƗ Ć˝ ÇŽÇłÇ€ÇŻČ Â?Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆ ǴǨdzƥ ǽƢť ǽǂ ǰdzƥ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJČ?ƥDzǯ ČƒĆžÂşĆŚČ‡ Č? Ǻǡ ǚƗ Ćž ČˆÇŻĆ˜ĆŹÇłĆ˘ÂşÂşĆĽ ÇşÇ°ÇłČ Â?Ć˝Č‚Č€ČˆÇłĆĄ ǽƢť ǽǂǰdzƥ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Dzǯ ȅƞºƌȇ Č?ǧ Ǻǡ Śưǰ dzƥ ƞºººººǏƏǠȇ ǜđƢºº ººƌLJƗ ǜȀȇƞdz ǜđȂǴººººǍ Äż ǽǂǰ dzƥ ǚȂǟǰȇ Č‚Çż Ç˛ÇŁĆ˘ÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ ÇśČ€Ç´Ç¤ÂşÇ‹Č Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨Ç´Çł Č†ÇˆČˆĆ&#x;ǂdzƥǼƞŎƥ ǚƗ Ĺ›ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ Ç ĆĄÇ‚Ç¸ĆŹÂşÇ‡ĆĄ ǚƗ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ƞºǏƏǠȇ Â?DzºƼƢǏŭƥ Äż  ǂƸ ƌdzƥ Ĺ„Ć› Ć˝Č‚Č€ČˆÇłĆ˘ĆĽ ƹDŽdzƥ ÇžÇťĆ˜ÂşÇ‹ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ȆǓ ĆĄÇ Č‹ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŠ Ć˘ÇźÇ—Č‚ĆŹÇˆĹ­ĆĄ ÇžČˆÇ‡Č‚ĆŤÄż Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ Ƣđ ĆžÇ&#x;Č Ć¨Ç´ÂşÂşÇŹĆŹÇˆÇˇ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç§ Ć¨ÇłČ Ć˝ ÇľĆ˘ČˆÂşÇŤ Äż DzǡƗ Č…Ć— Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ȆǔºǏȇ ǚƗ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǞǸƏÄ? ĆĄČ Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ Ǻǡ Dzǯ DzƌǍ Ǻǡ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ĹˆĆ˘Ç˜ČˆĆŹÂşÇ‡Č?ĆĄ ǞLJȂƏdzƥ ǚƗ Ĺ„Ć› ÇšČ ĹšÇŒČ‡ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ǚƗ Äż Ć¨ÇŤÇ Ć˘Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ ÇşÇ¸Ç°ĆŤČ Ć¨Č‡Č Ć˘ĹŽĆĄ ƨǧƢơ Ĺ„Ć› Çś ǿǂŸ ȅǀdzƥ Č‚Çż Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Č†Ç“ĆĄÇ Č‹ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂººLJƛ ÇšČ?Ç&#x;Ć›  ǾƢÇ&#x;ƞȀ ººNj ĆŽČˆÂşÂşĆˇ ǂººƸƌdzƥ Äż ǜđ ȆººǏǴȇ Ć˝Ć˘Ç°Č‡Č Ç˝Ç€ÇżĆ˛Ć&#x;ƢƏǝ Ǻǡ ÇšĆ˘ÇŻČ Ĺ›Ç˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç§ Ć˘Č€ÇźČˆÂşÂşĆˇ ÇĽ ǂǠȇ ǚƢǯ Ƣǡ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƢŎČ? ººǏƏLJƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;ČƒÇ‚ÇŹÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿŅƢ ǿƗ Ç Ć˘ĆŚĆłĆ—Č Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç§ ƨ ȇǂǍ Ǻǡ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ— Śǡƞƍ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ƣđ ƪǡ ƢºººǍ Ŗdzƥ Ç ÇƒĆ˘Ä?ĆĄ Ǻǡƞȇƞ Ǡdzƥ ĆŞÇ´Ć´ÂşÂşÂşÇ‡Č Ɔƥ Ç‚ÂşÂşÇˆÇŤ ÇśÄ“Č‚ČˆÂşÂşĆĽ Ć§Ç Ć˝Ć˘Ç¤Çˇ Ć˜ÂşÇŒÇť Ƣǟǿ ÇşÇˇČ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Ĺ›ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ ÇŞĹž Ć¨ČˆÇťČ‚ČˆČ€Ç? Ć¨ČˆÂşĆĽĆ˘ÇżÇ Ć› ĆŠ Ć˘Ç¸ÇœÇźÇˇ ÇśĆŹČ‡ĹƒĆ˘ ÇˇČ Ĺ›ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ ºLJČ?ĆĄČ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ Dzǯ śº ĆĽ Ć¨ČˆÇżĆĄÇ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄČ ÇŚÇźÇ ÇłĆĄ śººƼ ǎººNj Č?ºƼ ƢǸ Ä“ĹšĆŤČ Ć˝ĆĄĆ˝Ç„ĆŤ ÇĽČ‚ÂşÇˆÇ§Ć¨ČˆÇżĆĄÇ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄČ ÇŚ ǟǠdzƥ ƥǀŎ Dz ºơ ƽƢŸƛ Ç‚ÇœÇť ƨȀƳȂdz Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨Çť Ƨǂ ÇœÇť ʼnƞǏƍ Ĺ„ Ć› Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ Ǽƞē śƌǝƢŪƥ Ć˘Ç¸Č€ÇŹÇ´ÇŤČ Ć˘Ç¸Č€Ç§Č Ć˘Ĺą ÇƒĆĄÇ‚ĆĽĆ— Ĺ„Ć› ÇĽ ĆžÄ“Č Ć˘Ç¸ÇŻ Ĺ› Ç§Ç‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ Dzǯ ŚǰǨƍ Ć¨ÇŹČ‡Ç‚Ç—Č Ć˘Ç¸Č€ÇźČˆĆĽ ÇśĆ&#x;ƢǏdzƥ Ç? ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ Ç˛ĆŚÇŹĆŹÇˆÇˇ Ć”ĆĄÇƒĆ› Ć¨ČˆÇˆ Ǩǟdzƥ ƨƸÇ?Ç´Çł ƧDŽǣ Ʋ ǡƢǝǂƼ Çľ ƢÇ&#x; ǂȇƞǡ GCM HP's Dirctor Gerenal E mail: amal@ gcm hp.net


Medical Ethics in Conflict Zones: The Doctor as Doctor and the Doctor as Citizen

Dr. De reck Summer field *

A review of the ro le played by doctors in conflic t zones indicates frequen t violation of medi cal ethical codes like the World Medical A ssociation's anti-torture Decla ration of Tokyo, and those parts of the Fourt h Geneva Conventio n that guarantee the rights of a civilian population to unimpeded access to services vital to life, and the rights of health professionals on duty to immun ity from m ilitary action. The va lues of the doctor as doctor seem fr equently i n tension w ith thevalues of the doctoras c itizen, with a p articular identityand political worldview. Discussion will include case stud ies drawn from Israel /Palestin e (in parti cular), Iraq,Turkey, USA, UK, and Latin Am erica.

* So uth London and M audsl ey, UK - de rek.su mmerfield@ slam. nhs.uk

ǝơǂǐdzơ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƩƢȈǫȐƻȋ ơ ǺǗơȂǸǯȁ ƤȈƦǘǯ ƤȈƦǘdzơ ǁȁƽ

ƾǴȈǧ ǂũ Ǯȇǂȇƽ ƽ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ƤȈºƦǘdzơ ǾºƦǠǴȇ ȅǀdzơ ǁȁƾǴdz ǂǜǼdzơ ƔƢǬdzƢƥ ǹȐǟƛ ƢȀȈǴǟ ǎǻ ƢǸ ǯ ƨȈºƦǘdzơ ǥơǂǟȋơȁ ś ǻơȂǬǴdzƧǁǂǰ ƬǷ ǝȂǫȁ ś ƦƬȇ ǾǻƜǧ ƽȂǼºƦdzơȁ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƨȈǠǸ Ūơ Ǻǟ ǁƽƢǐ dzơ ƤȇǀǠƬdzơ ƨǔǿƢǼŭ ȂȈǯȂǗ ǞȈǸŝ ƽȁDŽƬǴdz śǻƾŭơ ǪººººƷ DzǨǰȇ ȅǀdzơȁ ǞºººƥơǂdzơǦȈǼƳ ǩƢưȈǷ Ŀ ƧƽǁơȂdzơ ǪƟơȂǟ ȅƗ ƨȀƳơȂǷ ǹȁƽ ƨȇǁȁǂǔ dzơȁ ƨȈººººº LJƢLJȋơ ƨȈººººnjȈǠŭơ ƩƢǷƾŬơ Ŀ œǘ dzơ DzºǬūơ Ŀ śǴǷƢǠdzơȁ ƨȈºƦǘdzơ Ƕ ǫơȂǘdzơǪƷ Ǯdzǀǯȁ ƨǧƢǓȍƢƥ ǶȈººǫ Ǒ ǁƢǠƬƫ ǶȀǴǸǟ ƔơƽƗ ƔƢǼƯƗ ƨȇǂǰºLj Ǡdzơ ǦǼǠdzơ DZƢǸǟƗ ǺǷ ƨǻƢǐºƷ ǾƫƢȈºǫȐ ƻƗ ǞǷ ƩƢºǫȁȋơ ƤǴǣƗ Ŀ ƤȈºƦǘǗ ǾǴǸǟĿ ƤȈºƦǘdzơ ƩƢȈǫȐƻƗȁ ǩǂǘƬȈºLJ ƢǔȇƗ ƨ ǏƢƻ ƨȈºLJ ƢȈLJ ƨȈŭƢǟ Ƨǂǜǻȁ ƨǏ Ƣƻ ƨȇȂđ ǺǗơȂǸǯ ƢȈǯǂƫ ǩ ơǂǠdzơ śǘººLjǴǧ ? Dz ȈƟơǂºLJƛĿ ǞºǫơȂdzơ ǺǷ ƩȏƢºƷ ńƛ lj ƢºǬǼdzơ  ƨȈǼȈƫȐdzơ Ƣǰ ȇǂǷƗȁ ƢȈǻƢǘ ȇǂƥ ƨȈǰȇǂǷ ȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

26


27S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Palestinians Under Siege: A Critical Psychology Perspective on Me ntal Health and Justice

ǁȂǜǼǷ ǺǷ ƨȇƾǬǻ ƨLJơǁƽ ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ ǹȂȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨdzơƾǠdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdz ơ ǞǫơȂdz džǨǼdzơ ǶǴǟ

džǯȂǧ džȈǻƽ ƽ

Dr. De nnis Fo x *

The drastic mental health consequenc es of living under siege are well-known. Although specific outcomes vary according to loca l condition s, besiege d commu nities arou nd the globe experience lethal co mbination s of restri cted mov ement, physical violence , hunger and disease , and disru ptions to sc hools, hospita ls, welfare support systems, and other publi c and community institutions. In w hatever c ombinatio n these an d other factors arise, the c ommon result is wid espread m ental distress. In this pap er the au thor will review literatures that address two primary points from a critical psychology perspective. First, the ordinary assistance that psychiatrists, psych ologists, social worker s, and other therap eutic pro fessionals offer distressed individ uals runs into an obvious probl em under siege conditions: individ ual therap y and similar supports are scarcely sufficient to deal with a situation that requires the restoration of justice. This commonsense observation , which c ritical psychology applies more generally to the work of mental health wo rkers even under more or dinary cir cumstanc es, takes o n added significance when injustice transfor ms healing and recovery fro m an ind ividual concern to a com munity effort. Second, a num ber of politically relevan t social-psychological factors interfere with bo th the development of empathy an d the reco gnition of injustice. These factors dampen g lobal pressure to end the siege and hold Is rael to international hum an rights standards. Two factors are of special importance: the dominant d iscourse, especially in Israel a nd the United States, w hich dism isses Palestinian suffering a s selfinduced and politically justified; and the corres ponding reliance on conf lict resolution methods such a s dialogue and negotiation that ma intain a stance of academic and political neu trality. Ending the siege and the b roader co nflict require pressing for approaches that acknowledge the existing imb alance of power and suffering a s well a s the h istorical and continuing responsibility for injustice.

ƨǧȁǂǠŭ ơ ǁȂǷȋơ ǺǷ Ȇ ǿ ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ ƧƢȈºƸǴdz ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢǠƦƬdzơ ǹƗ ȏƛ ƨȈǴƄơ ǥȁǂǜ Ǵdz ƢǠºƦƫ ǦǴƬţ ƾºǫƨdzƢƷ Dzǯ Ŀ Ʋ ƟƢƬǼdzơ ǹƗǶǣ ǁȁ ơƾȈƳ ƨǯǂūơ Ǻ Ƿ DzƫƢºººǫ ƤǯǂǷ ǺǷ ňƢǠƫ ŃƢǠdzơ ƔƢŴƗ Dzǯ Ŀ ƧǂǏƢƄơ Ʃ ƢǠǸƬĐơ Džǁơƾŭơ ǁƢȈĔơ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓƛ Ǒǂŭơȁ ǝȂŪơȁ ȅƾººººLjŪơ ǦǼǠdzơȁƧƾȈººººǬŭơ ƩƢººººLj LJƚŭơȁƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƨ ǿƢǧǂdzơȁ ǺǷƢ ǔƬdzơ Ƕǜǻȁ ƩƢȈǨºººnjƬLjŭơȁ ǮǴƫ ǕƢ ººººƦƫǁơ ƨȈǨȈǯ Ǻǟ ǂǜǼdzơ ǒǤººººƥȁ ȃǂƻȋơ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨǯǂƬºnjŭơ ƨƴȈƬǼdzơ ǹƜǧ ȃǂƻƗ ǂǏƢǼǟ śºƥ ȁ ƢȀǼȈºƥ ȁƗ ƢȀǼȈƥ ƢǸȈǧ ǂ ǏƢǼǠdzơ ǥȂLJ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ Ŀ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƧƢǻƢǠŭơǺǷ ƨǷƢǟ ƨdzƢƷ DZơȂƷȋơ Dzǯ Ŀ Ȇǿ śƬȈºLJ ƢLJƗ śƬǘº Ǭǻ DZȁƢǼƬƫ Ŗ dzơ ƩƢȈƥƽȌdz Ǒǂǟ ʼnƾǬƫ ńƛ Ǧdzƚŭ ơ ȄǠLjȇ Ŗdzơ ƧƽƢƬǠŭơ ƧƾǟƢºLjŭƢƥ ƨǏƢƻ ńȁȋơƨǘ ǬǼdzơ ȅƾǬǻ ȆLjǨǻ ǁȂǜǼǷ ǺǷ ǹȂȈǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơȁ ǹȂȈººLjǨǼdzơ ǹȂȈƟƢǐƻȋơȁ ǹȂȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƔƢºƦǗȋơ ƢȀǷƾºǬȇ ǾƳơȂƫ Ŗ dzơȁ ƨȈººººLjǨǻ ƨǼŰ ǺǷ ǹȂǻƢǠȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ ƽơǂǧȌ dz ǹȁǂƻȉơ ǹȂȈǼȀŭơȁ Ƕǟƾdzơ DZƢǰººNjƗȁ ȅƽǂǨdzơ ƱȐǠdzƢǧ ǁƢǐūơ ƩȏƢººƷ Ŀ ƨȈȀȇƾºƥ ƨǴǰºnjǷ Ȃǿ ǾȈdzƛ ƱƢƬŹ ƢǷ DzƳ ǞǓȁ ǞǷ DzǷƢǠƬǴdz ƨȈǧƢǯ ǹȂǰƫ Ƣ Ƿ ơǁƽƢǻ ƨđƢººººnjŭơ ǶǴǟ ƢȀºǬƦǘȇ Ŗdzơ ƨȈȀȇƾºƦdzơ ƨǜºƷȐŭơ ǽǀǿ ǹƛƨdzơƾǠdzơ ǪȈºƦǘ ƫ ƧƽƢǟƛ ǥȁǂǜdzơ Ŀ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ DZƢǸǟ ƔơƽƗ Ȅ Ǵǟ ǵƢǟDzǰ njƥ ȅƾǬǼdzơ džǨǼdzơ DzȇȂŢ Ŀ ƨdzơƾǠdzơ ƣ ƢȈǣ ƤºƦLjƬȇ śºƷ ƨȈǧƢǓƛ ƨȈŷ Ɨ ƤºLjƬǰƫ ƨȇƽƢǠdzơ ǪǴǠƬƫ ƨ ȈǻƢưdzơ ƨǘºǬǼdzơ ȆǠǸƬů ƾȀƳ ń ƛ ȅƽǂǧ Ƕǿ ǺǷ ƔƢǨnjdzơȁ ƱȐǠdzơ Ŗdzơ ƨȈºLJƢȈLjdzơ ƨdzȏƾdzơ Ʃơƿ ƨ ȈºLjǨǼdzơȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ǂǏ ƢǼǠdzơ ǺǷ ƽƾǠƥ ǽǀǿǹƛ ǶǴǜdzơ DZƢǰ ººNjƗ ȄǴǟ ǥǂǠƬdzơȁǦ ǗƢǠƬdzơ ƔƢǼººƥ ƨȈǴǸǟ Ŀ DzƻƾƬƫ ǁƢǐƸǴ dz ƾƷ ǞǓȁ DzƳƗ ǺǷ Ȇŭ ƢǠdzơ ǖǤǔdzơ ǦȈǨţ ȄǴǟ DzǸǠƫ ǂ ǏƢǼǠdzơ ƾų ƢǼǿ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơǹƢººLjǻȍơǩȂººǬƷ ŚȇƢǠǷ ǵơǂƬººƷơ Ȅ Ǵǟ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ǁƢºƦƳƛȁ Ŀ ƨǏ Ƣƻ ƾƟƢºººººLjdzơ ƣƢǘŬơ ƨȈŷȋơ ǺǷ ƨǏƢƻ ƨƳǁƽ ȄǴǟ ǺȇǂǐǼǟ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơƧƢǻƢǠǷ Ǻǟ ǥǂ ǘdzơ ǒǤȇ ȅǀdzơ ƧƾƸƬŭ ơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơȁ DzȈƟơǂLJƛ ǶȀºLjǨǻƗ ǹȂȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƢȀȈǧ ƤƦLjƬȇȁ Dzƥ ƢȈLJƢȈLJ ƧǁŐǷ ƨdzƢƷ ƢĔƘǯȁ Ŗdzơ Ǒ ȁƢǨƬdzơȁǁơȂūơ DzưǷ ǝơŗdzơ ǒǧ ƤȈdzƢºººLJƗ ȄǴǟ ƽƢǸƬǟȏơ Ņ ƢƬdzƢººƥȁ ǁƢǐūơ ƨdzƢºººƷ ƔƢĔ ƛ ǹƛ ȆººLJ ƢȈLjdzơȁȆŻƽƢǯȋơ ƽƢȈūơ ǺǷ ƢǨººǫȂ Ƿ ǀƼƬƫ ǥǂƬǠƫ DZȁƢǼƬdzơ ǺǷ DZ ƢǰºNjƗDzƳ Ɨ ǺǷ ǖǤǔdzơ ȆǟƾƬºLj ȇ ǞLJȁȋơ ǝơǂǐdzơȁ ƨȈdzȂƠLjŭƢƥ ǂǬƫȁƧƢǻ ƢǠŭơ ƽȂƳȂƥ ǥǂƬǠƫ ƢǸǯ ȃȂǬdzơǺȇǃơȂǷ Ŀ DZȐƬƻơ ƽȂƳȂƥ ƨdzơƾǠdzơ ǵơƾǠǻȏ ƧǂǸƬLjŭơȁ ƨȈźǁƢƬdzơ

* Un iversity of Illinois a t Springfield (Emer itus) Emeritus Asso ciate Professor of L egal Studies & Psyc hology df@d ennisfox.net  http://www.dennisfox.net

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

28


Study on the effects of the Siege on the quality of life of citizens in Gaza 84% of families were forced to change their da ily living conditions 95% were negatively affected in terms of their psychological well-being as a result of converting the Strip into a big prison By: D r. Samir Qouta & Aida Kassa b *

The I sraeli siegepushed aroun d 84% of Palestinian families to change the patterns of th eir lives; while a bout 93 % of the m gave up their daily liv ing requ irements. About 95% of the families in G aza, expressed their dis satisfac tion of the fact that Ga za Strip is conv erted in to a big prison, where they live in throughout th e night and day. A recent study about the "relationship b etween the siege and its impact o n the economic and social areas and the quality of life o f Palestinian families" revealed that the negative effects of the sie ge reached all facets of life and affected thewho le society tremendously a ndsusp ended pe ople's life.Acco rding to the Clinical Researcher, Dr. Samir Qouta, the Head of Department of Psychology at the Islamic Unive rsity in Gaza: "T he futu re of Palestinian families is in a real dan ger in th e light o f the continued blockade," this statement was made commenting ondisturbing facts sho wn by th e study; and stre ssing that the siege he ightene d the tension a nd desp air and uncertaintyof th e future of the citizens in the Gaza Strip. It was stated that the mor e the impact of the siege on social and e conomic situations, the less the quality o f life for families at all levels. D r. Qouta said; the most powerfu l results of the s tudy wer e the ne gative in dicator s particu larly on children , the sic k, students and the unemployed, which were refle cted on their behavior an d the exacerbate d tensio ns and d isturban ces. The stud y involved 244 heads of the family with average age (38 ) years, distributed in cities and camps a nd villa ges in G aza Strip using a tool to measure the eco nomic and soc ial leve ls as we ll as the World Health Organization (W HO) quality of life scale. Patients without medica tion..! The results of th e study s howed that 47% of patie nts in Gaza are notable to get th e medic ine they needed after Isr ael tightened its control over the crossing s and p revented aid convoys an d medical supp lies to e nter the hospitals in Gaz a. The s uffering of 38% of the p atients by not receiving medical services has inc reased as well. I n terms of socia l impacts, there has been a reduction in the socia l visits between citizens by 79% due to worsening of financial a nd social conditions. It was also indicate d by the study that most o f the interviewe es of the study ex pressed that they do not tend to s tay long outside the home due to the con ditions of work or other reasons. The siege imp acted ab out 92% on th e behav iors of citizens regardin g participating in social events. Due to th e continued siege, 95% of the citizens could not findthe objects a nd good s that they were looking for;while the prices rose 99% as theinco me of citizens we re reducedwith 68%; 45% of whom we re fired from th eir jobs ; moreover, 77% of the workers were su spended of their jobs in the construction sector and they were unable to sustain their w ork due to lack of bas ic mater ials for construc tion of cement a nd iron and oth ers. Sadness wa s reachin g up to 96% of the citizens as the y were listening tothe c omplain ts of the people;

29S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges

which in turn res ulted in creating a state of perm anent a nxiety, fear and tension. M oreover, accor ding to the SCL, the siege influe nces th e mental health s ymptoms,particularly; d epressio nsymptoms. The children ha d their share According to He ad of Department of Psyc hology, the share of children by this bloc kade wa s abund ant in terms of its negative eff ects on health, s ocial, and psychological well-being of c hildren. The resu lts of the study s howed that 51% of children do not have the des ire to pa rticipate in any a ctivities; while 47% of them are no long er able to perfor m the duties of s chool and family;anoth er 41% were complaining of ach es and physical p ains; a nd 48% of them were suffering fro m lower energ y and malnutrition. The children's suffering r esulting from the siege wasreach ing beyond this p oint, as signs of fear were appare nton 61% of them; while 45.5% ofthem s howed signs of anger. Regarding sleeping prob lems, 4 3% of children were complainin g of su ch problems as about 63% of the sample was c omplaining of a nxiety sy mptoms. M oreover, due to the sie ge, the s tudy rev ealed that 40% of the children were rep orted absent from schoo l; while 50% of the non-absent students were disp laying s ymptomsof lack of conc entratio n and po or attention. How can the citizens handle all these pressures? W hen a sked to comment on the study and s pecifically answer the q uestion ofhow c an child ren handlethe pressures that they are exposed to a s a resu lt of the siege, Dr. Qouta in his interpre tation; "the Pale stinian s ociety is a mira cle in terms of their tre mendous ability to han dle the s tress and finding mechan isms of coping with such stresso rs" Dr. Qouta added that during the crisis of power cuts for long ho urs, the Palestinians reso rted to overcoming th is prob lem by going back to p rimitive ways of life f rom the use of kerosine lamp s, candles and f irewood in lighting and heating; dur ing this period, an enhanced manifestation of social solidarity were displayed. Dr. Qouta added;"The h ope remains a veryimpo rtant role for the mental health of people despite their awareness of the meaning and nature of the conflict w ith the o ccupation"; suc h hope w ill enha nce their ability to striv e in life and the s earch fo r durable solutio ns to overcome the pro blems fa ced and threats o f life. Dr. Qouta expressed tha t the res ults sho wn by the stud y prece ded the I sraeli re cent tig htened siege o ver the past pe riod; str essing that the e conomic impacts,health and soc ialwill b e the mostseriousin light of the s uffering of citizens, deprived of most of their natural life necessities.

*Head of Psycholgy Department-Islamic Un iverity of Gaza / qo utasamir@hotmail. com


ƧDŽǣ Ŀ śǼǗ ơȂŭơ Ƨ ƢȈƷ ƧƽȂƳ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐ ūơ Ʃ ơŚƯƘƫ DZȂƷ ƨLJơǁƽ ƨȈnjȈǠŭơ ǶēƢȈƷ ǕƢŶƗ ŚȈǤƬdz ơȁǂǘǓơ ǂLJȋơ ǺǷ  ŚƦǯ ǺƴLJ ńƛ ǝƢǘǬdzơ DzȇȂƸƬdz ƢƦǴLJ ƩǂƯƘƫ ƨȈLj ǨǼdzơ ǶȀǟƢǓ ȁƗ  ƣƢLjǯ ƧƾȇƢǟȁ ƨƫȂǫ Śũ ƽ ǵƾ Ǡdz ǾƬǴǏơȂǷ ǺǷ ơȂǼǰǸƬȇ Ńȁ ǶŮƢǸǟƗƔƢǼºººƦdzơ ǝƢǘººǫ Ŀ śǴǷƢǠ dzơ ǺǷ ƢǿŚǣȁ ƾȇƾƷȁ ƪǼũƗ ǺǷ ƔƢǼƦǴdz ƨȈLJƢLJȋơ ƽơȂŭơƽȂƳȁ DžƢǼdzơ ȃȁƢǰºººººnjdz ǶȀǟƢǸƬºººººLJơ ƔơǂƳ śǼǗơȂŭơ ǺǷ  ȄǴǟ ǹDŽūơ ǶȈƻȁ ǂƫȂƬdzơȁ ǥȂŬơȁ ǪǴǬdzơ ǺǷ ƨŻƾƬLjǷ ƨdzƢƷ ǶȀȇƾdz ƾƳȁƗ ƢŲ ƧƾȇơDŽƬŭơ ǶēƢǻƢǠǷȁ

ńƛ ƨȈ ǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ǂºLJȋơ ǺǷ  ȂºƸǼƥ ȆǴȈ ƟơǂºLJȍơǁƢǐūơ Ǟǧƽ ƨȈǷȂȈdzơ ƨȈºnjȈ Ǡŭơ ƩƢºƦǴǘƬŭơ Ǻǟ ǶȀǼǷ  DZǃƢǼƫ ƢǸȈǧ ǶēƢȈƷ ǕƢŶƗ ŚȈ Ǥƫ DzȇȂººƸ Ƭdz ǢdzƢººƦ dzơ ǶȀƟƢȈƬ ºLJơ ǺǟƧDŽǣ Ŀ ơƾȇƾ Ţ ǂºLJȋơ ƽơǂǧƗ ǺǷ  ŐǟƢǸȈǧ ǁƢȀǼdzơȁ DzȈǴdzơ ǁơƾǷ ȄǴǟ ǾȈǧ ǹȂǸȈǬȇ ŚƦǯ ǺƴLJ ńƛ ǝƢǘǬdzơ

ǂǧơȂdzơ ǶȀƦȈǐǻ DZƢǨǗȌdzȁ

ƨȈǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơȁ ƨȇƽƢǐƬººǫȏ ơ ǾƫơŚƯƘƫȁ ǁƢǐūơ DZȂººƷ ƨººLJơǁƽ ƭƾººƷƗ ƩǂȀǛ Ɨȁ ƪdzƢǗ ƨȈºƦǴLjdzơ ǁƢǐūơ Ʃ ơŚƯƘƫ ǹƗ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴ Ǩdzơ ƧǂLJȋ ơ ƧƢȈƷ ƧƽȂŝ ƢȀƬǫȐǟȁ ƧƢȈūơ ǭơǂººƷ ƩƾŦȁ ƨǤ dzƢººƥ ƧǁȂǐ ºƥ ǞǸƬĐơ ȄǴǟ ƩǂƯƗȁ ƧƢȈūơ Ȇ ºƷƢǼǷ ƨǧƢǯ ǾȈǧ ƨǴǟƢǨdzơ

ƔơǂƳ ǂǧơȂdzơ ǶȀºƦȈǐǻ DZƢǨǗȌdz ǹƜǧ džǨǼdzơ ǶǴǟ ǶºLjǫ džȈƟǁ ƨºLJơǁƽ ƤLjƷȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨȈºƸǐdzơǶȀǟƢǓȁƗ ȄǴǟ ƨȈºƦǴLjdzơ Ǿ ƫǁȂǐƥ Ǻǰdzȁ ǁƢǐ ūơ ơǀǿ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơȁ ƨǯǁƢºnjŭơ Ŀ ƨƦǣǂdzơ ǶȀȇƾdz Ǻǰƫ Ń DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ǺǷ ǹƗ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ƩǂȀǛ Ɨ ƾǬǧ ƩƢºƦƳơȂdzơ ƔơƽƗȄǴǟ ǺȇǁƽƢºǫ ơȁƽȂǠȇŃ ǶȀǼǷ  ǹƗ ƢǸǯ ǂǯǀƫ ƩƢǗƢnjǻ ƨȇƗ Ŀ  ƶºƦǏƗ ƮȈºƷ  ƽƢºLjƳƗ ȁDŽǤƫ ǝƢƳȁȋơ ƩƗƾºƥ ƢǸȈǧ ƨȈǴƟƢǠdzơȁ ƨȈºLJǁƾŭơ ƨȇǀ ǤƬdzơ ƔȂLj dzƨǫƢǘdzơ ǑƢǨŵơ Ǻ ǷǹȂǻƢǠȇ ǶȀǼǷ ƩƢǷȐǟ ƩƾºƦǧ ƾūơ ơǀǿ ƾǼǟ ǁƢǐūơ ƔơǂƳ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƧƢǻƢǠǷ ƽȁƾ ºƷ ǦºǫȂƬƫ Ńȁ ƢǷƗ ǶȀǼǷ ȄǴǟ ǂȀǜƫ ƩƗƾººººƥ ƤǔǤdzơ ƩƢǷȐǟȁ ǶȀǼǷ  ȄǴǟ ǥȂŬơ ǶȀ ǼǷ  ƶ ºƦǏƗ ȅǀdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơǺǷ  ƢȀǼǷ ȄǰƬºNjơ ƾǬǧ ǵȂǼdzơ DzǯƢnjǷ ƪǤǴºƥ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ȄǴǟ ƨ ȈºLJƢǬdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ǝƢǓȁƗ ƤºƦLjƥȁ ǪǴǬdzơǑǂǟƗ ǶȀȇƾdz Śǣ ƨººƦǴǘdzơ ǺǷ  ŇƢǟ ƢǸǼȈºƥ ƨȈºLJơǁƾdzơ ƾǟƢºǬŭơ Ǻǟ ƤȈǤƬdzơ ƨ ºƦLjǻ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ DZȐ ƻDŽȈǯǂƬdzơ Ŀ DzǯƢnjǷ ǺǷ śƦ ȈǤƬŭơ ǁƢǐūơ Ǻǟ ƨ ŦƢǼdzơ Ʃ ƢǗȂǤǔ dzơDzǯ DZƢǸƬƷơ ǹȂǼǗ ơȂŭơ ǝƢǘƬ LJơ ǦȈǯ Ǻǰdzȁ Ŀ ƨƫȂºǫ ƽ DZȂºǬȇ ŸDzºǫƗƧŚƫȂºƥ ƪǻƢǯ ǹƛȁ ƨ ȈǷȂȈdzơ ǶēƢȈºƷ ŚLJ ȄǴǟ Ǚ ƢǨūơȁ Őǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ƨ ºǬƟƢǨdzơ ǾƫǁƾǬǷ Ŀ ƧDŽƴǠǷ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǞǸƬĐơ Ǯdzǀdz ǽŚLjǨƫ ǪǧơȂƬ ǴdzƩƢȈdzƕ ƽƢŸƛ ȄǴǟ Ǿƫ ǁƾǫȁ DZƢǸƬƷȏơȁ ƨǴȇȂǗ ƩƢǟƢºLjdz ȆƟƢºƥǂȀǰdzơ ǁƢȈƬdzơ ǝƢǘºǬ ǻơ ƨǷǃƗ DzǛ Ŀ śǼǗơȂŭơ ǹƗ ƶǓȁƗȁ ƧƢȈ ūơ ƤȈdzƢººººLJƗ ńƛ ƧƽȂǠdzơ DZȐƻǺǷ ƨǴǰººººnjŭơ ǽǀǿ ȄǴǟ ƤǴǤƬdzơ ńƛ ơȁƘŪ ƨƠǧƾƬdzơȁ ƧǁƢǻȍơ Ŀ Ƥǘūơȁ ǃƢǰdzơ ƶȈºƥƢǐ Ƿȁ ǝȂǸnjdzơ ǵơƾƼƬLJơ ǺǷ ƨȈ ƟơƾƦdzơ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ Ǧ ƫƢǰƬdzơ ǂǿ ƢǜǷ ǺǷ ƾȇƾǠdzơ ǾȈǧ ƩǃDŽǠƫ ƪ ǫȁ Ŀ ǞǷ ǹƢºLjǻȎdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐǴdzơƾƳ ǶȀ ǷȂǿȁ ƢǸƟƢºǫ DzǷȋơ ȄǬƦȇ ǥ ƢǓƗȁ ƨǴǏơȂǷ ȄǴǟǾƫǁƾǬǷ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽȇ ƢŠ DZȐƬƷȏ ơ ǞǷ ǝơǂǐdzơ ƨǠȈƦǗȁ ŘǠŭ Ǿǯơǁƽƛ ǾȀƳơȂƫ Ŗ dzơ ƩȐǰºnj ŭơ ȄǴǟ Ƥ ǴǤƬǴdz DZȂǴºƷ Ǻǟ ǶƟơƾdzơ ƮƸƦdzơȁ ƧƢȈūơ ƧŚLjǷ ǾƫƢȈƷ ȄǴǟơǂǘƻ Dzǰnjƫȁ ƽƾºnjŭơ ȆǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ǁƢǐūơ ƪǬƦLJ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƢēǂȀǛƗ Ŗdzơ Ʋ ƟƢƬǼdzơ ńƛ ǁƢNjƗȁ ǹȂǰƬºLJ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨȈƸǐdzơȁ ƨȇƽƢǐƬ ǫȏơ ƩơŚƯƘƬdzơ ǹƗ ƆơƾǯƚǷ ǵƢȇƘƥ Śƻȋơ ƩƢǷȂººǬǷ ǖººLjƥƗ ǺǷ ǶĔƢǷǂºƷ ǺǷ ǹȂǼǗơȂŭơ Ǿdz ǑǂǠƬȇ ƢǷDzǛ Ŀ ǂǘƻƗ ƨǸȈǴLjdzơ ƨȈǠȈƦǘdzơ ƧƢȈūơ

ƨǠǷƢŪƢºººƥ džǨ Ǽdzơ ǶǴǟǶººLjǫ džȈƟǁ ƨƫȂººǫ Śũ ƽ ƨ ººLJơǁƾdzơ ƾǠǷ DZƢººǫȁ DzǛ Ŀ ȆǬȈǬƷ ǂǘƻ Ŀƨ ȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƧǂLJȋơ DzƦǬƬLjǷ ǹƛ ƧDŽǤƥ ƨȈǷȐLJȍơ ńƛ ƆơŚºnjǷ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ƢēǂȀǛƗ Ŗdzơ ƨºǬǴǬŭơ ƩƢȈǘǠŭơ Ɣơǃƛȁ ǁƢǐ ūơ ǁơǂǸƬ LJơ ś ǼǗơȂŭơȃƾ dz DzƦǬƬLj ǸǴdz ǹƢǼƠǸǗȏơ ǵƾ ǟȁ DžƘȈdzơȁ ǂƫȂƬdzơ ƨƳǁƽ ƪǠǧǁ ƢĔƗ ƢǸǴǯ ƨ ȇƽƢǐƬººǫȏơȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ȆºƷơȂǼdzơȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘƫ ƽơǃ ƢǸǴǯ ǾǻƗǂǯƿȁ ƢēƢȇȂƬ LjǷ ƨǧƢǯ Ŀ ƧǂLJȌdz ƧƢȈūơƧƽ ȂƳ ƪǔǨ ŵơ ƨǏƢƻ ƨȈºƦǴLJ ƩơǂºNjƚǷ ƪǴƴºLJ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ƲƟƢƬǻ Ƕǜ ǠǷ ǹƗ ƨƫȂǫ ƽ ƶǓȁƗȁ ȄǴǟdž ǰǠǻơ ƢŠ DzǸǠdzơǺǟ śǴǗƢǠdzơȁ ƨººººººººƦǴǘdzơȁ ȄǓǂŭơȁ DZƢǨǗȋơ ȄǴǟ Ƕđ ơǂǘǓơȁ ǶēơǂƫȂƫ ƧƾƷ ǺǷƽơǃȁ ǶȀǯȂǴLJ ǹƾǷȄ Ǵǟ śǟǃȂǷ ƢǷƢǟ  ȅǂǸǟǖ ºLJȂƬŠ ƧǂºLJƗ ƣǁ  ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƪǴſȁ ȃȂƬººLjŭơ DžƢȈººǬdz ƩơȁƽƗ ƨǟȂǸů ǵơƾƼƬººLJ Ƣƥ ƧDŽǣǝƢǘºǫ ȃǂºǫȁ ƩƢǸȈű ȁ ƧƽȂŪ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨ ººƸǐ dzơ ƨ ǸǜǼǷǁƢººƦƬƻơ ƤǻƢƳ ńƛ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ȅƽƢǐƬºǫȏơ ƧƢȈūơ Ɣơȁƽ Ȑƥ ȄǓǂǷ ȄǴǟDZȂǐ ūơȄ Ǵǟ ǺȇǁƽƢǫ Śǣ ƧDŽǣĿ ȄǓǂŭơ ǺǷ ǹƗ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƲƟƢƬǻ ƪǼȈƥȁ ƪǠǼǷ ȁ ǂºƥƢǠŭơ ȄǴǟ ƢēǂǘȈºLJ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ƪǸǰºƷƗ ǹƗ ƾǠƥ ǶŮ ǵǃȐdzơ Ɣơȁ ƾdzơ ǺǷ  ƧƢǻƢǠǷ Ʃƽơǃ ƢǸȈǧ ƧDŽǣ ƩƢȈǨºnjƬLjŭ ƨ ȈºƦǘdzơ Ʃ ơƾǟƢLjŭơ DzǧơȂǫDZȂƻƽ ƨȈƦǘdzơ ƩƢǷƾŬơ ǶȀȈǬǴƫ ǵƾǟ ƔơǂƳ ȄǓǂŭơ śººººƥ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƩơǁƢȇDŽ dzơ ƪǨƻ ƾºººǬǧ ƨȈ ǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƩơŚƯƘƬdzơ ƾ ȈǠǏ ȄǴǟȁ ǞǼƬǷơȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳ ȏơȁ ƨȈdzƢŭơ ǝƢǓȁȋ ơ ȅƽǂƫ ƤººººƦLjƥ  ƨºººƦLj Ǽƥ śǼǗơȂŭơ Ŀ ǽŚǣ ȁƗ DzǸǠdzơ ǥȁǂǜdz ƪȈºƦdzơ ƱǁƢƻ ǂƻƘƬdzơ Ǻǟ Ƕǿƙơǁƕ ƨǠǴǘƬºLjŭơ ǶǜǠǷ ƩƢºƦLJƢǼŭơ ǍȂǐ ş śǼǗ ơȂŭơ ǭȂǴºLJ ȄǴǟ  ƨºƦLjǼƥ ǁƢǐūơ ǾȈǧ ǂƯƗƪ ǫȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ Ŗdzơ ǞƟƢǔºƦdzơȁ ƔƢȈºNjȋơ śǼǗơȂŭơ ǺǷ  ƾŸ Ń DzǏ ơȂƬŭơ ǁƢǐ ūơ ƤƦLj ƥȁ śǼǗơȂŭơ Dzƻƽ Dzºǫȁ  ƨ Ƴǁƾºƥ ǁƢǠºLJȋơ ǾȈ ǧ ƪǠǨƫǁơ ƪºǫȁ Ŀ ƢȀǼǟ ƮºƸ Ʀȇ ƾ Ŧȁ DzǸǠdzơ Ǻǟ ǶȀǼǷ Ǧ ºǫȂƫ ƢǸȈ ǧ  ƨƦLj Ǽƥ ȅǂȀnjdzơ śǴǷƢǠdzơ

E-mail: qoutasamir@hotma il.com

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Learning from the past to build for the future: reflections on psychosocial support programs in war torn countries Dr Eleanor Roffman *

Palestinians who live under siege have faced the impact of occupation, forced migration and eth nic cleansing for several generation s. This presentation will examine the eff ects of psycho social healing progra ms on oth ers who have had th is sort of devastation im posed up on them. A psyc hosocial healing approach values the involvement of natural netw orks that include extended family, friends, a nd other social resources. It draws upon culturally r elevant w ays to wo rk togeth er that m utually benefit all involv ed. It also shifts the exclusive focus from the traumatized individual to the relationships within formed communities. Tr aditional western p sychological notion s that have been transfe rred to wa r torn areas in other p arts of the world have fo cused on individualistic conc epts of trauma and PTSD. Unfortunately, the term trau ma as a psychological condit ion has been overused a nd has a cquired a generaliz ed meani ng for sufferin g. The dia gnostic label PTSD implies bo th that a situation is post trauma and that the p re-trauma condition is one to re claim. Sixty years of o ccupation erases any sense o f pre-trau ma for Palestinians. A se nse of pre-trauma is not part of the Palestinians reality, nor has there been a subsiding of the o ccupation or the siege ex perience in Gaza. H ealing m odels that are based on an understanding of trauma as extra normative do not apply to the Palestinian situation, or to th e current conditions in Gaza. BosniaHerzeg ovina, Kosovo, East and Central Africa, are places where the dev astation of war has created poverty, soc ial and p olitical instability. This presentation will review m ulti-dimensional psycho social support prog rams that have been successfully implem ented in these war-torn area s. It will explore lessons learned and the relevance of these exp eriences to the Palestinian community. This presentation wil l address developmental concerns in appro aching the healing p rocess,explore the concept of resi lience and shift th e discourse from o ne of studying victimization to o ne that ex plores well being and psychological survival. Empha sis will b e given to approach es that em power individ uals tho ugh com munity b uilding and expressive modalities.

DzƦǬƬLjŭơ ƔƢǼƦdz ȆǓƢ ŭơ ǺǷ ǶǴǠ Ƭdzơ ȆLjǨǼdzơ Ƕǟƾdzơ ƲǷơǂƥ Ŀ ƩȐǷƘƫ ƣȁǂūƢƥ ƨƥȂǰǼŭơ ǹơƾǴƦdzơ Ŀ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ǹƢǸǧȁǁ ǁȂǻƢȈdzƛ ƽ

ƪŢ ơȂ ºººNjƢǟǺ ȇǀdzơ ǹȂȈǼȈǘººLjǴǨdzơ ŇƢ ǟ DZƢȈƳȋ ơ ǺǷ ƽƾǟ Őǟ ƧƽƢººƥȍ ơ ńƛ ƨǧƢ ǓȍƢººƥ ƨȇǂººLjǬdzơ ƧǂƴŮ ơȁ DZȐƬ ººƷȏơ ƩƢ ǠºƦƫ ǺǷ ǁƢǐūơ ȆººLjǨǼdzơ ƱȐǠ dzơ ƲǷơǂ ººƥ ŚƯƘƫ Ŀ ƨººǫǁȂ dzơ ǽǀǿ ƮººƸƦƫ ǥȂººLJ ƨȈǟƢǸŪơ DzºƻƾǷ ǹƛ ǁƢºǷ ƾdzơ ǺºǷ ǝȂºǼdzơ ơǀ ºǿ Dzºưŭ ơȂºǓǂǠƫ ǺȇǂƻƕȄǴǟ ȆǟƢ ǸƬƳȏơȁ ǺǷƢǔƬdzơ ƩƢǰººººƦNjȄ Ǵǟ ǃƢǰƫ ǁȏơ ǺǸưȇ ȆǟƢǸƬƳ ȏơȁ Ȇºº ººLjǨǼdz ơ ƱȐǠdzơ ƨȈǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơ ƽǁơȂ ŭơȁ ƔƢººº ǫƾǏȋơ ȁ ƧƾƬǸŭơ ƧǂººLJȋơ ǶǔƫŖ dzơ ƨȈǠȈ ººƦǘdzơ ȅǀdzơǭ ǂƬºnjŭơ DzǸǠǴdzƢ ȈǧƢºǬƯ ƨǸƟȐŭơ Dzº ƦLjdzơ ȄǴǟ řƦȇ Ǿ ƳȂƫ Ǿǻơ ȃǂƻȋơ DŽȈǯǂƬdzơ DZȂŹ ǾƳ Ȃƫ ǾǻƗ ƢǸ ǯ ƨǯǁƢ ººnjŭơ ǥơǂǗȋơ ǞȈŦ ȄǴǟ ƧƾƟƢǨdz Ƣººƥ ƽȂǟ ƩƢǠǸƬĐơ Dzƻơƾ ººººƥ ƨǸ ƟƢºººǬdzơ ƩƢºººǫȐǠdzơ ńƛƣ Ƣǐŭơ ƽǂ Ǩdzơ ȄǴǟ ǪǴǘŭơ ƩƢ ǟƢǸŪơȁ ǪǗƢǼŭ ơ ńƛ ƪǴ ºǬǻ Ŗdzơ ƨȇƾȈǴºǬ Ƭdzơ ƨȈºƥǂ Ǥdzơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ǶȈǿƢǨŭơ ƩDŽǯǁ ƾǬdz ȅƽǂǨdz ơ DZȁƢǼƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ƩDŽǯ ǁ ŃƢǠdz ơ ǺǷ ȃǂƻ Ɨ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ƣȁǂū Ƣºººƥ ƨº ºƥȂǰǼŭơ ƶǴǘǐǷ ǹƜǧǮ dzǀǯ ƨ Ƿƾǐdzơ ƾǠºººººº ººƥ ƢǷ ƣǂ ǯ ƣơǂǘǓȏȁ ƨǷ ƾǐǴdz ŘǠǷ DzǸŹ ƶƦǏƗ ƢǸǯ ǾǷơƾƼƬLJơ Ŀ Ǖ ǂǧƗ ƾǫ ƨȈLjǨǻ ƨdzƢƸǯ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ơǂºNjƚǷ DzǸŹ ƨ Ƿƾǐdzơ ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƣ ǂǯ ƣơǂǘ Ǔơ ǎȈƼnjƫ ǹƛ ƧƢǻƢǠǸ Ǵdz ƢǷƢǟ DzººƦǫ ƢǷ ƨdzƢººƷ ńƛ ƧƽȂǠdzơ Ŀ ƨº Ʀǣǁ ǭƢǼǿ ǹƗȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ŅƢƫ Ǟ Ǔȁ ńƛ DzºººƦǫ ƢǷ ƧǂƬǨdz ǭơǁƽƛ Dzǯ ȂºººƸŤ DZȐƬººƷ ȏơ ǺǷ Ƣ ǷƢǟ śƬº ºLJ ǹƛ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ơƔDŽƳ džȈdz ƨǷƾǐdzơ DzºƦ ǫ ǞǷ ƨdzƢ ºƷ ǹƛ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨǴdz ƨƦ LjǼdzƢƥ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƨǴººƷǂ Ƿ ƧǂƬǨdz ơ ǮǴƫ Dzǯ DZȐƻ ǭƢ Ǽǿ Ǻǰȇ Ń ƢǸǯ ś ȈǼȈǘº LjǴǨdzơ Ǟºǫơȁ ǺǷ ŖdzơƱ ȐǠdzơ Ʊƿ ƢŶ ǹƛ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ǁƢǐūơ ƧŐŬơ ȁƗ DZȐƬºƷ ȏơ ƧƾºƷ ƢȀȈǧ ƪǔǨŵơ ȄǴǟ ǪººººƦǘǼ ƫ ȏ ƱƿƢŶ Ȇǿ ƧƽƢǠǴdz ǩǁƢƻ ǂ ǷƘǯ ƨǷƾǐǴdz ǶȀ ǧ ńƛ ƾǼ ƬºººLjƫ ǮººLJǂŮơȁ ƨǼ ºLJȂƦdzơǹƛ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈdzƢūơ ǥȁǂǜdzơ ȁƗ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ǞǓȂdzơ ƪǻƢǟ Ǫ ǗƢǼǷ Ƣ ȀǴǯ ȄǘºLJȂdzơ ƢȈºǬȇǂǧƗȁ ƢȈºǬȇǂǧƗ ǩǂºNj ǹơƾǴºƥȁ ȂǧȂLJȂǯȁ ƢŮơȂǿ Ɨȁ ƣȁǂū ơ ƤºƦLjƥ ȆºLJƢȈ Ljdzơȁ Ȇǟ ƢǸƬƳȏơ ǁơǂºǬƬLJȏơ ǵƾǟȁ ǂºǬǨdzơ ƧƽƾǠƬǷ ȆǟƢǸƬ Ƴȏơȁ Ȇº ºLjǨǼdzơ ǶǟƾdzơƲ ǷơŐdz ƨº ºǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǑǂǠƫ ǥȂºLJ ƢǸǯ ƣ ȁǂūƢºƥ ƨ ºƥȂǰǼŭƢ ƥ ǪǗƢǼŭơ ǮǴƫ Ŀ ƵƢƴǼºƥ Ƣ ȀºǬȈƦǘƫ Ļ Ŗdzơ ƽƢǠºƥȋơ ǞǸƬƴǸǴdz ƨºƦLj ǼdzƢƥ ƩơŐ Ŭơ ǮǴƫ ƨǸȈºǫȁ ƧƽƢǨƬLjŭ ơ Džȁǁƾdzơ Ŀ ƮƸƦ ƫ ǥȂLJ ƨȈǴǸǟ DZȁƢǼƫ Ŀ ƨȇȂǸǼƬ dzơ ǵȂǸŮơ DZȁƢǼƬƫ ǥȂºLJ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DzºǬǻ ń ƛ ȄǠºLj ƫȁ ǦȈǰ Ƭdzơȁ ƨǷȁƢºǬŭơ ǵȂȀǨǷ Ŀ ƮƸƦƫ ǥȂLJ ƢǸǯ ƱȐǠdzơ ǃȁƢš Ŀ ƮºººƸƦȇ ǂƻƕ ńƛ ƨȈºººƸǔdzơ ǶȀǧ ńƛ ȄǠººLjȇ ƣƢ ǘƻ ǺǷ ƣƢǘŬơ ȅǀdzơDZ ȁƢǼƬdzơ ȄǴ ǟ DŽȈǯǂƬ dzơ ǶƬȇ ǥȂ ººLJ ƢǸǯ ȆººLjǨǼdzơ ǮºLJ ƢǸƬdzơȁ ƩƢǷǃȋơ .ƩơǀdzơǺǟ Ś ƦǠƬdzơ DZƢǰNjƗȁ ƩƢǠǸƬĐơ ƔƢǼƥ DZȐƻ ǺǷ ƽơǂǧ ȋơ ǺǰŻ * Lesley Unive rsity, U SA Div ision of Couns eling an d Psyc holo gy / eroffm an@lesley.ed u

31 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


S iege and mental health :Siege Stress Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Palestinian Children an d Their Parents Living under Siege "Gaza experience"

Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǖǤǓ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?ÇłĆĄČ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ČƒĆžÇł Ć¨ČˆÇŻČ‚Ç´ÇˆÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆĄĆžĆłČ‚ÇłĆĄ ĆŠČ? Ç°ÇŒĹ­ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƪŢ ÇśČ€Č‡Č ĆżČ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨Çł ĆĄ ǹƢǨǗȋƥ ƧDŽǣ ƧĹ?Ćť Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƪŢ ÇŠČˆÇ ÇłĆĄ śǿ Č‚ĆĽĆ— Dzǔǧ ƽƥ

Prof. F adel Abu Hein*

This study was done to exa mine the e ffect of li ving under siege and the emotiona l -behavio ral problems of Pal estinian c hildren and their parent , the sample of the study was 2286 child b etween 8-14 years of old selected randomly f rom all Ga za govern orates, and the resultsof t he study show the following : 87% of Gaza child ren feel fe ar of dark ness and t hey are  more c linging to there parents and sh aring them there bids. 92% of the Palestinian children of G aza suffe r from  feeling of insecurity and fee l anxiety a nd tension . 68% of them suff ering from school problems like lack  of conc entration . 76% of them has behavioral problem s like isolation ,  social w ithdrawal and aggression. 70% o f them are feeling bad and general mode  problems, theyfe el frustration and dep ression. 34% of the samp le are suff ering from bed witting and  they n eed consu ltation an d family council ling. 64% of their parents are st ressed an d behaved with violence with each otherand with their children .

ĆŠČ?Ç°Âş ÂşÂşÇŒĹ­ĆĄČ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƪŢ ÇŠČˆÇ ÇłĆĄ ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Äż ƎºººƸƌ Ç´Çł Ć¨ÂşÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ ƪȇǂƳƗ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ǹƢǨǗȋ ČƒĆžÇł ǎdzƿ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƨ ººƌƍǂƏŭƥ Ć¨ČˆÇŻČ‚Ç´ÂşÂş ÇˆÇłĆĄČ Ć¨Čˆ ǝƥƞƳȂdzƥ Č  śº ĆĽ Ƣǡ ÇśÇżÇ Ć˘Ç¸Ç&#x;Ć— ĆľČ ĆĄÇ‚ĆŹĆŤ Č?ǨǗ  Ǻǡ Ć¨ÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; ƪǝȂǰƍ ÇśČ€Č‡Č ĆżČ Ć˛Ć&#x;ƢƏǝ ƊǂȀǛƗƧ Ç„ÇŁ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŤ ĆŠĆ˘ÇœÇ§Ć˘Ĺ° ƨǧ Ƣǯ Ǻǡ Ć˘Čˆ Ć&#x;ĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŒÇ&#x; ĆĄČ ĹšĆŹĆťĆĄ ƨǟºLJ  ȆǴȇ Ƣǡ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ  ƢººǍƢÇ?Ədzƥ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ— ƥȂººƸƌÇ? Ć—Č ÇľČ?Çœ dzƥ ǚȂǧƢ Ĺş ƧDŽǣ ǹƢ ǨǗƗ Ǻǡ  Ç‚Č‡Ç‚ÇˆÇłĆĄÇ† Ǩǝ Äż ǾȂǟdzƥ ǜǿ Č‚ÇŻÇ Ć˘ÇŒČ‡ ƥȂƸƌÇ?Ć— ƢǸǯ ÇśČ€Ç´ÇżĆ˜ĆĽ  ÇšČ ĆžÂşÂşÂş ÂşÇŹĆŹÇ¨Č‡Č Ç‚ ĆŤČ‚ĆŹÇłĆĄČ ÇŞÇ´ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄÇş ǡ ǚȂǝƢǠȇ ƧDŽǣ ǹƢ ǨǗƗ Ǻǡ  ǚƢǡȋƢƼ Ç Č‚Ç ÇŒÇłĆĄ  Ć§Ç ĆžÂşÇŹÇł ĆĄ ǾƞÇ&#x; Dzưǡ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Äż ĆŠČ?Ç°ÇŒÇˇ Çş ǡ ǚȂǝƢǠ ȇ ǜȀǟǡ  Ç„ČˆÇŻÇ‚ĆŹÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;  ǹƥDŽǠǝČ? ĆĄ Dzưǡ Ć¨ČˆÇŻČ‚Ç´ÂşÂşÂşÂş LJ ĆŠČ?Ç°ÂşÂşÂşÇŒÇˇ Çş ǡ ǚȂǝƢǠ ȇ ǜȀǟǡ  Ć¨ČˆÇťĆĄČ ĆžÇ ÇłĆĄČ Č† Ç&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ? ĆĄ ĆŁĆ˘Ć¸ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄČ ď€Ą ƨǡƢÇ&#x; Ć¨ČˆÇťĆĄĆžĆłČ ĆŠČ?Ç°ÂşÇŒÇˇČ Ć”Č†ÂşÇ‡ ƹƥDŽǡ Ǻǡ ǚȂǝƢǠ ȇ ǜȀǟǡ  ƣƢƠƏǯČ?ĆĄČ Ç•Ć˘ĆŚĆˇČ?ƢƼ ÇšČ Ç‚Ç ÇŒČ‡ Çś Ĕƛ  ÇśÇżÇ‚ÂşÇ‡Ć—Č ÇśÇż ÇšČ‚ĆłĆ˘ĆŹĹšČ Č…Ć˝ĆĄÇ Ć› Č? Çą Ȃºƌƍ Ǻǡ ĹˆĆ˘Ç ĆŤ ƨǟ ČˆÇ ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ  Č†ÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ Ć˝Ć˘Ç‹Ç Č?ĆĄ Ĺ„Ć›  njǟǠƼ ÇšČ‚Ç´ÇˇĆ˘Ç ĆŹČ‡Č Č†ÇˆÇ¨ ǟdzƥ ǖǤǔdzƥ Ǻǡ ǚȂǝƢǠȇ Dzǿȋƥ Ǻǡ  ǜȀĆ&#x;ƢǟƼƗ ÇžÇˇČ ÇśČ€ÇźČˆĆĽ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ§

Al-Aqsa University and Community Training Center and Crisis Management Gaza / ctccm@yahoo.com

i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

32


Community Staffing and Resources in Mental Health: Post Conflict Descriptive Account Elizabeth Sc humacher, Patr icia Campbell, & Maneesh Gupta

Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƢƼ Ć¨ČˆÇźÇ  Ĺ­ĆĄ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄ Çś ÇŤĆĄČ‚Ç—Č Ç Ć˝Ć˘Ç?ǡ ȆǨÇ?Č Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ ƞǠƼƢǡ ƨǴơǂǡ ƢƏƼȂƳ ÇŠČˆÇťĆ˘ ǡ Č Ç˛ĆŚÇˇĆ˘ ÇŻ Ć˘ÇŒČ‡Ç‚ĆŤĆ˘ĆĽ Č Ç‚ĆťĆ˘ÇˇČ‚Ç‹ ĆŞČˆĆĽĆĄ Ç„ČˆÇłĆĄ

Background: From1969, the city of Belfast inNorthern Ireland was the s cene of p rolonged conflict, w hich involved a military presence . West Belfast was in a siege from the conflict around it. Bom bings, s hootings , killings , house raids, intimid ation and people burnt out of their hous es were s ome of the traumatic happenings du ring the next 30 yea rs. These events led to significant trauma e xperience d by man y in the affected areas. T he ceasefire of 1994 and the G ood Frid ay Agreem ent of 1998 indicated th e conflict was over. 10 years la ter the effects of the conflict on the local community an d anyone who experienced the con flict are still evid ent. With peace processes being implem ented acro ss Northe rn Ireland, mental he alth services are being re viewed and strengthened.

ƪººººLJƢǧ Ç˛ČˆÂşÂşÂşÂşĆĽ ƨǟȇƞǡ ƪǝƢǯ   ǾƢÇ&#x;Ç€ ǟǡ Ć¨ČˆĹşÇ Ć˘ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨Ç´ĹŹĆĄ ƧƞǡǾƥƽ ȅǀdzƥ Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ ĆŠĆ˘Čˆ ǴǸǠdz Ć˘ÂşÂşÂşĆˇÇ‚ÇˆÇˇ ĆĄĆž ǟdzǂȇƥ ÇşÇˇÇąĆ˘Ç¸ÂşÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ Äż ƨǠººǍƥ Ȃdzƥ Ç˛ČˆÂşĆĽ ĆŁ Ç‚ÇŁ ǞƌǏȇ ǚƢǯ ĆŽČˆĆˇ Ć¨Č‡Ç‚Ç°ÇˆÇ&#x; Ć˝Č‚ÇŒĆˇČ ĆžĆłĆĄČ‚ĆŹĆĽ Ƣǔ ȇƗ ÇƒĆ˘ĆŹÇˇĆĄ Č… Ç€ÇłĆĄČ Ć¨Ç´Č‡Č‚Ç—

Descriptive acco unt: The West Be lfast Com munity Mental Health Team (W BCMHT) is a sec ondary care servic e. The membership of the team include s 10 fro ntline staff for approximately 10 0,000 pop ulation. The area we service includes segregated interfaces, whic h are still in existe nce post conflict and intensify at certain tim es of the year (e.g. the marching season). This paper will lo ok at different aspects of providing community ment al health s ervices in an area pre viously affected by conf lict. We w ill explore inequality, unmet needs, access to service s, type of servicesrequired, staff training, staff support and diversity of staff.

ƧǂƏǨdzƥ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ ĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŒ ȇƢÇ&#x; Ǻȇǀdzƥ ƽƥǂǧȋƥǺ ǡ ƽǂǧ Dzǯ ȆǴÇ&#x;Č Č†Ç´Ć„ĆĄ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄ Ȇ Ç´Ç&#x; Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç? dzƥ ǪǴǠƏȇ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ§ ÇľČ?ÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ´Ç¸Ç&#x;Č ĆŠĆ˘ĆŻ ƽƢŰ Ǻǡƞ ȇƞǠdzƥ ƪȇǂƳƗ ƞºǏdz  Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ Ǻǡ ÇŽÇ´ĆŹÇł ƢȀǸÇ&#x;Ć˝Č Ć¨ ČˆÂşÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨººƸÇ?dzƥ ƊƢǡƞƝ Ć˝Ç ĆĄČ‚ĆŤ Ĺ…Ć› Č… ƽƗ ƢŲ ƥƞǟdzǂȇƥ ÇąĆ˘Ç¸ÂşÂşÇŒĆĽ ƨººƸÇ? Ç´Çł ȆǠǸƏÄ?ĆĄ ƪººLJ Ƣǧ DzººƌƼ ĆŁÇ‚ÇŁ Ǫȇǂǧ ƞǠȇ  DzǸǠdzƥ ÇŚÇ?Č  Ć¨ÂşÂşÇŹÇ˜ÇźĹ­ĆĄ Ç˛Ç¸ÂşÇŒ ȇ  ƪºLJƢǧ DzºƌƼ ƣǂǤdz Ć¨ČˆÂşĆ¸Ç? dzƥ ƊƢǡƞ ĹŹĆĄ ʼnƞºǏƏdz ƢȇȂǝƢƯ Ć˘Čˆ Ç&#x;ĆĄÇ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ ǟdzƥ

Conclu sion: This study is a snapshot account o f the expe riences of the WBCMHT in 200 8. Given that the re is very little qualitative research or quan titative ac counts w e are look ing for the lessons that can be lea rnt in term s of future mental health community serv ice provision both locally, nationally and internationally fo r those wh o have experienced conflict.

Äż Ç˝Ć˘ÂşĆˇÇ Ç Č ĆžČ‡ Č…Ç€ dzƥ Ç?ĆĄĹ—ÇłĆĄČ Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ Ƥ ÂşĆŚÇˆĆĽ ÇŽÇłĆżČ Ć˝ĆžÂşÇŒÇˇ Ç Ć˘Ç? ºơ ƪŢ ƪºLJƢǧ ƧǂºƏǨdzƥ ǎºǴƍ Ĺ…Ć› Ć˘ÇťÇ‚ÇœÇť ĆĄĆżĆœÇ§  ƢǡƢÇ&#x; Ǻǡ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ— Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ ÇŽ dzƿ Ǿƥƽ  Ć§Ç Č Ć˘Ä?ĆĄ ǪǗƢǟŭƥ  ĆşČ‡Ç ĆĄČ‚Ç?dzƢºƼ ÇŚÇ?Ǐdzƥ Dzưǡ ƨÇ&#x;Ç„Ç¨ÇˇČ Ć¨ÇˇĆ˝Ć˘Ç? ƢƯƥƞơƗ ƞų ǼȂLJ ĆžČˆ ÇŻĆ˜ĆŹÇłĆ˘ĆĽ ƢǟǝƢǟǧ ȆǴÇ&#x;Çş ÂşÂşÇŒĆŤ Ŗdzƥ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Ç¤ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ ƞȇƞǠ dzƥ ƞƴǟºLJ ƢǸǯ DzƏºǍ ĆŠČ?Ć˘ÂşĆˇČ Ç Ć˘ÇźÇłĆĄ ÇŠČ?Ç— Ć›Č Č…Ç€ÇłĆĄ DžƢǟdzƥ Ǻǡ ƞȇƞǠdzƥ Ĺ…Ć› ƨǧƢǓƛ DžƢǟdzƥ śºººƼ Ç‚Ç&#x;Ç€ÇłĆĄČ Çž Ç´ĹŽĆĄ Ć¨ÂşÂşĆŚĆŚÇˆÇˇ ÇąÇƒĆ˘ÇźĹ­ĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ ƭƥƞººơƗ Dzǰdz Ć¨ÇˇÇƒČ?ǡ Ć¨Ć´ČˆĆŹÇźÇŻČ  ÇśĹŽÇƒĆ˘ÇźÇˇ ÇŞĆ&#x;ƥǂººơ ƔƢǨǗƛ Ĺ…Ć› ÇšČ ĆžÇ¸Ç Č‡ ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤĆŞ Ţ ǚȂǠºƌ Ǐȇ Ǻȇǀdzƥ ÇŽĆ ÇłČ Ć— Ǻǡ Ć¨ĆťÇ Ć˘Ç? ƨǡƞÇ? ƞƴǟLJ ĆžČˆÇŻĆ˜ĆŹÇłĆ˘ĆĽ Ć˘ÇźÇťĆœÇ§ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇŤĆ˘Ç¨ĆŤĆĄČ  ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż Č… Ç‚Ćł ȅǀdzƥ Ç Ć˘ÇźÇłĆĄ ÇŠČ?Ç—Ć› ÇŚÂşÇŤČ ĹšÂşÇŒČ‡ . ƨƼȂǰǟŭƥ ǪǗƢǟŭƥ Ĺ…Ć› ǹƕ ƞººǍ Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç? dzƥ ƥǀǿǚƗ Ĺ…Ć›  ǾƢÇ&#x; ÇžÇ ČˆÂşÂşÇŤČ‚ĆŤ Äť Č…Ç€ dzƥ Ć¨ÂşÂşĆŚČˆ Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ƨǠǸŪƥ

Ç Ć˘ĆŻĆ— ƞų Ć˘ÇźÇłÇƒČ?  Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç? dzƥ ƨȇƢĔ ȆǴÇ&#x;ĆŠ ƥȂǟºLJ Ć§Ç‚ÂşÇŒÇ&#x; Ç Č Ç‚Çˇ ƞǠƼ ŕơ ÇşÇ°ÇłČ ƨȇƢĔ

njdzƗ ƨ Ơǡ ĆŁÇ Ć˘ÇŹČ‡ Ƣŭ ƢēƥƞÇ&#x;Ć˘ÇˆÇˇ ǾƞǏ ĆŤ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ Ć— ǜǍƥȂǗ Ć§Ç‚ÇŒ Ç&#x; ǪȇǂǨdzƥ ǎdzƿ ƔƢǔÇ&#x;Ć— Ç˛Ç¸ÂşÂşÇŒ ĆŤ ƨǝȂǠŭ ĆĄ ƢŎ ǾƞººǏǝ Ŗdzƥ ƨ ÂşÇŹÇ˜ÇźĹ­ĆĄ ǚƛ  ǪǗƢǟŭƥ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ Äż ÇšĆ˘Ç°ÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÇŤČ Ć— Äż ƢǿƞƳƥȂƍ ÇŚ Ć°Ç°ĆŹ Č‡Č Ç?ƥŗdzƥ ÇŞ ǗƢǟǡ Äż ĆŞÇłĆĄÇƒČ? Ĺ–ÇłĆĄČ Ć¨Ç´Ç?Ǩ ǟǡ ƊƢȀƳȂƍ ǽǀǿǖ Ç´ÂşÂşÇˆĆŤÇĽ ȂººLJ  Ç ĆĄ ƿƕB Ç…Ç Ć˘Çˇ DzÇ? ǧ Äż  ǎdzƿ ǹƢư ǡ Ć¨ÇźÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ Ć¨ÇźČˆ Ǡǡ ǪǗƢǟŭƥ Ĺ…Ć› ƨǡƞ ºººººǏŭƥ ĆŠ Ƣǡƞŏƥ Çş ǡ ƨǨǴƏŹ ƤǝƥȂƳȆǴÇ&#x; ƔȂǔdzƥ Ć¨ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŤÇ Č‚ÇłĆĄ ĆŠČ Ć˘Ç¨ĆŹ dzƥ ğȉƥ ÇŚ ÇŒÇ°ÇźÇ‡ ƢǸǯ  Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç? dzƥ ǎdzƿ ƪŢ ƨǠǍƥȂdzƥ Č Ć§Ç Ç‚Ç”ĆŹĹ­ĆĄ Ć¨ÇŹĆĽĆ˘Çˆ dzƥ Ç?ƥȂǝƗ Ćž Č‡ĆžĹ˘Č  ƊƢǡƞŏƥ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ Ç˛ČˆÇ?Č‚ĆŤ Č Ć¨Ç ÂşÂşÇŤČ‚ĆŹĹ­ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ĆłĆ˘Čˆ ƏºơČ?ĆĄČ Ć§ĆĄČ Ć˘ÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ǿƞ Ç&#x;Č Ç˝Ç€ÇżĆž Ç ĆŤ  ƨŤƢŏƥ  DzǸǠdzƥ ǜºººǍƥȂǗ Ç?Č‚ÇźĆŤČ ÇśÇ&#x;Ć˝Č Ć¤Č‡Ç ĆžĆŤČ  Ć¨ÂşÂşÂşĆĽČ‚Ç´Ç˜ Ĺ­ĆĄ ƊƢǡƞ ĹŹĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ? dzƥ Ǫȇ��‚ǧ ƢȀǡƞǏȇ Ĺ– dzƥ ĆŁÇ Ć˘Ć´ĆŹÇłĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÇˇĆž ƟǴdz ƧǂƼƢÇ&#x; ƨƄ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ Ç˛Čˆ ǴºǏdzƥ ǖºǏǧ ǭƢǟǿ ǚƗ ǂǯǀdzƢºƼ ǂȇƞŪƥ ÇşÇˇČ  ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż ƪºLJƢǧ DzºƌƼ Äż Ç…Č Ç Ćž ÇłĆĄČ Ĺ?Ǡdzƥ Ĺ…Ć› ÇŠČ‚ÂşÂşÇŒĆŹ ĆĽ ÇžÇ´Ç˜ĆŹÇť Ć˘ÇźÇťĆœÇ§ ƥǀdzĆ¨ČˆÇ¸Ç°ÇłĆĄ Č Ć— Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;Ȃǟdzƥ ƔƥȂºLJ ƭƢŞȋƥ ƔƥȂºLJ Ć¨ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨºƸÇ?dzƥ ƊƢǡƞƝ Ç˛ÂşĆŚÇŹĆŹÇˆĹ  ƨºǏǴǠƏ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć§Ć˝Ć˘Ç¨ĆŹÇˆ Ĺ­ĆĄ  Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ DzǛ Äż ÇšČ‚ÇŒČˆÇ Č‡ Ǻȇǀdzƥ ǎƠdzƙČ?ǾƞǏƍ Ĺ–ÇłĆĄČ Ć˘ČˆÇłČ Ć˝ Č Ć—Ć˘Čˆ ǡȂǍ Č Ć— Ć˘ČˆÇ´Ĺ° *- Liz@london.com, patricia.campbell@belfasttrust.hscni.net, maneesh_psych@yahoo.com

33S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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ŸƢǸƟơƽ ǺǰŲ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬƷ Ǻǟ ǝƢǧƾdzơ ƨǴƬƄơ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǪǗƢǼŭơ Ŀ ƧǂǏƢǼŭơȁ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơ ŖǼȈǻƢǷ ȂȈƳȁŐǷƗƽ Ƨƾǟơȁ ƨºƥǂš ƢĔƛ ř ȈǘºLjǴǨdzơȁ ȆǴȈƟơǂºLJ ȍơ śºƦǠnj dzơ śºƥƨǯ ǂƬºnjǷ ǁȁǂǷ ƾǠº ƥ śºƦǻƢŪơ śºƥ ƶƬǨƬƫ ǹƗȁ ƾƥȏŖ dzơ ǹȁƢǠƬdzơ Ʃ ƢȈǻƢǰǷȍ ƨ ƦLjǼdzƢƥ ǺȇǂȀºNj Dzǯ ǁƾǐƫ Ŗ dzơ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƨǴů ƧǁƽƢƦǷ ƪǬǴƫ ƩơȂ ǼLJ ǞƥǁƗ ƢȀȀƳȂƫ ƮȈººƷ ǺǷ ƨǻǃơȂƬǷ Śǣ ǖŶ ȄǴǟ ƽƢººǬƬǻȏơ ǺǷ ƨǨǴƬűȏ ƢǰºNjƗ ƨǬȈǬƷ dž ǰǠƫ ȏ ž ȆǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ƤǻƢŪơ Ǻǟ DžƢLJȋƢƥ ǁƾǏ ƾǬǻ ȆLJ ƢȈLjdzơ  řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơƤǻ ƢŪơ Ǻǟ DžƢºLJȋƢƥ ǁƾǏ ƾǬǻ DZȐƬƷ ȏơȁ ǝơǂǐ dzơ ǦǼǟ ơǀǿ DzǛ Ŀ ƨǻǃơȂƬǷ ƨǴĐơ ǁƾǐƫ ǹƗ ǹƢǰŠ ƤǠǐdzơ ǺǷ ǹƢǯ ǾǻơƨººǬ ȈǬūơȁ ǹƗ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨǴdz ƨƦLjǼdzƢƥ ƤǠǐdzơ ǺǷ ƨ ȈƷƢǻ ǺǷ ǹǃơȂƬdzơ ʼnƾǟ ǞǓȂdzơ ƢǷƢǟ śǠºƥǁƗ DzǸŹ ǩƢȈºLJ Ŀ ś ȈǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ǞǷ ǁơȂūơ ȄǴ ǟ śǐȇǂƷ ơȂǻȂǰȇ ƾƟƢºLjdzơ ǖƦƄơ ǞǓ Ȃdzơ ǹƜǧ ǵƢǟ DzǰnjƥȁǵȂ ȇ Dzǯ Ŀ ƢǠǸǫ ƽơƽDŽȇ DZȐ ƬƷơ ǺǷ śºƥ ƢǸȈǧ ŕºƷȁ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ƩƢǫȐǠǴdz ǞLJȁȋơǩƢȈLjdzơ Ŀ DzưǷ ơƽȂȀƳ DzǠŸ ȆǓƢŭơ ǵƢǠdzơ DZȐƻ ƨǏ Ƣƻ ǶȀºLjǨǻƗ śȈǼȈǘ ºLjǴǨdzơ ơƿƛ ƢǸǟ DZƙƢLjƬǴdzƔǂŭ ơ Ǟǧƾȇ ǂǷƗ Ǿǻƛ ǖȈƄơ Ŀ ƨǘǬǻ ƢĔ Ƙǯȁ ȁƾƦƫ ǁȂLjƳ DzưǷ Ŀ ƨǴȈǴǫ ƪǻƢǯ ǹơȁ ŕƷ ƽǁơȂŭơȁ ƨǫƢǘ dzơ ǁƢǸưƬLJơ ǪƸƬLjȇ ǂǷȋơ ǹƢǯ ǹƗ ǺǰŻ Ǧ ǴƬűƔȆº Nj Ǻǟ ƮƸ Ʀdzơ ǂưǯƗǶƟȐ ŭơ ǺǷ ǹƢǯ ơƿƛ ǵƗ žƩơǁƽƢ Ʀŭơ ǮǴƫ ǕȂǘş Ǚ ƢǨƬººººƷȏơ ǹƜǧ Ǯdzƿ ǞǷȁ ȄºººǬƦȇ DZƙƢºººLjƬdzơ ơŚƯƘƫ ǂưǯƗ ǹȂǰȇ ȅȋ ƨººƦLjǼdzƢƥ ƢȇǁȁǂǓ ơǂǷƗ ȄººǬ Ʀȇ śǠǸƬĐ ơ Ȑǯ śºƥ ƨ ºƷȂƬǨǷ DzǏ ơȂƬdzơ ȄǴǟ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ǁȂºLjƳ ƨǴů ƪŷ ƢºLJ ƾºǫȁ ǵȐºLjǴdz ƨȈǴºƦǬƬLjǷ ǖǘƻ ƩȏƢů Ǧ ǴƬűĿ ƨǯǂƬºººnjǷ ƩƢǟȂǸů ƪǻȂǰƫ ƾºººǬdz DZƢưŭơ Dz ȈººƦLJ ȃǂƻƗƩƢǟƢǘºǫȁƨȇƾǠŭơ ǑơǂǷ ȋơȁ ƨǫƢǟȍơȁ ǒȇǂǸƬdzơ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ƢŠ ƨƸǐdzơ ǮǴƫ ŐƬǠȇ ȏ ƾºǫǒ ǠºƦdzơ ǹƗǺǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ ȄǴǟ ȁ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨºƸǐdzƢƥ ƨǴǏ Ʃơƿ ǁơǂǸƬLJȏơ ǪƸƬLjȇ ǃƢųƛǾǻ ƛ ȏƛ ƨǸȈǜǟ ƩơǃƢųƛ

ƧƾǟƢººLj ŭơ ʼnƾºǬƫ ȄǴǟ ǖºǬǧ ǂǐƬºǬȇ ȏ ňƢºLjǻȍơ Dz ƻƾƬdzơø ǹƢºººLj ǻȍơ ǩȂºººǬƷ ǵơǂƬººƷơ ǹƢǸǓȁǝƢǧƾdzơ ƢǔȇƗ ǺǸǔƬȇ ƢŶƛȁ  ƨȇƽƢŭơ DzǷƢǠƫ ǹƗ ƤŸ ƨȈǻƢº ºLjǻȍơ ƧȂǟƾdzơ ǹƜǧ Ǯdzǀ dz ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨȈǻƢººLjǻȍơ ŚȇƢǠŭơȁ ƨưǠºƦdzơ ƩƽƾºƷ ƾºǬdz ňƢºLj ǻȍơ DzƻƾƬdzơ ǂǏƢǼǟ ǺǷ ȆºLJƢLJƗ ǂ ǐǼǠǯ ǵȐǟȎdz ƨȈǷȐǟȍơ ƨȈǘǤƬdzơ ś LjŢ ƪǼǸǔƫ ŖdzơDzƻ ƾƬdzơ ƩȏƢů ƨȇȂdzȁƗ ƨǴƬƄơ ƨȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȆǓơǁȋơȁ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ Ŀ ňƾŭơ ǞǸ ƬĐơȁ Ņȁƾ dzơȁ ȆǴƄơ ƧȂǟƾdzơ ƔơƽƗ śºººLjŢ ƤŸ Ǯdzǀǯ Ǻȇǂƻȉơ ƔƢǔǟȋơ DZȁƾdzơ ǶǿƗ ń ƛ ƨǧƢǓƛ ȄǴǟƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơ ȆǠǓơȁ śºƥ ƨȈǻƢºLjǻȍơ ƢȇƢǔºǬdzơ ǹƘnjƥ ƨȈƴȈƫơǂƬLJȏơ ƨȈLJƢȈLJ ǦǫơȂǷ ńƛ ƽȂȀŪơ Ǯ Ǵƫ ƾǼƬLjƫ ǹƗ ƤŸȁ Ņȁƾ dzơȁ ȆǴƄơ ś ȇȂƬLjŭơ ƨººǬLj ƬǷ DzƟƢººLJǁȁ ȆǟȂǓȂǷ ȁ ȆǠººǫơȁ DzȈǴŢ ȄǴǟ ƧƾǸƬǠǷ ƨǯ ǂƬºnjǷ ƧƾºƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơƨưǠƥ ǹƛ ƢȀǼȈǠƥ ƧƽƾŰ Ʃ ƢǟƢǘǫȂŴ ƨȀƳȂǷ ƨǷ ȂȀǨǷȁ ǹƗ ǺǰŻ ƨȈƴȈƫơǂƬºLJơ ƨȇƙǁńƛ ƩƾǼƬLJơ ƢǷ ơƿƛ ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơ ƧȂǟƾdzơ ǹƘƥ ǺǷƚƫ ƩȏƢĐơ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ƢŠ ȃ ǂƻƗ ƩȏƢů Ŀ ƢȀƟƢǯǂº Njȁ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơƽȂȀƳ Ƕǟƾƫ ǮǴƫ Ŀ ƨǧƾȀƬºººLj ŭơ ǥơƾǿȋơ ǺǷ ŚưǰdzƢǧ ƨȇƽƢǐƬººǫȏơȁ ƨȈººLJƢȈLjdzơ Ǧºººǫȁ Ǯdzƿ ĿƢŠ ƨȈǻƢºººLjǻȍ ơ ƧȂǟƾǴdz ƨȇǁȂƄơ ǥơƾǿȋơ ƢēơƿȆǿ ƩȏƢĐơ Ƕǟƽȁ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƽƢǐƬºǫȏơ ƔƢȈºƷƛȁ DZȂƴƬdzơ ǂǜºƷȁ ǩȐǣȍơ ƨºLJƢȈLJ ǥǂǘƬdzơȁ DžƘȈdzơ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽ Ƿ ȂŴ ǁơƾŴȏ ơ ǞǼǷȁƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨ ǘǴLjdzơ ŚƯƘƫDzǛ ơƿƢŭ ƧŚƻȋơ ƩơȂǼºLjdzơ Ŀ ǂǷȋơ ơǀǿ ǹƘnjƥ Ƥ Ƭǯȁ DzȈǫƢǷ Dzǯ Ƕǣǁ Ÿƾū ơ ơǀǿ ńƛ ƢǨȈǠǓ ƧȂǟƾ dzơ Ŀ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơ ŸƢǸƟơƽ ǺǰŲ ǂǷƗ ǁơȂūơ Ǟǧƽ Dzǿ EULGJHV ǁȂLjƳ ƨǴů ƨƥǂš ƨǴůƢȀȈǧ ǁƾǐƫ Ŗ dzơ ńȁȋơ Ƨǂŭơ ȆȀǧƢȀǟȂǻ ǺǷƧƾ ȇǂǧ ƨºººººººƥǂš ƢĔƛ manentis@ira.emro.who.int ǹơǂȇƛ ǹơǂȀǗ Ŀ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ DzưŲ

35

S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Promoting Human Rights is Always Feasible? UN and Advocacy in the OPT Dr. Am brogio Mane nti *

“Huma nitarian a ction is not only about p hysical delivery of assist ance - but also abo ut promoti ng and ensuring respect for huma n rights and universal hum anitarian norms. Human itarian adv ocacy should theref ore be see n as an essential elemen t of humanitarian a ction." "..Prioriry areas the mission identified were improved outreach to local and international media and civil s ociety in Israel and the oPt as well as oth er key Member States. Strategic advocacy on hum anitarian issues towards local an d international policy makers should a lso be improv ed. Joint policy positions based on factu al and im partial analysis and consistent m essages t ailored to specific target audiences should form the b asis of the se efforts." "The U N mission believes that huma nitarian advocacy, if used strategically, can help reinfo rce efforts by UN a nd its partners in other areas, including in the political and econo mic fields . Many of the o bjectives pursued in these are as are identical to t he key aims of humanita rian advoc acy, including the lifting of c losures and cur few, the revitalization of the Pa lestinian e conomy, support to the PA and preventing a further de scent into desperation and radicalization." In spite of what w as said and written during the l ast years w hy the advoca cy of UN has beenso weak? Promoting Dialo gue is Always Feasible? TheEx perience of Bridges Magazine The ex perience is unique. It is the first time that a magazine betwee n Israeli a nd Palestinian people is produ ced. It ha s been very promising for the potential perspective of collab oration * WHO Representative Iran, Tehran / manentis@ira.emro.who.int

which should ha ve been opening be tween the two side s. Four years later, the bi-month ly public health m agazine in itiative receive d different criticisms: not well-balanced in its p olitical orienta tion (crit icism rais ed mainly by Israe li side) a nd not reflect ing the re ality of the violen t conflict and occ upation (critici sm mainly raised by Palestinia n side). A ctually it has been quite difficult to be balanc ed in suc h an extremely asym metric situatio n. On the one side, i t is difficu lt for the Palestinian people to be keen on dialogue with Israelis in a conte xt of 40 y ears of occupa tion that is becom ing ever m ore oppr essive with each passin g day. In general, th e discouraging situation found within the broad conte xt of Israelis-Palestinian re lations an d even among st Palestin ians them selves, p articularly during the past year, m akes efforts such as "bridges" appear to be a mere 'drop in the oc ean'. It m akes one wonder whether it is wor thwhile investi ng energy and fund s, albeit of a small q uantity, in to such kinds of initiativ es or alte rnatively, whether it would be more approp riate to tr y to identify someth ing different that might be more effective. T he doubt remains. However, k eeping open lines of com municatio n between the two communities is indisp ensable to any future pla n of peacemaking and bridgeshas con tributed toward s this. For instance , joint groups have been established in different sector s of hea lth, inclu ding nursing, disabilities, comm unicable d iseases, an d other he alth-relate d sectors in Gaza. Althou gh these a chieveme nts may no t be cons idered by some as fabulo us, they are nevertheless some thing that perhaps d eserves to continue.

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

36


Targets of the Siege: Eroding Civil Society and National Identity

ǁƢǐūơ ǥơƾ ǿƗ ƨȈǼǗȂdzơ ƨȇȂŮơȁ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ǮȈǰǨƫ ǺȇƢƬnjǼȇȂdz ǂǨȈǼƳ

Ms. Jennifer G. Loe wenstein *

Summarized Introduction: The Siege of Gaza d id not beg in after the Jan uary 2006 PLC elec tion victory of Ham as. That victory was n o m ore than a perfect p retext to continu e the dismem berment of nationa l, social and civic Palestine - long a major goal of Israel's Palestinian po licies. What we are seeing today is the culmination of a war against Palestine (first Gaza) in which t he death o f the nation is the ultimate goal. Aims: The aim of this paper are 1) to uncov er the principal motives behind Israel's G azan poli cies; 2) t o determine the damage done to Gazan c ultural and politica l consciousness today; and 3) to re commend responsib le ways of putting an end to the seem ingly en dless state -sponsore d crimes u sed and justified by Israe l and its al lies. Methodology: I will rely on the m ost current and reliable personal, statistic al and documentary evidence available for this project. Analys is: Despite the fact that the war on Gaza b egan well over a decade ago, it is u nder the current sieg e of the G aza Strip that we are face d not only with the near total destruction of the Palestinian National Movem ent but also with a c ollective or psycho-social breakdown of personal and cultural consciousn ess. We n eed to understand Israel's underlyi ng motive s for what should rig htly be termed 'sociocide:' the murder of an entire society by m ilitary, econom ic, social and psy chological means. Only when we understand these motives can we attempt to repair the dam age by focusin g on something othe r than irr esponsible debates such as that which rages o ver wheth er there sh ould be on e-state or two in the area of historic Palestine . Result Section: The results of my research w ill be contained within the body o f my pape r, analyzed and then re-summarized with the concludin g remarks. Conclu ding Rem arks: My conclusio ns will be based on moral, legal and scho larly/docu mental f indings consistent with international law and international hum anitarian law.

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*Associate Director, Middle East Studies Program; University of Wisconsin USA / amadea311@earthlink.net

37S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆšÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ĺ› ĆĽ ƧDŽǣ Ç Ć˘Ç?ơ Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ? Ć¨ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ Č Ć¨ČˆÇťČ‚ÇťĆ˘ÇŹÇłĆĄ

The Siege of Gaza between the Legal and Civil Responsibility of Isr ael

ǞǗ Č‚ĆĽĆ— Č…ÇƒČ‚Ç§ Ć”Č?Ç&#x;

Alaa F awzi Abu Tah a*

This pa per will discuss the origin and developm ent of civil and crimina l internat ional responsibility in international law. It will address the implementation of intern ational humanitarian law in the Gaza Strip and the legal, civ il and humanitarian responsibility of Israel a s an occupation force. The withdrawal from Gaza in 2005 do esn't ann ul the status of occupa tion. Gaza is still un der occup ation in vi ew of the Israeli control over all p assages and crossing points. The solitary and unilateral withdrawal of Israel does not mea n an end of the occupa tion of those Palestinian territories from which it withdrew and do es not can cel the rel evance of the Gene va and Hague c onvention s in the G aza contex t. There w ill be discussion of the o bjectives of Israel in declarin g the Gaza Strip a hostile territory and the implications thereof according to international law. After highlig hting the civil and criminal responsibility in international law, the paper will clarify the concept, corne rstones and content of int ernational crimes, w hich have been mentioned in Article 5 of the bylawsof the interna tional crim inal court. Such crimes exclusive ly include genocide, crimes a gainst hum anity, war crimes and the crime o f aggression. We shall explai n each crime and explain how it is being com mitted by I srael in th e Gaza Strip, i ncluding the Israeli siege of Gaza, where the siege is considered a military act. We will address th e crime o f siege impose d by the Israeli occupation forces on G aza, the illegal control of crossin gs, the de nial of entry of hum anitarian aid in violation of inter national law and under false security pr etexts. Articles 54/1/2 o f the firs t complementary protocol o f 1977 prohibit the starvation of c ivilian population as a tool o f war, including the deli berate blo ck of entry of relief m aterial, w hich is considered a crim e of war a ccording t o provision 28/b/xxv of the statutes of the I CC. We shall disc uss and demonstrate the possibility of considering th e siege of Gaza a c rime of genocide according to the conventi on against genocid e and collective punishment issued in 1951, article 2, section c. Additionally, we will add ress the available le gal measu res of int ernational law to prosecute those responsible for comm itting those crimes in Gaza. We shall also discuss the responsibilities of international organiz ations,especially the UN, in ho lding Israel internationally responsible.

Ć¨ČˆĹşÇ Ć˘ĆŤ Ć§Ç‚ÇœÇť ƎƸƌŭƥ ĆĄÇ€ Çż Äż NJǍƢǟǟLJ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŹÇł ĹˆČ‚ÇťĆ˘ÇŹÇłĆĄ ǞǓȂdzƥ NJºǍƢǟǟLJ ƢǸǯ ǾƢÇ&#x; ǀǟǡ Ƣđ ǂǡ Ŗdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ Ç˛ĆˇĆĄÇ‚Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ć§Ç„ÇŁ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŹÇł ƨǡƢÇ&#x; Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆšÇˆÇˇ Č Ć§Ç„ÇŁ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;ĹˆĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏdzƥ ĆžÇ&#x;ĆĄČ‚ÇŤ ÇŠĆ˘ĆŚÇ˜ÇťĆĄ ČƒĆžÇˇ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťĆ› Č Ć¨ČˆÇťĆžÇˇČ Ć¨ČˆÇťČ‚ÇťĆ˘ÇŤ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆšÇˆÇˇ ÇąČ?Əơƥ ƧȂǏǯ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆžČˆÇŻĆ˜ĆŹÇłĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏºơČ?ĆĄ ƨǨÇ? Ç–ÇŹÇˆČ‡ Č?  ǾƢÇ&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Ǻǡ Ç Ć˘ÇŒĆŹÇťČ?ĆĄ ƧƽƢÇ&#x;Ć› ƨǧƢǯ Č Č‚ĹŞĆĄ Č Ç‚Ć¸ĆŚÇłĆĄ Č Ĺ?dzƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ Ć§Ç‚Ç˜ČˆÇ‡ Ć¤ĆŚÇˆĆĽ Č?ĆŹĹ° ǹƥDŽȇ Č? ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ǚƗ ƔƢĔƛ řǠȇČ? Â?ĆžÂşÂşĆˇĆĄČ ÇĽ Ç‚Ç— ÇşÇˇČ Ć˝Ç‚Ç¨ÇźĹ­ĆĄ Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJČ?ĆĄ ƣƢºƸ ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ǚƛ ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇǂƼƢǠŭƥ ÇŠĆ˘ÂşĆŚÇ˜ÇťĆĄ ȆǤǴȇ Č?Č Â?ƢȀǟǡ Ć¤ÂşĆ¸ÇˆÇźĹ­ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Č†Ç“ĆĄÇ Č‹ ĆĄ ÇşÇ&#x; ÇąČ?ƏºơČ?ĆĄ ƨdzƢºơ Ć˘Č€ČˆÇ´Ç&#x;ȅƢǿČ? Č ÇŚČˆÇź ČˆĆł ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇŤĆ˘Ç¨ĆŤĆĄ ÇŞČˆĆŚÇ˜ĆŤČ ĆĄÇ€Çż Äż NJǍƢǟǟLJ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏdzƥ Äż ƨȇƽƢǠǡ Ć¨ÇŹÇ˜ÇźÇ¸ÇŻ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ÇšČ?Ç&#x;Ć› ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ&#x;ƥƞƍ ǎdzƿ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ&#x;ƥƞƍ Č Ć¨Č‡Ć˝Ć˘Ç Çˇ Ć¨ÂşÇŹÇ˜ÇźÇ¸ÇŻ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ ÇšČ?Ç&#x;Ć› Ǻǡ Ç˛Čˆ Ć&#x;ƥǂLJƛ ǼƥƞǿƗ Ć¤Ç´Ç˜Ĺ­ĆĄ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇł ĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏdzƥ ÇŞÇ§Č ÇšČ?Ç&#x;Č?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;Ć˘ÇźĹŞĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ‚Ć ÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ć˘ÇźČˆĆĽ ǚƗ ƞǠƼ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ƞǓ ƨŝǂƳ ƧDŽǣ Ç Ć˘Ç?ơ ĆŽČˆÂşÂşĆˇ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ĹŞĆĄ Ć¨ÂşÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ ƔDŽŪƥ ƥǀǿ Äż śººƌǝ Â?Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢººǏdzƥ Äż ÇľĆ˘ÇœÇźÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ Ć¨ÂşÇˆÇˇĆ˘ĹŹĆĄ ƧƽƢŭƥ Äż Ć§Ć˝Ç ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ĹŞĆĄČ Â?ÇšĆ˘ÇŻÇ Č‹ĆĄČ ÇšČ‚Ç¸Ç”Ĺ­ĆĄČ ÇľČ‚Č€Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ ƧƽƢƼČ?ĆĄ Ć¨ĹťÇ‚ĆłČ†ÇżČ Â?Ç‚Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç˛ČˆĆŚÇ‡ ȆǴÇ&#x; Č†ÇżČ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƢǟŪƥ ƨǸǰƸǸǴdz ȆLJƢLJȋƥ ƨŝǂƳ Dzǯ Ĺ›ÂşĆŚÇťČ Â?ÇšĆĄČ ĆžÇ ÇłĆĄ Ć¨ĹťÇ‚ĆłČ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ĆłČ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ Ćž Ç“ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ĹŞĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸŪƥ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Äż Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƥ ƢȀƌǰƍǂƍ ƨŝǂƳ Dzǯ ĆŠĆ˘ÇŹČˆĆŚÇ˜ĆŤ Č Ć§ĆžĆˇ ȆǴÇ&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ć¤Ç´Ç˜Ĺ­ĆĄ ƥǀǿ Äż NJººººǍƢǟǟLJ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŤ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤ Ĺˆ ȂǝƢºººǏdzƥ ÇŚČˆČˆÇ°ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆĆĽÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ǹƢǸÇ&#x;Č‹ĆĄ Ǻǡ Č?ǸÇ&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ĺ?ƏǠȇ ĆŽČˆĆˇ ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ Ć¨ĹĽČ Â?Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǹƢǸÇ&#x;Ć— Ć˘Č€ÇźÇˇČ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ǚȂǝƢºǍ  ǾƢǠǴdz ȅƢǿČ? Ć¨Čˆ ºǍƢǨƍƥ ĆŞÇ¸ÇœÇť ĆžÂşÇŤČ  Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć˘Č€ÂşÇŤĆ˘ĆŚÇ˜ÇťĆĄ ČƒĆžÇˇČ Ç˛ČˆÇ?ǨƏdzƢƼ Ć˘ĹŽČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹÇť ÇĽČ‚Ç‡Ç•Č Ç‚ÇŒÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ ƢŎ Ć¨Ç ĆĽÇ Ć— Ç•Č Ç‚Ç‹  ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏǴdz Ć˘ÇŹÇ§Č Ć§Ç„ÇŁ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Äż ƨƌǰƍǂŭƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚ĹŞĆĄ ÇŚČˆČˆÇ°ĆŤ ÇąČ Ć˘Ć¸ÇźÇ‡ ƢȀšƗ Č Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ĹˆČ‚ÇťĆ˘ÇŹÇłĆĄ Ć¤ÇˆĆˇ DzǰNj Dzǯ ÇŚČˆČˆÇ°ĆŤ Č Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǹƢǰNjƗ ƨǧƢǯ ƾǂNj Č Č†Ç´Ç&#x; ĹƒĆ˘Ç› Ç Ć˘Ç?ººơ ǑǂǨººƼ Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂººLJČ?ĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏºơČ?ĆĄ ƊƥȂºǍ ǾȂºǏƍ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƨŝǂƳ ǹȂƝƽ ÇžÇźĹ¤Č Ç‚ÂşÂşĆĽĆ˘Ç Ĺ­ĆĄ ȆǴÇ&#x; ƨÇ&#x;Č Ç‚ÂşÂşÇŒĹ­ĆĄ ŚǤdzƥ Ć§Ç‚Ç˜ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆ˘ĆĽ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆ Ç˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Č†Ç“ĆĄÇ Č‹ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇźÇˇĆ— ČƒČ Ć˘Ç&#x;Ć˝Č ÇśÇ&#x;ƥDŽǡ ƪŢ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢºǏdzƥ njdzƢź ƢŲ ǜŎ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄĆžÇ&#x;Ć˘ÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ ÇľÇľĆ˘Ç ÇłÇąČ Č‹ĆĄ ĿƢǓČ?ĆĄ ÇąČ‚ÇŻČ‚ĆŤČ Ĺ?dzƥ Ǻǡ   ƧƽƢŭƥ ĆŞÇ?Çť ƞºººǏǧ Â?ƨǨȇDŽǡ ǾƥƞƟƏLJƥ ǚƛ ƢǸǯ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ Ć¤ČˆÇłĆ˘Ç‡Ć— Ǻǡ ĆŁČ‚Ç´Ç‡Ć˜ÇŻ Ĺ›ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ ǚƢǰ ÇˆÇłĆĄ ǞȇȂť Ç‚ÇœĆˇ ȆǴÇ&#x; Č? Ŗdzƥ ƽƥȂŭƥ Ǻǡ ǜĔƢǡǂºơ ǪȇǂǗ ÇşÇ&#x; ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ Ć¤ČˆÇłĆ˘ÂşÇ‡Ć— Ǻǡ ĆŁČ‚Ç´Ç‡Ć˜ÇŻ Ĺ›ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ ǞȇȂť Ĺ?ƏǠȇ Â?ƞǸǠƏǡ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆĽ ƨ ƯƢǣČ?ĆĄ ƽƥȂǡ ǹȂÇ?Č Ć¨ÇŤĆ˘Ç&#x;Ć› ǎdzƿ Äż ƢŠ Â?ǜȀĆ&#x;ƢǏƌdz ƢȀǟÇ&#x; Ĺ˜ÇŁ ƨǸǰººƸǸǴdz ȆººLJƢLJȋ ĆĄ ÇľĆ˘ÇœÇźÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ [[YĆŁ ƧƽƢǸǴdz ƢººǏƌǗ ƣǂºơ ƨŝǂƳ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƢǟŪƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢŌ ƧƽƢƼƛ ƨŝǂƳ ƧDŽǣ Ç Ć˘Ç?ơ Ç Ć˘ĆŚĆŹÇ&#x;ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘Ç°ÇˇĆ› Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ć¸ĆŹÇłĆĄ Č ĆľÇ‚ÇŒÇłĆ˘ĆĽ ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹÇźÇ‡ ƢǸǯ Č ÇŽÇłĆż Č Ć¨ÇźÂşÇˆÇł Ć˘Č€ČˆÇ´Ç&#x; ƨºƌǍƢǠŭƥ Č Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸŪƥƧƽƢºƼČ?ĆĄ ƨŝǂƳ Ǟǟǡ Ć¨ČˆÇŤĆ˘Ç¨ĆŤĆĄ Ć¤ÇˆĆˇ  Ćą ƧǂǏǨ dzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘Ć°ÇłĆĄ ƧƽƢŭƥ Ć¤ÇˆĆˇ

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i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

38


Children Under Siege Dr. An n-Cha rlotte Nilsson *

The Pa lestinian children of the 2 nd Intifa da are considered to be the generation that is the most radical, th e most accepting of violence and the most despairing s o far. The United Nations has repor ted that th e Palestinian children exhibit a sense of loss and a feeling o f hopeles sness that has not been encoun tered else where. M y aim is to highlig ht the constant human rights viol ations the Palestinian children are subje cted to under th e siege because the violence and destruction creat e deepseated psycholo gical con sequences that de eply affect the behaviour of the children in fundamental way s. I exam ine the work o f the U nited Nations, in ternationa l human rights instrum ents, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and international humanitarian l aw. Articles, reports , books an d other publish ed material by exp erts, academics, p rofessiona ls and NGOS are examined, and I interview professionals about the oPt. The fac t that children have r ights is not well und erstood, a nd it is being ig nored that when those rights are not respected th is can cause m ental health proble ms for the children in an extreme situatio n as under a siege. To live with constant violence leads to much confusion for children since they live with a confusion they might not understand. The lack of protection for c hildren indicates that the re is an ac ceptance of the violence whi ch also creates confusion . It has be en shown that children grow ing up with so much uncertainty as in G aza beco me aggr essive, extremely disobedient or compliant. In this context the value of a peace p rocess needs to be recognized, because it has been shown that it g ives childr en hope fo r the future and reinforces their belief that life is worth living. To safeguard the dignity and well-being of the Palestinian children, there is an urgent ne ed to acknow ledge their reality and create awareness of their human rights.

39 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges

ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƩȂdzǁƢnjƫ ǹƕ ƽ ƢǸǯ Ǧ ǼǠǴdz ȐººƦǬƫȁ Ƣǧǂǘƫ DZƢȈƳȋơ ǂưǯƗ ǺǷ ƨȈǻƢưdzơ ƨǓ ƢǨƬǻȏơ Dz ȈƳ ƾǠȇ ǹƗ Ƨƾºº ƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơ ƩƽƢǧƗ ƢǸǯ ƨǜºƸǴdzơ ǽǀǿ ŕºƷ ƢºLJƘȇ ǂưǯ ȋơ ǶĔƗ Ŀ ǥƽƢǐ ȇ Ń Dzǰºnjƥ DžƘȈdzơ ȁ ǹơƾºǬǨdzơ ǂǟƢnjǷ ǹȁƾƦȇ śǘLjǴǧ DZƢǨǗƗ ǂƻƗ ǹƢǰǷ ȅƗ ƧǂǸƬLj ŭơ ƩƢǯƢȀƬǻ ȏơ ȆǴǟ ƔȂǔ dzơ ǖȈǴLj ƫ ńƛ ƨǫǁȂdzơơ ǽǀǿ Ɣơǁȁ ǺǷ ǥƾǿƗ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƢŮ ǑǂǠƬȇ Ŗ dzơ ǮǴƫ ƨǏ Ƣƻ ǹƢLjǻȍ ơ ǩȂǬū ȅǁǀƳ Dz ǰººnjƥȁ ǪǸ Ǡºƥ ǂƯƚƫ ǽǀǿ ŚǷƾƬdzơȁ ǦǼǠdzơ DZƢǸǟƗ ǹȋǁƢǐ ūơ DzǛ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ǪȈƯơȂŭơȁ Ƨƾ ºƸƬŭơ ǶǷȋơ DzǸǟ Ŀ Ʃǂǜǻ ƾºǬdzDzǨǘdzơǭȂǴLJ ȆǴǟ ƨǧƢǓƛ Ņȁƾdzơ ňƢLj ǻȍơ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơȁ DzǨǘdzơ ǩȂǬƷ ƨȈǫƢǨƫơȁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬū ƽơȂŭơ ǺǷ ƢǿŚǣȁ Ƥ Ƭǰdzơȁ ǂȇǁƢººǬƬdzơȁ ƩȏƢºº Ǭŭơ ŅƛƪǠǴǘƫ ƾºǬǧ Ǯdzƿ Ņƛ ƨȈǷȂǰºƷ ŚǤdzơƩƢǸ ǜǼŭơȁśȈǼȀŭơȁ śȈŻƽƢǯȋơȁ ƔơŐŬơ DzºƦǫ ǺǷ ƧǁȂnjǼŭơ ȆǓơǁȋơ Ŀ ǞǓȂdzơ ǹƢºººººnjƥ śǐƬƼŭơ ǞǷ ƩȐººººƥƢǬǷ ƪȇǂƳƗ ƾººººǫȁ ƨºnjǸȀǷ ƢǫȂǬƷ DZ ƢǨǗȌdzǹƗ ƨǬȈǬƷ ńƛ ƪǴǏȂƫȁ ƨǴƬƄơ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨºƸǏ ȆǴǟ ƢƦǴLJ ǂ ƯȂȇ ǮdzƿǹƢǧ ǩȂǬūơ ǽǀǿ ǵǂƬŢȏ ƢǷƾǼǟȁƢȀǴ ǿƢš ǶƬȇ Ŀ NJȈǠ dzơ ǹƛ ƢǸǯ ƧDŽǤººƥ DZƢūơ Ȃǿ ƢǸǯ ƨǤdzƢºƥ ƨƳǁƾdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ DZ ƢǨǗȋơ ǶĔƗ Ʈ ȈºººƷ DZƢǨǗ Ȍdz ǭƢºººƥǁȍơ ǺǷ Śưǰ dzơ ƤººƦLjȇ DzǏ ơȂƬǷ Ǧ Ǽǟ DzǛ ƨȇƢŧ ƽȂƳȁ ǵƾǟ ǹƛ ǾȈǟơȁƽ ǹȂ ǸȀǨȇȏǂƫȂƫ ǦºººººǬLJ ƪŢ ǹȂºººº��ȈǠȇ ǭƢƥǁȍơ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽŭơ ǪǴź ǽǁȁƾƥ ȅ ǀdzơȁ ǦǼǠǴdz ȏȂƦǫǭƢǼǿ ǹƛ řǠȇ DZ ƢǨǗȌdz Ǯºnjdzơ ǺǷ ŚºƦǯ ǁƾ ºǬƥ DŽȈǸƬƫ ƨƠȈºƥ ĿǹȂ ǸǼȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ DZ ƢǨǗȋơǹƛ ś Ʀƫ ƾǬdz ǹơȁƾǠdzƢºƥ ƢǗơǂǧƛ ȁƗ ƨȈǻơȁƾǟ ǂưǯƗ ǹȂƸƦǐȇ ǶĔƜǧ ƧDŽ ǣ DzưǷ śǬȈdzơ ǵƾǟȁ ƨȈǴǸǟ ƨȈŷƘººƥ ǂºǬǻ ǹƛ ƢǼdz ƾºƥȏ ǩƢȈºLjdzơ džǨǻ Ŀȁ ƨǟƢǘdzơ Ŀ ǹƢǟƿƛ ȁƗ ǃDŽǠƫȁ ǂǿƢºƥ DzºƦǬƬLj Ƿ Ŀ ǶŮ DzǷƗ ǎȈǐºƥ ƞǔƬLJ ƢĔƛ ƮȈƷ ǵȐLjdzơ DZƢǨǗƗ ƨ ȈǿƢǧǁȁƨǷơǂǯ ȆǴǟ Ǚ ƢǨºƸǴdz NJȈǠdzơ ǪƸLjƫ ƧƢȈūơ ǹƛ Ƕ ǿƽƢǬƬǟơ ȆǟȁǪǴƻȁ ǂȇǂŭơǶȀǠºººǫơȂƥ ǥ ơǂƬǟȐdzƨººLJƢǷ ƨƳƢºº Ʒ ǭƢǼǿśǘ ººLjǴǧ ǂnjƦdzơ ǺǷ ǶǿŚǤǯ ǶȀǫȂǬƷ ǽƢšơ DzǷƢǰƬǷ *Independent Researcher Sweden / Nilssac@aol.com


i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

40


From Gaza to Guantanamo: Building a New Movement for Human Rights Dr. Na ncy M urray *

In Janu ary 2007, UN Special Rapporteur John Dugard warned that if the West cann ot "demonstrate a rea l commitm ent to the hu man rights of th e Palestin ian people," the entire international hum an rights movement "will be endangered and placed in jeopardy." Perha ps the two most pote nt symbol s of the betraya l of that movement today are G aza and Gu ant?namo . This paper will place t he siege of Gaza in the framework of post 9/11 US policy, which has put the entire human rights movem ent in jeopard y. In Gaz a, the US pushed for a democr atic election and then backed Israe l's policy of subject ing the entire popula tion to collective punishment for voting the wrong w ay. Like Gaza under s iege, Guant?namo is a labo ratory fo r the test ing of techniq ues designed to bre ak human will and enforce absolute submis sion. The wo rd Guant?namo has become shorthand for a ra nge of human rights vio lations, from the im plementat ion of torture to indefin ite detention and the abolition of fundamental fairn ess and due pro cess proce dures guaranteed b y internati onal law and the US Con stitution. The participation of mental health professionals in coercive "war on terro r" interrog ations, includingat G uant?nam o, haspresented US psy chologists and psy chiatrists with a m oral cha llenge. While the Amer ican Psyc hiatric As sociation has endorsed a policy banning its mem bers from particip ating in these interrogations, th e Americ an Psychological Association, with nearly 1 50,000 m embers, ha s refused to endorse a similar policy. As the US-declar ed "war o n terror" enters its eighth year, w hat will it take to restore respect for hum an rights norms? What do the clo se ties between th e Americ an milita ry and American psychologists m ean for the soul of the profession? What prospects a re there fo r a change in directi on from th e new American Admin istration? How can a vigorous international movem ent be built in support of Pale stinian rig hts and an end to the sieg e of Gaza?

ȂǷƢǻƢƬǻơȂƳ ńƛ ƧDŽǣ ǺǷ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬū ƧƾȇƾƳ ƨǯǂƷ ƔƢǼƥ ȂŴ ȅơǁȂǷ ȆLjǻƢǻ ƽ ǶǷȋơ ǶºLJƢƥ ǍƢŬ ơ ƭƾºƸƬŭơ ƽǁƢƳȁƽ ǹȂƳ ǁǀºƷ  ǂȇƢǼȇ Ŀ ǹƢººLjǻ ȍơ ǩȂººǬƷ ȂŴ ƢȈºǬȈǬƷ ƢǷơDŽƬdzơ ƣ ǂǤdzơ ȅƾºƦȇ Ń ƢǷ ǾǻƘºƥ ƧƾºƸƬŭơ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ǹƢººLjǻȍơ ǩ ȂºǬƷ ƨǯǂ ºƷ ǹƜǧ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƤǠºnjdzƢƥ ƨǏƢŬơ ȃȂºǫƗ ǹƗ ȄǴǟ ǦǴƬŵ ȏ ƾºǫǂǘ ŬƢƥ ƨǗƢŰ ȁ ƧƽƾȀǷ ǹȂǰƫ ǥȂLJ  ƢȀƬǷǂƥ ƧDŽǣĿ Dz ưǸƬƫ ǵȂȈdzơ ǹƢºººººººLj ǻȍơ ǩȂººººººǬƷ ƨǯǂū ƨǻƢȈŬơǽǀŮ ǺȇDŽǷǁ ǩƢȈºLJ Ŀ ƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐ ºƷ ǞǓȁ ńƛ ƨºǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀ ǿ ȄǠºLjƫ ǥȂºLJ Ȃ ǷƢ ǻƢƬǻơȂƳȁ Ŀ ƢȀƬǷ ǂºƥ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǩȂǬƷ ƨǯ ǂƷ ƪǠǓȁ Ŗ dzơ ŐǸƬƦLJ  ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƨǴƷǂǷ ƩƢººƥƢƼ Ƭǻơ ǽƢšơĿ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾºƸƬŭơƩƢȇ ȏȂdzơ ƪǠǧƽ ƧDŽǣ Ŀǂǘ ƻ ǞǓȁ ƣƢºǬǠdzơ ǞȈºǫȂƫ Ŀ ƨȈǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ƨºLJƢȈLj dzơ Ƕǟƾºƥ ƪǷƢºǫ Ľ ƨȈǗ ơǂºǬŻƽ ǁƢȈƬƻȏơ ơȂǼLjŹ Ń ǶĔȂǰ dz ǹƢǰLjdzơ Dz Ǹů ȄǴǟ ȆǟƢǸŪơ ǁƢƦƬƻȏ DzǸǠǷ ȏƛ Ȃǿ ƢǷ ȂǷƢǻƢƬǻơȂƳ ǹƜǧǁƢǐ ūơ ƪŢ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ DZƢūơ Ȃǿ ƢǸǴưǷ ǵƢƬdzơ ǝ ȂǔŬơ Ǒǂ ǧȁ ƨȈǻƢºLjǻȍơ Ƨƽơǁȍơ ǂLj ǰdz ƨǸǸǐ ŭơ ƩƢȈǼǬƬdzơ ƭƾƷƗ ǩȂººǬƷ ƩƢǯƢȀƬǻơ ǺǷ ƨǴººLjǴ Ljdz ơDŽǷǁ ȂǷ ƢǻƢƬǻơȂƳ ƨǸ Ǵǯ ƪºƸƦǏ Ɨ ƾºǬdz ńƛ ƧƽȁƾŰ ŚǣƩơǂƬǨdz DZƢºǬƬǟȏơ ńƛ Ƥȇǀ ǠƬdzơ ƨºLJǁƢ Ų ǺǷ ƨȇơƾƥ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ƧƽǁơȂdzơ ƨºƦƳơȂdzơƩơƔơǂƳȍơ ƨdzơƾ ǟ ǹƢǸǔdz ƨ ȈLJƢLJȋơ Ǖ ȁǂnjdzơǺǟ ȆǴƼƬdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ȆȈǼȀǷ ƨŷ ƢLjǷǹƛ ƧƾƸƬŭơƩƢȇ ȏȂdzơ ǁȂƬLJƽȁ Ņȁƾdzơ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơ Ŀ ƢŠ ƣƢǿǁȍơ ȄǴǟƣǂūơ ƪƦƷƢǏ Ŗdzơ ƨȇǂLj Ǭdzơ ƩƢǬȈǬƸƬdzơ Ŀ ƨ ȈLjǨǼdzơ ƔƢºººººƦǗȋơȁ śȈƟƢǐ ƻȌdzƢȈºººººǫȐƻƗ ƢȇƾŢ ƪǴưǷ ȂǷ ƢǻƢƬǻơȂƳ Ŀ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƨȈǠǸŪơ ƩƾǸƬǟơ ś ºƷ ȄǴǠǧ ƧƾºƸƬŭơ ƩƢ ȇȏȂdzơ Ŀ ś ȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢǬȈǬƸ Ƭdzơ ǮǴƫ Ŀ ƨǯǁƢnjŭơ ǺǷ ƢȀƟƢǔǟ Ɨ ǞǼŤ ƨLJƢȈLJ ȆLjǨǼdzơ ƤǘǴdz ǺǷ ƢǨdzƗ  ŅơȂºº ºƷ Ƕǔƫ Ŗ dzơȁ džǨǼdzơ ǶǴǠdz ƨȈǰȇ ǂǷȋơ ƨȈǠǸŪơ ǹƗ ȏƛ ȄǴǟƣǂūơ Dzƻƾƫ ƿƛ ǵȂȈdzơ ƨǴƯƢŲ ƨºººººººLJƢȈLJ ƽƢǸƬǟơ ƪǔǧǁ ƔƢǔǟȋơ ǾƳƢƬŴ ȅǀdzơ ƢǷǺǷ Ƣưdzơ ƢȀǷƢǟ ƧƾºººƸƬŭơ Ʃ ƢȇȏȂdzơƢȀƬǼººNj Ŗdzơ ƣƢǿǁȍơ śººƥ ƨººǬȈƯȂdzơǖººƥơȁǂdzơ ǽǀǿ ŸǹƢººLjǻȍơ ǩȂººǬƷ ŚȇƢǠŭ ǁƢºƦƬǟȏơ ƧƽƢǟȍ Ƶȁǁ ȄǴǟ ǂƯƚƬºLJǦ Ȉǯ śȈǰȇǂǷȋơ džǨǼdzơ ƔƢǸǴǟȁƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơƨȇǂǰºLjǠdzơ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ Ƨǁơƽȍơ ǽƢšơ Ŀ ŚȈǤƫ ƭơƾººººººº ºƷȍ ǭƢǼǿ ƩƢȈǻƢǰǷƛ ȅ Ɨ ŸƨǼȀŭơ ǩȂººǬƸǴdz ƢǸǟƽƨȇȂºǫ ƨȈŭƢǟ ƨȈºǫȂǬƷƨǯǂºƷ ƔƢǼºƥ ǺǰŻ ǦȈǯȁ ŸƧƾȇƾŪơ ŸƧDŽǣ ǁƢǐū ƾƷǞǓ Ȃdzȁ ƨȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ

*President, Gaza Mental Health Foundation, Inc.USA / numurray@comcast.net

41 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Besieged in Britain Ms. Victoria Brittain *

The pa per will b e a study of eight Muslim families living in Britain whose fathers were detained in G uantanamo Bay for five years; or subject to Control O rders which are, typ ically, house a rrest for between 22 and 12 hours a day, and restrictions on visits t o the hou se except by people screened by UK Home Office; or are in prison fig hting dep ortation or ders back to the countries from w hich they were refu gees, or extradition to the US. Methodology: interviews a nd family visits to the homes for the last four years in some case s, and more than one year in all cases. The focus has been on the effects, par ticularly on mental health, of these extremel y adverse life condi tions on th e women, and to some e xtent also , inevitably, on the children. The women are P a le s t i n i a n s f r o m J o r d a n ( 2 ) ; B r it i s h / I n dia n ( 1 ) ; French/Senegalese (1); Egyptian ( 1); British/Pakistani (1); British/Libyan (1), Jordanian. (1) Th e husbands, or in on e case the brother, and an other the son, are from Palestine, Saudi A rabia, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Britis h/Pakistani, Iraq. Findings: All the women suffered extreme isolation at the beginning of my work, th ough the paper will show ho w that change d in some cases. S erious dep ression, sleep disruption, physical aliments , alienatio n from the host socie ty, difficulties in managing the children, are among the common patterns o f life to be trace d. The different copying mech anisms adopted by the women, and their different le vels of su ccess. These may depend o n such factors as educati on level, family sup port at lon g distance, and cultural expecta tions of hardship (notabl y by the two Palestinians), as well as on the indiv iduals' personality. Aims: Assista nce to the women an d their law yers to m itigate effects on familie s, and es pecially children, o f their circumstan ces in Britain. ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ  ƨǴǬƬLj Ƿ ƨưƷ Ƣƥȁ ƨƦƫƢǯ * Independent writer and Journalist / victoriacatherine@yahoo.com

ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ Ŀ ǹȁǂǏ ƢŰ śƬȇǂƥ ƢȇǁȂƬǰȈǧ Ŀ NJȈǠƫ ƨǸǴºLjǷ ǂLJƗ ƨȈǻƢǸ ưdz ƨLJơǁƽ ƨƥ ƢưŠ ȆǿƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ džŨ ƧǂƬǨdz ȂǷƢǻƢƬǻơȂƳ DzºººǬƬǠǷ Ŀ ƢȀǴ ƟƢǟ DzºººǬƬǟơ ƢȀǔǠºº ƥ ơǂƬǴųơ  ȁ śºƥ ƢǷ ƵȁơǂƬƫ ƩơǂƬǨdz DZ ŗŭơ Ŀ ǾƬǷƢºǫƛ ƩƽƾºƷ ƢȀǔǠºƥȁ ƩơȂǼLJ ƧǁơǃȁǶǿƽƾŢ ǶȀǼȈǠºƥ ƽơǂǧƗ ǺǷ ȏƛ ƩơǁƢȇDŽdzơ ƾȈȈǬƫ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓƛ ƢȈǷȂȇ ƨǟƢLJ ƢǿȂǯǂƫ Ŗdzơ ǽƽȐºƥ ńƛ DzȈƷǂƬdzơ ǂǷơȁƗ ǾƳơȂ ȇ ƢȀǔǠƥȁ ƨȈǻƢǘȇŐdzơ ƨȈǴƻơƾdzơ ƩơǁƢȇǃȁ Ʃ ȐƥƢǬǷ Ʋ ȀǼŭơ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ńƛ DzȈƷǂƬdzơ ȁƗ śƠƳȏ Ǻǟ DzºǬƫ ȏ ƧǂƬǨdzȁ Ʃ ȏƢūơ ǒǠºƥ ȅ ƩơȂǼºLJ ǞºƥǁƗȃƾǷ ȄǴǟ ǂLJȌdz ƨȈdzŗǷ ƧƾȇƾºNj ƨȈƫƢȈūơ ǥ ȁǂǜdzơ ǮǴƫ ǁƢƯƕ ȄǴǟ ƨºǫǁȂdzơ DŽǯǂƫ ƩȏƢūơ Dzǯ Ŀ ƨǼºLJ ƨººƸǐdzơ ȄǴǟƢǷ ƨƳǁƾºƥȁƔƢºLjǼǴdz ƨȈºLj ǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ƨºƥȂǠǐdzơ ǺǷ ƩƢȈǼȈǘºLjǴǧ ƨ ºLJơǁƾdzơ Ǻ ȀƬǴſ ļȐ dzơ ƔƢºLjǼdzơ DZƢǨǗȌdz ƨ ȈLjǨǼdzơ   ǂǐǷ   DZƢǤǼºººººLjdzơƢLjǻǂǧ   ƾǼŮơƢȈǻƢǘȇǂºººººƥ   ǹƽǁȋơ ĿȁƱơȁǃȋơ ƢǷƗ  ǹƽǁȋơȁ  ƢȈºººƦȈdzƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ   ǹƢƬººLjǯƢƥƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ ƢȈºƦȈdzȁ ǂǐǷȁ ǂƟơDŽŪ ơȁ ƨȇƽȂǠLj dzơȁ śǘLjǴǧ ǺǷ Ǻƥȏơ ȃǂƻƗ Ŀȁ ƹȋơ ƨdzƢƷ ǩơǂǠdzơȁ ǹƢƬLjǯƢƥƢ ȈǻƢǘȇǂƥȁ ŖºLJơǁƽ ƨȇơƾºƥ Ŀ Ƨƾȇƾnjdzơ ƨdzDŽǠdzơ ǺǷ ś ǻƢǠȇ ǺǯƔƢLjǼdzơ ǞȈŦ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ǂưǯƗƪǴưŤ ƩȏƢūơ ǒǠººƥ Ŀ Ǯdzƿ DZƾººƦƫ ǦȈǯ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ƶǓȂƫ ǥȂºLJȁ ǵȂǼdzơ ƣơǂǘǓơȁ ƾȇ ƾººnjdzơƣƢ ƠƬǯȏƢººƥ ǁȂ ǠººnjdzơĿ ƢǟȂȈºNj ƩȐ ǰºnjŭơ Ŀ ƨºººƥȂǠǐdzơȁ Ǧ ȈǔŭơǞǸƬĐơ Ǻǟ ƣơǂƬǣȏơȁ ƨȇƾº ººLjŪơ ȃȁƢǰººnjdzơȁ ƾºǫȁǶǴ ǫƘƬǴdz ƨǨǴƬű ƤȈdzƢLJƗ ƔƢLjǼdzơƪǷ ƾƼƬLJơ DZ ƢǨǗȋơǞǷ DzǷƢǠƬdzơ DzưǷ ƨǨǴƬű DzǷơȂ ǟ ȄǴǟ ơƽƢǸ Ƭǟơ ƨƫȁƢǨƬǷ ƩƢƳǁƾººººƥ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ǺººººƸų ƨdzƢººƷ Ŀ Ƨƾºnjdzơ ǞºǫȂƫȁƾǠºƥ Ǻǟ ȅǂºLJ ȋơ Ƕǟƾdzơȁ ȆǸȈǴǠƬdzơ ȃ ȂƬºLjŭơ ȄǴǟƨȈǐƼººnjdzơ ǖŶ ńƛƨǧƢǓƛ ǍȂǐŬơ ǾƳȁ ȄǴǟ śƬȈǼȈǘ ºLjǴǨdzơ ǺȀȈȈǷƢŰȁ ƔƢºLjǼdzơ ƧƾǟƢºLjǷ Ȃǿ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ǺǷ ǥƾŮ ơ ȅƽǂǨdzơ ȃȂƬLjŭơ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ƨǏƢƻȁ ǂLJȌdzƨƦLj ǼdzƢƥ ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ Ŀ NJȈǠ dzơ ƧƾNjǦȈǨţ ȄǴǟ

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

42


Mental health symptoms post conflict: a case series of patients in west Belfast. Elizabeth Sc humacher, Patr icia Campbell, & Maneesh Gupta*

Background: The impact o f armed conflict on mental health is increasingly being recognised. After the conflict ends, adversities and disparities in community mental health resources can lead to delays in recognition and treatment of mental disorders. Northern Ireland suffered from conflict for over 30 years. H owever, there is litt le qualitat ive clinica l research on the effect this prolonged confli ct had on people caught in the midst. Case Se ries: We present a case serie s of patien ts living i n west Belfast through the conflict. Some w ere actively involv ed and others became pa rt of it due to the area they lived in. While the common denominator is the conflict itself, we present different personal experie nces and perception s, differe nt symptoms of mental disorder and the different treatment mo dalities us ed. We will com pare and contrast the similar ities and uniqueness of the complexity of this group of individ uals give n the prolonged conflict exposure. Conclusi on: The sa me conflict can effe ct and be perceived by different individu als in differing ma nners. Differe nt resource s need to b e utilised for thema nagement of post conflict symptom s as comp ared to a populatio n not expo sed to conflict.

43S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges

ǝơǂǐ dzơ ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ Ǒơǂǟȋơ ƪLJƢǨǴƥ ƣǂǣ ǺǷ Ʃ ȏƢƷ ƨLJơǁƽ ƢƬƥȂƳ NJȈǻƢ Ƿ ȁ DzƦǷƢ ǯ ƢnjȇǂƫƢƥ ȁ ǂƻƢǷȂNj ƪȈƥơ DŽȈdzơ

ǝơǂǐdzơ ŚƯƘƫ ȆǴǟ ƢȈŸǁƾƫ ǥǂǠƬdzơ Ļ ƾººººº ººǬdz ƨȈźǁƢƫ ƨȈǨǴƻ ǹƜǧǝơŗ dzơ ƨǴººƷǂǷ ƔƢȀƬǻơƾǠºƦǧ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐ dzơ ȆǴǟ ȅǂǰºLjǠdzơ Ņƛ DZƚƫ ƾºǫ ƩƢƦǬǟȁ ǺŰ ǾƳơȂƫ ƾǫ ƨȈǠǸ ƬĐơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ǁƽƢǐǷ ƨººǬǘ ǼǷ ňƢǠƫ ƢȀƳȐǟȁ ƨȈº LjǨǼdzơ ƩƢºƥơǂǘǓȏơ ȆǴǟ ǥǂǠƬdzơ Ŀ ǂƻƘƫ Ǯºdzƿ ǺºǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ ȆǴǟȁ ƢǷƢǟ ś ƯȐƯ ƧƾǷ ǵ ơƽ ǂȇǂǷ ǝơǂǏ ǺǷ ơƾǼdzǂȇ ơ DZƢſ ǝơǂǐdzơ ơǀǿ ǂƯơDžǁƾƫ ŖdzơƨȈǟȂǼdzơ ƨȈǰǼȈǴǯȏơ ƭƢŞȋơ ǺǷ DzȈǴºº ºǬdzơ ƾų ƨLJơǁƾdzƢƥ ƢǼǿ ǩǂǘ Ƭǻ ƨdzƢūơ Ǒ ǂǟ ƨȈƫƢǠdzơ ƨǼƄơ ǮǴƫ ǖLJȁ Ŀ DžƢǼdzơ ȆǴǟ ƪººLJƢǧ DzȈººƥ ƣǂǣ Ŀ ǹȂǼǰºLj ȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ ȆǓǂŭơ ƩȏƢºƷ ǺǷ ƨǴºLj ǴLJ Ņƛ ǥȂººººLJ DžƢǼdzơ ǮƠdzȁƗ ǺǷǒ Ǡºººƥ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǮdzƿǶǔ ƻ Ŀ ǹȂºº ºnjȈǠȇȁ ơǂǜǻ ƢȀǼǷ ơƔDŽƳ ǹȂǰ ȈºLJ ǂƻȋơ ǒǠºƦdzơȁ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ Ŀ ǕƢºnjǼƥ ǹȂǯǁƢnjȇ ƨƦǬǟ ƽƾǠdzơ Dzǰnjȇ ƢǸǼȈƥ Ƣđ ǹȂǼǘǬȇ Ŗ dzơ ƨǬǘǼŭ ơ Ņƛ DZȂǏȂ dzơ ǁǀǠƬdz ǂǜǻ ƩƢȀƳȁȁ ƨǨǴƬű ƨȈǐƼººNj ƣǁƢƴƬdz ǑǂǠƬǼººLJ ƢǼǻƜǧ ƨȈººLjȈƟǁ ǥȂLJ ƱȐǠǴdz ƨǨǴƬƼŭơ ǩǂǘdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢƥơǂǘǓȐ dz ƨǨǴƬű ǑơǂǟƗȁ Ǻȇǀdzơ ƽơǂǧȋơ ǺǷƨǟȂǸĐơ ǮǴƫ ƾȈºǬǠƫ Ŀ ǥȐƬƻȏơȁ ǾƥƢnjƬdzơśƥƢǷ ǹǁƢǬǻ ǝơǂǐǴdz ơȂǓǂǠƫ ǩǂǘººº ºººººƥ ƨǨǴƬű ƽơǂǧƗ ȆǴ ǟ ǂƯƚȇ ǹƗ Ǻǰ Ǹŭơ ǺǷǝơǂǐdzơ Ʃơƿ ǹƛ ƨŤƢŬơ ƨǴºƷǂǷ ǑơǂǟƗƧǁơƽȍ ƨǼȇƢƦƬǷ ǁƽƢǐǷ ǵơƾƼƬLJȏ ƱƢƬŴ ƾǫ ƢǔȇƗ ƨǨǴƬű ǝơǂǏ ȁƩƢǷ ǃȋ ǑǂǠƬƫ Ń ƣȂǠnj ƥ ƢȀƬǻǁƢǬŠ Ǯdzƿȁ ǝơǂǐ dzơ ƾǠƥƢǷ ƢȈǻƢǘȇǂƥ ơƾǼdzǂȇơ DZƢſ ƪLJƢǧ DzȈƥ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨȈƸǐdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂǴdz ƪLJƢǧ DzȈƥ DŽǯǂǷ *Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK maneesh_psych@yahoo.com, patricia.campbell@belfasttrust.hscni.net, liz@london.com


United nations detention environment and accused for genocide at the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Arusha, Tanzania

Ç?ȂǴǔdzƢƼ ǚȂǸȀƏŭƥ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹĆˇĆĄ Ć¨Ć ČˆĆĽČ ÇĽČ Ç‚Ç› ƧƞƸƏŭƥ ǜǡȋƥ ČƒĆžÇł Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸŪƥ ƧƽƢƼČ?ĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ćł Äż ĆĄĆžÇťĆĄČ Ç Äż ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ćł ƨǸǰŰ ǾƢǡƗ Č‚ÇŻČ‚ÇŻČ‚ÇťČ Ć— Č…Č‚ĆĽĆ˘ĆŹČˆÇŻČ Ć— DzǰȇƢǡ Ć˝

Michel Okita poy On'okoko *

Recognizing that serious violations of humanitarian law wer e commit ted in Rwa nda, the S ecurity Council crea ted the Interna tional Cri minal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) on 8 Novem ber 1994 to prosecute the persons responsible for genoci de and other serious vio lations o f interna tional humanitarian law committed in Rwan da between 1 Janua ry and Decem ber 1994. Recognizing the ne ed for rules governing the administration of detention unit for th ose detainees awaiting for trial or appeal and the need t o ensure r espect for human rig hts and fundam en tal fr eedoms particularly th e p resumpti on of innocence, the United Nations Detention Facility (UNDF), was established on 26 May 1996 in Arusha, Tanzania, as a hold ing for those su spected of taking pa rt in the19 94 Rwandan Genocide. In this d escriptive study carried outin the mental healthuni t of the UNDF using the data collected from i ts opening on 26 Ma y 1996 up to date , we discuss: 1. The chall enges of p roviding mental health c are to those accused of such atr ocitieswh ile maintaining a respectful process of human rights a nd dignity; 2. The mental health conditions of accused and 3. The interact ion betwe en this protective environment and the management of the UNDF In spite of the safety-device and the healing side of the UNDF environment, the imprisonm ent has still negative psychological effects a mong the detainees which impacts onits managem ent. Howev er, the mental health unit has effectively lifted up th e spirit and mo rale of detainees that contribute to their pa rticipation in the trial proceedings in accordance with the minimal international standard

ƣƢÇ?Ç&#x; Č‹ĆĄČ Ç†Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄ Ć¤ČˆÂşĆŚÇ—Â?Č‚ÇŻ Č‚ÇŻČ‚ÇťČ Ć— Č…Č‚ĆĽ Ć˘ĆŹČˆÇŻČ Ć— Dzǰȇ Ƣǡ Ç Č‚ĆŹÇŻĆ˝ ǞºƼƢƏdzƥ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹÂşĆˇČ?Çł ƧƞƸƏŭƥ ǜǡȋƥ Ǫǧǂǡ Äż ƨ ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨ ƸÇ?dzƥ Ƨƞơ Č Ç†ČˆĆ&#x;Ç Č ĆĄĆžÇťĆĄČ Ç‚ĆĽ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ÇśĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ćł ƨǸǰƄ ĆžÇťĆĄČ Ç ĆŞ ÂşĆŚÇ°Ä„ĆŤÇ ĆĄ ĹˆĆ˘ÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏ Ç´Çł Ć¨Ç¸ČˆÇˆĆł ƊƢǯƢȀƏǝƥ ǚƗ ǺǡȋƥdžǴů Ç­Ç Ć˝Ć— ƨǸǯƢƄ  Ĺ?ǸǧȂǝ  ǾȂȇƥƞǝ ĆĄČ Ç‚ÂşĆĽ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ Çś Ć&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ćł ƨǸǰŰ Ć˜ÇŒÇťĆ—ĆžÇŹÇ§ ÇžČˆÇ´Ç&#x;Č ČƒÇ‚ĆťČ‹ĆĄ Ć¨Ç¸ČˆÂşÂşÇˆĹŞĆĄ ƊƢǯƢȀƏǝČ?ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸŪƥ ƧƽƢºƼČ?ĆĄĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ´Ç¸Ç&#x; ÇşÇ&#x; Ĺ› ÇłČ ĆšÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ĺ•ÂşĆˇČ Ç‚ ȇƢǟȇ Ǻǡ Ɯƍ ƢǨdzƥ Ĺ›ĆĽĆĄĆžÇťČ Ç Äż ĆŞĆŚÇ°ĆŤ Ç ĆĄ Ĺ– dzƥ Ĺ…Č Ćž dzƥ ĹˆĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ǚȂǝƢǏǴdz  Ĺ?ǸLj ȇƽ ǂȀNj Ć§ĆžÂşĆˇČ Ć§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć› ÇśÇœÇźĆŤČ ÇśÇ°Ĺ˘ Ŗdzƥ Ĺ›ÇťĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŹÇłĆĄČ Çľ Ć˘Ç°ÂşĆˇČŒÇł ƨ ƳƢōƥ ĆŠÇƒÇ‚ÂşĆĽ ǚƗ ĆžÇ ÂşĆĽČ ÇĽĆ˘ÇźĆ ĆŹÂşÂş ººLJƥ Č Ć—ÇśČ€ĆŹÇ¸ÇŻĆ˘Ĺ° ÇšČ Ç‚ÇœĆŹÇźČ‡ Ǻȇǀdzƥ ǺȇDŽƴƏƄƥ ÇŽĆ ÇłČ Č‹ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹÂşÂşÂşĆˇČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘Č‡Ç‚ĹŤĆĄČ ÇšĆ˘ÂşÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ NJȂººǏơ Ǿƥǂ Əººơƥ Ć§Ç Č Ç‚Ç“ Č ÇśČ€ÂşÂşÇŹĹž Ć§Ç Ć˝Ć˘Ç?dzƥ Çľ Ƣǰºơȋƥ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹÂşĆˇČ? Çł ƧƞºƸƏŭƥ ǜǡȋƥ Ǫǧǂǡ Ç†Ç‡ĆŒĆ— Â?ƧƔƥĹ?dzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ“Ç‚Ç§ ƨÇ?Ć˘ĆťČ Ć¨ČˆÇ‡Ć˘Ç‡Č‹ĆĄ Äż ÇžÂşÂşĆŚĆŹÇŒČ‡ Ǻŭ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹÂşÂşĆˇĆĄ Ć§Ć˜ÂşÂşÇŒ ǟǸǯ Ć˘ČˆÇťĆĄĹ— ƏºƼ Ć˘ÂşÇ‹Č Ç Ć— Äż ȂȇƢǡ  ǾȂȇ ĆĄĆžÇťĆĄČ Ç Äż  Çľ ƢÇ&#x; ĆŞĆŚÇ°ĆŤÇ ĆĄ Ĺ– dzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸ ĹŞĆĄ ƧƽƢƼČ?ĆĄ Çś Ć&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ćł ĿǜȀǯƥǂƏNjƥ ƨǠºƼƢƏdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ Ƨƞ ĆˇČ Äż ĆŠÇ„Ĺł ĆŒĆ— Ŗdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨Ç?Ȃdzƥ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ ǀǟǡǞȇƞdz ƧǂǧȂƏŭƥ ĆŠ ƢǡȂǴǠŭƥ ǾƥƞƟƏººLJƢƼ ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹÂşĆˇČ?Çł ƧƞºƸƏŭƥǜǡ Č‹ĆĄ Ǫǧǂŭ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘ĆŹÇłĆĄ ÇžČˆÇ“ĆĄČ‚Ĺ­ĆĄÇŠ ǍƢǟƍ ÇžĹşÇ Ć˘ĆŤ Ĺ• ĆˇČ  ȂȇƢǡ  ǾȂȇ ǞơƢƏƏǧƥ ǹƢǸÇ&#x;Č‹ĆĄ ǽǀǿ ĆŁĆ˘Ç°ĆŤÇ Ć˘ÂşÂşĆĽ śǸȀƏǸǴdz Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨȇƢÇ&#x;ǂdzƥ ʼnƞººǏƍ ĆŠ ƢȇƞŢ  Ć¨ÇˇĆĄÇ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄČ ÇšĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ÇŠ Č‚ÇŹĹŤ ǾƥǂƏơ Č?ƢƼ ÇśÇˆĆŹĆŤ Ć¨ČˆÇ´Ç¸Ç&#x; Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç™Ć˘Ç¨ĹŤĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇŒĆˇČ‚ÇłĆĄ ƪǍȂdzƥ džǨǝ ÄżĆ¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ Ĺ› ǸȀƏǸǴdz Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄÇ?ƢǓ Č Č‹ĆĄ  ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹĆˇČ?Çł ƧƞƸƏŭƥ ǜǡȋƥ Ǫǧǂǡ Ć§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć›Č Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;Ƣ ǍȂdzƥ Ć¨Ć ČˆĆŚÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ śƼDzÇ&#x; ƢǨƏdzƥ  ƧƞººƸƏŭƥ ǜǡȋƥǪǧǂǡ Ć¨Ć ČˆÂşĆŚÇł ȆƳČ?Ç ÇłĆĄĆ¤ÇťĆ˘ĹŞĆĄČ ÇšĆ˘ÇˇČ‹ĆĄ ƧƥƽƗ Ǻǡ ǜǣǂdzƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;Č Äż ǂƯƚƍ ǺȇDŽƴƏƄƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć¨ČˆĆŚÇ´Ç‡ ƨ ČˆÇˆÇ¨Çť Ç Ć˘ĆŻĆ— Ǟdz ǹƥDŽȇ Č? Ǻƴ ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇšĆœÇ§ Â?ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹĆˇČ?Çł ÇžÇ§Ç Äż ĆŞ ºƸų ƞºǍ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨºƸÇ?dzƥ Ƨƞ ÂşĆˇČ ÇşÇ°ÇłČ Ć§Ć˜ÇŒÇźĹ­ĆĄĆ§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć› Ć¨ČˆÇ´Ç¸Ç&#x; Ć†Ć˘ÂşÇŹÇ§Č Ć¨Ç¸ÇŻĆ˘Ć„ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÇˆ Ç´Ćł Äż ÇśČ€ĆŹÇŻÇ Ć˘ÇŒÇˇ Äż ÇśČ€ÇˆČ‡ ƢŲ ǺȇDŽƴƏƄƥ ĆŠ ƢȇȂǟǠǡ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄĹšČ‡Ć˘Ç Ĺ­ĆĄ DzǍȋ

* MD, Neu ropsychiatrist, Head of menta l health u nit, United Nations Detentio n Facility ( UNDF), Internation al Crimin al Tribun al for Rwanda (ICT R) o kitapoy@ un.org an d okitapoy 2001@yahoo.com

i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

44


B reaking the Siege: Experiences of Reconciliations From the European Project School on Borders by Reverdito R*., Mo iraghi F**., de C ordo va F.* **, Inghilleri P.*

This wo rk faces the relation existing a mong con ditions of physical, political and cultural separation and the p ossible existen ce of suff ering and psychic d iscomfort. The analysis of breakin g the siege and reconciliation experiences provides useful instrum ents to understan d: the possible effect that these conditions have on the psycho-social well-being , the p ossible resilien ce strategi es and the practices o f prevention. Particu larly, the results of a European research w ill be presented. This r esearch concerns the practices of preventio n, the management of the confli cts and th e reconciliation strategies carried out in scho ols located in borde r areas.More specifi cally, it will be given mu ch attention to the cases of Be lfast (U.K .) and Gorizia (Italy). Th ese cities share an experience of deeply rooted conflict, even if t hey have different h istorical backgroun ds and they h ave adopted diffe rent reconciliation strategies. The presence of a con flict and d ivision du e to religion (Belfast) and one more of physical and political type (Gorizia) is of particular interest. The practices o f breaking the siege and th e reconc iliation strategies presented throug h these tw o case studies will be the base fo r a consideration on the psycho -social processes involved in the dynamics o f identity and cultural reconstru ction.Th e focus will be kept on the role played by the school and the activities addressed to chi ldren and young people. We believe th at the comparison betw een the m odels of Belfast and Gorizia could offer a meaningful contribution to the definition of "Good Practices" of reconciliatio n; with a special attention to the implications at a prevention level an d a particular stress on the awareness raising process on the sufferin g and p sychic discom fort.

45S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges

ƨūƢǐŭơ ƣǁƢš  ǁƢǐūơ ǂLjǯ ƽȁƾūơ ȆǴǟ ĺǁȁȋơ ǝȁǂnjŭơ ƨLJǁƾǷ ǺǷ ȅǂǴȈǤ ǻƛ ƣ ȁ ƢǧȁƽǁȂǯ ȅƽ ǥ ȆǣǁȂǷ ǥ ȂƬȇƽǂǧȁǁ ǁ ƨȇƽƢŭơ ǝƢǓȁȋơśº ƥ ƨƠºNjƢǼdzơ ƨºǫȐǠdzơ Ņ ơ ƨǫǁȂdzơǽǀǿ ǩǂǘƬƫ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨƷơǂdzơ ǵ ƾǟȁ ƧƢǻƢǠŭơ ƽȂƳȁ DZƢǸ ƬƷơ śƥȁƨȈǧƢǬưdzơȁ ƨȈLJ ƢȈLjdzơȁ ǹơ ǶȀŭơ ǺǷ ƧƾȈǨǷ ƩơȁƽƘººƥ ƨūƢǐŭơƣǁƢšȁ ǁƢǐūơ ǂººLjǯ DzȈǴ Ţ ƢǻƽȁDŽȇȁ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȍơ ǽƢǧǂdzơ ȆǴǟ Ǖȁǂººnj dzơ ǽǀŮ DzǸƬƄơ ŚƯƢƬdzơ  ƢȀǼǷ ƢȀºƦǟȂƬLjǻ ǞǼŭơ ƩƢLJǁƢŲȁ ƨ ǴǸƬƄơ ƨǻǂŭơ ǩǂǘdzơȁ Ȇ LjǨǼdzơȁ ȆǴǟ DŽǯ ǂȇ ȅǀdzơ ĺǁȁȋơ ƮººƸƦdzơ ƲƟƢƬǻ ǵƾºǬǻ ǥȂºLJ ƢǼǻƜǧ ǍƢƻ Dz ǰºnjƥȁ Ŀ ƩǀǨǻ Ŗdzơ ƨūƢǐŭơ ǩǂǗȁ ƩƢǟơǂǐdzơ Ƨǁơƽơ ƨȈǨȈǯ ȁ ǞǼŭơƩƢº ºººLJǁƢŲ DŽǯǂȇǥȂºLJ ƮƸƦdzơ ǹƜǧ ƾȇƾƸ ƬdzƢƥȁ ƨȇƽȁƾūơ ǪǗƢǼŭơ Ŀ ǞǬƫ Ŗdzơ Džǁơƾŭơ ƢȈdzƢǘȇƗ ơDŽȇơǁȂƳȁ ƧƾƸƬŭơǶǷȋơ ƪLJƢǨǴ Ȉƥ Ŀ ƩȏƢū ơ ȄǴǟ ŐǯƗ ƢǷƢǸƬǿơ ǺǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ ȆǴǟ DzǏ ƢƬŭơ ǪȈǸǠdzơ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǺǷ ƨƥǂƴƬƥ ǹƾŭơ ǽǀǿ ǭ ǂƬnjƫȁ ǺǷ ƨǨǴƬű ƢººǫǂǗ ǶȀȈǗƢǠƫ ǺǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ ȆǴǟ ȁ ƨȈźǁƢ Ƭdzơ ǶēƢȈǨǴƻ ǝȂǼƫ Ŀ DZƢūơ Ȃǿ ƢǸǯ Ǻȇ ƾdzơ ƤºººººƦLjƥ ǵƢººººLj Ǭǻơȁ ǝơǂǏ ƽȂƳȁ ǹƛ ƨūƢǐŭơ Ŀ DZƢūơ Ȃǿ ƢǸǯ ȆºººLJƢȈLjdzơȁ ȅƽƢŭơ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǺǷ ǂƻƗ ƆƢǟȂǻ ȁ ƪººLJ ƢǨǴȈƥ

ƨȇȂºLjƬdzơ ǩǂǗȁǁƢǐ ūơ ǂLjǯ Ʃ ƢLJǁƢŲ ǹƛ ǵƢǸƬǿȐdz Ś ưǷ ƞNj ȂŮ ƢȇǃơǁȂƳ ƾȈǠǏ ȆǴǟ ŐƬǠŭơ DžƢºLJȋơ ǹȂǰƬºLJśƬLJơǁƾdzơśƫƢǿ DZȐƻ ǺǷ ƨǷƾǬŭơ ǹƛ ĿƢºǬưdzơ ƔƢǼƦdzơȁ ƨȇȂŮơĿ ƨǯǂƬnjŭơ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȍơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ Ʃ ƢȈǴǸǠdzơ DZƢǨǗȌdz ƧƢǘǠŭơ ƩƢǗƢººnjǼdzơȁ ƨººLjLJƚŭơ ǁȁƽ ȆǴǟ ǹȂǰȇ ǥȂºLJ DŽȈǯǂƬdzơ ǹȂǰƫ ǥ ȂºLJ ƢȇǁǃȂƳ ȁ ƪºLJƢǨǴȈƥ ŅƢưǷśƥ ƨǻǁƢǬŭơǹƘƥ ǺǷƚǻ ƢǼǻƛ ƣ ƢƦnjdzơȁ ƧǂǜǼºƥȁ ƨǼºLjūơ ƩƢºLJǁƢǸŭơ ǦȇǂǠƫŅƛ ƆƢ ǧƢǔǷ řǠǷ Ʃơƿƨŷ ƢºLjǷ ȆǟȂdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ȆǴǟ ǍƢƻ ǖǤǔ ºººƥȁǞǼŭơ ȅȂƬºººLjǷ ƩȏȏƽŅƛ ƨǏƢƻ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƷơǂdzơ ǵƾǟȁ ƧƢǻƢǠŭơȆǴ ǟ ƾȇơDŽƬŭơ

* Department of Geography and Human and Environmental Sci ences Unive rsity of Mila n Italy ** Bridges for Europe NGO - Ita ly *** Department of Psychol ogy and Cult ural Anthropology University of Veron a - Italy paolo.inghilleri@unimi.it reverdito@bri dgesforeurope.org


ȆLjǨǼdzơ Ńȋơȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơȁ ƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơ

ƢŹǁ ƅơ ƾLJƗ ƽ ƢǼǸȈǫȁ ƢǼƬǧƢǬƯ Ŀ ƨǴưǸƬŭơ ƢǼƫȂǫ ƢǼƦǴLJ Ǻǟ ơȁDŽƴǟ ƪȈȈǧȂLjdzơǹȋ ƢǼǴǿƘƫȁ

Ŀ ŖȈȈǧȂººLjdzơ ȁDŽ Ǥdzơ ƔƢǼƯƗ ƨǏ Ƣƻ ǹƢƬºLj ǻƢǤǧƗ Ŀƣ ǂūơ ǺǷ ƢǷƢ ǟ ǹȂƯȐƯ

Ǻȇǀdzơ Ɣȏ ƚǿ Ƨơȁơƾŭ ƨ ȈǧƢǯ ƢǸƟơƽ ǹȂǰƫ ȏ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ Ǻǰdz ƢǼǼȇƽȁ ƨȇƾȈǴººººǬƬdzơ ƧƾººNj Dz ǠǨººƥ ơȂǔ ºǫ ǶȀǼǷ ǺȇŚưǰdzơ ǹƗ ƢǸǯ ƣǂºǫ Ǻǟ ǭǁƢǠŭơ ơȁƾȀºNj

DZȐƻ ǺǷ ňƢǤǧȋơ Ƥ Ǡºnjdzơ ƨºƥȐǏ ǂLjǯ ƨdzȁƢŰ ơȁƾ ǸǠƫ śƷ  ǵƢǟ ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơ ǺǰdzƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơȁ ƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơ ǶLJƢƥ ƢǷƢŤ ƨƦȇǂǣ ƨǧƢ ǬƯ Ǒǂǧ

ńƛ ǹȂƳƢƬŹ ǥȂLJƧƢ Ȉūơ Ŀ ǁơǂǸƬLJȏơ ǺǷ ǹȂƳƢǼdzơǺǰ ǸƬȇ Ȇǰdz ǖ Ǥǔdzơ ǶȀƬǧƢºº ǬƯȁ ǶēƢȈººƷ Ŀ Ƕǰº ºƸƬdzƢƥ ǶǿǁȂǠººNjȁ Ƕ ȀƬǷơǂǯ ƧƽƢǠƬººLJơ

ňȂȈǴǷ ǺǷ ǂưǯƗƨǴ ȈŦ ƨǸǴǯ ƢȀǼǷ ǂưǯƗ ŚŬơ DzǠǨdz ƔƢǘǣ Ȇǿ ƨȈǬȈǬūơ ƪºLJ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓȍƢºƥ ƨºǫƢǟȍƢƥ ơȂƦȈǏƗ ňƢǤǧƗ ǹȂȈǴǷ ơȁƾȀnjƬLJ ơ ňƢǤǧƗ

ƢȈǐƼººNj řǻƛ ƧƢȈūơ Ŀ Ƕđ ȂǴºLJƗ ńƛ ƨ ǧƢǓƛ ȅƽƢǐƬºǫȏơǶȀǠǓȁȁ

ȃǂƻƗ ǹơƾǴºƥ Ŀ śƠƳȐǯ NJȈǠdzơȁ ǶǿƽȐºƥ ǭǂƫ ńƛơȁǂǘ Ǔơ ňƢǤǧƗ śȇȐǷ

ƔƢŭơ Ŀ Ǯ ǸºLjdzơ DzưǷ žƅƢƥ ǺǷƚǷ řǻȋ Ƥ ȇǀǠƬdzơȁDZƢǬƬǟȏơ ȄǴǟ ǑǂƬǟƗ ǂǓƢūơ ƪ ǫȂdzơ Ŀ ǾȈǧ ǵȂǠǻƔƢŭ ơ ǺǷ ǁƾǫƢǼdz ȄǬƦƫ ƮȈƷ ǶǴǫƘƬdzơ ǺǷ ƢǼǼǰŤ

ƨƦLjǼdzƢƥ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓơ ńƛ ȅƽƚȇ ȅǀdzơ ƣƢƠƬǯȏơ Ǻǰȇ Ń ƨǴǷƢǠŭơ ƔȂºººLJȁ Ƥ ȇǀǠƬdzơǞǷ ƨǴȇȂǘdzơ Ʃ ơŐŬơ ƤººƦLjƥ śƠƳȐdzơ ƔȏƚŮ

ƢǼǻƛ ƨºƦȈƦūơ ȅƽȐºƦdz ȁDŽǤdzơ ǺǷ ƾ ȇƾƳ ǝȂǼºƥ ƾȇƾƳ ǺǷǃ Ɨƾ ƥ ŐǸƬƦLJ  ƾǠƥȁ ȃǂƻƗƧǂǷ Ǧš ǹƗ ǮNjȁ ȄǴǟƨǧƢǬƯ ǽƢȈǷ ƮȈƷ ƢȇƾȈƳơǂƫ ƢǠǓȁ ƾȀnjǻ ǹȉơ

ńƛ ǁơǂǘǓ ȏơȁ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơǶǟƾdzơ ƨǴºººǫ ƤºººƦLjƥ Ƣǔ ȇƗ ƢŶƛȁƤººLjƸǧ ƾǠdzƨƴȈƬǻ ƨǸƟȐǷ Śǣ ȆººLjǨǻ ȐȈǴŢ ƨȀƳơȂǷȁ ƨººƦȇǂǣ ƨǧƢºǬƯ ƨ ȀƳơȂǷ

Ŀ ƨººƦȇǂǤdzơ ƢǿƽƢººLj ƳƗȁ ƢȀƬǧƢººǬƯ ǺººǬƷ ńƛ ƨȈƳǁƢŬơ ȃȂººǬdzơ ȄǠºLjƫ

ƨǧƢǯȁ ś ŦǂƬŭơ ƧƔƢǨǯ Ŀ ǁȂǐººǫ ńƛ ƨǧơơ ƨȈǧƢººǬưdzơ ǩȁǂǨdzƢº ƥ ȆǟȂdzơ

ƨȇƽƢŭơȁ ǁȏ ȁƾdzƢƥ ǂƻȉ ơ ǒǠƦdzơȁ ǵȐLJȍơȅǃ Ŀ ơǂǰǼƬǷ ƢȀǔǠƥ ǹ ƢƬLj ǻƢǤǧƗ ȁDŽǤdzơƩơȂǫ ŚƯƘƫ ǺǷ ȃȂǫƗ ǶǿŚƯ Ƙƫ ǹƗ ƢǸǯ Ƨǂŭơ ǽǀǿ ƔƢǯƿ ǂưǯƗ ǶĔƛ ƨƴǨdzơ

ǮdzƿĿ Ŗ ȈȈǧȂºººLjdzơ NJȈŪơ ƽȂƳȁ ȄǴǟ ƪ ººƦƫǂƫ Ŗdzơ ƨȈººƦǴLjdzơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ǹȁƾºǬƬǨȇ ơȂǻƢǯ ƨȈǻƢºLjǻȍơ ǶLJƢƥ ǹȂƯƾƸ Ƭȇ ǺǷ ǹƘƥ ƢȈǴƳ ǂǷȋơ ǹƢǯ ƪǫȂdzơ

ǹƗ DzƦǫ Dz ǸƸƬȇ ǹƗ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǞȈǘƬLjȇ Ƕǯ Ȃǿ ȅǂǿȂŪơ DZơƚLjdzơ ƨȈƬȈǧȂLjdzơ

ǹƗ ơȂǯǁƽƗ ƣƢººƦnjdzơ ǶȀȈǧƢŠ ň ƢǤǧȋơƤǠººnjdzơǺǰ dz ƨȈǻƢººLjǻƛ Dzǯ ńƛ

ȅƽǂǨdzơ ƔƢǨººnjdzơ ǹȋ Ǯdzƿ ƾǠºƥ ƢǷƢŤ DzǿƘƬǻ Ń ǹƢƬºLjǻƢǤǧƗ Ŀ ƢǼǻƛ ŸǞǔź ȁDŽǤdzơƾǠºƥ ǺȇƾǷƢǏ ƢǼǨºǫȁƾǬdz ȆǟƢǸƬƳ ȏơ ǞǓȂdzơ Ŀ ƢǼLjŢ ȆǟƾƬLjȇ

ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ǝơǂǐdzơ Ŀ ǶȀǗơǂŵơ ƤǻƢƳń ƛ ǶǿǂºººLJ Ɨ Ǻǟ ǝƢǧƾdzơ ǶȀȈǴǟ ńƛ ƧƽȂǠdzơȁ ƣƢººƸLjǻȏơ ȄǴǟ Džȁǂdzơ ŐƳƗ Ľ ǺǷȁ ƨȇǂūơ DzƳƗ ǺǷǶŮ Ƣǔǻȁ

ȁDŽǤdzơƗƾºƥ śºƷ Ƣǘº ƦưǷ DZơǃȏ ǹƢǯ ƢǼƬǧƢºǬƯ ƨǟƢǼǷ ǃƢȀƳ Ǻǰdz ŖȈȈǧȂLjdzơ

ƢǷȂǟƾǷ DzººǬǼƬŭơ œ ǘdzơ ƝǁơȂǘdzơ DŽǯǂǷ ƢǻƘººnjǻƗƪºǫȂdzơ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ǶǿǁƢȇƽ

ƵơǂŪơ ƧơȁơƾǷ ńƛȄǠººLjǻ ǺŴȁ Ƨǂŭơ ǽǀǿ ǥŗȇ ƢǼººƦǠNj ǹƜǧ Ǯdzǀǯ žƾȇƾŪơ ǹƗ ǭǁƾǻ ƢǼǼǰdz ĺǂǤdzơȁ Ȇºǫǂnjdzơ śǟƢǘºǬdzơ Ŀ ǵƢǤdzȋơ DZȂºǬƷ ƢȇƢºƸǓȁ

ȄǴǟƢȀǼȈƥ ǺǷȁȃǂƻȋơ ǹơƾǴƦdzơ DzƦǫ ǺǷ ȆǬȈǬƷ ƨǫơƾǏ ȁ ȆƟƢĔ ȏ Ƕǟƾƥ DZȐƳ Ŀ ƨǯǂǠŭơ Ǒ `Ɨ ȄǴǟ ƩơȂǼººLJ džŨ DZȐƻ ƲȇȁǂǼdzơ ǍȂǐŬơ ǾƳȁ

ƨǴǏȂºƦdzơ ǹơƾǬǧ ǞǷ Ƨǂŭơ ǽǀǿ ƱȐǠdzơȄǴǟ ƨȈǐǠƬLj Ƿ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƵơǂŪơ ǹƗ ǺǰŻ Ǧ Ȉǯ ǾƬdzȏƽ ƢǼźǁƢƫƾººº Ǭǧȁ ƢǼƫǁƢǔºººƷ ƧƢȈǷ ƪǨƳ ƿȐŭơ ǵơƾǠǻơȁ

ƢŹǂƳ  ƿƢǬ ǻƛ ǺǷ DŽǯǂŭơ ǺǰŤ ƽƢƥƗ ǺǷ Śưǰ dzơ Ŀ ƨưȇƾū ơ ƣǂūơƨdzƕ ƪºººƦƦLjƫ Ŗ ȈȈǧȂºººLj dzơ DZȐƬººƷ ȏơ ƔƢǼƯƗ

ƨȈǻƢǤǧȋơ ƨƥǂƴƬdzơ ǹƛ ĿƢǬưdzơ ƢǼǼǗȂǷ ƢǻƾǬǧ ƾǫ ƢǼǯ ơƿƛ DzȈǿƘƬdzơ Ŀ ǝǂnjǻ

DzºƥƢǼǫ ƪ ºƦƦLjƫ ƾǬǧ ňƢǤǧȋơ ƤǠnjǴdz ƨȈLjǨǼdzơƩƢǷƾǐdzơȁ Ʃ Ȑǰnjŭơ

ƪºLjȈdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƱȐ ǟ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓ ƛ ƨȇƢǫȂdzơ ǹƗ ƵȂǓȂƥ Ǧ njǰƫ DzºƦǬȇ ǹƗ ƤȈºƦǘdzơ ȄǴǟ ȅȁơƾŭơ ȄǴǟ ȄǓ ǂŭơ ǺǷ ƽơƾǟƗ ǞǷ ƨȈǼǬƫ ƨȈǴǸǟ

ǝƢǨƫǁơ Ŀ ƪººƦƦLjƫ ƤȇǀǠƬdzơ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓƛ ƨ ȇǁƢǘºnjǻȏơ DzºƥƢǼǬdzơȁ Ń ƢºƥƢǼdzơ ƱơDŽŭơ Ʃ Ƣºººƥǀƥǀƫȁ dž ȈºººƥơȂǰdzơȁ ňơȁƾǠdzơ ǭȂǴºººLjdzơȁ ƣƢƠƬǯȏơ ƩȏƾǠǷ

ǥƾǿǹȁƾºƥ ǮǸLjdzơ ƩȂŻ ƔƢǷ ǹȁƾƥ ƨǧƢǬưdzơ ƔƢǼƥ ƾȈǠȇȁ ȆǸŹ ǹƘƥ ȅƾƸƬdzơ

ȄǴǟǖ ººǬǧ ǂǐƬº ºǬƫ Ń ƢǻƽȐ ººƥȁ ƢǼdzǃƢǼǷ ŚǷƾƫ ǹƛ ȆººLjǨǼdzơ ǖ Ǥǔdzơȁ

ƢȀǬȇǂǗ ƨǷȁƢǬŭơ ƨǴǧƢǫ Dzǔƫ ǥȂLJ

Ǿdz ƤǠºNjȁ ǂºnjƦǯ ƢǼǟ ŐǠƫ Ŗ dzơ ƢǻǃȂǷǁ ƢǔȇƗ ƪǴſ ƢŶƛȁ ƨȇƽƢŭơ ƢǼƫƢǰǴƬŲ ƢǼǨȈǰƫ ƾǬǧ Ǯdzƿ ǞǷ ƧƢȈūơĿ ǾƥȂǴLJƗȁ ǾǸ Ȉǫȁ ƨǨǴƬƼ ŭơ ǽƾȈdzƢǬƫȁ ǾƬǧƢǬƯ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

46


Democracy, Trauma & Psychological distress Dr. As saddullah Reha *

Afghan istan's 30 years of war, espe cially duri ng the Soviet invasion in 1979, wh en they purposely tried to bre ak the afghan people's strengths' by bringing a tota lly alien culture ('democracy' & 'humanity ') to us, but true humanity is the disguis e of well d oing rather than nice word. Two mi llion Afgh ans were left martyred, one m illion disabled in addition to six m illion who were forc ed out as refugees to other countries, for those refugees the depression which leads to post traumatic stress d isorder (P TSD) wa s not only due to the long terms o f torture and abuse, howeve r it was from poor social support, having to face an alien like civilization, facing im proper psychiatric analy ses because of unawareness of cross culture issues, along with deficiency of interp reters and further m ore all the misappropria te outcom es were down to the Soviet ar my. At the time it was cry stal clear that those say huma n were in fact inhuman. The Afghans which included young adults who found that act ing out for their fam ily along side comm unity stru ggle a way of s ocial reality witha psychological protec tion due to a fight for freedom, they had had en ough and as result th e Russian s were forced b ack home. During this time MMC-Mo bile Emergency Medical Cent re was set up b y us along with the endless support and friendship of other countries, most thankfully N orway. In the course of five years in the battle fields of Jalalabad, MMC successfu lly saved 4,200 wars w ounded. (H usum H, Reha A: E ffect of early pre-hospital rescue 4200 war injured: T he battle of Jalalabad, Afgha nistan, Prehosp Disaster Med 1999 ; 14:75-80 ). During the Soviet occupation among our people psychological trauma was obviously caus ed due to the horrendous effects of modern warfare e.g. Napalm bombs, cluster mu nitions as well as torture, caused d epression, aggressive impul ses, night mares, mood swings, stress. The destruction of our homes and country was not just on ou r material possessions but on us, as well as our symbols which represented us as hum ans and people wh o have their ow n culture with different traditions, val ues and w ays of life.

Yet sti ll we coped and reha bilitated b ecause the Soviets were not able to take away our strengths such a s culture, traditional values, and religion. However, so metimes care does not always heal those, who had witnessed close fighting or battle and the re were those who were killed by the pow er of stress. In order for surviv ors to mov e on, they will need to gain their dignity, control, culture , econom ic statues and their way of lif e again. I myself could oppose im prisonme nt as well as torture , because I am a believe r; like fish in the water we wer e able to cope because there wasstill enough water for swimming. At the present, following 9/11, a new time has set in wit h a new kind of invasion which is going on in my beloved coun try. We now observe a tr agic situation of the water of culture drying out. Again external powers inject their cu lture and foreign bodies in Afghan istan - some by the false na me of Isl amism, others by dollars and blunt material ism. This time they are smar ter, and their im pact mor e severe t hen that d uring the Soviet tim es. The crucial question is; how m uch can a person tak e before bending down? We Afgh ans were still not fully rehabilitated because individ ual healing is wedg ed in soc ial improvement. O n foot after the Soviet occupation; our cultu res immune system w as still depres sed at the time of this new invasion, a lso this time our people bleed and again ou r trauma system, MM C, evacuate and heal la nd mine and war victims bo th in the Eastern and the Western sector, b ut we can see, as we ll as our trauma doc tors on the ground repo rt, that the invisible psychological wou nds are harder to heal this time. W ith compa ss lost and nowhere to gowater d ried out- also ourpr oud history loses its s ignificanc e. How can we help reha bilitate w hen the ha bitus- our cultural home-is lost? The A fghan Ex perience clearly indicates th at prevention in additio n to healing of psychological trauma is not a te chnical matter in individ ual patients. The healer, the d octor should take on the challenge to protect and rebuild cultur e. Without water, fishes d ie. Without an aim, the carava n of resistance will ge t lost. *C hief M MC-A fghan istan (I nstitut e of Tr aumat ic Eme rgency ) / a.r eha@b topenw orld.c om

47S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism Naom i Klein *

In THE SH OCK DOCTRIN E, Naom i Klein explodes the myth that the global free market triumphed democratically. Exposing the thinking, the money trail and the puppet strings behind the w orldchanging crises and wars of the last four decades, The Shock Doctrine is the gripping story of how America's "free market" policies have come to dominate the world-- through the exploitation of disastershocked people and countries. At the most chaotic juncture in Iraq's civil war, a new law is unveiled that would allow Shell and BP to claim the country's vast oil reserves‌. Immediately following Septe mber 11, the Bush Administration quietly out-sources the running of the "War on Terror" to Halliburton and Blackwater‌. After a tsunami wipes out the coasts of Southeast Asia, the pristine beaches are auctioned off to tourist resorts.... New Orleans's residents, scattered from Hurricane Katrina, discover that their public housing, hospitals and schools will never be reopened‌ . These events are examples of "the shock doctrine": using the public's disorientation following massive collective shocks - wars, terrorist attacks, or natural disasters -- to achieve control by im posing economic shock therapy. Sometim es, when the first two shocks don't succeed in w iping out resistance, a third shock is em ployed: the electrode in the prison cell or the Taser gun on the streets. Based on breakthrough historical research and four years of on-theground reporting in disaster zones, The Shock Doctrine vividly sh ow s ho w disaster cap italism - the rapid-fire corporate reengineering of societies stillreeling from shock - did not begin with September 11, 2001. The book traces its origins back fifty years, to the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman, which produced many of the leading neo-conservative and neo-liberal thinkers whose influence is still profound in Washington today. New, surprising connections are drawn betw een economic policy, "shock and awe" warfare and covert CIA-funded experiments in electroshock and sensory deprivation in the 1950s, research that helped write the torture manuals used today in Guantanamo Bay. TheShock Doctrine follows the application of these ideas thoughour contemporary history, show ing in riveting detail how well-known events of the recent past have been deliberate, active theatres for the shock doctrine, among them : Pinochet's coup in Chile in 1973, the Falklands War in 1982, the TiananmenSquare Massacre in 1989, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Asian Financial crisis in 1997 and H urricane Mitch in 1998.

 ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ Ć§ĆžČˆÇŹÇ&#x; Ć¨ČˆĆŻÇ Ć˘Ç°ÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘ĹŠĆ—Ç‚ÇłĆĄ ƽȂǠÇ? ǺȇČ? ÇŻ ȆǡȂǠǝ ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ Ć§ĆžČˆÇŹÇ&#x; ĹšČ€ÇŒÇłĆĄ Ƣ đƢƏǯ Äż Ć§Ç Č‚Ç˜Ç‡Č‹ĆĄ ǺȇČ?ÇŻ ȆǡȂǠǝ Ɗǂƴǧ ÇąĆ˘Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ç‚Ç°Ç¨Çł ĆĄÇşÇ&#x; ƣƢº Ǐǟdzƥ ĆŞÇ¨ÇŒÇŻČ ƊƢ ČˆÇ—ĆĄÇ‚ÇŹĹťĆ˝ ĆŠÇ‚Ç?ƏǝƥƞǍ Ć¨ČˆĹ­Ć˘ Ǡdzƥ Ƨǂōƥ ÇŠČ‚ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇšĆ˜ĆĽ Ć¨Ç ÂşĆĽÇ Č‹ĆĄ ƽȂ ºǏǠdzƥ ÇąČ?Ćť Ć§Ç‚Ç¸ĆŹÇˆĹ­ĆĄ ÇžĆĽČ Ç‚ĆˇČ ĹƒĆ˘Ç  dzƥ ĆŠĆ˘ÇˇÇƒĆ— Ć”ĆĄÇ Č ĆŞÇťĆ˘ÇŻ Ŗdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨ĹŹĆĄ ĆžČ‡Č‹ĆĄČ ÇšĆ— ÇŚČˆÇŻ ǹȂºơ Ç Ć˘ÇœÇťČŒÇł Ć¨ĆĽĆżĆ˘ĹŞĆĄĆ¨Č‡ĆĄČ Ç‚ÇłĆĄ ƨǡƞÇ? dzƥ Ć§ĆžČˆÇŹÇ&#x;ƣƢƏǯ Ĺ?ƏǠȇ ĆŽČˆĆˇĆ¨ČˆÇ“ Ƣŭƥ ÇąČ?Ćť Ǻǡ ÇŽÇłĆżČ ĹƒĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŠÇ‚Ç˜ČˆÂşÂşÂşÇ‡ ƞºººǍ Ć¨ČˆÇ°Č‡Ç‚Çˇ Č‹ĆĄ Ƨǂōƥ ÇŠČ‚ÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşÇ‡Ć˘Čˆ LJ ĆŁČ‚Ç ÇŒÇłĆĄČ ÇąČ Ćž dzƥ ƤĆ&#x;ƢÇ?ÇˇČ Ć­Ç ĆĄČ‚ÇŻÇąČ?ǤƏLJƥ Č Ç‚ Ç˜ĆťČ‹ĆĄ Ćž Ç ĆŤ ƨǴººơǂǡ Äż ƞȇƞƳ ǚȂǝƢºǍ ÇşÇ&#x; ƣƢºǏǟdzƥ ǺȇČ?ÇŻ Ć§ĆžČˆÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇŚ ÂşÇŒÇŻ ƞºǏǧ DzºNj ƨǯǂº ÇŒÇł ĆśÇ¸ÇˆČ‡ ǚƗ ÇžÇťĆ˜Ç‹ÇşÇˇ Çš ȂǝƢǏdzƥ ƥǀǿ NJƥǂǠdzƥ Äż Ć¨ČˆÇ´ÇżČ‹ĆĄ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ Äż ǎǴơȋƥ Ć˝Č?ƌdzƥ Äż ƨǴĆ&#x;ƢŎƥ ǖǨǟdzƥ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ—Ć˘ČˆĆŹĆˇĆ˘ĆĽ Ć¨ĆŚÇłĆ˘Ç˜Ĺ­ĆĄ ÇąČ Ç‚ĆŹĆŚÇ´Çł Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘Ç˜Č‡Ĺ? dzƥ Ć¨ÇŻÇ‚ÇŒÇłĆĄČ Ć˘Çˇ Ć˝Ć˘ÇźÂşÇ‡ĆœĆĽ ƧǂºNjƢƌǡ Ĺ?ǸƏƌLJ Ǻǡ Ç‚ÇŒÇ&#x; ȅƽƢōƥ ƭƥƞơƗ ƣƢǏÇ&#x;Ć— Äż ljȂƼ Ć§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć›ĆŞÇˇĆ˘ÇŤ ĆžÇŤČ Ć¨ĆŻÇ Ć˘ÇŻ ĆžÇ ÂşÂşĆĽČ NJƥǂǠdzƥ Äż ƨÇ?Ƣŏƥ ƊƢ ººLJƥǂōƥ Ĺ„Ć› ƣƢǿ Ç Č?ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ ƨǸȀŠ ǼǂǠȇ ĆžÇ—ĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŒÇł ƥǽǀǿ ĆŞÇ´ ƝƽƗ Ć˘ČˆÂşÇ‡Ć• NJǂºNj ƣȂǟƳ DzºơƥȂLJ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƪǔºǍ Ĺ– dzƥ Č†ÇˇĆ˘ÇťČ‚ÂşÇˆĆŤ Ć¨Ć´ČˆĆŹÇť Ĺ›ĆŹĆŹÂşÂşÇŒĹ­ĆĄ Ç„ ÇťĆ˘ČˆÇłÇ Č Ć—Č‚ČˆÇť ǚƢǰººLJ ÇŚÂşÇŒĆŹÇŻĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşĆˇ Ć˘ČˆÇ‡ ƊƢǠƴƏǟŭ Ć¨ČˆÇźÇ´Ç&#x; ƊƥƽƥDŽŭ ĆŠ Ć˘ČˆÇ¨ÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŒĆŹÇˆĹ­ĆĄČ Ć¨ÇˇĆ˘Ç  dzƥ ǺǯƢºº ÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆĹ­ ĆĄĆś Əǧ ƧƽƢÇ&#x;Ć› ǜƏȇ Ǻdz ǞǝƗ ƢǟȇǂƍƢǯ Ç Ć˘Ç?Ç&#x;Ć› Ƥ ǿǀǡ?Ƨƞ ČˆÂşÂşÇŹÇ&#x; ĆŁ ǼǂǠȇ Ƣ ǡȄǴÇ&#x; Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşĆˇ ƨǴ ưǡƗ ƭƥƞººơȋƥ ǽǀ Çż Ĺ?ĆŹÇ ĆŤČ Ç…Ç ĆĄĆžĹ­ĆĄČ Ć¨ĹĄĆ˘ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨǡƢǠdzƥ Ç?Ć˘ČˆÇ”ÇłĆĄČ ĆŁĆĄÇ‚ ǘǓČ?ĆĄ ƨdzƢºơ ÇąČ?ǤƏLJƥ Ç˝Ç Č ĆžĆĽ Ĺ™ Ǡȇ Č…Ç€ÇłĆĄČ ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ Ć¨Čˆ Ç ČˆÂşÂşĆŚÇ˜ÇłĆĄ Ć­Ç ĆĄČ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄ Č Ć— Ć¨ČˆÂşĆĽĆ˘ÇżÇ Č?ĆĄ ƊƢ Ç¸Ć´ĹŽĆĄČ ĆŁČ Ç‚ĹŤĆ˘ÇŻ ƨǸƟǓ Ć¨ČˆĆŻÇ Ć˘ÇŻ ƭƽƥȂºơ ÇşÇ&#x; ƨǡƞÇ?dzƢºƼƹČ?Ǡdzƥ ĆŁ Č„Ç¸ÂşÇˆČ‡ Ƣǡ Ǒǂǧ ǪȇǂǗ ÇşÇ&#x; ƨȇƽƢÇ? ĆŹÇŤČ?ĆĄĆ§Ç‚Ç˜ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇŞČˆÇŹĆ¸ĆŹÇł Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƔƢǔ ºǏdzƥ Äż Ĺ› ČˆÇłČ Č‹ĆĄ Ĺ› ƏǡƞÇ?Çł ƥǺǡ Č…Ć— Ɯƴǟƍ Č? ƢǡƞǟÇ&#x;Č ÇšĆ˘ČˆÂşĆˇČ‹ĆĄ ǒǠºƼ ȆǨǧ Ć¨ÇťĆĄÇ„ÇťÇƒ Äż ƹDŽdzƥ Ƣǡƛ Č‚ÇżČ  ƨưdzƢưdzƥ ƨǡƞÇ?dzƢººººƼ ǼǂǠȇ Ƣǡ ÇŞÂşÂşÂşĆŚÇ˜ ȇƢǿƞǟÇ&#x; Â?Ć¨ÇˇČ Ć˘ÂşÂşÂşÇŹĹ­ĆĄ  Ç?Ç ĆĄČ‚ÇŒ dzƥ Äż ŚLJ Ƣƍ ÇƒĆĄÇ‚Ç— Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇŤĆžÇźĆĽÇŠČ?Ç—Ć› Č Ć— Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƢƼǂȀǯ ǪǗƢǟǡ Äż Ć¨ČˆÂşĆˇ Ç‚Č‡Ç Ć˘ÂşÇŹĆŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç?Č?Ç—Č?ĆĄ Ǻǡ ĆŠĆĄČ‚ ǟLJ ÇžĆĽÇ Ć—Č Č†ĹşÇ Ć˘ĆŹÇłĆĄ ƎƸƌdzƥ Ĺ„Ć› ĆĄĆ˝Ć˘ÇźĆŹÇ‡ĆĄČ Č†ÇżČ  Ć¨ČˆĆŻÇ Ć˘Ç°ÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘ ŊƗǂdzƥ ǚƗ ÇŚ ČˆÇŻ ƾȂǓȂººººƼ ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ Ƥǿ ǀǡ Ç‚Č€ÇœČ‡ Â? Ć­Ç ĆĄČ‚Ç°ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ ĹˆĆ˘Ç ĆŤ ĆŞÇłĆĄÇƒ Č? Ŗdzƥ ƊƢǠǸƏÄ?ĆĄ ƔƢǟº ĆĽČ Ć¨ÂşÇ‡ĆžÇźÇż ƧƽƢÇ&#x;Č? ƢǠȇǂºLJ Ć§Ç‚Ç ĆŹÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ Ç€ÇźÇˇĆŁĆ˘ĆŹÇ°ÇłĆĄÇ Ć˘ĆŻĆ• ƽȂǠ ĆŤĆŽČˆÂşÂşÂşĆˇ  Ĺ?ǸƏºººƌ LJ ǹȂǴȇƗ  Äż Ɨƞººƌƍ Ĺƒ ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ ƞȇƞǠdzƥ ƪƳǂƝ Ĺ–ÇłĆĄČ Â? ǚƢǡƞȇǂǧ ÇšČ‚ĆŹÇ´ČˆÇˇ ƨºLJƢ Ć&#x;Ç‚ĆĽ ȂǣƢǰ ČˆÂşÇ‹ ƨǠǡƢŪ Â? ƢǡƢÇ&#x; Ĺ›ÂşÇˆĹ¨ Äż ƢȇȂººººº ÇŤÇśÇżĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤÇąĆĄÇ„Č‡ Č? ÇşČ‡Ç€ÇłĆĄČ Ĺ› ČˆÇłĆĄĹ?ČˆÇ´ÇłĆĄ ÇşČ‡Ç‚Ç°Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ć˝ĆžĹŞĆĄ Ĺ›ÇœÇ§Ć˘Ć„ĆĄ ÇƒÇ‚ÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşĆĽĆ— Ǻǡ . Ǻǿƥǂdzƥ ƪǍȂdzƥ Ĺ• ĆˇÇşÇ˜ÇźÇ‹ĆĄČ ĆŠ Ć˘ÂşÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ śººƼ ĆŠČ?Ç?dzƥ Ǻǡ Ć§ĆžÇ¸ĆŹÂşÇˆÇˇ Â? ƨƠƳƢǨǡ Ç–ÂşĆĽĆĄČ Ç ÇşÇ&#x;ƣƢºǏǟdzƥ ÇŚÂşÇŒ ÇŻČ ĆŠ ƥǂºººƼƢƟŭ ĆĄĆ¨ÇłĆ˘ÇŻČ Ć˘ ŎȂŤ Ŗdzƥ Ć¨Č‡Ç‚ÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄČ ƤÇ&#x;Ç‚ ÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ÇˇĆžÇ?dzƥ Â? ƨȇƽƢÇ?ƏººǍ Č?ĆĄ Â?ĆŠ Ć˘ČˆÇźČˆÂşÂşÇˆ Ǹŏƥ Äż Ç…ĆĄČ‚ĹŤĆĄ ÇşÇˇÇšĆ˘ÇˇÇ‚ĹŤĆĄČ Č†Ć&#x;ƢºƼǂȀǰdzƥ ƤȇǀǠƏdzƥ Äż Ć¨ČˆÇ°Č‡Ç‚ÇˇČ‹ĆĄ ƨȇDŽǯ Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć˛ČˆÇ´Ćť Äż Çľ Č‚ČˆÇłĆĄ ƨǡƞ ĆźĆŹÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ć¤Č‡Ç€Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄĆŠĆ˘ÂşĆŚČˆĆŹ ǯƨºƼƢƏǯ Äż ĆŠĆžÇ&#x;ƢºLJ Ĺ– dzƥ Ć­Č‚Ć¸ĆŚÇłĆĄČ ȂǡƢǝƢƏǝƥȂƳ Â? Ç‚Ç?ƢǠŭƥ Ć˘ÇźĹşÇ Ć˘ĆŤ Ǻǡ ǜǣǂdzƥ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç°Ç§ Č‹ĆĄ ǽǀǿ ÇŞČˆÂşÂşÂşĆŚÇ˜ĆŤ ǞºººƌƏȇ ƨǡƞÇ?Çł ƥƤǿǀǡ ǚƛ Â? ƧƞǸǠƏǡ ƪǝƢǯ ƤȇǂºǏdzƥ ȆǓƢŭƥ ƭƥƞơƗ Ç’ Ç  ƼǚƗ ÇŚČˆÇŻ ƨƏƌưǡ Ç˛ČˆÇ?Ć˘Ç¨ĆŤÇžČˆÇ§ Ç‚Č€ÇœĆŤ ĆŁ Č?ºººǏǝƥ  ƨǡƞÇ?dzƥƤǿǀŭ Ć¨Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŒ ÇťĆľÇ Ć˘ÂşÂşÇˆ ǡƞǠƍ ƪǝƢǯ ŖdzƥǺǯƢǡȋƥśººƼ ÇşÇˇČ Ć¨ĹžÇ€ÇˇČ Â?  ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż ƞǝČ?ǯȂǧ Ç Ç„Ćł Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄ Â?  ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż Ȇ Ç´ČˆÂşÂşÇ‹ Äż ÇžČˆÂşÇ‹Č‚ ÇźČˆĆĽ Â?  ǾƢÇ&#x; ÄżÄźĆ˘ČˆÇ§ Č‚ÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ƽƢŢČ?ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Čˆ Ä”ĆĄČ Â?   ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż Č…Č Ć˘Ç¸Âş ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇľČ?ÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇšĆĄĆžČˆÇˇ  ǾƢÇ&#x; ÄżÇŠĆŹČˆÇˇ Ç Ć˘Ç?Ç&#x;Ć›Č  ǾƢÇ&#x; Äż Ć¨Č‡Č‚ČˆÇ‡Č‰ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć¨ÇˇÇƒČ‹ĆĄ

*E-m ail: k lp123@ gmai l.com

i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

48


49S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Health in the Gaza Strip under Siege, Fire and Internal Division. Dr. M ajdi As hour *

Gaza Strip exper iences an ongoing political turmoil and socioeconom ic advers ity in th e context of a protracted political conflict. The main political d eterminan ts of health in the Gaza Strip includ es the Isr aeli policies and pra ctices toward it, and the ongoing internal Palestinian division. The effects of Israeli siege onthe health se ctor are m anifested by restricting the access of patien ts to health servic es out sid e the strip, the econom ic recess ion and i ts influences on the health system perform ance and outcomes, and the e ffects of limited im ported power and comm odities. The effects of re current military operations and incursions are man ifested by the increased burden of conflict related he alth conditions, and the disruption of the regu lar performance of h ealth care facilities. The effects of the internal Palestinian division on the health care system in the Gaza Strip are manifes ted by th e collapse of some health se rvices' institutions; dupl icated adm inistrativ e orders, de-motivation and absenteeism among work force, and disruptio n of services provision at the Ministry's of Heal th facilities; limiting the stewardship func tion of t he national health authorities; and hindering health planning and priority sitting in the Str ip. The current realities negatively influence the perfo rmance and the outcom es of the health care system in the Gaza Strip, and will have ne gative me dium and long term effects. T here will not be a normal performance of the Palestin ian health care system without a radical solution fo r the Pale stinian qu estion; however, neutralizing the h ealth affairs in the Gaza Strip f rom the p olitical motives, respecti ng the ri ght to he alth, and increasing the involvement of international health o rganizatio ns in Gaza could give a window of opportunity to prev ent immin ent deterioration of the performance and the o utcomes of the hea lth care sy stem in Gaza. Keywords: Gaza Strip, Health System , politica l conflict, siege, Interna l division.

ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ ƨƸǐdzơ ȆǴƻơƾdzơ ǵƢLjǬǻȏơȁ ǁƢǼdzơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ǁȂNjƢǟ ȅƾů ƽ ƨǼŰȁ ǂǸƬºLjŭơ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǂƫȂƬdzơ ǺǷƨdzƢƷ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘ ǫ NJȈǠȇ ƩơƽƾƄơ ǹƛ DzǐƬǷ ȆººLJƢȈLJ ǝơǂǏ ǩƢȈº ºLJ Ŀ ƨȇƽƢǐƬººǫơȁ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳơ ƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǺǸǔƬƫ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǫ Ŀ ƨºƸǐdzơ ƨdzƢū ƨȈLjȈƟǂdzơƨȈLJƢȈLjdzơ ǵƢººººLj Ǭǻȏơ ńƛ ƨǧƢǓƛ ǹƘººººnjdzơ ơǀǿ Ŀ ƨȈǴȈƟơǂºººLJȍơ ƩƢºººLJǁƢǸŭơȁ ǝƢǘººº ǫ ȄǴǟ ȆǴȈƟơǂºººLJȍơ ǁƢǐūơ ǁƢƯƕ Dz ưǸƬƫ ȆǴƻơƾdzơ řȈǘºººLjǴǨdzơ ǝƢǘºǬ dzơ ƱǁƢƻ ƨȈº Ƹǐdzơ ƩƢǷ ƾŬơ ńƛȄǓ ǂŭơ DZȂǏ ȁ ƾȈȈǬƫ Ŀ ƨƸǐdzơ ǁƢƯƕȁȆºººƸǐdzơ ǵƢǜǼdzơ ƩƢƳǂ űȁ ƔơƽƗȄǴ ǟ ǾƫơŚƯƘƫȁ ȅ ƽƢǐƬººǫȏ ơ ƽȂǯǂdzơ ƨȇǂǰºLj Ǡdzơ ƩơȁDŽǤdzơȁ ƩƢȈǴǸǠdzơ ǁƢƯƕ ƢǷƗ ǞǴ ºLjdzơȁ ƨǫƢǘ Ǵdz ƽȁƾƄơ ƽơŚƬLJȏơ ƨŦƢǼdzơ ƨȈºƸǐdzơ ƩȏƢūơȄǴǟ ƤƫǂƬŭơ ƔƤ Ǡdzơ ƧƽƢȇǃ Ŀ džǰǠǼƬǧ ƧǁǂǰƬŭơ ǵƢººººLj Ǭǻȏơ ƨȈºº ºƸǐdzơƨȇƢ ǟǂdzơ ƩƢǷƾƻ ƔơƽƗ ǵƢǜƬǻơ ǵƾǟȁǝơǂǐdzơ Ǻǟ ǝƢǘºǬdzơ Ŀ ƨȈƸǐdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ǵƢǜǻ ȄǴǟ dž ǰǠǼȇȆǴ ƻơƾdzơ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƩƢǸȈǴǠƬdzơ ƨȈƳơȁƽǃơȁ ƨȈƸǐdzơ ƨǷƾŬơ Ʃ ƢLjLJƚǷ ǒ Ǡƥ ǁƢȈĔơ DZȐƻ ǺǷ ǵƾǟȁ ƨǴǷƢǠdzơ ƧȂººǬdzơ śººƥ ƣƢȈǤdzơ ƨººƦLjǻ ǝƢǨƫǁơȁ DŽǧƢūơ ƣƢȈǣȁ ƨȇǁơƽȍơ ȅƽƢºNjǁȍơ ǁȁƾdzơƾȈȈǬƫȁ ƨƸǐdzơ Ƨǁơǃȁ ƩƢLjLJƚǷ Ŀ ƨǷƾŬơ ʼnƾǬƫ ǵƢǜƬǻơ ƾȇƾŢȁ ȆººƸǐdzơ ǖ ȈǘƼƬdzơ ǹȁƽ DZȂūơȁ ƨȈǼǗȂdzơƨº ºƸǐdzơƩƢǘǴººLjdz ǵƢǜǻ Ʃ ƢƳǂűȁƔơƽƗ ȄǴǟ ƢºƦǴLJ ǂƯƚȇ ŅƢūơ ǞǫơȂdzơ ǹƛ ǝ ƢǘǬdzơ Ŀ ƩƢȇȂdzȁȋơ ƔơȂºLJ ƨ ȈºƦǴLJ ƲƟƢƬǻ ǾȈǴǟ Ƥƫ ǂƬƫ ǥȂºLJȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ ƨȈƸǐdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ƨȈººººººƸǐdzơƨȇƢǟ ǂdzơ ǵƢǜǻ ƧƽȂǟ ǹƛ DzȇȂǘdzơ ȁƗ ǖºººººLJȂƬŭơ ȃƾŭơ ȄǴǟ ƨȈǔºººǬǴdz ƢȇǁǀƳ Ȑ ººƷ ȆǟƾƬººLjȇ ȆǠȈº ºƦǘdzơ ǽƔơƽƗ ńƛ řȈǘººLjǴǨdzơ ȆLJƢȈLj dzơ ǝơǂǐdzơ Ǻǟ ƨƸǐdzơ ƢȇƢǔǫDzǐǧ ǹƜǧǮdzƿ ǞǷ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƩƢǸǜǼǷ Ǖơǂŵơ ǺǷ ƾȇDŽŭơȁƨºººƸǐdzơĿ Ǫūơ ǵơǂƬºº ºƷơȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘººǫ Ŀ ƔơƽƗĿ ǮȈºNjȂdzơ ǁȂǿƾƬdzơ ǦºǫȂdz ƨǏǂǧ ǂǧȂȇ ƾºǫ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȈŭƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ƧDŽǣ ĿƨȈƸǐdzơƨȇƢ ǟǂdzơ ǵƢǜǻ Ʃ ƢƳǂűȁ ǁƢǐūơ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǝơǂǐdzơ ȆƸǐdzơǵƢǜ Ǽdzơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢ ǘǫ ƮƸƦdzơ ƶȈƫƢǨǷ ȆǴƻơƾdzơ ǵƢLjǬǻȏơ

* P ublic H ealth and He alth P olicy S pecial ist / ma jdyash @yah oo.com

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Summary of a Survey o f C ommunity Mental H ealth Centers of the Ministry of Health Regarding the Impact o f Siege on Mental Health Service Provision Dr. Ayesh Sam mour and M r. Emad Kuhail

As a result of the constric ting siege imposed on the Gaza Strip for m ore than a year the C ommunit y Mental Health Administration at the Palestinian Ministry of Health carried out a survey in the gov ernorates of Gaza to investiga te the im pact of closure and siege on the pr ovision of commun ity mental health care ser vices, reg arding both workers and patients. The survey involved all com munity m ental heal th care ce nters in all five governorates. Tw o questionnaires we re prepare d, one for health care pro viders and the othe r for patients. The sample of health care pro viders included 50 individuals including doctors, nurses, psycho logists, so cial workers, pharm acists an d administrative personnel. In add ition the survey included 50 randomly chosen patients. Findings were subj ected to st atistical an alysis. One hu ndred percent of responses from both healt h care providers and patients felt that the siege has ne gatively affected the provision of services and has worsened economic, social and psycho logical co nditions. The affected aspects of healt h care provision included a lack of medication and pat ients' inab ility to purchase medication (100% of health care prov iders and 96% of patients); inadequ ate delive ry of comm unity based mental health care an d social services (100% of providers, 96% of patients); difficul ty in reaching centers (96% of pro viders, 9 4% of patients); scarcity of financial allo cations for mental health service s, necessa ry equipm ent and diagnostic and therapeutic tools, and a lack of internal and external trainin g and opportunities for scientific development (98% o f providers); lack of appro priate and necessary medical supplies needed for service provision (80% o f patients ) and deterioration of trust b etween patients and prov iders (84% ). The findings provide eviden ce that the siege has neg atively affected all a spects of s ervice provision (an overall 80% ). We call upon all groups and international institutions to bea r their resp onsibilities in lifting the siege, which violates basic principles of h uman rights.

Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;Č?Ç˜ĆŹÇ‡ĆĄ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ Ć˝ ǎƟǴǡ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇƒČ‚ĆĽ Ć¨ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ DŽǯƥǂǡ Äż ƨǡƞǏŭƥ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ ƊƢǡƞƝ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ ǹȂơ Ç˛ČˆĆ¸ÇŻ ƽƢǸÇ&#x;Č Ç Č‚ĹŠ NJȇƢÇ&#x; Ć˝ ƞȇDŽȇ Ƣǡ ǀǟǡ ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ ºººǍ ȆǴÇ&#x; Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄČ ÇŞÇťĆ˘ĹŹĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤ ĆĄ Ć¨Ć´ČˆĆŹÇť ƨººƸÇ?dzƥ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇƒČ‚ÂşÂşĆĽ Ć¨ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨºƸÇ?dzƥƪǡ ƢºǍ ƞºǏǧ Â?ǾƢǠdzƥ ÇşÇ&#x; ÇŠČ?ÇŁČ?ĆĄ Ç‚ĆŻĆ— Ç‚Č€ÇœĆŹÇł ƧDŽǣ ĆŠĆ˘ÇœÇ§Ć˘Ĺ° Äż Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;Č? Ç˜ĆŹÂşÇ‡ĆĄ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžĆĽ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;ƔƥȂºLJ ƨǡƞºǏ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ? ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ ĆŠ ƢǡƞƝ ȆǴÇ&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆ Ǩǟdzƥ ƨºººƸ Ç?dzƥ DŽǯƥǂǡ ÇžČˆĹŚ ĆŞÇ´ Ĺż Ĺ–ÇłĆĄČ Č†Ç“ Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ć— Ĺ› ǴǡƢǠdzƥ Ç˛Ç¸ÂşÂşÂşÇŒ ĆŤ Ć¨ĆłČ Ć˝Ç„Çˇ ǞǝƢºººƌƏLJƥ DzǸÇ&#x; ÄťČ Â?Ć¨ÂşÂşÇˆÇ¸ĹŹĆĄĆŠĆ˘Çœ ǧƢƄƥ Äż Ć¨ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ?ĆĄ ÇšČ‚ÂşÇˆĹ¨ Ć”ĆĄÇ Ć• ǞŌ Äť ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇ Â?ȆǓ Ç‚Ç¸Ç´ÇłČƒÇ‚ ĆťĆ—Č Ć¨ÇˇĆžĹŹĆĄ ȆǡƞºǏǡ Ç? Č?Ç˜ĆŹÇ‡ĆĄ Ĺ›ČˆĆ&#x;ƢÇ?ƝƗ Â?ǒȇǂŤ Â?ƔƢººººƌǗƗ ƢēƢƠǧ ÇžČˆÇ¸ Ĺ? ƨǡƞŏƥ Ȇ ǡƞººººǏǡ Çş ǡ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; Â?ȆǓǂŭ ĆĄ Ǻǡ ǚȂºººº ÂşÂşÇˆĹ¨Č Ĺ› Č‡Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć›Č Ć¨ÇłĆ˝Ć˘ ČˆÇ?Č Ĺ›ČˆÇ&#x;Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹĆłĆĄČ Ĺ›ČˆÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆĽ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ ÇłĆĄÇ Ć˘ČˆĆŹĆťĆĄ ÄťČ Â?Č? ǾƗ ǜǠǟºƼ Ć˘Č€ČˆÇ´Ç&#x; ƨºƼƢƳČ?ĆĄ Çş ǸǔƏƍǞǝƢƌƏLJČ?ĆĄČ ÇŽÂşÇ‡Ć˘Ĺ¤Č Ć˛Ć&#x;ƢƏǟdzƥ ĆŁ Ç Ć˘ÂşÇŹĆŤ Ɯǔƍ Ć— ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇ ȆĆ&#x;Ƣ Ç?ºơƛ Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ DzǸÇ&#x; ÄťČ Â?Ȇ Ć&#x;ĆĄČ‚ÇŒÇ&#x; ƨǡƞŏƥ ȆǴÇ&#x;  Ć¨ÂşÂşĆŚÇˆÇťÇ‚ĆŻĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ǚƗ ƲĆ&#x;ƢƏǟdzƥ ĆŞÇťĆ˘ÇŻČ Ç Ć˘ÂşÂşĆŚĆŹĆťČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşĆŚĆŻČ Â?Č„Ç“Ç‚Ĺ­ ĆĄ Č Ć— śǴǡƢǠdzƥ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; ČƒĆžÇł ƔƥȂºLJ Ć¨ČˆÂşĆŚÇ´Ç‡ Ć§Ç Č‚Ç?ºƼ ȄǓǂǸǴdz ƨǡƞǏŭƥ Ç Č‚Ç? Äż ǎdzƿ Ç˛Ć°Ĺ¤Č Â?ƔȂºLJ Č†ÂşÇˆ Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄČ Č†Ç&#x;ƢǸ ĆŹĆłČ?ĆĄČ Č…Ć˝Ć˘Ç?ĆŹÇŤČ?ƥǞǓ Ȃdzƥ Ć˝ĆĄÇƒČ Ć§Ç ĆžÂşÂşÇŤ ǾƞÇ&#x;Č Ć¨Č‡Č Ć˝Č‹ĆĄ ǎºǏǝǚƗ śºƌƍ śǴǡƢǠdzƥ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x;ȆǨ ǧ ƨǨǴƏƟŭƥ ƨǡƞŏƥ śºƌƍ Č„Ç“Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; Äż Ć˘Ç¸ÇźČˆÂşĆĽ  Ć¨ĆŚÇˆÇźĆĽ ƆƢƌǴLJ Ç‚ĆŻĆ— Ƣ ǿƙƥǂNj Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Č„Ç“Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ ǾƞÇ&#x; Ǻǡ ƆƢººƌǴLJ ĆĄČ Ç‚ ĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Č„Ç“Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ǻǡ Č Â?ƢǿƙƥǂºNj Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ÇşČ‡Ç Ć˝Ć˘ÂşÇŤĹšÇŁ  ǚƗ ƪǝƢǯ Ĺ› ǴǡƢǠdzƥĿ Ć˘Ç¸ÇźČˆÂşĆĽ Ć¨ČˆĆłÇ Ć˘ĹŹĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƊƢǡƞŏ ĆĄ ʼnƞºǏƍ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆ Ǩǟdzƥ ƊƢǡƞ ĹŹĆĄ ʼnƞººººǏƍ ǾƞÇ&#x; Ǻǡ śǴǡƢǠdzƥ ČƒĆžÇł Ć¨ÂşÂşÂşÂşĆŚÇˆÇźÇłĆĄ ǹȂÇ?Č‚Ç´ Çł ƊƢºƼȂǠÇ? Ǻǡ ŇƢÇ&#x; Ĺ› ǴǡƢǠdzƥǺǡ   ÇšĆĄČ Â?Ć¨ČˆĆłÇ Ć˘ĹŹĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ ÇšĆ—Č Â?DŽǯƥǂǸǴdz ǹȂÇ?Č‚Ç´Çł ƊƢººƼȂǠÇ? Ǻǡ ŇƢÇ&#x; śǴǡƢǠdzƥ Ǻǡ   ÇšĆĄČ Ç„ÇŻĆĄÇ‚Ç¸Ç´Çł ƨºƸÇ? dzƥ ƊƢǡƞŏ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘Ĺ­ĆĄ ƊƢÇ?Ç?ƟŭƥnjǠǓ Ǻǡ ƥȂǝƢÇ&#x; śǴǡƢǠdzƥ Ǻǡ  Ć¨ČˆÇ?ČˆĆźÂşÇŒĆŹÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆĆłČ?Ǡdzƥ DzĆ&#x;Ć˘ÂşÇ‡Č‚ÇłĆĄČ ĆŠĆĄĆžÇ Ĺ­ĆĄČ ĆŠĆĄČ Ć˝Č‹ ĆĄ ÇŽÂşÇŹÇťČ Ć¨ ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ Č„Ç“Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ǻǡ Č ÇšĆ—Č Č†Ç¸Ç´Ç ÇłĆĄ Ç‚Č‡Č‚Ç˜ĆŹÇłĆĄČ Č†ĆłÇ Ć˘ĹŹĆĄČ Č†Ç´Ćť ƥƞdzƥ Ć¤Č‡Ç ĆžĆŹÇłĆĄ ÇŽÇŹÇťČ ĆŞÇ´ĆŻĆ˘Ĺ¤ Č Â?ƨǡƞŏƥ ʼnƞǏƍ ǚƢǰŭ ƨǸ Ć&#x;Č?Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆĆŚÇ˜ dzƥ ĆŠĆĄÇ„ČˆČ€Ć´ Ədzƥ ÇŽÇŹÇť Ǻǡ ƥȂǝƢÇ&#x; ǚƗ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŞĆŹÂşÂşĆŚĆŻĆ—Č Â?Ĺ› Ç´ÇˇĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄČ Č†Ç“ Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ śººƼ ƨºǏưdzƥ Ç Č‚ÇżĆž ĆŤ Äż   Ć¨ÂşĆŚÇˆÇźÇłĆĄ Ć¨ĆŚÇˆÇźĆĽ ȄǓǂǸǴdz ƨ ǡƞǏŭƥ Ć¨ČˆĆŚÇ˜ dzƥ ƊƢǡƞŏ ĆĄ Č†ĆˇĆ˘ÇźÇˇÇžČˆĹŚ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‚ĆŻ Ć— Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ȅȂºǏdzƥ ÇžČˆĹŚ ƧȂÇ&#x;ƞºƼ Č„Ç?Č‚Çť ĆĄÇ€ĹŽČ Â?ƧǂºNjƢƌǡ Ć§Ç Č‚Ç?ºƼ  ÇşÇ&#x; ƞȇDŽƍ ƨǡƢÇ&#x; Ć?ƽƢºººƌŭ ĆĄ ǒººǍƢǟȇ ȅǀdzƥ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ÇžÇ§Ç Äż Ć˘ÇżÇ Č Ć˝ ǀƝȋ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşÇˆÇ‡ĆšĹ­ĆĄČ ÇšĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ÇŠČ‚ÇŹĹŤ Ć¨ČˆÇ‡Ć˘Ç‡Č‹ĆĄ aye sh_sam mour @hotm ail.com ƧDŽǣ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇƒČ‚ĆĽ Č†ÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ Ć¤Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ȄǨ ÇŒĆŹÇˆÇˇ ǂȇƞǡ

51

S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Nutritional Status of under Five Palestinian Children in the Gaza Strip Jasem Hume id and Hamza Abdeljawad*

A rapid cross sectional qu antitative survey aimed at assessing the nutritional sta tus of children aged 6 - 59 mo nths in Gaza, North Gaza , and Khan younis governorates. 754 eli gible children were selected using a cluster random sampling method ; the mothers of those children w ere interviewed using a structu red questionnaire that inc luded 3 parts, demog raphic a nd soc io eco nom i c da ta, anthr opo m etric measurements, a nd mothe r's knowledge and practice as per child's nutrition. Data was analyzed using S PSS and Anthro statistical analysis software programs. The stu dy showe d that more than one fourth of the famili es that provided estimates of their incomes ( only 54.1% ), had m onthly incomes that are 1000 N IS or less. 62.6% of the families perceiv ed their in comes as insufficien t for secur ing food. 2 .5% of the surveyed children were underwe ight, 10.3 % stunted , 2.4% wasted, and 3.4% malnourished (based on MUA C for age). Only 14 .5% of the mothers exclusive ly breastf ed their c hildren for exa ctly 6 m onth. 31.8% of the surveyed children never receive d liver;the percentages for othe r foods were, meat: 17.1%, eggs :1 0.9%, fish: 20.3%, a nd milk/ m ilk products:13.2% 69.4% of the su rveyed ch ildren received tea; 32.9% of t hem did so 3 to 4 times a day, and 5 9.5% received it wi th meals. U nderweight was significantly linked to insufficient intake of fru its. Malnutrition was sig nificantly linked to insuffic ient intake of veg etable. Stuntin g was sign ificantly associated with insu fficient intake of meat, d ecreased f ruit intake , large family size, insufficient family income, and history of m alnutrition . Wasting was linked to insuffic ient meat intake. In conclusion, it is qu ite clear t hat the current economic crisis, in the shadow s of the p olitical hardship and closure, has resulted in severe impacts on child's nutritional status in the Gaza Strip; the situation can further deteriorate if no action i s immediately taken.

 jhumeid 1@yahoo.co m (Ja sem), hamja wad@ yahoo.com (Ham za)

Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ÇąĆ˘Ç¨Ç—ČŒÇł ȆĆ&#x;ƥǀǤdzƥ ǞǓȂdzƥ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Äż Ć¨ÇˆÇˇĆ˘ĹŹĆĄ ǺLJ ÇšČ Ć˝ ƽƥȂŪƥ ƞƌÇ&#x; ƧDŽŧ Č ĆžČˆĹ§ ǜLJƢƳ ȆĆ&#x;ƥǀǤdzƥ ǞǓȂdzƥ ÇśČˆÇŹĆŤ Ĺ…Ć› Č†Ç Ç˜ ÇŹĹ­ĆĄ ȆǸǰ dzƥ ĆśÇˆĹ­ĆĄ ƥǀǿ ǼƞȀȇ ƧDŽǣ ĆŠĆ˘Çœ ǧƢŰ Äż ƥǂȀºNj  Ĺ…Ć›  śƼƢǡ Çś ÇżÇ Ć˘Ç¸Ç&#x;Ć—ĆľČ ĆĄÇ‚ĆŹĆŤ ǺȇǀǴdzƥ Çą Ć˘Ç¨Ç—ČŒÇł ǪȇǂǗ ÇşÇ&#x; śǴǿƚŭƥ ǹƢǨǗȋƥǺǡ Č?ǨǗ  Ç Ć˘ČˆĆŹĆťĆĄ Äť dž ǝȂȇ ÇšĆ˘ĆťČ ÇąĆ˘Ç¸ÇŒÇłĆĄČ ÇľĆĄĆžĆźĆŹÂş LJƢƼ ǹƢǨǗȋƥ ƊƢȀǡƗ ƨǴºƼƢǏǡ ƪȇǂƳƗ ĆžÂşÇŤČ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŒÇ&#x; ĆŠĆ˘ÇźČˆÇ&#x; ǀƝƗ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹĆłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ§ĆĄÇ‚ÇŁ Ȃŝƽ ĆŠĆ˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆÂşĆĽ  ȆơƥȂǝ ƨƯ Č?ĆŻ ĆŞÇ´Ĺż Ć¨Ç¸ÇœÇźÇˇ ĆŠĆ˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆĆŚĆŹÇ‡ĆĄ ǽƢťƢȀǴǡƢǠƍ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨ČˆÇŻ Č ÇľČ‹ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄĹ? Ćť Ĺ…Ć› ƨǧƢǓ Ć› Â?Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťĆ› ŚȇƢǠǡ Â?ƨȇƽƢÇ?ĆŹÇŤĆĄČ ÇśÇ´Ç Çł ȆĆ&#x;ƢÇ?ºơƛ Ʋǡ ƢǝǂºƼ ǾƥƞƟ ƏLJƢƼ ĆŠĆ˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆĆŚÇłĆĄ Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ Äť ĆžÇŤČ ƢȀǴǨǗ ƨȇǀǤƍ  ƣȂLJ Ƣōƥ ǾƥƞƟƏLJƢƼ ȆĆ&#x;ƢÇ?ơČ?ĆĄ Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ć¸ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ć˛ÇˇĆ˘ÇťÇ‚ĆĽČ Ç?ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ Ƣēƥƽƥǂȇƛ ƊƥǂȇƞºǏƍ ĆŞ ǡƞºǍŖ dzƥ ǂºLJȋƥ Ǟº ĆĽÇ ÇşÇˇ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ— ǚƗ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ĆŠÇ‚Č€Ç›Ć—Č ÇşÇˇ DzºǍƗ Č Ć— Ç˛Ç°ČˆÂşÇ‹  śƼ Ƣǡ Ć¨Č‡Ç‚Č€ÇŒÇłĆĄ ƢŎȂƝƽ ĆľČ ĆĄÇ‚ĆŹĆŤ Â? ǖǏǧ " 

ƔƥǀǤdzƥ Ĺ›ÇˇĆ˜ĆŹÇł ǼƢǯ Śǣ ǞǝƗȆǴÇ&#x; ƢȀǴƝƞdz Ç‚ ÇœÇźĆŤ ǂºººLJ Č‹ĆĄ Ǻǡ "  ǎdzƿ Â?ÇšÇƒČ‚ÇłĆĄ ÇŽ ÇŹÇť ǺǡǚȂ ǝƢǠȇ ǜȀƏǟȇ ƢǠǡ ƪŤǺȇǀdzƥ ǹƢǨǗȋ ĆĄ Ǻǡ "  ǚƗ ƢǸǯ ƔȂººLJ Ǻǡ ǚȂǝƢǠȇ "  Â? ÇšÇƒČ‚ÇłĆĄ ÇĽ ƢǠǓ "   Â?ȂǸǟdzƥ njººǍȂƍǺǡ " 

 ƨȇǂǸǠdzƥ ƊƢƠǨǴdz 08$& ȆǴÇ&#x; ƥƽƢǸƏÇ&#x;ĆĄ ƨȇǀǤƏdzƥ "  ƨ ǴǡƢǯ ǂȀNj Ć—  Ƨƞŭ ǺŎ ƢǨǗƗ ǺǠǓ Ç ĆĄ ƊƢȀǡČ? ĆĄ Ǻǡ ǖǏǧ 14.5 ? ȅǂƝȋƥ Ć¨Ç¸Ç Ç—ČŒÇł Ƥ ÂşÂşÇˆÇźÇłĆĄĆ˘ÇˇĆ— Â?ƞººƌǰdzƥ ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹČ‡ Ĺƒ śǟȇƢǠŭƥ ǹƢǨǗȋƥ Ǻǡ  Ĺ‘Ç´ÇłĆĄČ Â? "  Ç­ Ć˘ĹŠČ‹ĆĄČ "   Ç’ČˆÂşÂşÂşĆŚÇłĆĄ Â? "   ǾȂō ğȋƢǯ ȆȀǧ ƢǸǯ Č…Ć˘ÇŒ dzƥ ÇšČ‚ÇˆĆŹĹš śǟȇƢǠŭƥ ǹƢǨǗȋƥǺǡ "  Â?"   ǚƢƌdzȋƥ ƊƢƴƏǟǡ ȆǏǴƏƍ " Â? Â? Ć˘ČˆÇˇČ‚Č‡ Ɗƥǂǡ Ĺ„Ć›  ǹƞǠŠ Č… Ć˘ÇŒÇłĆĄ ÇšČ‚ĆĽÇ‚ÇŒ ȇ ǜȀǟǡ " Â? ǚƗ ÇľĆ˘Ç Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ĆŚĆłČ ÇžÇˇ Č…Ć˘ÇŒÇłĆĄ Ç–ÂşĆŚĆŤÇ ĆĄ ƢǸǯ  ƨȀǯƢǨdzƥ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇ§Ć˘ÇŻ Śǣ Ć¨ČˆÇ¸ÇŻ Ç€ĆťĆ˜ÂşĆĽÇšÇƒČ‚ÇłĆĄ ǎºǏǝ Ç–ĆŚĆŤÇ ĆĄ ĆžÇŤČ ÇŚÂşÇŤČ‚ĆŤ ÇšĆ˘ÇŻČ Ç Ć˘Ç”ĹŹĆĄ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇ§Ć˘ÇŻ Śǣ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ¸Ç° ºƼ Śºƌǯ ƞºơ Ĺ…Ć› ƨȇǀǤƏdzƥ ƔȂLJ ǜƴºơ Ĺ? ÇŻČ Â?ǞǯƥȂǨ ÇłĆĄČ ÇľČ‚ÂşĆ¸Ç´ÇłĆĄ ƨȇƢǨǯ ǾƞǠºƼ ƧŚƌǯ Ć¨ĆŚÇˆÇźĆĽ Ć˘Ç˜ĆŚĆŤÇ‚Çˇ ȂǸǟdzƥ ƢǸǯ DzȇȂǗ ƪºǍȂdz Ć¨Č‡Ç€Ç¤ĆŹÇłĆĄĆ”Č‚ÂşÇˆÇł Ç‘Ç‚Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄČ Â?DzƝƞdzƥ ƨȇƢǨǯ ǾƞÇ&#x;Č Â?ƧǂLJȋƥ Â?ǾƢƏŏƥ ÄżČ  Ć§Ć˘Ç˜Ç Ĺ­ ĆĄ ǾȂƸǴdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ¸ÇŻ ƨȇƢǨǯ Çľ ĆžÇ&#x; ŅƛǞƳǂȇ ǾƢǠdzƥnjǠ ǔdzƥ ǚƗ Ć¨ÇˇÇƒČ‹ĆĄ Dz Ç› Äż Â? ƨǟǿƥǂdzƥ ƨȇƽƢÇ?ƏººººººººººǍČ?ĆĄ Ć¨ÇˇÇƒČ‹ĆĄ ǚƗ ƢǡƢŤ ƜǓ ƥȂdzƥ ÇşÇˇČ Ć¨ÇłĆ˘ĹŤĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć§ĹšÇ˜Ćť ĆŠ ĆĄĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ ƧƞÇ&#x; ƢȀǟÇ&#x; ǒƟŤ ÇŠČ?ÇŁČ?ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ Äż ǞǓ Ȃdzƥ ƥǀǿ ǚƗ ǂǯǀdzƢººƼǂȇƞ ĹŞĆĄ ÇşÇˇČ  ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŤ Äż Ç˛Ç¨Ç˜Ç´Çł Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǀǤdzƥ  Ć¨ÇˇÇƒČ‹ĆĄ ǽǀǿ ÇŚÇŤČ‚Çł Č…Ç Č‚Ç§ DzƝƞƍ ǭƢǟǿ ǚȂǰ ȇ Ƣŭ ƥƿƛ ƞȇƥDŽƏǡ Ç Č‚ÇżĆžĆŤ i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

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ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ ȄǴǟ ňȂȈ Ȁǐdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ƨȈƸǐdzơ ȁ ƨȈƠȈ Ʀdzơ ǽǁƢƯƕ ȁ Ǿƥǁ ƾƦǟ ȆǸǜǻ ƵƢƬǨdzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ƤºººƦLjƫ ȁ ƢȇȂǼººLJ ƨǷƽƢǠdzơ ǽƢȈŭơ ǺǷ ƣȂǯ ǹȂȈǴǷ  Ǻ Ƿ ǂưǯƗƲƬǼȇ

ǝƢǘºǫ ȄǴǟ ȐǷƢºNj ȁ ȐǷƢǯ ƆơǁƢǐƷ ňȂȈȀ ǐdzơ ǹƢȈǰdzơ ǑǂǨȇ

ǶǜǠǷ Ǧ ȇǂǐƫ Ŀ ƢŮ ƽȂºǫȂdzơ ƩơƽơƾǷƛ Ǧ ºǫȁ ȁ ƢȀȈǴǟ ƾƟơDŽdzơ DzǸūơ

Ʃƽơƽǃơ ƾºǫ ȁ  ȂȈǻȂȇ ǀǼǷ ƨǸºLjǻ  ƨºƥơǂ ǫ ǾǼǘºǬȇ ȅ ǀdzơ ƧDŽǣ

ƨȇƽȁȋơ ȁ ƨºƷȂƬǨŭơ Ʃ ƢƠȈƦdzơ ĿƢ ȈƟDŽƳ ƨŪƢǠŭ ơ ȁƗ ƨŪƢǠŭơ Śǣ ǽƢȈŭơ ǮǴƫ

ǞǸƬĐơ Ʃ ƢƠǧ DzǯǾǼǷ ňƢǠȈdz  ŅƢūơ ǵ ƢǠdzơ ƨȇơƾºº ºƥ ǞǷ ǁƢǐūơ ƧƾººƷ

ƨȇǂ ƸƦdzơ ƨƠȈƦdzơ ȁ Ŀ ƾȈºƷȂdzơ ȅƾȈǴǬƬdzơ ǁƾǐŭơ ŐƬǠƫ Ŗdzơ ƨȈǧȂŪơ ǽƢȈŭơ ƭȂǴƫ ƧƽƢȇǃ  

ǶǰƄơ ǩ Ȑǣȍơ ǁƢǐūơ Dzſ ƾºǫ ȁ ƔƢǼưƬLJ ơ ǹȁƽ ǝƢǘǬdzơ Ŀ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ȁ ȆȀǘ dzơ ǃƢǣ ƢȀȈǧ ƢŠ ƽȂººǫȂdzơ Ʃ ơƽơƾǷƛǞǼǷ ȁ ǎȈǴºǬƫ ƩơƔơǂƳƛ ȁ ǂ ºƥƢǠǸǴdz

ƪǤǴºƥ Ʈ Ȉº�� ǑơǂǷ ȋơ ƩƢºƦƦLjǷ ȁ ƾȇơǁȂǴǰ dzơ ȁ ƩơǂƬǼdzƢºƥ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǫ

ȁ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ Ǫ ǧơǂŭ ƨǷǃȐ dzơ Ʃơȁƽȋơ DZƢƻƽƜºƥ ƵƢǸLjdzơ ǵƾǟȁ ƔƢƥǂȀǰdzơ

ȅǀdzơƾºƸ Ǵdz ƨǨǟƢǔ Ƿ ơƽȁƾƷ ƾ ȇơǁȂǴǰdzơȁ Ʃ ơǂƬǼdzƢƥ ƭȂǴ Ƭdzơ ƩƢȇȂƬLjǷ Dzǰºnjȇ ƢŲ ƣǂºnjdzơ ǽƢȈǷ Ŀ ƨȈŭ ƢǠdzơ ƨºƸǐ dzơ ƨǸǜǼǷ Ǿºƥ ƶǸºLjƫ

ǾȈǴǟ ȁ ƩƢǧȉơ ƨººƸǧƢǰǷ ȁƨºƦǴǐdzơ ƩƢȇƢ ǨǼdzơ ȁ ȆºƸ ǐdzơ ǥǂǐ dzơȁ ǽƢȈŭơ ŃƢǠdzơ Ŀ Śǜǻ ƢŮ ƾƳȁ ƢǸǴºǫ ƢǧȁǂǛ ǹȂǻƢ Ǡȇ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǫ ǹƢǰºLJ ƩƢƥ ƾǬǧ

DZƢǨǗȋơ ƢǸ ȈLJȏ ȁśǼǗơȂŭơ ƨƸǏ ȄǴǟ ơǂǘ ƻ

ƨȈºƸǐ dzơ ȁ ƨȈƠȈºƦdzơ ǁƢƯȉơ ƨºLJ ơǁƽ ńƛ ƨȈǸ ǴǠdzơ ƨºǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǥƾē ǽǂLJƘƥ

ȁ ǾȈǧǂƬdzơ ǺǯƢǷƗŚǷ ƾƫ ȁ ƨȈƠǗƢºnjdzơ ȁ ƨȇǂºƸ Ʀdzơ ƨƠȈƦdzơ ƭȂǴƫ ƧƽƢȇǃ   Ŀ ƤºƦLjƬȇ ƢŲ ƨºƦǴ ǐdzơ ȁ ƨǴƟƢLjdzơ ƩƢȇƢǨǼdzơ ƵǂǗ ƔơǂƳ ǵƢǸƴƬLJȏơ

DZȐƻ ǺǷ ǪǻƢŬơǁƢǐūơ ƔơǂƳ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘººººººǫ ǹƢǰºººººLJ ƢȀǼǷ ňƢǠȇ Ŗdzơ ƤǻơȂŝ ƨºººǬǴǠƬŭơ ƨȈººƥƽȋơ Ʃ ƢǠƳơǂŭơ ȁ ƨȈǻơƾȈŭơ ƩơǁƢȇDŽdzơ ȁ ƩƢǜ ººƷȐŭơ

ǂºƸƦdzơ ƞǗƢºNj Ŀ ǹȁƾŸ Ǻȇǀdzơ śȈǼȈǘºLj ǴǨdzơ ȄǴǟ ǩƢǼŬơ ǪȈȈǔƫ Ŀ ƽƢºƷ ǎ ºǬǻ ǺǷ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǫ ǹƢǰºLJňƢǠ ȇ ǶŮ ơƾȈºƷȁ ƢLjǨǼƬǷ

ȁ ǂȇƾǐ ƫ ǞǼǷ ȁǁƢǐ ūơ ǹƗ ƨºǫǁȂdzơ ƩǂȀǛƗ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ ƨƠȈƦdzơ ȁ ƨƸǐdzơ Ŀ ƤºƦLjƫ ƧDŽǣǝƢǘ ºǫ ńƛ ƨȈǠȈƦǘdzơ ƧǁȂǐdzƢƥ ƽȂǫȂdzơ DZƢǰNjƗƨǧƢǯ Ǫǧƾƫ

ƾȈǐdzơ ƣǁơȂºǫ ǦºǫȂƫ ƤƦLjƥ Ȇ ǰǸLjdzơ ǁƾ ǐŭơ ȅƿ ňơȂȈūơ śƫȁŐdzơ

ƢȀŷƗǺǷ DzǠdz ƢŮ ǂǐƷ ȏ ƨŦ ƨȈƸǏ ȁ ƨȈƠȈƥ DzǯƢnj Ƿ ƭȁƾƷ

ƢȀ ǴȈǤnjƬdz ǵǃȐdzơ ƽȂǫȂdzơ ǝ ƢǘǬǻȏ ơǂǜ ǻ ƢȀǴǸǟ Ǻǟ ƤººƦLjƥ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ǑơǂǷȋơ ƢȀȈǧ ƢŠ ǑơǂǷȋơ ȁ ƨƠºƥȁȋ ơ ǁƢºnjƬǻơ  

Ŗdzơ ȁ Ƣ ȀǠǸš ǺǯƢǷƗ Ŀ ƢȀººLJ ƾǰƫ ȁƨºƦǴǐdzơ ƩƢȇƢ ǨǼdzơ Ƕǯơǂƫ  ȃǂƻȋơ ƨ ȇǂºnjūơ Ʃ Ƣǧȉơ ȁ ƨȈºnj ȇƢǠƬdzơ ǑǁơȂºǬdzơ ǁƢnjƬǻơ ƢȀǼǟǶƴ Ǽȇ

ǵƢǠǘdzơ ǁƽƢǐǷ ƨǴǫ ȁ ƨȇȂǠŭơ Ʃ ƢȈǴȈǨǘdzơ ȁ Ǒ ȂǠƦdzơ ȁ Ʃ Ƣǧȉơ ǁƢnjƬǻơ

ƩơǃƢǤdzơ ȁ ƨȀȇǂǰdzơ ƶ Ɵơȁǂdzơ ǁƢºnj Ƭǻơ ȁ ǾƬƠȈƥ ȁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ƨƸǐdz ƨȇƿƚ ŭơ

DŽƴǟ ȁ Dzº ǬǼdzơ ǖƟƢºLJȁ ƨǯǂºƷ Ǧ ºǫȂƫ ƤºƦLjƥ ƢǿǁƢǠºLJ Ɨ ǦǟƢǔƫ ȁ ǽƢȈŭơǁƢººººƥƕ ƩƢƼǔ Ƿ ǶǜǠǷ ƽƢǸƬǟȏǶȀǴȈǏƢŰ ȅǁ ǺǷ śǟǁơDŽ ŭơ

ȁ ƨǷƢǸººǬdzơ ǵơȂǯƗ ǩǂºƷ Ǻǟ Ƕ ƳƢǼdzơ ƔơȂŮ ơ ƭȂǴƫ ȁƨȇƿƚŭơ ƨǷƢºLjdzơ ƢŲ ƢēơǁƢǐǟ ȁ ƨººº ƦǴǐdzơƩƢȇƢǨǼdzƢººƥƨȈǧȂŪơ ǽƢȈŭơ ȁ ƨººƥǂƬdzơ ƭȂǴƫ

ǁȏȂLjdzơ ƽȂǫȁ ȄǴǟ

ƨ ȈƠȈƦdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ȁ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƨƸǐǴdz ơƾȇƾē Dzǰnjȇ ȅǀdzơƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºººǫ Ŀ ƨǷƽƢǠdzơ ǽƢȈŭơ ƨŪƢǠǷ ƩƢǘŰ ƧƔƢǨǯ ňƾƫ  DUDERX#LXJD]D HGXS Vňȁǂ ƬǰȈdzȍ ơƾȇŐdzơ

53

S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Environmental and Health Consequences of Zionist Siege on Gaza

Dr. Ab del Fattah Na zmiAbd Rabb o

Since June 2007 , the Zio nist entity has imp osed a complete and tota l siege on Gaza, which has apopulation of about 1,500,000. Since the beginn ing of 2008 the siege has tight ened to the detr iment and suffering of all sec tors of Pa lestinian society living in Gaza, w ithout ex ception. The siege involved a tight closure of all cro ssings an d a reduction or ban on all energy supplie s, including cooking gas a nd electricity. Entry of necessary supplies for health care,water, sanitat ion, and d isposal of solid waste has been denie d and con sequently the population of Gaza h as been forced to endure livi ng conditions that a re not found elsewhere in the world. T his pape r describes the environ mental a nd healt h consequences s uffered by the population of Gaz a as a result of the s iege. The p aper is based on observations, fiel d visits and literature reviews concern ing the health a nd enviro nmental conditions in Gaza. T he resear ch has determined that the siege has led to da ngerous environmen tal and health h azards, fo remostthe following: 1- Accumulation ofsol id waste re sultingin the infestation of ro dents and insects, harmful to both the h ealth of humans an d the envi ronment; the spread of foul smells, poisonous gases and air pollution due to th e burning of garbage piles; so il and g roundwa ter pollu tion from solid waste, co nstituting a threat to public and environm ental heal th. 2- Decreased efficienc y of waste water management stations

in Gaza. T he lack o f energy supplies to those stations re sulted in m ost of this wastewater being disposedof in open sp aces, vall eys andthe sea. 3 - Pollution of ground water, traditionally the sole source of w ater in the Gaza Str ip, with n itrates, chlorides and other co ntaminati ng elements. The level of nitrates and chlorides in drinking water has reached levels that are severa l times h igher than those perm itted by W HO, con stituting a danger to the health of citizens, especial ly children. 4 - Pollution of the sea environment, in addition to re creational sites, as a result of the disposal of liq uid and so lid waste , which has furth er restric ted the l ives of P alestinians , for whom the beach is the on ly access to fresh ai r and recreation. In addition the popula tion of th e Gaza st rip are suffering a marked shortage of animal protein d erived from fish, sinc e fishing boats have stopped w orking d ue to a lack of fuel. 5 - Increased prevalen ce of illne ss, including mental illness, re sulting from increased parasitic infestations, a sca rcity of fo od resources and increases in prices, d ue to difficulties w ith transpo rtation. In addition , farmers are no longer able to water their land, since most water pumps dep end on g asoline.

Em ail: arab ou@iu gaza.ed u.ps

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55 S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Listening to Children Under Siege

ǁƢǐūơ ƪŢ DZƢǨǗȌdz ƩƢǐǻȍơ ƪLJŚǧ ơDŽǴȇƛƽ

Dr. Elsa First *

A state of siege c onstitutes an attack o n the possibility of ordin ary life, and so isals o an attack on children's psych osocial and cognitive development. Children 's cognitive and em otional development is scaffolded on a se nse of ord inary life from infancy onwards. Ordinarin ess means continuity and recurrences of expe riences o ver time; expectatio ns that can be sustained; understandings that can be shared a nd grow and emerge into reflectiveness. In ordinary life damag e and harmfulness can be repaired, differences negotiated, res ponsibility and nurturance internalized. This presentation proposes consid ering the effects of siege on children's menta l develop ment from the overarching perspective of the undermining of ord inary life , with a focus on the role of parent/child comm unication as a prote ctive facto r. Listening to child ren in a way that delights in particulars, and acknow ledges and contains distres s, facilitates transforming chaotic and desta bilizing experiences into coherent narrati ve and mutuality, which i s the stuff of ordinary family life. Listening to children is diff icult for p arents under siege because of parental shame at not be ing able to provide and protect, and confusion over what can be said. Parental anxiety, grief, helples sness, depression or despair may en ter in. Some guidelines for p arents will be sug gested. Se veral particular features of curre nt siege of Gaza will be considere d with referen ce to psychological impact on c apacities for parenting and on chil dren's understanding of the world: the prior "dedevelo p men t" o f G azan econom y ; cont radic tion s and ambigu ities of political surround since "disengagement;" arbitrariness of interdiction of electricity an d fuel supplies; sewage overflow and pollut ion of the s ea; "colla teral" destruction of local sources of food pr oduction; increased infant mortality; sites of recreation become sites of ran dom death. Some m aterial will be drawn f rom telep hone inte rviews with parents and children in Gaza. Clinical li terature on child survivors of w artime persecution, and 2 0th centur y siegememoirs will be refere nced.

Dzǰnjƥ ƧƢȈūơ ƨȈǻƢǰ Ƿƛ ȄǴǟ ǹơȁƾǠdzơ ǺǷ Ƣǟ Ȃǻ ǁƢǐūơ ƨdzƢƷ DzưŤ ƨȈºººƷƢǼdzơ ǺǷ ƔơȂº ººLJ DZƢǨǗȋ ơ ǁȂǘƫ ƨȈǴǸǟ ȄǴǟ ǹơȁƾǟ ƢĔƗ ƢǸ ǯ ȅƽƢǟ ĿǂǠŭơ ǁȂǘƬdzơ ǹƛ ƨ ȈǧǂǠŭơƨȈº ººººƷƢǼdzơ Ǻ Ƿ ȁƗ ƨȈǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơȁ ƨȈººººLjǨǼdzơ ǺǷ ƨȇơƾººƥ ƨȈǠȈººƦǘdzơ ƧƢȈūƢº ºƥ ǁȂǠººNj Ȅ Ǵǟ ƾǸƬǠȇ DZƢǨǗȌdz ň ơƾƳȂdzơȁ ǁơǂǸƬLJȏơ Ȃǿ ƨȇƽƢǠdzơ ƶǴǘǐ Š ƽȂǐǬŭơ ƢǿƾǠƥ ƢǷ ń ơȁ ƧǂǰƦŭơ ƨdzȂǨǘdzơ ǮŻǶȀ Ǩdzơ ǺǷ ƢǗƢŶƗȁ žǪºǬƸƬdzơ ǾǼǰŲƩƢǠºǫȂƫȁ žǺǷDŽdzơ ǞǷ ƩơŐŬ ơ ǁơǂǰƫȁ ƨȇƽƢǠdzơ ƧƢȈūơ Ŀ ƩȐǷƘƫ Ŀ ƢǿǂȇȂǘƫȁƢȀƬȈǸǼƫȁ Ǻȇǂƻ ȉơ ǞǷ ƢȀƬǯ ǁƢººnjǷ ǹƘººººººººnjƥ ǑȁƢǨƬdzơ ǺǰŻ ƢǸ ǯ ǁǂǔdzơȁ ȃƿȋơ ƶȈǴǐ ƫ ǺǰǸŭơ ǺǷ ǹȂǰȇ ƨȇƢǟǂ dzơȁ ƨȈdzȂƠLj ŭƢƥ ǁȂǠnjdzơ ǹƢǘƦƬLJơȁ ƩƢǧȐŬơ ȆǴººǬǠdzơ ǁȂǘƬdzơ Ȅ Ǵǟ ǁƢǐūơ ǁƢƯƕ Ŀ Ʈºº ƸƦdzơ ńƛƨǴƻ ơƾŭơ ǽǀǿ ȄǠººLjƫ ǂºǐǼǟ ȄºǴǟ DŽȈǯǂ Ƭdzơ ǞǷ ƨȇƽƢǠdzơ ƧƢȈūơ DZȐ Ƭƻȏ ȆǴǯ ǁȂǜǼǷ ǺǷ DZ ƢǨǗȌdz ƩƢǐǻȍơ ǹƛ ƨȈƟƢǸ ūơ DzǷơȂǠdzơ ƾººººƷƘǯ DzǨǘdzơȁ Dzǿȋơ śºººƥ DzǏ ơȂƬdzơ ńƛ ȄǠººLjȇȁ ƧƢǻƢǠŭƢººƥ ǥǂƬǠȇȁ DzȈǏƢǨƬdzƢººƥ ǶƬȀȇ ƣȂǴººLJƘƥ DZ ƢǨǗȌdz ƨǰººƥǂŭ ơ ƩơŐŬơ ȄǴǟ ƨȈdzƽƢººƦƬdzơȁ ŘǠŭơ ƔƢǨǓƛ ƨȈǴǸ ǟ ǂºLjȈȇ ƢȀƟơȂƬºƷơ ƩƢǐǻȍơ ǹƛ ƨȇƽƢǠdzơ ƨȇǂLJȋơ ƧƢȈūơ ǹȂǸǔ Ƿ Ȃǿ Ǯdzƿȁ ǁơǂǬƬLJȐdz ƧƽƾȀŭơȁ Dzǿȋơ ǁȂǠºNj ƤƦLj ƥ ǁƢǐūơ ƪ Ţ DzǿȌdz ƨ ƦLjǼdzƢƥ ƤǠǏ ǂǷƗ Ȃǿ DZ ƢǨǗȌdz ǹƗ ƢǸǯ ƨȇƢǸūơȁƩƢƳƢȈƬºººƷȏơ ŚǧȂƫ ȄǴǟ ǺȇǁƽƢººǫŚǣ ǶĔȂǰdz DzƴŬƢººƥ ǁȂǷȋơ ƽơƽDŽƫ Ǯdzǀǯ Ǿdz ơŚºLjǨƫ DZƢºǬȇ ǹƗ Ǻǰ Ż ƢǸȈǧǭƢ Ʀƫǁȏơ ƤƦLj ȇ ǁƢǐūơ ȁƗ ƣƢƠƬǯ ȏơȁ DŽƴǠdzƢºƥ ǁȂǠnjdzơȁ ǹơƾǬǨdzơȁ ǪǴǬdzƢƥ Dzǿȋơ ƨƥƢǏƛ ǞǷ ơƾȈǬǠƫ Ǯdzǀǯ ǁȂǷȋơ ƔƢȈdzȁȋ ƩơƽƢºNjǁȍơ ǒǠºƥ ƨǴƻơƾŭơ ǽǀǿ ǵƾǬƫ ǥȂLJ DžƘȈdzơ ƧDŽǤdzŅƢ ūơ ǁƢǐūƢº ºƥ ƨǏ ƢŬơ Ʃ ƢǸºLjdzơ ǒ Ǡºƥ ńƛ ƨǴƻơƾŭơ Śºnj ƫ ǥȂºLJ ǶȀǧȄǴǟȁ ƨȇƾdzơȂdzơ ƨºLJǁƢŲ Ȅ Ǵǟ ƧǁƾǬdzơ Ȅ Ǵǟ ȆLjǨǼdzơ ǽŚƯƘƫ ńƛ ƧǁƢNjȍƢƥ ǵƾǟȁ ƩƢǔººǫƢǼƫȁ žƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƨȇƽƢǐƬººǫȏơ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơŚǷ ƾƫ ŃƢǠǴdz DZ ƢǨǗȋơ ƔƢºƥǂȀǰ dzơ Ǟǘºǫ ƨȈƟơȂºnjǟȁ žǕƢƦƫǁȏơǮǧ ǀǼǷ ȆLJ ƢȈLjdzơ ǖȈƄ ơ ƵȂǓȁ ƤºƷƢǐ ȇ ƢǷȁžǂºƸ Ʀdzơ ƭȂǴƫȁ Ȇ ºƸǐdzơ ǥ ǂǐdzơ ǒȈǧȁ žƽȂǫȂdzơ Ʃ ơƽơƾǷƛȁ ƩƢºȈǧȁ DZƾºǠǷ ǝƢºǨƫǁơȁ ƔơǀǤdzơ ƱƢƬǻȍ ƨȈǴƄ ơ ǁƽƢǐǸǴdz ŚǷƾƫ ǺǷ Ǿ Ǵǯ Ǯdzƿ ƾǸƬºLj ƫ ǥȂLJ ȆƟơȂnjǠdzơƩȂǸǴdz ǺǯƢǷƗ ń ƛ ǾȈǧǂƬdzơ ǺǯƢǷƗ DZȂŢȁ ǞǓǂdzơ Ŀ DZƢǨǗȋơȁ Dzǿȋơ ǞǷ ƨȈǻȂǨȈǴƫ ƩȐºƥƢǬǷ ǺǷ ƢēƽƢǷ ǺǷ ƢǔǠƥ ƨǴƻơƾŭơ DZƢǨǗȋƢƥ ƨǏƢŬơ ƨȈǰȈǼȈǴǯȍ ơ ƩƢȈƥƽȋơ ǞƳơǂǷ ǵƾƼ ƬLjƫ ǥȂLJ ƢǸǯ ƧDŽǣ ǺȇǂnjǠdzơ ǹǂǬdzơ Ŀ ǁƢǐūơ ƩƢȇǂǯƿȁ ƣǂūơ Ʃ ƢǬƷȐǷ ǺǷ śƳƢǼdzơ

*N ew Yo rk Univ ersity P ostdoc toral Pr ogram in Psyc hoanal ysis and Psych otherap y; facu lty, Tra uma Sp ecializa tion ef 13@ny u.edu or elsaf irst@gm ail.com

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Culture, Democracy and Civil Society: Siege and the Obstruction to the Right of an Education

 ĹˆĆžĹ­ĆĄ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ—ĆĄÇ‚ÇŹĹťĆžÇłĆĄ  ƨǧƢǏưdzƥ  ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ Äż ÇŞĹŤĆĄ ǾƢǡƗ ÇŞĆ&#x;ĆĄČ‚Ç ÇłĆĄČ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƢǰƼƢǯ Ć˘ĆłÇ Ć˘Çˇ Č ÇşĹĄĆ˘ĆŤ Ç­Ç ĆžÇźÇż Ć˝

Dr. He ndrik Taatgen; Marg a Kapk a *

The aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the creation of a lobb y group of educators for intern ational education in Gaza. We postulate that e very child has a righ t to an edu cation, and eve ry open society has the duty to provide its children with access to intern ational education. We defi ne international education as a s chool tha t offers an international curriculum taught by international teac hers who prepare students to become citizens of a glob al world. We were m embers of the last team of administrators and teachers to implem ent such a vision fo r Gaza at the American International School - Gaza (A ISG) in 2005 - 6. That w as a difficult year, a nd we barely made it to the end. In spite of the obstac les, we lef t Gaza more convinc ed than ever that international education should be p art and p arcel of Gaza's creation and development as an independent state. The siege must surely rank as the largest obstacle to achiev ing this goal. A country that is o ccupied c annot pro perly educ ate its ch ildren. Thepap er willprovide detailed observ ations to support thi s point. Our an alysis is b ased on in formation we collected through the anthrop ological technique of participant observatio n; we recorded our exp eriences a nd impres sions during and after the time we worked a t the school.

ƧȂǍ ĺȂ Çł Ǫȇǂǧ ÇŞÇ´ĹŹ Ć˘ČˆÇŹÇ˜ÇźÇˇ ƢLJƢLJƗ ƽƢŸČ? Ć¨ÇŤÇ Č‚ÇłĆĄÇ˝Ç€Çż Ǽƞē Dzǰdzǚƛ ǑǂƏǨǝ Ƣǟǝƛ ƧDŽǤºƼ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ DzƳƗ Ǻǡ Ĺ›ČˆÂşĆĽÇ‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ǻǡ Ć¨Ç˜ÇŁĆ˘Ç“ ǞdzƢǨǗƗ Ǻǰŝ ǚƗƜƏǨǟǡ ǞǸƏů Dzǰdz ȆǤº ºƌǟȇ ÇžÇťĆĄČ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ Äż ÇŞĹŤĆĄ DzǨǗ njȇǂǠƍ Ƣǟǟǰŝ ƥǀǿ Ĺ… Ć› ĆĄĆ˝Ć˘ÇźĆŹÂşÂşÂşÂşÇ‡ĆĄČ  Ĺ…Č Ć˝ Çś ČˆÇ´Ç ĆŤ ȆǴÇ&#x; ǹȂÇ?ĹŤĆĄÄż ÇŞĹŤĆĄ Ǻǡ DzƌǍǺǡ Ç…Ç ĆžČ‡ Ć˘ČˆÇłČ Ć˝ Ć˘ČˆÇ‡ĆĄÇ Ć˝Ć˘Ć´Č€ÇźÇˇ ǾƞǏƍ ƨ Ç‡Ç ĆžÇˇ ǞǝƗ Ȇ Ç´Ç&#x; Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ ĹƒĆ˘Ç Çł Ĺ› ǟǗƥȂǡƥȂǝȂ Ç°ČˆÇł ĆŁČ?ǘ dzƥ ǚȂǴǿƚȇ Çś ÇżÇ Č ĆžÂşÂşĆĽ Ǻȇ Ç€ÇłĆĄČ Ĺ›ČˆÇłČ Ć˝ ƧǀƍƢºLJƗ ŚƝȋƥ Ć§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Č?ĆĄ Ǫȇǂǧ Äż ƔƢǔÇ&#x;Ć˜ÇŻ ǺȇƞǿƢƳ ƢǟǴ ǸÇ&#x; ƞºººººǏdz ƨŭȂǠdzƥ Č‚ Ĺ´ ǞƴƏȇ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ Äż ƨȇƙǂdzƥ ǽǀǿ Dzưǡ Ç€ČˆÇ¨ÇźĆŹÇł śǴǿƚǡ Ĺ›ÂşÇ‡Ç ĆžÇˇ ƢǟǝȂǯ Ĺ…Ć› ƨǧƢǓČ?ƢƼ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ��ŞÇťĆ˘ÇŻ DzǠǨdzƢººƼ  B  ǾƢÇ&#x; ƧDŽǤººƼ Ć¨ČˆÇ°Č‡Ç‚Çˇ Č‹ĆĄ Ć¨ÂşÇ‡Ç ĆžĹ­ ĆĄ Äż ƧDŽǣ Ƣǟǟǰdz  ƨ ȇƢĔ Ĺ…Ć› ƪdzƗ ƽƢǰdzƢººƼ ƢĔƗ ŕººơ ĆŠĆĄČ‚ÇźÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ƤǠÇ?ƗǺǡ Ć¨ÇźÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ ǚƛ Ç?ƢǟƏºǍČ? ĆĄ Dzǯ ǚȂǠǟƏǏǡ ƧDŽǣǺǡ Ć˘ÇźÇ´ĆˇÇ ĆŠĆ˘ÇŤČ‚Ç Ĺ­ĆĄ ǽǀǿDz ÇŻ ÇśÇŁÇ‚ĆĽČ  Ç˛ÇŹĆŹÇˆÇˇ ƞǴƌǯ ƧDŽǣ Ç Č‚Ç˜ĆŤČ Ç?ƥƞƼƛ Ǻǡ ƔDŽƳ ƜƌÇ?ȇ ÇšĆĄČ ĆžĆĽ Č? Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǼƞŎƥ ƥǀǿ ÇŞČˆÂşÂşÂşÇŹĹ˘ ǾƢǡƛƨºº ºƌǏÇ&#x; Ĺ?ÇŻĆ˜ÇŻ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄÇŚÇźÇ?Çť Ƣǟǝƛƞǯ ƚŭƥ ÇşÇˇČ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ ƢŎƢǨǗȋ ǾƞººǏƍ ǚƥ ƨǴƏŰ Ć¨ÇłČ Ć˝ ȆǴÇ&#x; ƤǠÇ?dzƥ Ǻǡ Ǟǝƥ ĆŽČˆÂşÂşĆˇ ǽǀǿǜÇ&#x;ƞdz ƨǴÇ?Ǩǡ ƊƢǛȂººƸ Ç´Ĺ  Ć˘ÇťĆ˝Č Ç„ĆŤ Ć¨ÂşÂşÇŤÇ Č‚ÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ ǚƢǧ ƢǡƢƏƝ  ĆŁČ‚ÇŁÇ‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ǻǡ ƢȀǠŌ Äť ƊƢǡȂ ǴǠǡ ȆǴÇ&#x; Ç… ƢººLJȋƢƼ Ƣ ÇźÇ´ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ ĆžÇ¸ĆŹÇ Č‡Č Ć˘Ç¸ÇŻ  Ć¨Ç˜ ººǏǟdzƥ Ć˘ÇźÂşÂşĆĽÇ Ć˘ĹĄ Ç˛ČˆĆ´ÂşÇˆĆŤ ÇŞ ȇǂǗ ÇşÇ&#x; ÇŽÇłĆżČ Ć¤ÂşÇŤĆĄÇ‚Ç¸ Ç´Çł ȆÇ?ĆźÂşÇŒ dzƥ ƣȂǴºLJ Č‹ĆĄ ÇąČ?Ćť Ć¨Ç‡Ç ĆžĹ­Ć˘ĆĽÇžČˆÇ§ ƢǟǴǸÇ&#x;ȅǀdzƥ ĆŞÇŤČ‚ÇłĆĄĆžÇ ĆĽČ ÇąČ?ƝƢǟƍƢÇ&#x;Ć˘ĆŚÇ˜ÇťĆĄČ

* Ph. D. in Anthropo logy from SUN Y at S tony Brook M.A . in English Li terature from Western Washington Univers ity / htaatgen@hotmail.com; / mgkapka@hotmail.com

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S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


ƨƥȐǐdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ Ŀ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ȃƾdz ǖȈLJȁ DzǷƢǠǯ ƪƥƢƯ DŽȇDŽǠdzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂ ǘǓƢºƥ ƨº ƥƢǏȍơśƥ ƨdzơƽ ƨǫȐǟ ƽȂƳȁ Ǻǟ ƨLJ ơǁƾdzơ Ǧnj ǰƫ Ńȁ

ƤºLJƢǼƫ Ǯdzǀǯ ƤǼƴƬdzơȁ ǽƢƦƬǻȏơ ƨƳǁƽȁ ƨǷ ƾǐdzơƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣ ơǂǘǓơ

ǁƢºnjƬǻơ DZƾǠǷ ĿƮ ƸƦdzơ ńƛ ƨLJơǁƾdzơǽǀǿ ǥƾē ƨLJ ơǁƾdzơ ǺǷ ǥƾŮơ ƨǷƾǐ dzơ ƾǠºººººº ºººƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓơ Dz ưǷ ƢŮ DzǠǨdzơ ƽȁƽǁȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƮȈºƷ ǺǷ ƽȂǸǐdzơ DzǷơȂǟ Ŀ Ʈ ºƸƦdzơĽ ǺǷȁ ƢǷȂǸǟ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨ Ƹǐdzơȁ ƩȐǰºnjǷȁ ƨǷƾǏ ƾǠºƥ ƢǷ ƣ ǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓ Ƣºƥ ƨƥƢǏȎdz ƨȈǴƥƢǬdzơ ǑƢǨŵơ ƨ ǷƾǐǴdzDzǠǧ ƽǁȁ ȃǂƻȋơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơ ŅƢŦƛ ǺǷ DzǨǗ ǺǷ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ƨǼȈǟ ǹȂǰƬƫ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ƲȀǼǷ  ƨºƥƢƴƬLJȏơ DZƾǠǷ ǹƢǯ ƮȈºƷ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ǶȀƬǧƾȀƬLJơ DzǨǗ ƭƢǻȍơ Ǻ Ƿ  ǹƢǯ śºººººƷ Ȅ Ǵǟ  ǁȂǯǀdzơ ǺǷ ơȂǻƢǯ DZƢǨǗȋơ ǺǷ  ǂǸǟ ǖºLJȂƬŠ ƢǷƢǟ  ȁ  śºƥ ƢǷ DZ ƢǨǗȋơǁƢǸǟ Ɨ ƪºƷȁơǂƫ  

ƩƢǷƾǐdzơ DžƢȈºǬdz ƩƢǻƢȈƦƬLJơ ǵơƾƼƬLJƢƥ DZƢǨǗȋơ ǞǷ ƨǴƥƢǬŭơ ƪŤ ƢǷƢǟ ƽȂǸǐdzơǖŶȁ DZƢǨǗȌdz ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨƸǐdzơȁ

Dzǔǧȋơ ȆººLjǨǼdzơ ƽȂǸǐdzơ ȁȁƿ DZƢǨǗȋơ ǽƢººƦƬǻȏơ ǞǷ ƢȈºLjǰǟ ǵơDŽƬdzȏơ

Ŀ ƨººLJơǁƾdzơ Ŀś ǯǁƢººnjŭơ ǹȂȈǼȈǘººLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ǑǂǠƫ  ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ

ǑơǂǟƗȁ ƤǼƴƬdzơȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơƾǠºƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣ ơǂǘǓơ Ǻ Ƿ DzǫƗ ƨƳǁƽ ơȁǂȀǛƗ

ƭƾººƷ  ȁ ȆǴȈƟ ơǂººLJȍơ ǹơȁƾǠǴdz ƨƴȈƬǻ ƭƾºƷ   ƽƾǠdz ǖ ºLJȂƬŭơ

ƽȂǸǐdzơ ƩƢƳǁƽ ƪºººƦLJƢǼƫ Ǯdzǀǯ DZƢǨǗȋ ơ ǂȀǛƗƮȈººƷ ǽƢººƦƬǻȏơ Ǖǂǧ ƨȇƾºLjŪ ơ ǵȏȉơȁ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơƨºƸ ǐdzơ ŅƢŦ ƛ ǞǷ ƢȈƦǴLJ ƢƦLJƢǼƫ Ȇ LjǨǼdzơ

ǺǷ ƭƢǻȍ ơȁ ǁȂǯǀdzơ ś ºƥ Ƣºǫǂǧ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơƾš Ń ǦƟơȂǘ dzơ śƥ ǝơŗdzơ ƤƦLjƥ

žǪǴººǬdzơ ǞǷ ƢȈºLjǰǟ ƢºƦLJƢǼƫ ƪºƦLJƢǼƫ ǵơDŽƬdzȏơ ƩƢƳǁƽ ǥȁƢƼŭơȁ ǪǴºǬdzơȁ

 Ŀ Ǒơǂǟȋơ ǝ ƢƳǂƬºººLJơ  ĿƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠºººƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ǑơǂǟƗ

ƪºƦLJƢǼƫ ȅƾºƸƬdzơ Ʃ ƢƳǁƽȁ žǥȁƢ Ƽŭơ ǞǷ ƢȈºƦǴLJ ƪºƦLJ ƢǼƫ ǶǰƸƬdzơ ƩƢƳǁƽ ǥȁƢƼŭ ơ ǞǷ ƢȈƦǴLJ ƢƦLJƢǼƫ

ƨǼȈǠdzơ ǺǷ  Ŀ ǽƢººƦƬǻȏƢƥ ƨǴǏ Ʃơƿ Ǒ ơǂǟƗȁ  Ŀ ƨȈººƦǼš ǑơǂǟƗ Ŀ ƨǷƾǏ ƾǠºƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘ ǓƢºƥ ƨºƥƢǏ ȍơ DZƢǸƬºƷơ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƪǴƴLJ

ƨȈǰȈǼȈǴǯȍơ Ʋ ƟƢƬǼdzơȁ ƨǏ ȐŬơ ƨȈººLJǁƾ Ƿȁ ƨȈǠǸƬů ƲǷơǂºƥ Ŀ ǝȁǂºnjdzơ ƨȈŷƗńƛ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơǽǀǿ Śºnjƫ

ǝƢƳǂƬºº ºººLJơ ƾººººƷơȁ Ǒǂǟ ǶȀȇƾdzǹƢǯ ȐǨǗ  DZƢǨǗȋơ ǺǷ 

ǶǟƽDzƳ Ɨ ǺǷ ƨȈǟƢǸ ƬƳȏơ ƩơǁƢȀŭơȁ ǪǧơȂƬdzơȁ ǶǴºººººººǫƘƬdzơ ƩƢȈdzƕ ǂȇȂǘƬdz

ȁ  ȆƟDŽƳ ƨǷƾǏ ƾ Ǡººƥ ƢǷƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓ ơ Ǒơǂǟȋơ Ǻ Ƿ śǼƯơ

ǮǴƫ Ŀ ś LJǁƾŭơȁ Dz ǿȋơ Ʊơǁƽƛ ǹƜǧ ǮdzǀǯDZƢǨǗȋơȃƾdz ȆLjǨǼdzơ ƽȂǸǐdzơ ƾƟơƾººººººnjdzơ ȄǴǟ ƤǴǤƬdzơǺǷ ǶȀǼǰŻȁ DZƢǨǗȋơǶǟ ƾȇ ƾºººººǫ ƲǷơŐdzơ

  ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠººƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓ ơ ǑơǂǟƗ Ƕ Ȁȇƾdz Ǻǰƫ Ń DzǨǗ ƣơǂǘǓ Ƣºƥ ƨºƥƢǏ ȍƢƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ Ƣ ǸȈǧ śºLjǼŪơ śºƥ ƢǼǷ ǩȁǂǧ ǭƢǼǿ Ǻǰƫ Ń

DzǷơȂǟ ŚƯƘƫ ƨLJơǁƾdz ƭƢŞȋơǺǷ ƾȇDŽǷ ńƛ ƨƳ ƢŞ ǺƸǼǧ Ǯ dzǀǯ ƩƢǷ ƾǐdzơȁ

ƣơǂǘǓ Ƣƥ ƨƥƢǏȍơ Ŀ ƨdzơƽƧƽƢȇǃ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƪǴƴLJ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ

ƩơǁƢȀŭơ ȄǴǟ ƤȇǁƾƬdzơ ǶȈȈºººǬƫȁ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏ ơ Ƕǟƾdzơȁ ƧǂºººLJȋơ DzưǷ ȃǂƻƗ DzǏơȂƬdzơ DzƦLJ ǂȇȂǘ Ƭdz ȃǂƻƗ DzƟ ƢLJȁ ƧǁȂǴƥ ń ƛ ƨƳƢŞ ƢǼǻƗ ƢǸǯ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ

Őǯȋơ DZƢǨǗȋơśƥ ƢȀǼǟ ƢǼLJ ǂ ǤǏȋơDZƢǨǗȋơ śƥ ƨǷ ƾǐdzơƾǠƥ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƢǷ ƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓơ DžƢȈºǬǷȄǴǟ ƩƢƳǁƾdzơ ŅƢŦƛǹƗ ƲƟƢƬǻ ƪºƸǓ ȁƗ ƢǸǯ

ƩƢǟơŗdzơ DzƷȁ

ȆǴȈƟơǂºLJ ȍơ ǹơȁƾǠ dzơ ƤºƦLjƥ ƨǷƽƢǐdzơ ƭ ƾºƷȋơ ǞǷ ǵ ǃȐƬȇ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠƥ

Ǒơǂǟȋơ ƩȏƾǠǷ ǖºLJȂƬǷ Ǧ ƟơȂǘdzơśƥ ƩƢǟơŗdzơ ś ƥȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ƾǠƥ ƢǷ ǑơǂǟƗ  ƨȇƾººLjƳ ǵȏƕ ƨȈºLjǨǻ ƨºƸǏ Ǒ ơǂǟƗ ŅƢƬdzƢǯ ƪǻƢǯ śºººƥ ƨdzơƽ ǩȁǂǧǹȁƽ  ǥȂƻ Ǒ ơǂǟƗȁ ǪǴºººǫ Ǒ ơǂǟƗ  ƣƢƠƬǯơ ƢǼººLJ ǂǤǏȋơ DZƢǨǗȋơ śººƥ ǂưǯƗ ǥȂŬơ Ǒ ơǂǟƗ ƪǻƢǯ ǹƛȁ ǁȂǯǀdzơȁ ƭƢǻȍơ ǶǰºƸƬdzơȁ  ǵơDŽƬdzȏơȁ  ƪǻƢǯȆº LjǨǼdzơƽȂǸǐdzơ ƩƢƳǁƽ DZƾǠǷ śººƥ ȁƗ ƭ Ƣǻȍơȁ ǁȂǯǀdzơ śººƥ ƔơȂººLJ ƨdzơƽ ǩȁǂǧ ǹȁƽ   ȅƾºƸƬdzơȁ  ŅƢººŦ ƛ ǹƗ ƲºƟƢƬǼdzơ ƩǂºȀǛƗ ƨºȇǂǸǠdzơ Ʃ ƢºƠǨdzơ ǦºǴƬű ǺºǷ DZƢºǨǗȋơ ǞǷ ƢȈºLjǰǟ ƢºƦLJƢǼƫ ƪºƦLJƢǼƫ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ ƽȂǸǐdzơDž ƢȈǬǷ ȄǴǟ ƩƢƳǁƾdzơ

ǖºLJȂƬǷ ƨºLJơǁƾdzơ ƩƾǏǁ ƢŮ ơȂǓǂǠƫ Ŗdzơ ƨǷƽƢǐ dzơ ƭơƾºƷȋơ ƮȈºƷ

ơȂǴƴººLJ DZƢǨǗȋơ Ǻ Ƿ  ž  ǽƢºƦƬǻȏơ ǕǂǧȁƗ ƤǼƴƬdzơȁƗ ƭơƾºƷȋơ

Em ail: thab et@gc mhp.ne t

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Trauma, PTSD, Mental Health, and Resilience as mediator factor in Palestinian children in the Gaza Strip Dr. Ab delAziz Thabet

Aim: T he aim of this study is to inv estigate th e frequency and reactions to traum a such as P TSD and general mental healt h, then examin ing resil ience fro m the p erspective of decreased vulnerability to PTSD and m ental hea lth proble ms in reaction to trauma. Method: The study sample consisted of 386 child ren from total of 400 children targ eted as study population with respond rate of 96.5%, 201 of children were boys (52.07%) an d 185 we re girls (47.93% ). Children age ran ged from 7-18 years with a me an age of 13.4 4 years. C hildren we re intervi ewed using Gaza Factional Fightin g and Israelis Aggression Trauma Scale s, Child Mental Health, UCLA-PTSD, and Resilience Scale. Results : Palestin ian childre n exposed to mean of 10.18 events due to I sraeli aggr essionand 7.42 events due to f actional fighting. N o ge nde r d iff eren ces in repo rted trau ma tic e ven ts. Posttraumatic stre ss symptoms mean was 25.94, re-experiencing sympto ms mean w as 7.50, avoidance symptom s mean was 8.21, and arousal symptoms mean was 7.6 5. Forty eight 48 c hildren reporte d probable PTSD (12.4%), 103 children w ere reported one Criteria (reexperi encing, or avoidance, or hyperarousal) (26.7%), 86 of c hildren reported two criteria-Partial PTS D (22.3%), and 149 chidren had no PTSD sympto ms (38.4%). No gender differen ces in PT SD. You nger age children w as significantly reporte d total po sttraumat ic stress symptoms than older age children. The results show ed that total scores of PTSD were correlated with traumatic ev ents due to Israelis a ggression PTSD, reexperiences, hyperarousal, and av oidance. No significant correlation betw een traum a due t o faction al factions and posttraumatic stre ss sympto ms. Mean mental h ealth sym ptoms mean w as 9.05, somatic pains mean was 1.31, dep ression sympto ms mean was 4.36, anxiety mean was 2.21, an d fears mean w as 1.14. There were no signi ficant differences b etween

boys a nd girls in total general me ntal healt h, somatic pains, anxiety, depression, and fears. Fears were more in youn ger age childre n. Childr en repor ted mea n resilien ce scor es w ere 58.52, comm itment subscale mean was 23 .78, control subscale mean was 17 .58, and ch allenging subscale m ean was 17.60. The re were no significant d ifferences between boys and girls and age of children in total resilience, co mmittme nt, contro l, and challen ging. The results showed that total scores o f resilience were co rrelated negati vely wit h total P TSD, a rousal, a nd av o idan ce. Comm itment wa s correlat ed negativ ely with arousal, c hildren with better resil ience had less PTSD, avoidance, and arousal sympto ms and children with com mitment had less arousal sympto ms. Total scores of resilience were correlated negatively with t otal mental health, somatic pains, anxiety and fears. Comm itment wa s correlate d negatively with anxiety, cont rol was negativ ely corre lated with fears, and challeng e was negatively correla ted with fears. Conclu sion and clinical im plication s These results highlight th e important of starting programs in comm unity and schools to develop better coping strateg ies and social skills training to increase children resilience. Also involv ing of parents and te achers in such programs may support the children and enable them of b eing able to overcome the advers ities and trauma. Other factors su ch as fa mily and social support had to be evalua ted in next studies. M ore applie d research in evalua ting the effectiveness of social sk ills training and other meth ods of develo ping bett er communication and conflict resolu tion is needed . Keywo rds: Traum a, PTSD, Mental he alth, Resi lience

Email : thabe t@gcm hp.net

59S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Psychological and Social Adjustment among Deaf Children under Siege Naim Abdel Hadi Kabaga & Basse m Abdel Rahman Koraz

This study aims to identify the extent of psychological and soc ial adjustment amo ng deaf children un der siege. It also aims to identify the impac t of siege on the m ental health and behavi ou r of deaf chil dren wi th a v ie w to de velop recomm endations for the p sychological support and counseling service s needed by the chil dren and their families. The authors will use the psychological a nd social a djustmen t scale, tra nslated and prepared by Ain Shams University. The scale will be adapted to the Palestinian context. The authors will use a descriptive analytical metho dology. The SPSS program will be used to undertake the a ppropriate statistical analyse s of results. The authors hope to reach relevant conclu sions that can be of service to Pales tinian society. naim .kabaja@at falun a.net; baqs _1015 @ ho tmail .com,

ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ȆLjǨǼdzơ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ȃƾǷ ǁƢǐūơ DzǛ Ŀ Ƕǐdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ȃƾdz ǃơǂǯ Ǻŧǂdzơ ƾƦǟ ǶLJƢƥ ȁ ƨƳƢƦǯ ȅƽƢŮơ ƾƦǟ ǶȈǠǻ ȆººººLjǨǼdzơ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ ȃƾǷ ȄǴǟ ǥǂǠƬdzơ ń ƛ ƨºººLJơǁƾdzơ ǥƾē ńƛ ƨºººººLJơǁƾdzơ ǥ ƾē ƢǸǯ ǁƢ ǐūơ DzǛ Ŀ Ƕǐdzơ DZƢǨǗȌdz ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ DZƢǨǗȌdz ǭȂǴººLjdzơȁ ƨȈººLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ŚƯƘƫ ȄǴǟ ǥǂǠƬdzơ DZƢǨǗȌdz ƽƢºNjǁȍơȁ ȆLjǨǼdzơ Ƕ ǟƾdzơ ƩƢǷƾŬ ǁȂǐƫ ǞǓ ȁ ƨdzȁƢŰȁ Ƕǐdzơ ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ ǪǧơȂƬdzơ DžƢȈºǬǷ ǹƢưºƷƢƦdzơ ǵƾƼƬºLjȈLJȁ ǶȀȇȁƿȁ ǶƟȐƬȈdz ǾǴȇƾǠƫǶƬȇ ȁ džſ śǟ ƨǠǷƢƳ Dz ººƦǫ ǺǷ ƾ Ǡŭơȁ ǶƳǂƬŭơ ǶǐǴdz ȆǨǏȂdzơ ƲȀǼŭơ ǹƢưºººƷƢƦdzơ ǵ ƾƼƬººLjȈLJ ȁ ƨȈǼȈǘº ºLjǴǨdzơƨƠȈººƦdzơ ǞǷ ƨȈƟƢǐº Ʒȏơ ƤȈdzƢLJȋơ ǹƢưƷƢƦdzơ ǵƾƼƬLjȈLJ ƩƢǻƢȈƦdzơ ƨŪƢǠŭȁ ȆǴȈǴƸƬdzơ ƨǷƢǿ ƲƟƢƬǻ ńƛDZȂǏ ȂǴdz ǹƢưºƷ ƢƦdzơ DzǷƘȇȁ 6366 ƲǷƢǻǂƥ DZȐƻ ǺǷ ƨǸƟȐŭơ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǞǸƬĐơ ǵƾţ

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Grieving the Catastrophe: Coming to terms with the American Shadow in Palestine Dr. Bill Slaughter *

Scapeg oating is the univ ersal hum an tende ncy to project unacknowledged negative attributes , or "sh adow" material, onto others. The fascists did this in Europe to the 1940's; afterward s, US polic ies in Palestine hav e produced many negativ e consequences. However, the collective American psyche does not acknowledge this shadow, and a s a partial way of coping, projects the negative quality o f "terrorism" onto oth ers. TheAm erican co llective psyche holds equality f or all, reg ardless of race or religion, as a core value. In Israel/Palestine, one group is privi leged over another. Many people arou nd the world are aware o f this, a core reason for the shift over recent decade s from admiration of the US as a lib eratingsupporterof the rights o f all to disillusionment--in Israel/Palestine because of support for ethnic privilege. Others worldwide are mo re aware of this American shadow than isge nerally the case in th e US. After acknowle dging br iefly var ious dow nsides o f US Israel/P alestine policies, one sp ecific are a of ne gative consequences is focused o n, by giv ing result s of a literature search for academ ic articles on the m ental hea lth of people of Palestinian ethni city regardless of geographic al locatio n. A summa ry is mad e of articles probin g the res ults of p olitical violence, the asp ect of Palestinian m ental hea lth most directly resulting from A merican p olicies. Data on various types of psycho logical tra uma are c ited, including 70% child/ado lescent Post-Traumatic Stress Disor der preva lence. Lac k of information about la rge group s of the population , especially those awaiting return f rom refug ee camps outside P alestine, is regretted as an important example of this shadow area of the US collective psyche. Though Palestini an resilien ce is clearly identified in studi es, it is argued that healing on a much wider scale, for all peoples with ties to the region , will come as the A merican c ollective psyche acknow ledgesthe many downsides of its actions there.

ƨƯǁƢǰdzơ ǵȏƕ śǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ DZȐǜdzơ ƣƢǠȈƬLJơ ǂƫȂǴLJ DzȈƥ ƽ ǥƾȀƬº Ljƫ ƨȈŭƢǟ ƨ ȈǻƢºLjǻơ ƨǟDŽǻ Ȇǿ Ɣơƾǧ NJºƦǰƥ ƨȈƸǔƬdzơ ǾǴǠǧ ƢǷ Ȃǿ ơǀǿǺȇ ǂƻȉơ ȄǴǟ Ƣđ ǥǂƬǠŭơ Śǣ ƨȈƦǴLjdzơ ƩƢǨǐdzơ ǕƢǬLJơ ƪºƦƦLj ƫ Ǯdzƿ ƾǠºƥ žȆǓƢŭơ ǹǂºǬdzơ ƩƢȈǼȈǠȈºƥǁƗ ŕƷ ƢƥǁȁǁȁƗ Ŀ ǹȂ ȈǓƢǨdzơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ǺǷ Śưǰdzơ Ŀ śǘºLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨȈǰȇǂ Ƿȋơ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ ƩƢLJƢȈLJ ǮǴƫ DZȐ ǜººƥ ǥǂƬǠȇ ȏ ȆǰȇǂǷȋơ ȆǠǸŪơ ȆǟȂdzơ ǹƜǧ Ǯ dzƿ ǞǷȁƨȈººƦǴLjdzơ ƣƢǿǁȏ ơ ƨǨǏ ǖººǬLjȇ ǶǴº ºǫƘƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ƨȈƟDŽƳ ƨdzȁƢŰ Ŀȁ ƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơ śºƥ ƧơȁƢLjŭơ ǹƘƥ ǺǷ ƚȇ ȆǰȇǂǷȋơ ȆǠǸŪơ Ȇ ǟȂdzơ ǹƛ Ǻȇ ǂƻȉơ ȄǴǟ ƨȈƦǴLjdzơ śǘºLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨȇǂǿȂƳ ƨǸȈǫ Ȇ ǿ Ǻȇƾdzơ ȁƗ ǩǂǠdzơ Ǻǟ ǂǜǼdzơ ǒǤƥ ǞȈǸŪơ ƔƢŴƗǦ ǴƬű Ŀǂºnj Ʀdzơ ǺǷ Śưǰdzơ ȃǂƻȋơ ȄǴǟ ƨǟȂǸ ů śºƥDŽȈȈǸƬdzơ ǶƬȇ ƽȂºǬǠdzơ ǾƫƾȀNjȅ ǀdzơ DZȂƸƬdzơ Ŀ ȆLJƢLJƗ ƤƦLJ Ȃǿȁ Ǯdzƿ ǹȂǯǁƾ ȇ ŃƢǠdzơ ńơ ǩȂºǬ ƸǴdz ƨǸǟơƽȁ ƨȇǂŢ ƧȂºǬ ǯ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzƢƥ ƣ ƢƴǟȏơǺǷ ƨȈǓ Ƣŭơ śǘLj ǴǧDzȈƟơǂLJ ơ Ŀ ȆǫǂǠdzơ DŽȈȈǸƬǴdz ƢȀǸǟƽ ƤƦLj ƥ ǶǿȂdzơ ơǀŮ ǚǨdz ŃƢǠdzơ ƔƢƳǁƗ ǦǴƬű Ŀ ƨȈǰȈǷ ǁȋơ ƨǼǯơƾdzơ DZȐǜdzƢºƥ ȆǟȂdzơ ơǀǿ ǂºnjƬǼȇȁ ǦǴƬƼŭ ǂǐƬƼŭơ Ǒ ǂǠdzơ ƾǠƥ ƢȀLjǨǻƧƾ ƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ Ŀ ǂnjƬǼȇ ƢŲ ǂưǯƗ ǥȂºLJ śǘºLjǴǧDzȈƟơǂLJơ ǽƢ š ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơƩƢLJƢȈLJ ĿƩ ƢȈƦǴLjdzơ ǑǂǠǻ Ʈ ȈºƷ ƨȈºƦǴLjdzơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ǮǴƫ ǃŐȇ ǾǼȈǠƥ DZƢů ȄǴǟ ǃȂȈǯǂƬdzƢƥ ǵȂǬǻ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ DZȁƢǼƬƫ Ŗ dzơ ƨȈŻƽƢǯȋơ ƩȏƢºǬŭơȁ ƩƢȈºƥƽȋơ Ŀ ƮƸƦdz ǵƾºǬǻ ǥ ȂºLJ Ŀơǂ ǤŪơ ƢȀǠȇǃȂƫ Ǻǟ ǂǜǼdzơ ǒǤºƥ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈǫǂǠǴdz ǮdzƿȂǿȁ ȆººLJƢȈLjdzơ Ǧ ǼǠdzơ Ʋ ƟƢƬǻ Ŀ ƮººƸƦƫ Ŗdzơ ƩȏƢººǬǸǴdz ƢǐƼǴǷ ƩƢººLJƢȈLjdzƢƥ ǂººNjƢƦǷ Dzǰºnjƥ ǂƯƘƫ ȅǀdzơ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǏȏ ǺǷ ƤǻƢŪơ ǮdzƿĿ ƢŠ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷƾǐdzơ ǝơȂǻƗ ǦǴƬƼŭ ǑǂǠƬǻ ǥȂºLJȁƨȈǰȇǂǷȋơ śºǬǿơǂŭơȁ DZƢǨǗȋ ơ ǺǷ  ś ºƥ ƨǷƾǏȏ ƾǠƥ ƢǷƣǂǯ ƣơǂǘǓ ơ ǁƢnjƬǻơ ǺǷ ƧŚƦǰdzơ ƩƢǟȂǸ Đơ ǹƘnjƥ ƩƢ ǷȂǴǠŭơƣƢȈǤdz ǦLJƘǻ ƢǼǻƛ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƱǁƢƻ ś ƠƳȐdzơ ƩƢǸ Ȉű ǺǷ ƧƽȂ Ǡdzơ ǹȁǂǜƬǼȇ ǺȇǀdzơƔȏƚǿ ƨǏƢƻ ǹƢǰLjdzơ ȆǟȂdzơ ǺǷ ƨǸǴǜŭơ ƨººººǬǘǼŭ ơ ǮǴƬdz ƢǷƢǿ ƢƳƿȂŶDzưŻ ȅǀdzơ śǘºººLjǴǧ Ȇǿ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨǴdz ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷȁƢǬŭơ Ƕ ǣǁ ƧƾƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ Ŀ ȆǠǸŪơ ǹƘººƥ DZȂºǬǻ ƢǼǻơȏơ ƭ ƢŞȋơȁƩƢº LJơǁƾdzơĿ ƵȂǓȂdzơ ǺǷ ŚưǰºƥǾdzȁƢǼƫ Ļ ǂǷƗ ƨǴǐdzơ Ʃơƿ ƣȂǠººnjdzơ ƨǧƢǰdz ƨºƦLjǼdzƢƥ ǞºLJȁƗ ǩƢǘ ǻ ȄǴǟ ƵȁǂŪ ơ ƧơȁơƾǷ ȆǰȇǂǷȋ ơ ȆǠǸŪơ Ȇ ǟȂdzơ ǭǁƾȇ śººƷ ǖºº Ǭǧ ǪºǬƸƬȇ ǥȂºLJ ƨºǬǘǼŭƢƥ ƧƾºƸƬŭơ ƩƢȇȏȂdzơ Ʃ ƢºLJƢȈLJ ȄǴǟ ƪƦƫǂƫ Ŗ dzơ ƧŚưǰdzơ ƩƢȈƦǴLjdzƢƥ ǥǂƬǠȇȁ ƨǬǘǼŭơ Ŀ *H arvard M edical Schoo l - USA / william_slaughter@hms.harvard .edu

61 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


The Impact of the Siege on the Palestinian girls Listening to the Girls of Qurtoba School Dr. Sa ida Affouneh *

Many reports have highlighted the vio lations of human right to life, health, and education during times o f conflict. In the case of Palestine, where t he conflic t is continuing and taking differen t shapes, children h ave suffered from t he impact of the conflict on their lives and de velopmen t. Many reportssho w that girls and childre n are mo stly affected by w ar and crisis as civilians, this article examin es the case of Palesti nian girls and the impact of the con flict on th eir lives. T he article consists of four session s. The first section provides some contextual information on the political sit uation in P alestine. The impa ct of the conflict from the eruption of the second Intifa da will be discussed in the second section, w hile listening to the experience of Q urtoba school girls will b e presente d in the th ird section . The data was collected through interview ing the girls and teachers of Q urtoba School. The final section reflects on the develop mental n eeds of the scho ol girls and possible ways forward. * Saida A ffouneh, PhD, Educational Consul tant, Birzeit Universit y, Palestine E-mai l: saffou neh@b irzeit.e du, s_j aser@h otmail. com

ƨƦǗǂǫ ƨLJǁƾǷ ƩƢƦdzƢǗ Ņƛ ǝƢǸƬLJȏơ ƨǻȂǨǟ ƧƾƟƢLJ ƽ ǩȂººǬƷ ƩƢǯƢȀƬǻơ ȆǴǟ ƔȂǔdzơ ǂȇǁƢºǬƬdzơ ǺǷ ƾȇƾǠdzơ ƪǘǴºLJ Ŀ ǝơǂǐdzơ ƩƢǫȁƗ Ŀ ǶȈǴǠƬdzơȁ ƨƸǐdzơȁ ƧƢȈūơ ĿǪūƢƥ ƨǬǴǠƬŭơ ǹƢLjǻȍơ NJȈǠȇ Ƨƾȇƾǟ DZƢǰNjƘƥȁ ƆơǂǸƬLj Ƿ ǝơǂǐdzơ DZơǃȏ ƮȈƷ ř ȈǘLjǴǨ dzơ ǞǫơȂdzơ ǪȈǠȇȁ Ƕ ēƢȈººƷ ǁƾ ǰȇ ȅǀdzơ ǪǻƢŬơ ǁƢǐūơ ƤººƦLjƥ Ƨǂ ȇǂǷ ƧƢǻƢǠǷ DZ ƢǨǗȋơ Ŀ DZƢǨǗ ȋơȁ ƩƢȈƬǨ dzơ ǹƗ Ņƛ ǂȇǁƢºǬƫ ƧƾǟƩ ǁƢºNjƗ ƾºǫȁ ƨǼǷƕ ƨƠȈƥ Ŀ ǶǿȂŶ ǥȂºLJ śǻƾǷ ǶĔ Ȃǯ DZƢūơ ƨǠȈºƦǘƥ ƩƢº ƦǰǼdzơȁ ƣȁǂūƢºƥ ǹȁǂƯƘƬȇ ƤdzƢǤdzơ ȆǴǟ ǝơǂǐdzơ ǂƯƗȁ Ʃ ƢȈǼȈǘººLj ǴǨdzơ ƩƢȈƬǨdzơ ƨdzƢººƷ DZ ƢºǬŭơ ơǀǿ Ȇ ǐºǬƬȇ Ņȁȋơ ƨ ººLjǴŪơƢǻƽȁDŽƫ ƩƢººLjǴ Ƴ ƨǠººƥǁƗ DZ ƢººǬŭơ ơǀǿ DzǸƬºnjȇ Ƕ ēƢȈºƷ ƨȈǻƢưdzơ ƨºLjǴŪơƢǷƗ śǘºLjǴǧ Ŀ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǞǓȂdzƢƥ ǪǴǠƬƫ Ʃ ƢǷȂǴǠŠ ƨºnjǫƢǼǷ ǶƬȈºLJȁ ƨȈǻƢưdzơƨǓ ƢǨƬǻȏơǝȏƾǻơ Ŀ ǝơǂǐ dzơ ŚƯƘƫǺǟ ƭƾƸƬƫ Ļ ƮȈºƷ ƨưdzƢưdzơƨºLjǴŪơ Ŀ ƨº ƦǗǂǫ ƨLJǁƾ Ƿ ƩƢƦdzƢǗ ƣǁƢš Ņƛ ǝ ƢǸƬLJȏơ ƨººLJǁƾ Ƿ Ŀ ƩƢǸǴ ǠǷȁ ƩƢºƦdzƢǗ ǞǷ ƪȇǂƳ Ɨ ƩơƔƢºǬdz DZȐƻ ƩƢǻƢȈºƦdzơ ǞŦ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƩƢººƦǴǘƬǷ DZȁƢǼƬƫǥȂºLJ ƨȈǷƢƬŬơ ƨºLjǴŪơ Ƣ ǷƗ ƩƢǼºƦǴdz ƨºƦǗǂǫ ƢǷƾǫ ȆǔǸǴdz ƨƷƢƬŭơDzƦLJȁ ƨLJǁƾŭơ ƩƢȈƬǧ ȃƾdz ǁȂǘƬdzơȁ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

62


Issues and Challenges in Studying the Mental Health Consequencesof Children's Exposure to Political Violence: The Case of Palestinian Children

ƨƦƫǂƬŭơ ǁƢƯȉơ ƨLJơǁƽ Ŀ ƩƢȇƾŢ ȁ ƢȇƢǔǫ ȆLJƢȈLjdzơ ǦǼǠǴdz DZƢǨǗȋơ ǑǂǠƫ ȄǴǟ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ƨdzƢƷ ŜŹ ƱƢūơ ƾǸŰ ƽ

Dr. M uhamm ad M. Haj-Yahia *

In recent years, e xtensive research h as been conducted on the mental health co nsequence s of child ren's exposure to p olitical violence in war z ones, including Palestinian society. Although these studies hav e elicited abundant data on the topic, th ere are still som e concep tual, methodological, and ethical issu es that pose s ignificant challeng es for future re search. I n this presentation, I wi ll review issues related to rese arch on th e topic among Palestinian children, and will present cha llengesfor future researc h on the p sycholog ical effects of Palestinian children's exposu re to political violence. Withregard to conceptual is sues and challenges, I will discuss the following topics and their relevance for future researc h: the responses to and patterns of coping with political violence in Palestinian children's famil ies; well-being and quality of life in the Palestinian family; the s tructure, processes, and dynamics of the Palestinian family; and parenting patterns in the Palestinian family, and the impact of those patterns on c hildren's mental health. In addition , I will discuss the importance of investigating the po tential f or interg eneration al transm ission o f the consequences of political violence (i.e., from grandpar ents to parents to childr en). Furthermore, I will disc uss the ne ed for researc h on protective an d resilien cy factors and buffering variables (i.e., pe rsonal, in terpersonal, familial , organiza tional, and cultural facto rs) that ca n mitigate the negative mental health consequences of children's exposure to political violence. With regard to the methodologicaldom ain, I wil l highligh t issues and cha llenges rel ated tosam pling and sample size, measu rement and ope rationaliz ation of p olitical violence, the use of Western measures for mental health c onstructs, and research designs. Finally, with rega rd to the e thical dom ain, I wil l deal with issues and ch allenges related to anonym ity and confiden tiality, informed consent , harm caused to children when they participate in rese arch on th e topic, a nd services that can be offered to Palestinian childr en and the ir families .

ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƸǐdzơ ǁƢƯƕ ȄǴǟ Dz ǷƢºNj ƮŞ ƔơǂƳƛ ĻƧŚƻ ȋơ ƩơȂǼºLjdzơ DZȐƻ ƢŠ ƣǂū ơ ǪǗƢǼǷ Ŀ ȆººººLJƢȈLj dzơ ǦǼǠǴdz ǹȂǓǂǠƬȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ DZƢǨǗ ȋơ ȄǴǟ ƩǂȀǛƗ ƾºǫ ƩƢLJơǁƾdzơ ǽǀǿǹƗ ǺǷ Ƕǣǂdzơ Ȅ Ǵǟȁ řȈǘ LjǴǨdzơǞǸƬĐơ ƢȀȈǧ ƢȇƢǔºººǬdzơ ǒǠºº ºƥ ƪdzơǃ ȏ ǾǻƗ ȏƛ ƽƾǐdzơ ơǀǿ Ŀ Ƨǂǧơȁ ƩƢǻƢȈººº ƥ ǹƢȈǠǴdz  DzƦǬƬLjŭơ Ŀ ƭȂƸƦǴdz ƩƢȇƾŢ Śưƫ Ŗdzơ ƨȈǫȐƻȋơȁ ƨȈƴȀǼŭơȁ ƨȇ ǁȂǐƬdzơ ǝȂǓȂŭơ ơǀǿ Ǻǟ Ʈ ºƸƦdzƢƥƨºǬǴǠƬǷ ƢȇƢǔ ºǫ Ǒ ǂǠdzơ ơǀǿ Ŀ Ǒǂ ǠƬLJƘLJ Ŗdzơ ƩƢȇƾºƸƬdzơ Ǯdzǀǯ ǑǂǠƬºLJƗ ǥȂºLJ ȁ  śȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ śƥ ǑǂǠƫ Ȅ Ǵǟ ƨºƦƫǂƬŭ ơ ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ǁƢƯȉơ DZȂƷ DzƦǬƬLjŭơ Ŀ ƭȂƸƦdzơ ǾƳơȂƬLJ ȆLJƢȈLjdzơ Ǧ ǼǠǴdz śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ DZƢǨǗȋơ ȁ ƨȈdzƢƬdzơ ǞȈǓơȂŭơ NJǫƢǻƘLJƩƢȇƾƸƬdzơȁƨȇǁȂǐƬdzơƢȇƢǔ ǬdzƢƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ƢǸȈǧȁ ǕƢŶƗ ȁ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǦǼǠǴdzƩƢºƥƢƴƬLJȏơ  Ȇǿȁ DzƦǬƬLj ŭơ ƭȂƸƦƥ ƢȀƬǫȐǟ ƨȈǿƢǧǁ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴ Ǩdzơ ǂLJȋơ Ǻ Ƿ ƧǂLJƗ Ŀ ȆLJƢȈLjdzơ ǦǼǠdzơǞǷ DzǷƢǠƬdzơ ƧǂºLJȋơ Ŀ ƨǷȂǷȋơȁ ƧȂƥȋơǕƢ ŶƗ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƧǂLJȋơ Ŀ ƧƢȈū ơ ƨȈǟȂǻȁ ƨǧƢǓƛ DzǨǘǴdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơƨƸ ǐdzơ ȄǴǟ ǕƢŶȋơ ǮǴƫ ǂƯƗ ȁ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǁƢƯƕ DZƢºº ǬƬǻơ ƨȈdzƢǸƬººƷơ Ŀ ȅǂºƸƬdzơ ǪȈǬƸƬdzơ ƨȈŷ Ɨ NJºǫƢǻƘLJ Ǯdzƿ ńƛ Ǯdzǀǯ ƔƢǼººƥȋơńƛ Ľ ǺǷȁ ƔƢººƥ ȉơ ńƛ ƽơƾƳ ȋơ ǺǷ ȅƗ ȆººLJƢȈLjdzơ ǦǼǠdzơ

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*Pau l B aerwald Scho ol of Social Wo rk and Soci al Welfare The H ebrew Uni versit y of J erusalem / msh ajyah @mscc.huji.ac.il

63S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


What are the Possible Reasons for Different Re-actions to Chronic Trauma? A Qualitative Study Dr. M ohamed Altawil, & Dr.Pieter Nel*

This re search aim ed to exp lore, in de pth, some of the moderating facto rs relating to Palestinian children in th e Gaza Strip w ho have b een exposed to chronic traumatic experiences, particularly the children wh o are doing well or show low levels of PTSD. It formed part of a la rger study (Altawil , 2008) ab out the effects of chronic traumatic experien ces on Palestinian c hildren in the Gaza Strip. The sample c onsisted of six c hildren interviewed by u sing a se mi-structu red interv iew. They were aged be tween 13-18 years. T hose child ren had all been exposed to at least 15 traum atic events which fo r some of them sho uld be severe, showed lo w level symptoms of PTSD, an d they should be living in clashing areas in the Gaza Strip. The measuremen ts used were a sem i-structured interview. The participants wer e intervie wed in Arabic an d the interview schedule was also translated into English. The res ults revealed that t he modera ting factors and levels of influen ce which protected children from developing PT SD are positive personality traits, ideological commitm ent, a netw ork of psycho social su pport, e ntertainm ent and adaptati on or acclimatization. The study conclu ded that a lthough some child ren in Gaz a who have be en exposed to traum atic experiences se ems to be doing reasonably well at present, there is a significant risk that th ey will continue to be exposed to further traumatic experiences. If these and other less fortunate children in Ga za do not g et adequa te help (both p reventativ e and reactive). We m ight face the prospe ct of a lost ge neration of Palestinian child ren. Key words: Chronic trauma, childhood PTSD, modera ting factors, Pale stinian children.

DzǠǨdzƥ Ć˝Č Ć˝Ç ÇĽČ?ĆŹĆťČ? ƨǴǸƏƄƥ ƣƢƌLJȋƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨ČˆÇŻ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ Ć˝ Â&#x;ƨǟǡDŽŭƥ ƊƢǡƞÇ?Ç´Çł ǑǂǠƏdzƥ Ć”ĆĄÇƒĆ› Ç˛ČˆÇť Ç‚ĆŹČˆĆĽ Ć˝ Č Ç˛Č‡Č‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ƞǸŰ Ć˝ Śº ĆŚÇŻ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆĽ ĆŠĆžÇ&#x;ƢLJ Ŗdzƥ ƨȇƢǸōƥ DzǡƥȂÇ&#x; ÇşÇ&#x; ǪǸǠƼ ÇŚÇŒÇ°ÇłĆĄ Ĺ„Ć› Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ƪǧƞǿ Ć¨Čˆ Ç&#x;Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹĆłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť ĆŠĆ˘ÂşĆĽĆĄÇ‚Ç˜Ç“Ć˘ĆĽ ǜȀƏºƼƢÇ?Ć› Ǻǡ Ç˛ČˆÇ´ÂşÇŹĆŹÇłĆĄ Č Ć— ǹƢǨǗȋƥƨȇƢŧ Äż dž Ũ ÇşÇ&#x; ƞȇDŽȇ Ƣǡ Ĺ„Ć› Ç‘Ç‚Ç ĆŤ ƞǍ ƨLJ ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ ǽǀǿ Äż DzǨǗ Dzǯ ǚƗ ǜǣǂdzƥ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; Ć¨ČˆĆ¸Ç?Č Â?Dz Č‡Č‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Çž ÂşÂşÇ‡Č Ć— Ć¨ÂşÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ Ć˝ ǺǡƔDŽƳ Č‚Çż ĆŽ ºƸƌdzƥƥǀǿ ÇšĆ˜Âş ƼƆƢ ǸǴÇ&#x; Â? ƨǡƽƢÇ? Ƨ Ĺ?Ćť Ć§Ç‚ÂşÇŒÇ&#x; ǹƢººǨǗȋƥ ȄººǴÇ&#x; ƨººǟǡDŽŭƥ ƨººǡƽƢÇ? dzƥ ĆŠĆĄĹ?ººƟǴdz Ç‘ ǂººǠƏdzƥ Ç Ć˘ÂşÂşĆŻĆ• ĆŞÂşÇłČ Ć˘ÇźĆŤ    ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ ÇŤÄż Ĺ›Čˆ ÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ĆŞ Ĺ¤ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇ ƨǟLJ  Ĺ› ĆĽÇśÇżÇ Ć˘Ç¸Ç&#x;Ć— ĆľČ ĆĄÇ‚ĆŹĆŤ ǹƢǨǗƗ  Ǻǡ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; ƪǝȂǰƍ ÇśÇżÇ Ć˘ČˆĆŹĆťĆĄ Äť ĆžÇŤČ Â?ƧǂǤÇ?Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć¨Ç´Ç°ČˆČ€Ĺ­ĆĄ ƨǴƼƢǏŭƥ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇźÇŹĆŤ ǾƥƞƟƏLJƥ ÇąČ?Ćť Ǻǡ ǜȀƏǴƼƢǏǡ Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ç•Č Ç‚ÇŒÇłĆĄ ÇžČˆÇ§ ƪǏǏŢ ǺȇǀdzƥĹ„Č Č‹ĆĄ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ÇźČˆÇ&#x; ƽƥǂǧƗ Ǻǡ ƊƢǡƞÇ? Ć§Ç‚ÇŒÇ&#x; ÇşÇ&#x; ƞȇDŽƍ Ć¨ČˆÇ‡Ć˘ÇŤ ƨǡƽƢÇ? ĆŠĆĄĹ?ĹŹ ĆĄČ‚Ç“Ç‚Ç ĆŤ ƞǍ ƥȂǝȂǰȇ Çš Ć— Ć— Ć¨Ç¨ČˆÇ¨Ćť Ç‘ĆĄÇ‚Ç&#x;Ć˜ÂşĆĽ ǜȀƏºƼƢÇ? Ć›Č Ć— Ć§ĆžČˆĆł Ć¨ČˆÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť ƨºƸÇ?ĆĽ ǚȂǠƏǸƏȇ ǺŲ ƥȂǝȂǰȇ ǚƗ ĆŁ ƨǴ ºƼƢǏŭƥ Ç€ČˆÇ¨ÇźĆŤ Äť ĆžÂşÇŤČ Â?ƨǴǰ ČˆČ€Çˇ ǞƌNj ƨǴƼƢǏǡ ƪǟǸǔƍ Ć¨ÇˇĆžĆźĆŹÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Ç… Ć˘ČˆÇŹÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆĄČ Ć˝Ć— Ç­ Ƣǟǿ ÇšĆ˜ÂşĆĽ Ć¨ÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇł ƥƲĆ&#x;ƢƏǝ ĆŞÂşĆ¸Ç“Č Ć— Ć¨Č‡Ç„ČˆÇ´ĹłČ?ĆĄ Ĺ„Ć› ƢȀƏŌǂƍ Äť ƢǸǯ Ć¨ČˆĆĽÇ‚Ç ÇłĆĄ ƨǤǴdzƢƼ ƨº ºººƼƢÇ?Č?ƥǺǡ Ĺ›ÇˇČ ĆžÇ?Ĺ­ĆĄ ǹƢǨǗȋƥƔČ?ƚǿ ƨȇƢŧ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŠĆžÇ&#x;ƢººººLJ ƨ ǡƢǿ DzǡƥȂÇ&#x; ȆǴȇ ƢǸǯ Č†ÇżČ Ç‘ĆĄÇ‚Ç&#x;Č‹ĆĄ ÇŽÇ´ ĆŤÇ Č‚Ç˜ĆŤ Č Ć— ƨǡƞÇ? dzƥƞǠƼ Ƣǡ ĆŠĆ˘ĆĽĆĄÇ‚Ç˜Ç“ĆĄ Ç‘ĆĄÇ‚ Ç&#x;Ć˜ĆĽ Ǟǡ ÇŚČˆÇ°ĆŹÇłĆĄČ„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘Ç&#x; Ć§Ç ĆžÂş ÇŤČ Ć¨ČˆÂşĆĽĆ˘Ĺ¸Ć› Ć¨ČˆÇ? ƟºNj ĆŠĆ˘Ç¸ÇˆĆĽ ǹƢǨǗ Č‹ĆĄ Ć”Č?ƚǿ ǞƏŤ  ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Äż Ć¨Č‡Č Ć˘Ç‡Ć˜Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć§Ć˘ČˆĹŤĆĄ ÇĽČ Ç‚Ç› ĆžČ‡ĆžÇŒÇłĆĄ ǜȀƌơ ÇąČ?Ćť Ǻǡ ǹƢǨǗȋƥ Ć”Č? ƚŎ ȅȂǏdzƥ ȆƳȂdzȂȇƞȇČ?ĆĄ ǾƥDŽƏdzČ?ĆĄČ Ć”Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹÇťČ?ĆĄ  Äż ÇśČ€ÂşÇŹĆˇČ ÇśČ€ĆŹČˆÇ”ÂşÇŤ ƨdzƥƞǠºƼ ǚƢŝ Č?ĆĄČ Â?ǞǴƳƗǺǡ Ć¨ČˆÂşĆ¸Ç”ĆŹÇ´Çł ƽƥƞǠƏLJČ?ĆĄČ ÇşÇ— Č‚Ç´Çł ƨȇǂōƥ Ć?ƽƢººƌǡ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşĆŚĆ°ÇłĆĄČ Â?Ǟdz Ç?Ȃǔŏƥ Ǿƞ Ç&#x;Č Ç˛ĆŹĆ„ĆĄ Ć¨ÇˇČ Ć˘ÂşÂşÇŹÇˇÄż ǜȀ ÂşÇŹĆˇČ Ć§Ć˘ČˆĹŤĆĄ DzƏƄƥ ƨ ȀƳƥȂǡ Äż Ĺ?Ç?dzƥ Ć¨ČˆĹˇĆ˜ĆĽ ȅȂǏdzƥ Çś ĔƢŝƛ ÇŽ ÇłÇ€ÇŻČ Â?Ć¨ČˆÇ—ĆĄÇ‚ÇŹĹťĆžÇłĆĄČ Č†ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çź dzƥ ÇśÇ&#x;ƞdz ƥǂǧȂƍ ǚƛ Ç˛Ç¨Ç˜Ç´Çł ȆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄČ Č†ÂşÂş ÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ÇśÇ&#x;ƞdzƥ ƨǰºººƌNj  ĆŁ Ç Ć˘ÂşÇŤČ‹ĆĄ Č Ĺ›Ç¸Ç´Ç Ĺ­ĆĄČ Ć”Ć˘ÂşÇŤĆžÇ?Č‹ĆĄČ ĆžĆ´ÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄČ Ć§Ç‚ÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ Çą Č?Ćť Ǻǡ Ç˛Ç¨Ç˜Ç´Çł ȆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄČ Č†ÇˇČ‚Ç°ĹŤĆĄČ ĹˆĆžĹ­ ƥǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÇˆÇ‡ĆšÇˇČ Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç&#x; Â?Ć¨ČˆÇ¸ČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆČ€ČˆÇ§Ç‚ĆŹÇłĆĄ ƣƢǠdzȋƥ Dzưǡ Â?Ć¨ČˆÇ´ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆĆŹÇłĆĄČ ÇžČˆÇ§Ç‚ĆŹÇłĆĄ DzĆ&#x;Ć˘ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇ‡Č  Ć¨ÇŻÇ Ć˘ÂşÇŒÇ¸Ç´ÇłÇ?Č‚Ç˜ĆŹÇłĆĄČ„Ç´Ç&#x; Ǟƌ Č‡Ç ĆžĆŤ Â?ĹˆĆžĹ­ĆĄ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄĆŠĆ˘ÇˆÇ‡ĆšĹ­ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Č‡ÇƒÂ? ĆŠČ?ĆˇÇ Â?Ć¨ČˆĆˇÇ‚ÇˆÇˇ ĆŠ Ć˘ČˆÇłĆ˘Ç Ç§ ƢȀǴǴƟƏƍ ƨººơȂƏǨǡ ÇľĆ˘Č‡Ć—Č ĆŠĆĄĆ”Ć˘ÂşÂşÇŹÇł Â? Ć§ĆžČˆÇ¨Ĺ­ĆĄ ƨ ČˆÇ Ç¸ĆŹÄ?ĆĄ ǹƢǸÇ&#x;Č‹ĆĄ ǒǠººƼ Äż ĆŞ Ç?Č Ć— ƞºǍ Č  Ĺ‚Ć› Ć¨ČˆÇ“Ć˘Č‡Ç‚ dzƥ Ć¨Ç˜ÂşÇŒÇťČ‹ĆĄ Â?Ć¨ČˆÇ¨ČˆÇ?dzƥ ĆŠĆ˘Ç¸ČˆĆźĹ­ĆĄ Â?Ć¨ČˆÇ¨ČˆÇŹĆ°ĆŤČ Ć¨ČˆČ€ČˆÇ§Ç‚ĆŤ ǹƢǨǗ ȋƢǧ Â?Ĺ›Ç˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç§ Äż Ć¨ÇłČ‚Ç¨Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ƨȇƢŧ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; DzǸǠdzƥƨÇ&#x;Ç‚ÂşÇ‡Č Ć¨ČˆĹˇ Ć˜ÂşĆĽ Ć¨Ç‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄ Ĺƒ ƢǠdzƥ ǹƢǨǗƗ ȆºǍƢ ƼDzưǡ ÇśČ€ĆŹÇłČ‚Ç¨Ç˜ÂşĆĽ ǞƏǸƏdz ƥǺǡ ĆĄČ‚ÇłĆĄÇƒĆ˘ÇˇČ ĆĄČ‚ÇˇÇ‚ ºơ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇź ČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ÇšĆĄČ Č‹ĆĄ ƊƥȂǧ DzºƌǍ Ç?Ç Ć˘ÂşÇˆÇť Ĺƒ ĆĄĆżĆœÇ§ Â?ƞȇƞºNj Ç‚Ç˜Ćť Äż ǜȀƏdzȂǨǗ ƪºƸǓƗ ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇ Ç‚ ĹŤĆĄ ƜººººƌÇ?Čˆ Ç‡Č ǹƢǨǗȋƥ Ǻǡ Ç˛ČˆĹŞĆĄ ĆĄÇ€ ÇżÇ‚ÂşÂşÂşÂşÇˆĆźÇźÇ‡ Ć˘ÇźÇťĆœÇ§ Â?Ć˘Č‡Č‚ÇźÇ ÇˇČ Ć˘Č‡Ć˝Ć˘Çˇ ǜȀƏȇƢǸŞ ƆƥƞƳ ƨƌǠÇ? ƞǠƼ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ§ ǜēƞÇ&#x;Ć˘Çˆ ÇˇČ ÇśČ€ĆłČ?Ç&#x;  ǹƢǨǗȋƥ ĿƨǡƞÇ?dzƥ ƞǠº ƼƢǡ ĆŁÇ‚ÇŻ ĆŁĆĄÇ‚Ç˜Ç“ĆĄ  ƨǟǡ Ç„Ĺ­ĆĄ ƨƼƢÇ?Č?ĆĄ ƎƸ ƌdzƥ ĆśČˆĆŤĆ˘Ç¨Çˇ ÇšČ‚ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ǹƢǨǗȋƥ ƨĆ&#x;ƞȀ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ç‚Ç?Ƣǟ Ǡdzƥ

E-mail: m .altaw il@h erts.ac.uk

i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

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'Walls within walls: intersections between state, political and domestic violence' Erica Bur man, Khatidja C hantler and Nadia Sid diqui*

This paper considers how the divide between public and pr ivate is rearticula ted withi n specific socio-p olitical circumstances to present particula r challenges to service providers workin g around interpersonal violence and mental health s upport. We review findings ar ising from several research projects (Chantler et al, 2 000; Bats leer, et al, 2002; Burman, 2004, S iddiqui, et al, 2008) addressing domestic violence service provision for w omen from cultural-religiou s and national minority backgrounds in t he UK. Significantly, the focus on domestic violence emerged through initial work on mental health support provisio n, since t his turned out to be a key causal precipitant. Of pa rticular relevance to this conference is how, in the UK context, state violence (in the form of immigration control) and instit utional ex clusionof non-citizens from access to state-fu nded support services was found to i nteract w ith the strategies used by perpetra tors to prevent wom en from leaving violent relationsh ips. Intere stingly, interviews w ith senior service managers and pol icymakers almost uniformly in dicated th at they were unaware of how these material fac tors constituted additional barriers for w omen from such backgrou nds in accessing services. The pap er considers how the divide b etween public a nd privat e is reartic ulated within specif ic socio-p olitical circumstances to present particula r challenges to service providers workin g around interpersonal violence and mental health s upport.

Ç ĆĄČ‚Ç‡Č‹ĆĄ DzƝ ĆĄĆ˝ Ç ĆĄČ‚Ç‡Ć— ȆǴƝƥƞdzƥ Č Č†Ç‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ Č Ć¨ÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ƊƢ ǠǗƢǏƍ Č†ÇŹČ‡ÄˆĆž Ç? ƨȇƽƢǝ Č Ç‚Ç´ĆŹÇťĆ˘ÇŒĆŤ ƨŸƞƝ Č ÇšĆ˘ÇˇÇ Č‚ĆĽ Ƣǰȇǂȇƛ Ç?Ć˘ĹŹĆĄČ ÇľĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄ Ĺ›Ç&#x;Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄĹ›ÂşÂşĆĽ Ƣǡ ƧȂƴǨdzƥ ǚƗ ÇŚČˆÇŻ Ć¨ÂşÇ‡ĆĄÇ ĆžÇłĆĄÇ˝Ç€Çż ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹĆŤ ƊƢȇƞŢ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÂşÂşÇŒĆŹÇł ƧƽƞŰ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇ‡Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹĆłĆĄ ÇĽČ Ç‚Ç› Äż UHDUWLFXODWHGȆǿ Č Ć˝ĆĄÇ‚Ç§Č‹ĆĄ śºººƼ njǟǠdzƥ ǹƢů Äż śǡƢǠdzƥ ƊƢǡƞŏƥ ȆǡƞºººǏŭ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƢǟưƏººLJƥ ÇžČ‡Ç Ć˘ÂşÂşÇŒ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ǻǡ ƞȇƞǠdzƥ ƲĆ&#x;ƢƏǝ Ç‘ Ç‚Ç ĆŹÂşÂşÇˆÇť ǺŴ Ƣǟǿ Č Ć¨Čˆ ÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨººƸÇ?dzƥ Č  ÇšČ Ç‚ĆťĆ• Č ĹšÇ´ČˆĆŹÂşÇ‡Ć˘ĆĽ Č  ÇšČ Ç‚ĆťĆ• Č Ç‚Ç´ĆŹÇťĆ˘ÂşÇŒĆŤ Ç?Č Ç‚ÂşÇŒÇ¸ÇŻ Ć¨ČˆĆ°Ć¸ĆŚÇłĆĄ ÇžČ‡Ç Ć˘ÂşÂşÇŒ Ĺ­ĆĄ ÇŽÇ´ĆŤ Dzǯ   ÇšČ Ç‚ ĆťĆ•Č ĹœÂşÂşÇŹČ‡ÄˆĆž Ç?Č  ǚƢǡƽȂºƼ Ç? Č Ç‚ÂşÇŒÇˇ Äż ƧƗǂŭƥ ƞǓ Ç…Ç Ć˘Ç¸ Ĺ­ĆĄ ȅǂººººLJ Č‹ĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ Ǟǟŭ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;Ƣºººº ǍȂdzƥ ƊƢǡƞŏƥ ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹĆŤ Č Ć¨ČˆÇˇČ‚ÂşÇŤ Č Ć¨ČˆÇźČ‡Ć˝ Ć¨ČˆÇ§Ć˘ÂşÇŹĆŻ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ´ÂşÇŤĆ— Ć˘ÇżÇ Ć˘ÂşĆŚĆŹÇ&#x;ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ¨Ç´Ćť Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƧƞƸƏŭƥ ƨǰǴǸŭƥ Äż Ĺ…Č Č‹ĆĄ DzǸǠdzƥ ÇąČ? Ćť ǙȂºƸǴǡ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆĽ Č… ǂLJȋƥ ÇŽĆť ȋƢƼ Č ÇŚÇźÇ ÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´ĹĄ ƆƢȇǂǿȂƳ ƆƢºƌLJǂǡ ĆĄČ Ćž Ç¤ČˆÇł ǹȂŢŚƝ Č‹ĆĄ ǚȋ Ć†ĆĄÇ‚ÇœÇť Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥ Çś Ç&#x;Ć˝ ǹƢů ǂŤƚŭƢºƼ Ć†Ć˘ÇŹČˆĆŻČ Ć†Ć˘Ç—Ć˘ĆŚĆŤÇ ĆĄ ǖƌƍǂȇ Č…Ç€ dzƥ ĹˆĆ˘Ç˜Č‡Ĺ?dzƥ ÇšĆ˜ÇŒÇłĆĄÄż ǂǡȋƥ Č ƽȂÇ?Ǐǡ Śǣ Śǣ ĆŠĆ˘Çˆ LJƚŭƥ ǚƢǡ Ç‚ĆˇČ Â?ƧǂƴŎ ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƨƼƢǍǂ dzƥ Äż ĆžÇˆĆ´ ĆŹĹ­ĆĄ Ć¨ÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ÇŚ ÇźÇ&#x; Č‚Çż Ǟǡ Ȅººº ºººººººNjƢǸ Əȇ ȅǀdzƥǂǡ Č‹ĆĄ ȅƽƢŭƥǜÇ&#x;ƞdzƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;ǹȂÇ?ĹŤĆĄ Ǻǡ śǟǗƥȂŭƥ Ǻǡ ĆąČ Ç‚ ĹŹĆĄ Ǻǡ Ć”Ć˘ÂşÇˆ ǟdzƥ Ǟǟŭ ǚȂǡ Ç‚Ä?ĆĄ Ć˘Č€ÇˇĆžĆźĆŹÇˆČ‡ ǚƢǯ Ĺ– dzƥ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆĆ´ČˆĆŤĆĄÇ‚ĆŹÇ‡Č?ĆĄ Ǟǡ ƢǿƙƥǂƳƛ Äť Ŗdzƥ ĆŠČ?ººƼƢǏŭƥ ǚƗ ÇŚČ‡Ç‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ÇşÇˇČ Ć¨Ç¨ČˆÇźÇ ÇłĆĄ ƊƢºǍČ?Ǡdzƥ Ć¨ÇˇĆĄČ Ć˝ Śºƌǯ Dz Ç°ÇŒĆĽ ƊǂȀǛ Ć— ČƒČ‚ĆŹÇˆĹ­ĆĄ Č†Ç ČˆÇ§Ç ĆŠĆ˘Ç‡Ć˘ČˆÇ‡ ȆŊ ĆĄÇ Č ĆŠĆ˘ÇˇĆžĆť ȅǂȇƞǡ DzǡƥȂǠdz ĆĄ ǽǀǿ ǚƗ ÇŚ ČˆÇŻ Ć¨Č‡ĆĄÇ Ć˝Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ĆĄČ‚ÂşÇˆČˆÇł Ć”Č?ƚǿ ǚƗƧƞºơȂǡ ǞºƌNj Ć§Ç Č‚Ç?ĆĽČ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ¨Ç´ĹŹĆĄ ÇŽÇ´ĆŹÇł ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ¸ĆŹÇźĹ­ĆĄ Ć”Ć˘ÂşÇˆÇźÇ´Çł ÇžÇźĹ¤Ć¨ČˆÇ§Ć˘Ç“Ć› Ç˛ČˆÂşÇŤĆĄÇ‚Ç&#x; ĆŞÇ´Ç°Ç‹ ƨ ȇǂǿȂŪƥ śºººººº ĆĽ ƧȂƴǨdzƥ ǚƗ ČƒÇ‚Č‡ ƎºººººƸƌdzƥ ƥǀǿ ǚƛ ƊƢǡƞŏƥ ÇŽ Ç´ĆŤ Ĺ„Ć› ǹȂÇ? Ȃdzƥ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇ‡Č Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳƥ ÇĽČ Ç‚Ç› ÇŞÇ§Č ĆśÇ“ĆĄČ Ç˛ Ç°ÇŒĆĽ Ç?Ć˘ĹŹĆĄČ ÇľĆ˘Ç ÇłĆĄ Ĺ› Ç&#x;Ć˘Ç˜ÇŹÇłĆĄ śºƼ njǟǠdzƥ ǹƢůĿ śǴǡƢǠdzƥ ƊƢǡƞŏƥ ȆǡƞºǏŭ ƊƢȇ ƞŢ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆŤ ƢēƥǀºƼ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƨƸÇ?dzƥǜÇ&#x; Ć˝Č Ć˝ĆĄÇ‚Ç§Č‹ĆĄ E-m ail: e .burm an@m mu.ac.uk

65S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

66


Impact of the Gaza Siege on Development Jamal Nagi El Khod ari

The pap er addresses the Israeli policy of closure, restriction of movem ent and tr avel since its occupa tion of the Gaza strip, as a collective punishment. It th en addresses the Is raeli siege of the Gaza st rip after th e legislative electio ns in the beginning of 2006 resulting in the de terioratio n of the Pa lestinian e conomy and the sufferin g of the G aza popu lation in all aspects of life. It further describ es the esca lation of the siege since mid June 2007, turning the Gaza strip int o a big prison. The paper proceeds to d escribe the im pact of this siege on development s ectors in Gaza, beginning with the health sector in view of its cru cial impo rtance, since the human bring constitutes the bas is and core of development. It also addresses the impact of siege on trade, industry and agric ulture and focuses on the cons truction and real estate s ector which constitu te importa nt elements in the process of development. It provides a review of the rates of pover ty, and unemployment to indicate the destru ctive impact of the siege. Finally it demonstrates the impact of siege on e ducation and its consequent deterioration. The paper closes w ith a num ber of conclusions and recommend ations.

ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫ ǁƢǐƷ ǁƢƯƕ ȃǂǔŬơ ȄƳƢǻ DZƢŦ ǂººƥƢǠŭơ ǩȐǣƛ ƨºLJ ƢȈLjdz DzȈƟơǂ ºLJƛ ƱƢȀƬǻơ ƨºǫǁȂdzơǽǀ ǿ DZȁƢǼƬƫ śºƥȄǟƢŦ ƣƢºǬǠǯ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘºǬdz ƢŮȐƬºƷơ ǀǼǷ Dzº ǬǼƬdzơ ȁ ǂǨLjdzơ ǞǼǷȁ ƤººǬǟ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘººǬdz ȆǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ǁƢǐūơ Ǻǟ ƭƾºƸƬƫ Ľ ȃǂƻȋơȁ ƨǼȈǨdzơ ǮdzƿǾȈǧ ƤºººƦLjƫ ƢǷȁ  ǵ  ǵƢǟ ǞǴǘǷ ľ ƨȈǠȇǂººnjƬdzơ ƩƢººƥƢƼƬǻȏơ ȄƷƢǼǷ ǦǴƬűľ ǝƢǘǬdzơ ǹƢǰLjdz ƧƢǻƢǠǷȁ ƽƢǐƬǫȐdz ƣǂǓ ǺǷ ǁƢǐūơ DzȇȂŢȁ  ǵ  ǹơǂ ȇDŽƷ ȂȈǻȂȇ Ǧ ǐƬǼǷǺǷ ǁƢǐūơ ƾȇ ƾnjƫ DZȁƢǼƬƫ ĽƧƢȈūơ ŚƦǯ ǺƴLJńƛ ǝƢǘǬdzơ ȄǴǟ ǪǻƢŬơ ǁƢǐūơ Ǯdzƿ ǂƯƗǺǟ ƮȇƾºººƸǴdz Ǯdzƿ ƾǠººƥ ƨººLJơǁƾdzơ DzººǬƬǼƫ ǺǷ DZƢĐơ ơǀŮ Ƣŭ žƨºƸǐdzơǝƢǘǫ ƨLJơǁƾƥ ƗƾƦƫȁ ƧDŽǣ ľ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ Ʃ ƢǟƢǘǫ ǁƢǐūơ ǁƢƯƕ Džǁƾƫ Ľ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ Ƥ dzȁ DžƢººLJƗ Ȃǿ ǹƢºLjǻȍƢǧ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ȄǴǟ ǂƯƗ ƩȏȁƢºǬ ŭơȁ ƩơƔƢnjǻȍơ ǝƢǘǫ Ȅ Ǵǟ DŽǯǂƫȁ  ƨǟơǁDŽdzơȁ ƨǟƢǼǐdzơȁ ƧǁƢƴƬdzơ ȄǴǟ DzǸǠdzơ ƨººǫǁȁ DZȁƢǼƬƫ ƢǸǯ ƨȈǸ ǼƬdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ľ ƢǸȀǷ Ƣº Ʀǐǟ Dzǰºnjȇ ŕdzơ Ƣđ Ƥº ºƦLjƫ ŕdzơ ƧǂǷƾŭơ ǁƢƯȏơ ȄǴǟ DzȈdzƾ ƬǴdz ƨdzƢǘººƦdzơȁ ǂºǬǨdzơ ƩȏƾǠǷ ȄǴǟǁƢǐ ūơ ǁƢƯơƢǔȇơ ƨººººǫǁȂdzơ Džǁƾƫȁ ƧDŽ ǣ ǝƢǘººººǫ ƨȈǸǼƫ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯơDZȁƢǼƬƫȁ ƨƬȈǸǼƫ ǺǷ ƾūơ ľ ǶȀLJơǦȈǯ ƶǓȂƫȁ ǶȈǴǠƬdzơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ ǺǷ ƽƾǠººººƥ ƨººººLJơǁƾ dzơ ǶƬƬţȁ ƨ ȈǸǼƬdzơ ȄǴǟ Ǯdzƿ ǂƯơȁ ƨƠȈººººƦdzơ ƩƢȈǏȂƬdzơȁ E-mail: freegaz a.ps@ gmai l.com

67S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


ƨƴǘǴƦdzơ ǭȂǴLjdz ȏƢưǷ śǘLj Ǵǧ Ŀ ǦǼǠdzơ DzȈǴŢ ơŚdz ǾȇǃȂƻ ƢȇǁƢǷ ƽ ƩƢǘǴºººLjdzơ ƤǻƢƳ ǺǷ Ǿºººƥ Ƥ ǟȐƬdzơȁƧȂºººǬƥ ǾǷơƾƼ ƬººLJơ ǶƬȇ ƩƢȈdzȉơ ƾȇǂšȁ Ƕ ȀºººLjǨǻƗ Ǻ ǟ ǝƢǧƾdzơ Dz ƳƗ ǺǷ ƨǨȈǘǴdzơ ƩơǁƢº ºƦǠdzơ ǵơƾƼƬººLJƢƥ

ȆºLJǁƾ ŭơ Ǧ ǼǠdzơ ƨƴǘǴºƦdzơ ǶȀǨdzƨdzƢūơ ƱƿȂŶ ǵƾƼƬºLjȇ ƱƿȂǸǼdzơ Ǒǂǟ ŐƬǠȇ ƮȈºƷ śǘ ºLjǴǧȁ Dz ȈƟơǂºLJƛśºƥ ƩƢºǫȐǠdzơ ŚLjǨƬdz

ǶȀǴȈǸŢ ȁ ƢȇƢºƸǔdzơ ȄǴǟ ǵȂǴdzơ ƔƢºǬdzƛȁ ǶȀƬȈǻƢºLjǻơ ǺǷ śȈǼȈǘ ºLjǴǨdzơ

ƢȀȈǧƢŠ ƨȈǼǠŭơȁ ƨǴ ǟƢǨdzơ ƩƢȀŪ ơ ǞȈŦ ǁȁƽ ǶȀǧ ȄǴǟ ƾǟƢºººººLj Ƿ DzǷƢǟ

ƽǁơȂŭơ ȁ ǹȁƾƬǠŭơƢȀǴǰººNj Ŗdzơ ƨǰºƦnjdzơ ǹƜǧ Ǯdzǀǯ łƛ ǹơȁƾǠ dzơ ƲƟƢƬǻ

Ŗdzơ ƩƢ ȈƴȈƫơǂƬºººº LJȏơȁ śǠǧơƾŭơȁ śºººƦǫơǂŭơȁƢȇƢ ºººƸǔdzơȁ ǺȇƾƬǠŭơ

ǶȀǷơƾƼƬºLJơȁ ŅƢ Ǡdzơ ƿȂǨǼdzơ ȅȁƿ ƩƢǟȂǸ Đơ Ƕǟƽȁ ƽƢǐƬǫȏơȁ ƨ ǨǴƬƼŭơ

6DOPLYDOOL +XWWXQHQ ǁơȁƽȋơ ǽǀǿƤǠǴdz ƧƾººƷơȁ Dzǯ ƢǸȀǷƾ ƼƬººLjƫ

ǵơƾƼƬLJ ơ Ŀ ǶǿŚǣȁ śȈƥȁǁȁȋơ ȄǴǟ ŚƯƘƬdzơȁ ǵȐǟȍơ DzƟƢLJȁ ȄǴǟ ŚƯƘƬdzơ Ŀ

ǺǷ Dzǯ DzǸººººnjȇ ƆƢƳƿȂŶ ȆºººLJǁƾŭơ ǦǼǠdzơ ǂǧȂȇ/D JHUSHtz¡ 1997).

ƩƢºLjLJƚŭơȁ ƽơǂǧȋơ ǹƜǧśƦǫơǂǸ ǯ śȈǼȈǘ LjǴǨdzơǽƢš ƨȈƦǴLJ DZƢǠǧƗ ƽȁƽǁ ǹȂºǗǁȂƬǷ ơȁŐºƬǠȇ Ƕ ºĔƜǧ DzºǠǧ Ƨƽǁ ȅƗ ƿƢ ºţơ ǹȁƽǞºǓ Ȃdzơ ńƛǂǜ Ǽƫ Ŗdzơ

Ŗdzơ ǁơȁƽȋơ ǞȈŦȁ śǠǧơƾŭơȁ śƦǫơǂŭơȁ  ƨǟȂǸƴǸǯ ȅƾƬǠŭơ ƨȈƸǔdzơ DzȈƟơǂLJ ƛ śƥ ƩƢǫȐǠdzơ ȄǴǟ ƱƿȂǸǼdzơ ơǀǿ ǪȈƦǘƫ ǹƛ ƧǂǿƢǜdzơ ǽǀǿ ƢȀȇȂƬŢ

ǶƬȇ ǥȂº LJ ǮdzƿǹƜǧ śƳǂǨƬǷ ś ƦǫơǂŭơƔƢǬƥ ƨȈǴǸǠdz DzȈǴŢƔơƾƬǟȏ ơ ǶƟơǂŝ ǾǴȈǴŢ

Ŗdzơ ƨdzƢǠǨdzơ ƩơȂǘŬơȁ ƩƢȈƴ ȈƫơǂƬººLJȏơ ǶȀǧ ȄǴǟ ƾǟƢºLjȇśǘºLjǴǧȁ DZȁƗ ǹƜºǧ ǽǀºǿ ǂºǜǼdzơ ƨºȀƳȁ ǺºǷ  /HUD  ǥơǂºǗȏơ ǞȈŦ Ƣēǀţơ

ƨººȈǷȂǰ ūơ Śººǣ Ʃ ƢººǸǜǼŭơ Ŀ Ɔƨ ººǴưǸƬǷ śºǠǧơƾŭơ ǁȁƽ Ȃºǿǁơȁƽȋơ ǂºƻƕ

ǦǼǠdzơ Ƥǰƫǂȇ ƢǷƾǼǠǧ ǁơȁƽȋơ ǽǀǿ ǵȂȀǨǷ Ȇǿ ƢȀººƸ ȈǓȂƫ ƤŸ ƨȈǔºǫ

ƧƾǟƢºLjǷ DZȁƢŢ ȁ ƨȈǐƼnjdzơ ƝƽƢƦŭơȁ ƩƢǟ ƢǼǬdzơ Ǟǫơȁ Ǻ Ƿ Ȇǿ śǟȂǘƬŭơȁ

śººƥ ȃȂºǬdzơ ǝơǂǏ DžƢºLJƗ ȄǴǟ ƧǁǂǰƬǷ ƨºǬȇǂǘƥȁ Ɔơƾ Ǹǟ ƢȇƢºƸǔdzơ ƾǓ

ƨǠǷƢƳ Ŀ ƣȐǘdzơ ǂǜǻ ƨȀƳȁ Dz ȈǴŢ Ļ ƨdzƢū ơ ǽǀǿ Ƥƴ Njȁ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ

ƮȈũ ǝơǂǏ džȈdzȁ ƨǨȈǼǟ ƨºǫȐǟ ƾdzȂƫ ńƛ ȅƽƚȇ Ǯdzƿ ǹƜǧ śºƦǻƢŪơ

ǺǷ ƨǼȈǟ ǵơƾƼƬºLJ Ƣƥ ƪǴǸƬºNj ơ ƨǼȈǟ ǩȐƻ ǺǷ ǁȂǜǼŭ ơ ơǀǿ ǺǷ ƨȈǴȈºƦNjơ

śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơśƥ ǩǂǨdzơ ǹƗ ś Ʀƫ ƨdzƢƸǴdz Dz ȈǴƸƬdzơDZȐƻ ǺǷ    ƣǁƢNj

ȃƾǷ Ǻǟ ǶŮơƚºLJ Ļ ǹƢȈºƦƬLJȏơ Ŀ ƩƢǐ ǐƼƬdzơ ǞȈŦ ǺǷƤdzƢǗ  ǥơǂǗȋơ ǺǷ ǥǂǗ Dz ǯ ǾºººƦǠǴȇ ǹƗ ƤŸ ȅǀ dzơ ǁȁƾdzơȁǞǓ ȂdzƢºººƥ ǶȀƬǧǂǠǷ

ŃƢǠdzƢºƥ ƆƢ ǷƾǬƫǂưǯȋơ ƵȐLjdzơ Ǿȇƾdz ǶǿƾƷ Ɨ ž ƆơƾƳ DzƟƢǿ ǩǂǧ śȈǴȈƟơǂLJȏơȁ ǦǼǠdzơ ƣƢǰƫǁơ ĻƧǁƢƴūƢºƥ ǾLj Ǩǻ Ǻǟ Ǟǧơƾ ȇ ǹƗ ȃȂLJ Ǯ ǴŻ ȏ ǂƻȉơ ƤǻƢŪơȁ

Ǻǟ ƨƟȂǘ ű ƩƢǷȂǴǠǷ ǶȀȇƾdz ƨººƦǴǘdzơ Ƕ ǜǠǷ ǹƗ Ʋ ƟƢƬǼdzơ ƩǂȀ ǛƗƾºǫȁ

ƶǓơȂdzơ ǺǷ ȁ ǵƢǟ  ǺǷǂưǯƗ ǁơƾǷ ȄǴǟ śȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ǹƢǰºLj dzơ ƾǓ

ǹƗ ǶȀǸǜ ǠǷ ƾǬƬǟ ơ ƾǬǧ ȆǴȈƟ ơǂLJȏơ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ǝơǂǐdzơśƥ ƨǫȐǠdzơ

ƢŮ ǖǘű ȁ ƧƾǸǠƬǷ ƪǻƢǯ ś ȈǼȈǘºLjǴ Ǩdzơ ƾǓ Ʃ ƢǸƴŮơ ǞȈŦ ǹƘºƥ

ǞºǫơȂdzơ Ŀ Ȃǿ ƢǸǯ Ś ºƦǯ Dzǰºnjƥ džȈdz Ǻǰ dzȁ ƨǨǴƬű śºƦǻƢŪơ ś ƥ ȃȂǬdzơ

ƨǨȈǼǟ ƨººǫȐǟ DzȈǴ Ţ ǁȂǗ Ŀ ƢǼǻȋ ơǂǜǻȁ ƨ ȈǴȈƟơǂººLJȍ ơ ƩơȂºǬdzơ Dz ºƦǫ ǺǷ

ńƛ ƢȇƢºƸ ǔdzơ ǁȁƽƾǼºLjȇ ǺǷ ǶȀǼǷ " ƨƠǗƢŬơ ǁƢǰǧȋơ ǽǀǿ Ƕǣǁȁ Ǻǰdzȁ

ƨȀƳȁ ǺǸǧ DzȈǴƸƬdzơ ƨǴȀLJ ƨǫȐǠdzơ ǮǴƫ Ŀ śƦǻƢŪơ ǁơȁƽƗ ǹƜǧƨƴǘǴƦdzơ

ƧƾºƸƬŭ ơ ǶǷȏơ ńƛ ś ƦǫơǂŭơǁȁƽȁDzȈƟơǂLJơ ńƛ ǺȇƾƬǠŭơ ǁȁƽȁ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ

ǝƢǧƾdzơ Ʃ ƢȈdzƖƥ Ƕǿƾ ȇȁDŽƫ ńƛƨƳ ƢŞ ǶĔƜǧ śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƢȇƢƸǔ dzơ ǂǜǻ

DzưǸƬƫ ơƾ ȈǨǷ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ ǺǰŻƩƢȈƴȈƫơǂƬºººLJȏơ ǂưǯƗ ǽǀǿ ǂǜǼdzơ ƨȀƳȁ ǺǷ

ƩƢǸƴŮ ơ DzǛ Ŀ ƧƢȈūơ ƾȈººǫ ȄǴǟ ƔƢººǬƦdzơ ǺǷ ơȂǼǰǸƬȇ ŕºƷ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ

ƨȈŷƗ ƩƢƷǂƬǬŭơ ǽǀ ǿ ǺǷȁǁơǂǸƬLJȏơ ȄǴǟ ƢȇƢƸǔǴdz ƧƾǟƢLjŭơ ʼnƾǬƫ Ŀ śºƥ ƩƢºǫȐǠdzơ śºLjŢ Ŀ śºLJ ǁƾŭơ Ƕǟƾdz ȆºLJǁƾŭơ DzƻƾƬdzơƲǷ ơǂºƥ Ɣƾƥ

ǹƗ řǠƫ Ŗdzơȁ ƨȈºººLjǨǼdzơ ƨºººƥȐǐdzƢƥ ǪǴǠƬƫ ƩƢȈdzȉơ ǽǀǿ ƧǂǸƬºººLjŭơ ȄǴǟ ǹȁǁƽƢºǫ ȁ ǺȇDŽƳ Ƣǟ Śǣ ǶĔ Ƙºƥ ǁȂǠºnjdzơȁ ƨǬưdzơ ǶȀȇƾdz śȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ

śºLjŢ ȁ DŽȇDŽǠƫ ǶƬȇ ŕºƷ džǨǼdzƢºƥ ƨºǬưdzơȁ ƩơǀdzơǵơǂƬºƷơ ƧƽƢȇǃȁ ƣ Ȑǘdzơ

ƩƢȈƴȈƫơǂƬLJȏơǹƜǧ ǺȇƾƬǠŭơ ǂ ǜǻ ƨȀƳȁ ǺǷ ƤǟƢǐ ŭơ ǽǀǿ ȄǴǟ ƤǴǤƬdzơ

ƨȈººƦǿǀ dzơ ƧǂǜǼdzơ ƵǂƬººǬŭơ ơǀđ ƔƾºƦdzơ Ļ ǶȀȇƾdz ƨȈºLjǨǼdzơ ƨºƥȐǐdzơ

ơǁƽƢºǫ ǹȂ ǰȇ ǹƗ DzƳƗ ǺǷ ȅȂǼǠŭơ ǕƢºƦƫǁȍơ Ǯ ǧ ƩƢȈdzƕȆǿ ƢǷơƾƼƬºLJ ơ ǂưǯȋơ

ZZZJROGHQRUJ ǂǧȂƬǷ Ȃǿ śǘLjǴǧ ĿGolden5

ǺǷ ǝȂǼdzơ ơǀǿȁ ƔƢȇǂ ººƥƗ DžƢǻƗ ƾǓ ƨƬȈǸŭơ Ʃ ƢǸƴŮơ ǮǴƬººƥ ǵƢȈººǬdzơ ȄǴǟ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

68


Analysis of violence in Palestine as an example of bullying behaviour Dr. Maria-Jo se Lera *

The contextual m odel to understand "school bu llying" is used to explain the relations betw een Israel and Pales tine. A presentation of th e model helps to un derstand t he role of all the actors involved: aggressors , victims , observers and defe nders, and the strategies used byeach one to play these roles (Salm ivalli, Huttunen, & Lage rpetz, 1997). School bullying provides us with a contex tual model that includes the victim , the aggressor (as a group), t he observers and defenders, as all the roles including in this phenomenon. The applica tion of this conceptual model to the relations b etween Israel a nd Palestine helps to understand the s trategies a nd the effectiv eness of the actions taken by al l the parts (Lera, 200 7). From th is point of view, the first issue to clarify is the definition of the roles. When the violenc e is comm itted inte ntionally against the victims, in a repetitive w ay, and under the basis of a relevant differen t of pow er betwee n both sides, then the relatio n is a violent relation (not a confli ct)(Smith & Sharp, 1994). From any point of view the analysis of the situation shows that the differen ce betwee n Palestinians and Israelis are enormous; one of them ha s the mos t developed army in the world, while the other side mo st of the time hasto defend them with ston es. The violence has bee n executed for ove r 100 yea rs against the Palestinian population, and obviously all the a ttacks against Palestinians have be en totally intentiona l and well plannedby Israeli forces. Given t hat we are analysing a violent relation (bullying), roles of parts in volved ar e easy to a nalyse. From the perspective of the victims (Palestinians) they need to be provided with copying strategies mechan isms in o rder to ca rry on surviving under the constant attacks . These copying strategies are related to resilien ce, that m eans, a wa y to perceive the situ ation as it would be end s ometimes ; it is taken under se nse of hum our, and i s based on the security and co nfidence under the feelings that Palestinians will o vercome such treme ndous situation. From t he point o f view of the aggr essors, the strategies most

freque ntly used are moral disengagem ent mechanismsin order to be able to carry on such kind of deathly attacks against innocent people . That kind of mechanisms are strongly m anipulated by the author ities using euphemi sms like n eed to de fend them selves, stereot ypes and dehumanization of P alestinian people, blameless the vic tims for t he conseq uences of the aggre ssors, and so on. Also the network made by the aggressors, the resources, econom y, and th e support of the m ost power ful group will be analys ed, likethe influence on the ma ss media, and the sup port of EEUU and Europe in their evil behaviours again st Palestinians. As obs ervers, people or ins titutions that just look at the s ituation withou t any actions again st of them are also manipula ted. An analys is of the p rocess tha t keeps th e observe rs just ob serving will be provided. The last role is th e defenders, actually represe nted by NG O and volunt eers that under per sonal pri nciples are trying to help Palesti nians and denouncing the situation. The pe rspective of the students at Se ville University hav e been analys ed from this perspective. A sam ple of 500 students f rom all the subjects has been analysed. In t he questionnaire we asked them about their knowledg e of the situation and which role will assign to each one involv ed. Results shown that most of the studen ts have w rong information a bout the israel-Pal estinian relatio ns; in fact, most of them think that the d ifferent o f power betwee n bothsides is not as big as is in reality. However, a nd spite these m isconceptions, 80% of them assigns the role of victims to Palesti nians, Isra el as aggressors, and the UN as the observ er. From this point of view m ore strategies can be useful pr esented for the victims in order to help them to carr y on. One of the propos als we ha ve is to start school interven tions sup porting teache rs in impro ving relat ionships with studen ts, and inc reasing their self-esteem and confidence, so resilience will be also enhanc e. The proposal we have already started in Palestin e is the implem entation o f Golden5 programm e (seewww.golden5.org). E-m ail: Lera@ us.es

69S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


Impact of the Gaza Siege on Children's Education and Development Dr. Su hail Diab

This pa per aimed at recognizing the im pact of si ege on Education for th e children in Gaza Strip, and to illustrate the impact of the adv ersity situ ation on the Palestinian fam ily and community. The research er used the descr iptive analytical method to answer the follow ing questions : What is the present status of basic ed ucation i n Gaza  Strip? What i s the impact of sie ge on teaching / learning  Process in Gaza S trip? What is the impa ct of siege on the P alestinian family  and com munity? What a re the proposals to commute the imp act of  siege? In this paper the r esearcher described the status of education and the acc omplishm ent achieved in Gaza Strip be fore the imposed siege, in education to illus trate the impact of siege teac hing / learning Process and the imp acts ofliving in adve rsity situation. Many u seful reco mmendati ons and proposals we re determ ined to reduce a nd comm ute theneg ative impacts of this cruel siege.

E-mail: suhaildiab@h otmail.com

ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ÇśČ€ĆŹČˆĆĽÇ‚ĆŤČ ÇąĆ˘Ç¨Ç—Č?ĆĄ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç˝Ç‚ĆŻĆ—Č ĆŁĆ˘Č‡Ć˝ ÇŠÇƒÇ Ç˛ČˆČ€Ç‡ Ć˝ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ĆŻĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ǼǂǠƏdzƥ Ĺ„Ć›Ć¨ČˆĆ°ÂşÂşÂşÂşĆ¸ĆŚÇłĆĄ ƨº ÂşÂşÂşÇŤÇ Č‚ÇłĆĄÇ˝Ç€Çż ƪǧƞǿ Ç˝Ç‚ĆŻĆ—ÇšĆ˘ČˆĆĽ ÇŽÇłÇ€ÇŻČ Â?Çś Č€ĆŹČˆĆĽÇ‚ĆŤČ ÇąĆ˘Ç¨Ç—Č‹ĆĄ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç? Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‘ Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ ƲȀǟŭƥ ƎºơƢƌdzƥǞƌƍ ĆĄ ĆžÇŤČ Č†Ç&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ Ć˛ČˆÇˆÇźÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄĆ§Ç‚Ç‡ Č‹ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘ĆŹÇłĆĄ ƨǴƠLJȋƥ ÇşÇ&#x; ƨƼƢƳȎdz Č†Ç´ČˆÇ´Ć¸ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ȇ ǨÇ?Ȃdzƥ Â&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ĿȆLJ ƢLJȋƥ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇ´Çł ŅƢōƥ ǞǍƥȂdzƥ Ƣǡ



ǹƢǨǗȋƥ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç ĆŤČ„Ç´ Ç&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÂşÇŤ Č„Ç´Ç&#x;Ç‘ Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ĆŻĆĄ Ƣǡ Â&#x;Çś Č€ĆŹČˆĆĽÇ‚ĆŤČ



ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ƧǂººLJȋƥ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç‘ Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç? ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ĆŻĆ— Ƣǡ Â&#x;Ĺ™ČˆÇ˜ ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşĆŚÇ´Çˆ dzƥ Ç Ć˘ĆŻČ‰ĆĄÇşÇˇ ƞºƸǴdz Ć¨ČˆÇ´ ǸǠdzƥ ƊƥƔƥǂ ĆłČ?ĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşĆˇÇ‚ĆŹÇŹĹ­ĆĄ Ƣǡ Â&#x;Ç Ć˘Ç?ƸǴdz

 

ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ ºǍ Äż ȆºLJ ƢLJȋƥ ÇśČˆÇ´Ç  Ədzƥ ÇžÂşÇŤĆĄČ ÇŚ Ç?ȂºƼƎºơƢƌdzƥ ǾƢºǍ ĆžÂşÇŤČ ĆĄÇ€Çż Ä˝ Â?Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤ ĆĄ ǑǂǧDzººƌǍ ǾƢǠdzƥ Çś ČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ ºǍ Äż ƪŤ Ĺ– dzƥ ĆŠĆĄÇƒĆ˘ĹłČ? ĆĄ Ç‘Ç‚Ç&#x;Č Ć¨Č‡Č‚ÂşÂşÂşĆĽÇ‚ ĆŹÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ¸ČˆÇ´Ç ĆŹÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ´Ç¸Ç ÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç˝Ç Ć˘ĆŻĆ—Č Ç‘Č Ç‚Ç¨Ĺ­ Ç Ć˘ Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç‚ÇżĆ˘ÇœÇˇ śºººƼ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Ŀƨ ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ƧǂLJȋƥ Č„ Ç´Ç&#x; ÇŽÇłÇ€ÇŻČ Çą Ć˘Ç¨Ç—ČŒÇł Ç Ć˘ĆŻČ‰ĆĄ Ǻǡ ƞºƸǴdzƧǂǸưŭƥ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇ? Č‚ĆŹÇłĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşĆˇÇ‚ ĆŹÇŹĹ­ĆĄ ǺǡƽƞǠºƼ Ć¨ÂşÇŤÇ Č‚ÇłĆĄ ĆŞĆłÇ‚ĆťČ ĹƒĆ˘ÇœÇłĆĄ Ç Ć˘Ç? ĹŤĆĄ ƥǀŎ Ć¨ČˆĆŚÇ´ÇˆÇłĆĄ i Ă‹n†AĂŠ l UAĂ‹ ‡A... Ă‘Ă?nÂŻĂƒ ÂşA Ă‘Zv ÂşA ĂŠ i Bv‡A

70


Mental and Spiritual M echanisms in Confronting Siege Crisis in Gaza Dr. Abdelfatta hAbdelghani El-Hims

This papers aims toexplore the psycho-spiritual dynamics for encountering a siege. It introduces the difficulties that arise when encountering the crisis of a siege. It also explores the psychological dynamics necessary to encounter such a crisis. Psycho-spiritual dynamics are preventive mechanism s against falling in the trap of psychological disorders and help encounter troubles and overcome their repercussions based on our beliefs and concepts stemming from the correct interpretation of fatalism. W hen a famine strikes a country, appeals for aid are launched worldwide. Humanitarian aid flows from all parts of the world. International bodies intervene on the ground in a way that makes us feel that human conscience isstill functional. However, the weirdest thing ever is that the whole world is silent with regard to the tight siege imposed by Israel on thePalestinian people in Gaza. It is notjust a negative state of imposing siege, but it goes beyond a bloody assault andmassacres by theIsraeli army, where kids, youth, women andthe elderly were savagely killed. Where is the human conscience of the international bodies? Why is everyone silent while women and children are victim ized by this siege? What are the real reasons behind that silence? Is it the political disagreement? Is it a w ay to pressure a population in orderto rise up against their government? Is it because Israel is theState to impose this siege, the onlystate that the UN failed to oblige to apply international resolutions? Political disagreement cannot be a valid justification to torture a whole population and causedamageto innocent people. Even abelief-based disagreement cannotbe a validreason for injustice and tyranny. Allah says in the Holy Quran: ' [O you who believe] … let not the enmity and hatred of any people seduce you that you avoid justice. Deal justly, that is nearer to your duty and piety .' Moreover, the Holy Quran praised those who have mercy with captive enemies: '[the pious and righteous] … give food, for love of him [God], to the poor, the orphan and the captive.' To achieve the objective of the paper, the researcher will follow the analytical-descriptive m ethod. He will utilize a tool of research that depends on one on one encounter, adopting a verbal protocol of face to face encounter, w hich is a survey interview. Anumberof questions willbe com piled and will be asked to asample of specialized persons (psycho-counseling, basics of education and experts of politics and economics) in order to achievethe desired results.

ƨȈƷȁǂdzơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ Ʃ ƢȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ ǁƢǐūơ ƨǷǃƗ ƨȀƳơȂŭ ǎǸŮơ řǤdzơ ƾƦǟ ƵƢƬǨdzơ ƾƦǟ ƽ ƩƢȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ ǵȂȀǨǷ Ǻǟ Ǧºººººnjǰdzơ ńƛ ƨºººººLJơǁƾdzơ ǥƾē ƨǷǃƗ ƨȀƳơȂǷ Ŀ Ʃ ƢƥȂǠǐdzơ ƨǧǂǠǷȁ ǁƢǐ ūơ ƨȀƳơȂŭ ƨȈƷȁǂdzơ ƨ ȈLjǨǼdzơ ƨǷǃƗ ƨȀƳơȂǷ Ŀ ƨȈºººLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ Ǻǟ Ǧººnjǰdzơ Ǯdzǀǯȁ ǁƢǐūơ ǺǷ ƨȇƢǫȂdzơ ƩƢȈdzƕ ƨƥƢưŠ ƨȈƷȁǂdzơ ƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ ŐƬǠƫ ƮȈƷ ǁƢǐūơ ƢŠ ƢēƢƦǬǟ DzȈdzǀƫȁ ƨǴǰnjŭơ ƨȀƳơȂǷȁƨȈLjǨǼdzơ ƩƢƥơǂǘǓȏơ Ŀ ǝȂǫȂdzơ ƔƢǔºǬǴdz ƶȈºƸǐdzơ ǶȀǨdzơ ǺǷ ȄƷȂƬLjǷ ȁ ƧƾȈǬǠdzơ Ƶȁǁ ǺǷƾǸƬLjǷ Ȃǿ ǁƾǬdzơȁ ƨȈƯƢǣȍ ơ ƩơƔơƾǼdzơ ǪǴǘǼƫ DZȁƾdz ơ ǺǷ ƨdzȁƽ ȅƗ Ŀ ƨǷƢǟ ƨǟƢů ǞºǬƫ ƢǷƾǼǠǧ ǃŐƫȁ ƣ ȂǏ ȁ ƣƾƷ Dzǯ ǺǷ ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơ ƩơƾǟƢLjŭơ ńơȂ Ƭƫȁ  ŃƢǠdzơ ƔƢŴƗ Ŀ ňƢLjǻȍơ ŚǸǔdzơ ǹƘƥ ǹƢLjǻȍơ ǂ Ǡnjȇ Dzǰnj ƥ ƨƷƢLjdzơ Ŀ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ƩƢƠȈŮơ ǺǷ ƤƴǠdzơ DzǯƤƴ Ǡdzơ Ǻǰdzȁ ƧƢȈººººƷ ƨȈºººǬƥ ǾȈǧ DZ ơDŽƫ ȏ ǵȂȈdzơ ƢǼŭƢǟ Ŀ ƤǠºNj ƾǓ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ ǾºLJǁƢŤ ȅǀdzơ DzǷƢnjdzơ ǁƢǐūơ Ǻ ǟ ȆŭƢǠdzơ ƪǸǐdzơ ǹơȁƾǠdzơ ńƛ ǃȁƢšDzººƥ  œǴººLj dzơ ǁƢǐūơ Ĉƾ ºƷ ƾǼǟ ǞǓ Ȃdzơ ǦºǬȇ Ń  ƧĈDŽǣ ƣƢºººƦnjdzơȁ DZƢǨǗȋ ơ ƢȀȈǧƾȀººnjƬLJơ Ŗ dzơ ƨȈǴȈƟơǂººLJȍơ ǁǃƢĐơȁ ȅȂǷƾdzơ ƩƢƠȈȀǴ dz ňƢºLjǻȍơ ŚǸǔdzơ Ƥ ǿƿ ǺȇƗ ƨȈnj Ʒȁ ƨǬȇǂǘ ƥ śǼLjŭơȁ ƔƢLjǼdzơȁ  DZƢǨǗ ȋơȁ ƔƢºLjǼdzơ ǺǷ ǁƢǐū ơ ƢȇƢºƸǓ Ǻǟ ƪǸǐdzơ ơǀǿ ơƿƢŭȁ  ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ Ȃǿ ȁƗ Ÿ ȆººLJƢȈLjdzơ ǥȐŬơȂǿ Dzǿ Ÿ Ǯdzƿ Ɣơǁȁ ƨȈºǬȈǬū ơ ƣƢºƦLJȋơ Ȇǿ ƢǷȁ Ȃǿ ǂÊǏ ƢƊƄ ơ ǹȋ ȁƗ Ÿ ǾƬǷȂǰººººƷ ȄǴǟ ǒǨƬǼȈdz ƤǠººº ºnjdzơ ȄǴǟ ǖ Ǥǔdzơ ȄǴǟƢǿǁƢººƦƳƛ Ǻǟ ƧƾººƸƬŭơ Ƕ Ƿȋơ ƩDŽƴǟ Ŗdzơ ƧƾȈºƷȂdzơ ƨdzȁƾdzơ DzȈƟơǂºLJƛ Ɔơ ǁŐǷ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ ǺǰŻ ȏ ȆººLJƢȈLj dzơ ǥȐŬơ ǹƛ Ÿ ƨȈdzȁƾdzơ ƩơǁơǂººǬdzơ ǪȈººƦǘƫ ȏ ȅƾƟƢºǬǠdzơ ǥȐŬ ơ ŕ Ʒ ǶȀǼǷ ƔƢȇǂƥȋƢƥ ǁơǂǓȍơȁ Dz ǷƢǯ ƤǠNj ƤȇǀǠƬdz ąǶ ƌǰċǼăǷÊǂ ąƴăȇ Ɗȏăȁ  ńƢǠƫ DZƢºººǫ ƢǸǯ  ƩȁŐŪ ơȁ ǶǴǜǴdz Ɔơ ǁŐǷ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ ƶǴǐȇ ƌǹ ƕǂºººǬdzơ ƵƾǷ Dzººƥ  ȃăȂƒǬċƬǴÊdz Ąƣ ăǂƒǫ ƊƗ ăȂĄǿ ƒơȂ ƌdzÊƾąǟ ơ ƒơ ȂƌdzÊƾąǠ ăƫ ōȏ ƊƗ ȄƊǴ ăǟ Çǵ ąȂ Ɗǫ ƌǹ ƖăǼăNj ȄƊǴ ăǟ ăǵ ƢăǠ ōǘ dzơ Ɗǹ ȂĄǸ ÊǠ ƒǘ Ąȇăȁ ǾǻƢºƸ ƦLJ DZƢºǬǧ ŚLJȋơȁƾǠdzƢƥ ǥƗǂƫ Ŗ dzơ ƨĈǷ ȋơ Ɔơ ŚÊLJƊƗ ăȁ ƆƢ ǸȈÊƬăȇăȁ ƆƢǼȈÊǰ ąLj ÊǷ ÊǾďƦĄƷ ȆǴȈǴºƸƬdzơ ȆǨǏȂ dzơ ƲȀǼŭơ Ʈ ºƷƢƦdzơ ǞºƦƬȈLJ ƨºLJơǁƾ dzơ ǥơƾǿƗ ǪȈǬƸƬdzȁ ƆƢȀƳȁ ƨȀƳơȂŭơ ȄǴǟ ƾǸƬǠƫ ƮºƸƦdzơ ƩơȁƽƗ ǺǷ ƧơƽƗǵơƾƼƬºLJơǶƬȈLJ ƮȈƷ ƨȈºƸLjŭơ ƨǴƥƢǬŭơ ƆơƾȇƾŢȁƨǴƥ ƢǬŭơ Ȇǿȁ ȆȀǨnjdzơƣȂǴLJȋơ ƧǀƼƬǷ ǾƳȂdz ǺǷ ƨȈºƦȇǂš ƨǼȈǟ ȄǴǟ ƢȀǬȈƦǘ ƫ ǶƬȈLJȁ ƨ ǴƥƢǬŭơ ƨǴƠLJƗ ƔƢǼƥ ǶƬȈLJ ƮȈƷ ƨººLJƢȈLjdzơ ƔơŐƻ ƨ ȈººƥǂƬdzơ DZȂ ǏƗ ȆºLjǨǼdzơ ƽƢºNjǁȍơ Ǎ ƢǐƬƻȏơ ȅȁƿ ƧȂƳǂŭơ Ʋ ƟƢƬǼdzơ ńƛ DZ ȂǏȂǴdz ƽƢǐƬǫȏơȁ E-mail: ahams@iugaza.edu.ps

71 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


The Future of Development under Siege Mazen Salah El Ejla

Economic development in developing countries face major challenges even under normal circumstances. However, development in an occupied country is even a greater challenge. Development literature indicates that the nature of the relationship between the economic of the occupant and the occupied is a relation of control/dependence, where the occupier deprives the occupied of the potential for growth and development through a series of policies and restrictions. Since siege in its broad context (i.e. the totality of Israeli policies towards the Palestinian territories) represents an essential element of Israeli policy, before and after the establishment of the Palestinian Authority, we have to understand the relation between the siege and the future of development, where the siege constitutes the major challenge to the future of development in the Palestinian territories. It is clear, after 14 years of establishment of the Palestinian authority, that the restrictive Israeli measures and policies continue to dominate the economic horizons of the Palestinian territories. It is no secret that hose policies (the siege) targets the w eakening of the already weak Palestinian economy to abort any attem pts at a real development, which might enhance the opportunities for the establishment of a Palestinians state outside the control and vision of the occupation. Accordingly, to put the Palestinian economy on the path towards development, we have to understand the conditions which impact the long term potential of development of that economy, especially the structures that have been introduced upon the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza and the institutional structure that affects the dynamics of its growth. Those structures and institutional constructs have undoubtedly determ ined a specific path for development that cannot be challenged in view of the total dependence of the Palestinian economy on the Israeli economy. This paper aims to identify the impact of siege, in its broad sense, on the future of the process of development. It will differentiate between siege and closure in view of the importance of that differentiation in identifying the consequences on the process of developm ent and not merely on some economic and social indicators such as unem ployment and p overty, w hich are sym p tom s and manifestations of the original problem. After outlining the concept of siege the paper will address other issues such as the m echanisms of siege, their development and their economic impact, and the challenges imposed by the siege on the process of development. The paper will conclude with an overall suggestion for a future vision of development in the Palestinian territories, followed by a number of recommendations. E-mail: e jlah@hotmail.com

ǁƢǐūơ DzǛ Ŀ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ DzƦǬƬLjǷ ƨǴƴǠdzơ ƵȐǏ ǹǃƢǷ ƩȐǰººººnjǷ ƨȈǷƢǼdzơ DZȁƾdzơ Ŀ ƨȇƽƢǐƬºº ºǫȏơ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ǾƳơȂƫ Ǟǔź ƾ Ǵººƥ Ŀ ƨȈǸ ǼƬdzơ Ǻǰdz ƨȇƽƢȈƬǟȏơ ǥ ȁǂǜdzơ DzǛ Ŀ ŕººƷ Ƨ ŚººLjǟ ǹƗ ńƛ ƨ ȈǸǼƬdzơ ƩƢȈºººƥƽƗ Śººnj ƫ ƿƛ ǂǘƻơȁ Ő ǯơ ƢȇƾŢ Dz ưŤ œǼƳƗ DZȐƬººƷȏ DzƬƄơ ƾǴ Ʀdzơ ƽƢǐƬǫơȁ ǶȈŭơǂLjǰƥ ǂÊǸǠƬLj ŭơ ƽƢǐƬǫơ śƥ ƨǫȐǠdzơ ƨǠȈƦǗ ȄǴǟDzƬƄơ ƾǴºƦdzơ Ƨǁƾǫ DZȐƬƷȏ ơ ƤǴƬLjȇ ƮȈƷ ƨȈǠƦƫ ƧǂǘȈLJƨǫȐǟ Ȇǿ ƽȂȈǬdzơȁ ƩƢLJƢȈLjdzơ ǺǷ ƧŚƦǯƨǟ ȂǸů DZȐƻ ǺǷ ƔƢǸǼdzơȁ ǁȂǘƬdzơ ǽƢš ƨȈǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơ DzǸů DzǷƢnjdzơ ǾǷȂȀǨŠ ǁƢǐūơ ǹƢǯ Ƣŭȁ DzƦǫƨȈǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ ƨLJƢȈLjǴdzƢȈLJ ƢLJƗ ƢƴȀǼǷ DzưŻ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ Ȇ Ǔơǁȋơ DzºƦǬƬLj Ƿȁ ǁƢǐūơ śºƥ ƨºǫȐǠdzơ ǶȀǧǺǷ ƾºƥȐǧǽƾǠ ºƥȁ ƨǘǴºLj dzơ ǵƢȈǫ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ DzºƦǬƬLjŭ ȆºLjȈƟǂdzơ ȅ ƾƸƬdzơDzưŻ ǁƢǐūơǁƢƦƬǟƢƥ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ǺǷ ƢǷƢǟ ǂºnjǟƨǠºƥǁƗ ƾǠºƥ Ǿǻơ ƶǓơȂdzơ ǺǸǧ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơȆǓ ơǁȋơ Ŀ Ȇǿ ƨȈǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ ƨ ȇƾȈȈºǬƬdzơ ƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơȁ ŚºƥơƾƬdzơ DZơDŽƫ ȏ ƨǘǴLjdzơ ǵƢȈǫ ȄǨź ȏȁ ƨȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȆǓ ơǁȌdz ƨȇƽƢǐƬºǫȏơ ǩƢǧȉơ ȄǴǟ ȄǤǘƫ Ŗdzơ ƽƢǐƬººǫȏơ ǥƢǠǓ ƛ DZȂººƷ ǁȂºƸǸƬƫ ǁƢǐūơ ƩƢºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǽǀǿ ǥ ơƾǿƗ ǹƗ ƨȇȂǸǼƫ ƩȏȁƢŰ ƨȇ Ɨ ȄǴǟ ƔƢǔººººǬǴdz ȐǏ Ɨ ǦȈǠǔdzơ řȈǘºººLjǴǨdzơ ǁȂǐƫ Ǻ ǟ ơƾȈǠººƥ ƨ ȈǼȈǘººLjǴ Ǩdzơ ƨdzȁƾdzơ ǵƢȈººǫ Ǎǂǧ ǺǷ ǃDŽǠƫ ƨȈºǬȈǬƷ ǾƬȇƙǁȁ DZȐƬƷȏơ ƤǴǘƬȇ ȂǸǼdzơ ǁƢºLjǷ ȄǴǟ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƽƢǐƬºǫȏơ ǞǓ ȁ ǹƢǧ ǾȈǴǟ ƔƢǼƥ ơǀººŮ DzººƳȋơƨºǴȇȂǘdzơ ƨºȈǸ ǼƬdzơ ƩƢºȈǻƢǰǷƛ Ŀ ƧǂºƯ ƚŭơ ǝƢºǓȁȋ ơ ǶºȀǧ ƨǨǔdzơ DZȐƬººƷơ ƣ ƢºǬǟƗ Ŀ ƪ ƠºnjǻƗŖ dzơ DzǯƢȈŮơ ƨǏƢşȁƽƢǐƬºǫȏơ ǽǀǿǹƛ ǽȂŶ ƩƢȈǷƢǼȇƽ Ŀ ǂƯƚƫ Ŗ dzơ ƨȈLjLJƚŭơ ƨȈǼƦdzơȁ ƧDŽǣ ǝƢǘǫȁ ƨȈƥǂǤdzơ DzȈºƦLJ ȏ śǠǷ ǁȂǘƫ ǁƢºLjǷ ǮºNj ȐƥƩƽƾƷ ƨȈLjLJƚŭơ ŘƦdzơȁ Dz ǯƢȈŮơ ƽƢǐƬºǫȐdz ƨǴǷƢǰdz ơ řȈǘºLj ǴǨdzơ ƽƢǐƬº ǫȏơ ƨȈǠƦƫ DzǛ Ŀ ǾǼǷ ƱȁǂƼǴdz ȆǴȈƟơǂLJȍơ DzºƦǬƬLj Ƿ ȄǴǟ ǞºLJơȂdzơ ǾǷȂȀǨŠ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯƗ ƾȇƾºƸƬdz ƨǫǁȂdzơǽǀǿ ǥƾē ǩȐǣȍơȁ ǁƢǐūơ ś ººƥ ƨººǫǂǨƬdzƢƥ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ǶƬē ǥȂºLJȁ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ǒǠººººººººƥ ȄǴǟ džȈdzȁ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƨȈǴǸǟ ȄǴǟ ǁƢƯȉơ ƾȇƾŢ Ŀ Ǯdzƿ ƨȈŷȋ ǂǿƢǜǷ Ȇǿ Ŗdzơ ǂºǬǨdzơȁ ƨdzƢǘ ºƦdzƢǯ ƨȈǟ ƢǸƬƳȏơȁ ƨȇ ƽƢǐƬǫȏơ ƩơǂNjƚŭơ ƨǴǰnjǸǴdz ǑơǂǟƗȁ ƩƢȈdzƕ Dz ưǷ ǁƢǐūơ ǵȂȀǨǷ ƾȇƾŢ ƾǠºƥǞȈǓơȂǷ Ƨƾǟ ƨºǫǁȂdzơǑ ǂǠƬºLjƫ ǁƢǐūơ ƢȀǓǂǨȇ Ŗ dzơ ƩƢȇƾººƸƬdzơȁ ƨȇƽƢǐ Ƭººǫȏơ ǽǁƢƯƕȁ ǾƫơǁȂǘƫ ȁ ǁƢǐūơ ƨȇƙǂdz ǵƢǟ ǁȂǐƫǞǓ ȂººººƥƨºººǫǁȂdzơ ȆȀƬǼƫ ÈăǶ ƊƯ ǺǷȁ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơƨȈǴ Ǹǟ ȄǴǟ ǍȐƼƬººLJơ ƢȀºƦǬ Ǡȇ ƨȈǼȈǘ ºLjǴǨdzơȆǓ ơǁȋơ Ŀ ƨȈǸǼƬǴdz ƨȈǴºƦǬƬLjǷ ƨƦLJƢǼŭơ ƩƢȈǏ ȂƬdzơ ǞǓȁȁ ƲƟƢƬǼdzơ i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

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Public Art, Solidarity and Resilience in Occupied Palestine Dr. Su san Greene.*

If haun ting descri bes how that which appears to be not there is often a seething pre sence, acting on and often meddling with taken for gr anted reali ties, the g host is just the sign , or the empirical evidence if you li ke, that tells you a h aunting is taking place… Haunting is a very particular way of knowing, being haunted draws us affective ly somet imes against our will and always a bit magically, into the structure of feeli ng of a rea lity we come to experience, no t as cold knowledge, but as a transformative recognition .Ghostly Matters, Avery Gordon (1997, p8). This presentation explores some of the relati onships b etween trauma, community public art and resilie nce in refugee populations living under occupation in Palestine's West Bank and Gaza. The data is collected from a series of com munity m urals, that Greene has o rganized and painte d collabo ratively over the last 10 y ears with Break the Silence M ural Projec t (BTS). The foc us of the p resentation will be on the Olympia-Rafah Sister City M ural Proje ct, a collaboration between the Rachel Corrie Foundation for P eace and Justice, BT S, the people of O lympia Washin gton and Rafah inGa za. The m ural projec t includes public art projects in bo th Olympia and Rafah that aim to build across movem ents and la rge geogr aphicaldis tances, an d will articulate a wide range of dynamics including the way peo ple make use of activism, resistan ce and creativity in the face of trauma and mourning. The study mak es use of action and critical res earch, psycho dynamic and analytic theories of trauma and mem ory in an attem pt to und erstand and illuminate the meaning of public community art pr ojects and solidarity in the context of high levels of viole nce and traumatic losses. The project see ks to addr ess the relation ship between the traumas suffered in ind ividual communities and the world community. As Cathy Caruth notes: Freud's central i nsight in "Moses and Mono theism" is that history, like traum a is never simply one's own - that his tory is precise ly the wa y we are implicate d in each other's traumas (1996, p.11).

ǺǷƢǔ Ƭdzơȁ ȆǠǸƬĐơ ǺǨdzơ ƨǴƬƄơ ś ǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƽȂǸǐdzơȁ ǺȇǂƳ ǹơǃȂLJ ƽ ǺǨdzơȁ ƨǷƾǐdzơśºƥ ƨǫȐǠdzơ ǂǿƢǜǷ ǒǠ ƥ ƨǫǁȂdzơǽǀǿ DZȁƢǼƬƫ Ŀ DZȐƬºƷȏơ ƪŢ ś ȈǼȈǘºLjǴ Ǩdzơ ǹƢǰºLj dzơ śƥ ƽȂǸǐdzơȁ ǵƢǠdzơ ȆǠǸƬĐơ ƨȈǠǸƬů ƩƢȇǁơƾƳ Ƨƾǟ ǺǷ Ʃ ƢǷȂǴǠŭơǞŦ Ļ ƾǬdz ƧDŽǣȁ ƨȈƥǂǤdzơ ƨǨǔdzơ ǞǷ ǹȁƢǠƬdzƢºƥ ƩơȂǼºLJ ǂºnjǟ ȃ ƾǷ ȄǴǟ ƢȀũǁȁ ƢȀǸ ȈǜǼƬºƥ Ǻȇǂ Ƴ ƪǷƢǫ ǝȁǂººnjǷ ȄǴǟ ƨǴƻơƾŭơ DŽǯǂƫ ǥ ȂººLJ ƪǸǐdzơ ǂººLjǯ ƩƢȇǁơƾƳ ǝ ȁǂºnjǷ śººƥ ǭ ǂƬºnjǷ ǝȁǂºnjǷ Ȃǿȁ ƢȈºƦǸȈdzȁƗȁ ƶ ǧǁ Ŗ ǼȇƾǷ śºƥ ȆƻƖƬdzơ ƨȇǁơƾƳ ƪǸǐdzơ ǂLjǯ ƩƢȇǁơƾƳ ǝȁǂnjǷȁ ƨdzơƾǠdz ơ DzƳƗ ǺǷ ȅ ǁȂǯ DzNjơǁ ƨLjLJƚǷ ǺǸǔƬȇ ȅǁơƾŪơ ǝȁǂºººnjŭơ ƧDŽǣ Ŀ ƶǧǁȁ ǺǘǼººNjơȁ ƢȈººƦǸȈdzȁƗ ǹƢǰººLJȁ Őǟ ƔƢǼººƦdzơ ǥƾȀƬº ºLjƫ ƶǧǁȁ ƢȈºƦǸȈdzȁƗ ǺǷ Dzǯ Ŀ ƨǷƢǟ ƨȈǼǧƩƢǟȁǂºnjǷ ǺǷ ǞººººLJơȁ ǦȈǗ Ǻǟ ŐǠƫ ǹƗȁ ƨǴƟƢŮơ ƨ ȈǧơǂǤŪơƩƢǧƢººººLjŭơȁ ƩƢǯǂūơ ƨǷȁƢºǬŭơȁ ǵƢǠdzơ Ǖ ƢºnjǼǴdzǂºnj Ʀdzơ ǵơƾƼƬº LJơ ǩǂǗ Ǯdzƿ Ŀ ƢŠƩƢ ȈǷƢǼȇƾdzơ ƾǼƬººLj ƫ ƔƢººƦƷȋơ ǹơƾººǬǧ Ȅ Ǵǟ ǹDŽūơȁ ƩƢǷƾǐdzơ ƨȀƳơȂǷ Ŀ ǝ ơƾºƥȍơȁ ƢǸȈǧȆº LjǨǼdzơDzȈǴºƸƬdzơ ƩƢȇǂ ǜǻȁ ȅƾǬǼdz ơȁ ȆǴƻƾƬdzơ ƮƸƦdzơńƛ ƨǴƻơƾŭơ ŘǠǷ ȄǴǟ ƔȂǔdzơ ƔƢººǬdzƛȁ ǶȀǨdz ƨdzȁƢŰ Ŀ ǂǯǀƬdzơȁ ƨǷƾǐdzƢºƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ǹơƾººǬǨdzơ ƩơŐƻȁ ǦǼǠdzƢººƥ ƔȆǴǷ ǩƢȈºLJ Ŀ ȆǠǸƬĐơ ǺǨdzơƩƢǟȁǂºnjǷ ƢºLjǼdzơ ƢȀǼǷ ňƢǟ Ŗ dzơ ƩƢǷƾǐ dzơ śºƥ ƨǫȐǠdzơ DZȁƢǼƫ ńƛ ǝȁǂnjŭ ơ ȄǠLjȇ ǹƛ ƭȁǁƢǯ ȆƯƢǯƪ dzƢºººǫ ƢǸǯ Ņȁƾdzơ ǞǸƬĐơ Ŀȁ ƢȀǼȈǠºººƥ ƩƢǠǸ Ƭů Ŀ ƺȇǁƢƬdzơ ǹƗ Ŀ ƪǴưŤ ƾȈƷȂƬdzơȁ ȄLJȂǷ Ǿƥ ƢƬǯ Ŀ ƨȈLJƢLJȋơ ƾȇȁǂǧ ƧŚǐƥ ơƾȇƾŢ Ȃ ǿ ƺȇǁƢƬdzơ ǹƛ ƽǂǨdz ƢǰǴǷ ơƾºººººººººƥƗ ǹȂǰȇȏ ƨǷƾǐdzơ DzưǷ ǾǴưǷ Ǎ  Ǻȇǂƻȉơ ƩƢǷƾǏ Ŀ ƢºƦƦLJȁƗ ƢǧǂǗ Ƣđ ƶºƦǐǻ Ŗdzơ ƨǬȇǂǘdzơ  

* San Francisco Art Institute USA / susan.r.greene@gmail.com

73 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


The Impact of the Israeli Siege on the Cultural Situation in Gaza Provinces Mr. Emad Nasrallah

This stu dy came to show th e impact of the Israeli siege on the cultural situation in Gaza prov inces ,ther efore the aim of the stud y is to seek the effects of the Israeli sie ge on three main aspects presented in : libraries, theatre and visual art. The pa per has adopted a descriptive research approach, which classified the libraries to Municipal libraries that were taken from each of the five p rovinces m unicipality, and th en take a sample random of the other public libraries which 6 o f them re spond. Also another sam ple random has been selected from institutions which produce and present plays and 5 of them respond a nd had an interviews; Al so a sampl e random was selec ted from a group of artists from different Gaza provinces and a q uestionna ire was distributed to them, and thr ough the results of the study showed that the siege ha d a negative effects. where the acquisition of books had stopped for most of public librar ies and the loan service s and many others. A lso the theatre work reduced from the number of plays a nd presented shows . and the a rtists production had been effected from their produc tion and participation in exhibitions and w orkshops for Foreign Affairs . Also this paper found s et of conclusions and recommendations Including: Encourage readin g and science and k nowledge as an  important elemen ts of Stea dfastness in the face of the occupier. Encourage thePalestinian A rt Studio and motiva te it to  launch of outer space as a unive rsal language to express the pain and aspirations of the Palestinian people, using all modern electronic means, by passing the bord ers. Encourage dram a and theater as an expression and  unloading method s and encourage it a s a media expose the occupation, and also taking ad vantage of the Interne t and the modern e lectronic means to access and con tribute lo cally and globally. E-mail: emad@qcc.qattanfoundation.org

ǥƢǬưdzơ ǞǓȂdzơ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯƗ ƧDŽǣ ƩƢǜǧƢŰ Ŀ ȅ ƅơ ǂ ǐǻ ƽƢǸǟ Ŀ ĿƢºǬưdzơ ǞǓȂdzơ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ ǂƯƗ śƦƬdz ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ǽǀǿ ƩƔƢƳ ǁƢƯƕ ǃơǂƥƛ Ȃǿ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ǾȈdzƛ ȄǠLj ƫ ȅǀdzơ ǥƾŮ ơ ǹƜǧŅƢƬdzƢƥȁ ƧDŽǣ Ʃ ƢǜǧƢŰ ǺǨdzơ ƵǂººººLjŭơ ƩƢººººƦƬǰŭơ Ŀ DzưǸƬƫ ƨȈººººLjȈƟǁ ƤǻơȂƳ ȄǴǟ ǁƢǐūơ Ļ ƮȈººƷ ȆǨǏȂdzơ ƮººƸƦdzơ ƲȀǼǷ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ƩƾǸƬǟơ ƾººǫȁ ȆǴȈǰºnjƬdzơ ǺǷ ƨȇƾ Ǵºƥ Dzǯ ǺǷ ƨƦƬǰǷ ǀƻƗ Ļȁ ƩƢȇƾǴƦdzơ ƩƢƦƬǰǷ ńƛ ƩƢƦƬǰŭơ Ǧ ȈǼǐƫ ǢǴºƥ ȃǂƻ ȋơ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƩƢºƦƬǰǸǴdz ƨȈƟơȂºnjǟ ƨǼȈǟ ǀƻƗ Ľ džǸŬơ Ʃ ƢǜǧƢƄơ ǺǷ ƨȈƟơȂººººnjǟ ƨǼȈǟ ǁƢȈƬƻơ Ļ ƢǸǯ ƩƢººººƦƬǰǷ ƢȀǼǷ ƣƢƴƬºº ºLJơ ǺǷ ƢȀǼǷƣ ƢƴƬLJơ ƮȈƷ ƩƢȈƷǂLjǷ ǑǂǠƫȁ ƲƬǼƫ Ŗdzơȁ ƨȈƷǂLjŭơ ƩƢLjLJƚŭơ ƨȈƟơȂºnjǟ ƨǼȈǟǀƻƗ Ļȁ ƢǸǯ Ƕ ȀǠǷ ƩȐºƥ ƢǬǷ DzǸǟ Ļ ƮȈƷ ƩƢLjLJƚǷ  ǹƢȈººƦƬLJơ ǞȇǃȂƫ Ļȁ ƧDŽǣ ƩƢǜǧƢŰ ǦǴƬű ǺǷ śǻƢǼǨdzơ ǺǷ ƨǟȂǸů ǺǷ ƪǨºǫȂƫ ƮȈƷ ƨŦ ǁƢƯƕ ǁƢǐƸ Ǵdz ǹƗ śƦƫ ƨLJơǁƾdzơ ƲƟƢƬǻ DZȐƻ ǺǷȁ ǶȀȈǴǟ ƢǿŚǣȁ ƧǁƢǟȍơ ƩƢǷ ƾƻȁ ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƩƢºƦƬǰŭơ ǶǜǠŭ ƤƬǰdzƢºƥ ƾȇȁDŽƬdzơ ƨǯǂºƷ ǑȁǂǠdzơȁ ƩƢȈººƷǂLj ŭơ ƽƾǟƮ ȈººƷ ǺǷȆº ƷǂLjŭơDzǸ Ǡdzơ ǶƴºƷ ǎ ǴºǬƫȁ ǶȀƳƢƬǻƛ ƮȈºººººƷ ǺǷ ǁƢǐūƢºººººƥ śǻƢǼǨdzơ ƱƢƬǻƛ ǂƯƘ ƫ ƢǸǯ ƨǷƾºººººǬŭơ ńƛ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ƪǐǴƻ ƢǸǯ ƨȈƳ ǁƢŬơ ƩƢºNjǁȂdzơȁ ǑǁƢǠŭ ơ Ŀ ǶēƢǯ ǁƢºnjǷȁ ƢȀǼǷ ƩƢȈǏ ȂƬdzơ ǺǷ ƨ ǟȂǸů ƩƢǷȂºǬ Ƿ Ŀ ƨǷƢǿ ǂǏƢǼǠǯ Ƕ ǴǠdzơȁ ƨǧǂǠ ŭơȁ ƧƔơǂǬdzơ ǞȈƴnjƫ DzƬƄơ ǾƳơȂǷȁ ƽȂǸǐdzơ ǾºǫȐǘ ǻơ ǞȈƴºnjƫȁ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ȆǴȈǰºnjƬdzơ ǺǨdzơ ǞȈƴnjƫ ǵȏƕǺǟ ŚºººƦǠƬdzơ Ŀ ǶȀºººLj ƫ ƨȈŭƢǟ ƨǤǴǯ ȆƳǁƢŬơ ƔƢǔǨǴdz DzƟƢººLJȂdzơ Dzǯ śǷƾƼƬººLjǷ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƤǠºnjdzơ DZƢǷƕȁ ƨȇǂǐǬdzơ ƽȁƾƸ Ǵdz ƧǃȁƢƴƬǷ ƨưȇƾūơƨȈǻȁǂƬǰdzȍơ ȁ ǢȇǂǨƬdzơȁ ŚºƦǠƬdzơ ƤȈdzƢºLJƗ ƾ ºƷƘǯ ƵǂºLjŭơȁ ƢǷơǁƾdzơ ǞȈƴnjƫ ƢǔȇƗȁ DZȐƬºººƷȏơ ƶǔǨƫ ƨȈǷȐǟƛ ƨǴȈºººLJȂǯ ƢȀǠȈƴººnjƫ

 

Ŀ ƨưȇƾūơ ƨȈǻȁǂƬǰdzȍơ DzƟƢººLJ Ȃdzơ ȁ ƪǻǂƬǻȍơ ǺǷ ƧƾȈǨƬººLjǷ ƢȈŭƢǟȁ ƢȈǴŰ ǁƢnjƬǻȏơ ȁ DZȂǏȂdzơ

i Ën†AÊ l UAË ‡A... ÑÍn¯Ã ºA ÑZv ºA Ê i Bv‡A

74


ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜǼǷ ǁȁƽ ǞǸƬĐơ ƲȈLjǻ ƧƾƷȁ ȄǴǟ ǙƢǨ ūơ Ŀ ǹƢǔǷǁ Ȃƥơ ǺLjŰ Ŀ ǁơǂǓ ȋơ ƪºǬūƗȁ ƨLjLJƚŭơ Ƨ ƾƷȁ ǒȇȂǬƫ ńƛ ƩƽƗ ƨȇǁơƽȍơ ȁƗƨȇǂ ǰLjǠdzơ

ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜǼǷ ƲȈºLjǻ ǺǷ ƔDŽƴǯ ƨȈǴǿȋ ơ ƩƢǸǜǼŭ ơ ƪºƦǠdz

ƧƾºƷȁ Ŀ ƪƬǨƬdzơ ƨdzƢºƷ ǺǷ ƪƼLJǁ ƢǸǯ  řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ řǗȂdzơ ǝ ȁǂnjŭơ

ǹƢººƥƗ ƨǷȁƢºǬŭơȁ ƽȂǸǐdzơ DzƳƗ ǺǷ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơ ƩƢȈdzƕ DŽȇDŽǠƫ Ŀ ƆƢ ǷƢǿ Ɔơǁȁƽ ňƾŭơ

ƩǂƯƗǽǂǘƻ ƩƢȈǟơƾƫ ńƛ ǵƢººLjǬ ǻȏơ ơǀǿȃƽƗ ƮȈºƷ  ȆǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƲȈºLjǼdzơ ƨdzƢºƷ Ǯdzƿ ǺǷ ƺLJǁ ƢǸǯ  ƨǷƢǟ ƧǁȂǐƥ ƨLj LJƚŭơȁƨLJǁƾŭơȁ ƧǂLJ ȋơ ȄǴǟ

ƨǷƢǠdzơ ƩƢººººLJƢȈLj dzƢƥ ŚƯƘƬdzƢººººƥ ƪŷƢººººLJ ƢǸǯ ȃŐǰdzơƨǓ ƢǨƬǻȏơ ƩơƿƢȇƢǔºǬdzƢƥ  ǵƢǟ ƾǠƥƨȈǼǗȂdzơ ƨǘǴ Ljdzơ DzȈǰnjƫ ǹƢƥƗ ƩƢǠȇ ǂnjƬdzƢƥȁ

Őǟ ÅƔơȂºLJ ƨȈºƥǂǤdzơ ƨǨǔdzơȁ ƧDŽ ǣ ǝƢǘºǫ ǺǷ Dzǯ śºƥ ƢǷ DZƽƢºƦƬŭơ ǵ ƢǬƬǻȏơ ǥǂǘǴdz ƽȂǠƫ Ŗdzơ Ʃ ƢȈǠǸŪơ ǩȐ ǣƛ ȁơ ȆººLJ ƢȈLjdzơ DZƢºǬƬǟȏơ ƧǂǿƢǛ ƾȇƾš

ńƛ ƨǧƢǓ ƛ ƨǨȈǠǔdzơȁ ƨºnjǸ Ȁŭơ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȏơ ƩƢƠǨ dzơ ŁƢǐŠ ƨ ºǫȐǠdzơ ǹƢLjǻȍ ơ ǩȂǬƷȁƨȈǗơǂǬŻƾdzơ Ƕ Ȉǫȁ ƨǧƢǬƯ ǵơǂƬƷƢƥƨǏ ƢŬơ ƩƢȀƳ ȂƬdzơ ǮǴƫ

ȅǀdzơȁ ǹȂ ǻƢºǬdzơ ƨǘǴ LJ ǥƢǠǓƛ ńƛ ȃƽƗȅǀ dzơ ǂǷȋơśƬǬǘǼŭƢƥǮdz ƿȁ ǂƻȉơ

 ƨȈǻƢLjǻȍơ ƨȈǸǼƬdzơȁ

 džȈLj Ƭdzơȁ ƨȈƥDŽū ơ ƨȇȂƠǨdzơ ƨdzƢū ǂƻȉơ Ȃǿ Ǟǔƻ ňƾŭơ ǞǸ ƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜ ǼǷ ƣǁƢšȁ ƺȇǁƢƫ ȄǴǟ ÅƔ ƢǼºººƥȁ ƆƢºººƦȇǂǣ ǺǰȇǶǴ ǧ ǾȈǴǟȁ

ƩȏƢºººº ºººǬƬǟȏơȁ  ƨdzȁƾdzơǺǷ Ɨ ƨǸǰŰƪ ǔǧǁ ƩƢǸ ǜǼŭơ ǮǴƫ ǹơ ǂǯǀȇȁ DzȈǰººnj ƫȁ ŚººƦǠƬdzơȁ ƾºǬǼdzơȁ ȅƗǂdzơ ƨȇǂºƷ ǺǷ ƾūơ ƩȏȁƢŰȁƨȈºLJƢȈLjdzơ

ƨdzƢºººƷ ƔƢĔƛ ńƛ ƨȈǷơǂdzơ ƩƢȈǴǟ ƢǨdzơȁ ƩơǁƽƢººƦŭơ ǺǷ ƨǴ ººLjǴLjƥ ƢȀǷƢȈººǫ

ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳơ ƩƢƠǧŁ ƢǐǷ Ǻǟ ŐǠƫ ŖdzơƩƢȈǴǟƢǨdzơȁ Ʃ ƢººƥƢǬǼdzơȁ Ʃ ƢȈǠǸŪơ

Dzƻƾŭơ Dzǰººnjȇ Ǯdzƿ ǦǏȂººƥ ƨȈǼǗȂdzơ ƧƾººƷȂdzơƧƽƢǠƬºLJơȁ ǵƢºLjǬǻȏơ ǞǸƬĐơ Ʋ ȈºLjǻ ƧƾºƷ Ȃdzȁ řǗȂdzơ ǝȁǂºnjǸǴ dz ǁƢƦƬǟȏơ ƧƽƢǟƛ ǽƢšƢƥ ȆLjȈƟǂdzơ

ƨȇȂǘǴºLjdzơȁ ƨȇȂºƥȋơ DZƢǰNjƗ Dzǯ ƪǔǧǁ ȆȀǧ ŅƢƬdzƢ ƥȁ ǞǸƬĐƢƥ ƨǨǴƬű ǪƷ Ǻǟ ƪǠǧơƽȁǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜ ǼǷȁ DzǯƢȈǿȁ Řƥ ȄǴǟ ƧǂǘȈLjdzơ ƩȏȁƢŰȁ

 ƪǫȂdzơ džǨǻ Ŀ ȆǴƻơƾdzơ

ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸǜǼǷ ƢȀȈǴǟ ƪǷƾººººǫƗ Ŗ dzơ ƩȐǸ ūơȁ ƩơǁƽƢººººƦŭơ ǹƛ

ńƛ ƽƢǼƬº LJȏơȁ ƶǷƢ LjƬdzơ ǵȂȀǨ Ƿ ǺǷ ƪƼLJ ǁȁ ƨȇƽƾǠƬdzơ ƨǧƢǬƯȁ ǥ ȐƬƻȏơ  ƾȈdzƢƥ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơ ǀƻƗ ƩȏȁƢ Ű ǺǷ Ɔȏƾƥ ǹȂǻƢǬdzơƧƽƢȈLJ ƗƾƦǷ

ȃȂºǬdzơ ǞǷ ǹȁƢǠƬdzƢƥ ƨȈǴǿȋơƩƢǸǜǼŭơ ƨǰƦNj  ƩƢǠǷƢ Ūơ ƧǀƫƢLJƗ ƨ ȈǠŦ

ƔơǂƳƛ ǽƢšƢºººººƥƢǿƾ Ȁŝ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢǸ ǜǼǷ ƪǠǧƽ ȅǀdzơ ƪºººººǫȂdzƢƥȁ

DzºƷ DŽǯǂ Ƿ  DžƢŧ ȁ ƶƬǧ śȈºLjȈƟǂdzơśºƦǘǬdzơƧǂƟơƽ ƱǁƢƻ ƨȈºLJ ƢȈLjdzơ ƩȐŧ ƢȀȈǠŦ ł ƛ  řǗ Ȃdzơ ǩƢǧȂdzơ ƨǼŪȁ  ǮǼȈƯ DZƢººººººƥ  ƩƢǟơŗdzơ

ƔƢĔƛ ǥƾđ   Ŀ ƪŤ Ŗ dzơ ƨȈǠȇǂºnjƬdzơ ƨǏƢƻȁƩƢºƥƢƼƬǻȏơ ƨºLjLJ ƚŭơ ƨȈǼºƥ ƨǣ ƢȈǏ ƧƽƢǟƜºƥ ƨŷƢºLj ŭơȁ ƨǘǴºLj dzƢƥ ƨȈƳơȁƽǃȏơ ƨdzƢƷ

ǵƢLjǬǻȏ ơ ƨdzƢƷ ƔƢĔ ƛ ȄǴǟ ňƾŭơ ǞǸƬĐơ ƩƢ ǸǜǼǷ ǍǂƷ džǰǠƫ ƩơǁƽƢƦǷȁ

ƧƾǟƢºǫ ȄǴǟȁ ƧƾºƷ ȂǷ džºLJƗ ȄǴǟ ƨȈǼȈǘ ºLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈǻȂǻƢǬdzơȁƨȈLJƢȈLjdzơ

ȅǀdzơǞǸ ƬĐơ ƲȈººLj ǻ ƧƾººƷȁ Ƕ ȈǷǂƫ ƧƽƢǟȍ ȅDŽǯǂŭơDzƻƾ ŭơ Dzǰººnjȇ ȅǀdzơȁ  ƾ ȇƾƦƬdzơȁǮƬȀƬǴdz Ɔơ ǂƻƚǷ ǑǂǠƫ

ǩȁƾǼǐºƥ ȁƗ ƩƢºƥƢƼ ƬǻȏƢƥ ƢȀǼǟ ŐǠŭơ Ƨǂūơ Ǿƫƽơǁƛȁ ǺǗ ơȂŭơ ȅƗǁ ńƛ ƽƢǼƬLJȏơ ǺǷ ƩƢƥ ƢƼƬǻȏơ Ǻǟ ƨšƢǼdzơ ƨȈƯǁƢǰdzơ ƲƟƢƬǼǴdz ƧǁȂǘş Ʃ ǂǜǻ ƢĔƜǧ  ǝơǂƬǫȏơ

ǦȈǬưƫȁ ƨȈǟȂƬdzơ ǺǷ ƲǷơŐƥƨǬǧǂǷ ƩơǁƽƢƦŭơȁ ƩȐǸūơ ǽǀđ ǁơǂǸƬLJȏơ ǹƛ ƔƢǐººǫȍơ ƨººLJƢȈLJ Ǻǟ ƽƢǠƬº ºƥȏơȁ ǂƻȉơ DzºƦǬƫ ƨǧƢºǬƯ DŽȇDŽǠƫǽƢš ǞǸƬĐơ

ȃƽƗ ȅǀdzơ ǵƢºLjǬǻȏơȁ ƪƬǨƬdzơ Ɔơ ŚƻƗȁ ǂƫȂƬdzơȁ ǹƢºǬƬƷȏơ ƨdzƢºƷ ƺȈLJ ǂƫ ƮȈƷ  ƆƢȈǧơǂǤ Ƴȁ ƆƢȈºLJƢȈLJ řȈǘºLj ǴǨdzơ ȆºLJƢȈLjdzơ ǵƢǜǼdzơ ƨȈǼºƥǁƢǘ njǻơ ńƛ

ǞǸƬĐơ dž LJȋ ƨǸƸǴdzơ ƧƽƢǟƛ DzƳ Ɨ ǺǷ ƨƸǴǷ ƧǁȁǂǓ ƩƢƥ  ƨǬȈǬūơ ǁƢǰƬƷơȁ

ǝƢǘºǫ Ŀ DžƢŧ ƨǯǂºƷ ǾȈǴǟ ƪǷƾºǫƗ ȅǀdzơ ȅǂǰLjǠdzơ ǶLjūơ Ő ǟ ƔơȂLJ

ƨȈǗơǂººº ºǬŻƾdzơǶȈǿƢǨŭơȁ ŚȇƢǠŭơ ńƛ DŽǰƫǂȇ ǹƗ ƤŸ ȅǀ dzơ řȈǘºººLjǴǨdzơ  ƨǴǷƢNj ƧǁȂǐƥ řǗ Ȃdzơ ǝȁǂnjǸ Ǵdz DžƢLJƗ ƧƾǟƢǬǯ

ƢȀȈǴǟ ǵƾǫƗ Ŗdzơ ƨȈǻȂǻƢǬdzơȁ ƨȇ ǁơƽȍơ ƩơƔơǂƳ ȍơ ŐǟȁƗ    Ŀ ƧDŽǣ ÅƔ ơȂºLJ ƩƢLJǁƢǸŭơ Ǯ Ǵƫ  ƆƢ ǔȇƗ ƨǨǔdzƢƥ Ǒ ƢȈǧ ƽ ƨǷȂǰ Ʒȁ ǹǃƢǷ ȂƥƗ džȈƟǂdzơ E-m ail: m_aburam adan@ho tmail.com

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Role of Civil Society in the Maintenance of Community Cohesion Mohse n Abu Ramadan

Non-Gover nmental Organizations as part of civil society have played an i mportant role in the enhancement of development mechanism s in support of resilience and resistance after the major intifada. They have also influenced public policies and legislations upon the formation of the national authority after 94 as regards th e interests of marginalized and vulnerable groups in the community. They have also forwarded recommendations regarding r espect for the culture and values of democracy, human righ ts and human development. We note that those organization s have rejected the state security court, political detentions, attempts at restriction of freedom of opinion, criticism, ex pression and formation of associations and unions and all structures representing the interests of different social sectors in society. They have rejected all forms of patriarchy, hegemony and attempts to control the structures and organization s of civil society. They have defended the right to differ and the diversity of culture. They have called for principles of tolerance and respect of law instead of taking justice in one\s own hand. Civil society organizations have spent their efforts calling for e lections, especially legislative elections, which took part on the 2 5th of January 2006 in the hope that this will end the state of d ouble authority and have contributed to the reformulatio n of the Palestinian political and legal infrastructure on unified p rinciples and on the basis of referring to the free will of citizens expressed in the ballot box through elections. However, th ey have also viewed with concern the catastrophic results of th ose elections in so far as they precipitated a state of congestion and tension, and eventually split, which lead to a division of the Palestinian political system, both politically and geographica lly, established militarily by Hamas in the Gaza strip and through administrative and legal procedures undertaken by President Abu Mazen and the Dr. Fayyad government in the West E-m ail: m_aburam adan@ho tmail.com

Bank as well. Those undertakings, whether militar y or administrative, have led to the jeopardy of the institutional unity and has greatly harmed the Palestinian national project. They have also established a state of fragmentation of the unity of social matrix, since that split has led to dangerous conseque nces which affected the family, the school, and the institutio n in general. It has also lead to a state of ongoing mutual rev enge between the Gaza strip and the West Bank, whether through the political detentions or closure of organizations belonging to the other party, in both areas. This inevitable lead to a weakeni ng of the power of the law, which itself has been subjected to sectarianisms and political polarization. Accordingly it wa s not a surprise that civil society organizations undertake a series of initiatives and actions targeting to put an end to the state of division and to reclaim national unit, since this is the most crucial entry point towards a rebuilding of the national project an d the unity of Palestinian society. The initiatives and campaigns undertaken by civil society organizations (associatio n of university professors, PINGO in collaboration with political groups other than the two poles Fath and Hamas, center for conflict resolution, Pal Think, committee of national conse nsus, etc.) all reflect the determination of civil society organizations to end the state of division and to rehabilitate the unity of social matrix which has been subject to violation and breach. The continuation of those campaigns and initiatives accompanied with awareness raising and community education programs targeting acceptance of the other, rejection of exclusion and monopoly of the truth has become an urgent necessity in order to build cohesion in the structure of Palestinian society which h as to be based on democratic principles and values as a basis for a comprehensive national project.

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Community Psychology's Response to Military Conflicts and Occupations Dr Pa ul S. Du ckett *

As system-level thinkers, communi ty psychologists should perhaps be as focu sed as anyone els e on the social, econom ic, cultural and political cause s, effects and huma n costs of military conflicts and occupations. However, international networks of community psychologists appear to have been mute on such issues, certainly the y have no t taken a discernable public stance. I ask how community psych ologists orient themselves towards the conce pt of globalised violence and w hetherthey fully recognise the ma nifestation s of viole nce beyond the level of the intra an d interpersonal. F urther, I ask how successfu l have community psychologists been at co nceptualising viole nce to include its intra- and inter- national a spects, an d to inclu de the corporate and the geo-political in such a conc eptualisation by permitting the political and economic anteceden ts of viol ence to be mad e fully transparent. For example, to w hat extent has com munity psychology at best allowed corporations and g overnmen ts off the hook and at worst promoted corporate and colonialist in terests thr ough a less than full ana lysis of the violence caused by corp orate gree d and political misanth ropy? War and m ilitary occupation could provide the hooks upon wh ich to lash community psychological concerns over widespread and system ic pattern s of violence and in doin g so to point to wh at is perhaps, at pre sent, a dearth of politicised action in network s of comm unity psy chologists and to the nee d to demonstrate th e disciplines' comm itment to render more visible the plight of th e victim, t he culpability of the system and to engage critically with the public p ositioning of a psycho logy that appears negligent tow ards both.

ȆǠǸƏÄ?ĆĄ džǨǟdzƥ ǜǴÇ&#x; ƨƼƢƴƏLJƛ ÇąČ?ƏơČ?ĆĄČ Ć¨Č‡Ç‚Ç°ÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄ ƊƢÇ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ç?Ç´Çł ĆŞČˆÇŻĆĄĆ˝ ǹȂƼ Ć˝ ÇśÇżÇ Ć˘ÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşĆŚĆŹÇ&#x;ĆœĆĽ džǨǟdzƥ ƔƢǸǴÇ&#x; ƨÇ&#x;Ć˘ĹŚČ ÇşČ‡ ǂǰǨŭƥ ȆǴÇ&#x; ƤŸ Ć˘Ĺ Ç Ç˛Ć°ÇˇÇśČ€Ç´Ć°Çˇ Ç„ČˆÇŻÇ‚ĆŤČ ÇľĆ˘Ç¸ĆŹÇżĆ—Ç Č‚Ĺ° ǚȂǰȇǚƗ Ȇ ÇˇĆ˘ÇœÇťČƒČ‚ĆŹÂşÇˆÇˇ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Çş ȇǂǰǨǡ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇŤĆ˘ÇŹĆ°ÇłĆĄČ Ć¨Č‡Ć˝Ć˘Ç?ĆŹÇŤČ?ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ ȆơƥȂǟdzƥ Ǻǡ ǜǿŚǣ Ç?ĆĄÇ‚Ç?dzƥ Ć¤ÂşÂşĆŚÇˆĆĽ Ç‚Ć&#x; Ć˘ÂşÇˆĆť Ǻǡ ÇšĆ˘ÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ ǞǠǧƞȇ Ć˘ÇˇČ Ç Ć˘ĆŻČ‰ ĆĄČ ĆŁĆ˘ÂşĆŚÇ‡Č‹ ĆĄ ĆŽČˆÂşĆˇ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÇłČ ĆžÇłĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘Ç°ÂşĆŚÇŒÇłĆĄ njºǏƍ Â?ǎdzƿ Ǻǡ ǜǣǂdzƥ ȆǴÇ&#x;Č Çą Č?ƏơČ?ĆĄČ Č…Ç‚ Ç°ÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄ ĆžČˆÇŻĆ— ĆĄÇ€ÇżČ ƢȇƢǔºǏdzƥ ǽǀǿ Ć”ĆĄÇƒĆ› ƔƢǸÇ? Ĺ›ČˆÇ&#x; ƢǸƏơČ?ĆĄ dž Ǩǟdzƥ ƔƢǸǴÇ&#x; ƨÇ&#x;ƢŌ ƥǀdz ƊƢÇ&#x;ȂǓȂŭƥǽǀǿ ǽƢť ÇąČ‚Ć ÂşÇˆÇˇČ Ć˝Ć˘Ćł ÇŚ ǍȂǡ Č…Ć— ĆĄČ Ç€ ƟƏȇ Ĺƒ ǜĔ Ć— ĆŽČˆĆˇ ǽƢť ǜȀ ÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇťĆ—Ĺ›ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨ÇźÇłĆĄ Ĺ› Ç?ƏƟŭƥ Ć”Č?ƚǿ ÇžĆłČ ÇŚ ČˆÇŻ DzĆ&#x;Ć˘ÂşÂşÇˆ ĆŤĆ— Ĺ™ÇťĆœÇ§ Ć”ĆĄÇ Č ÇŚÇźÇ ÇłĆĄ ĆŠČ?Č?Ć˝ ƢºººººººǏơ ÇšČ‚ÇŻÇ ĆžČ‡ ƥȂǝƢǯƢǡ ĆĄĆżĆĄČ ĹƒČ‚ Ç Ĺ­ĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ ǾȂȀǨǡ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ÇşČ‡Ç Ć˝Ć˘ÂşÇŤ ƥȂǝƢǯƢǡ ƥƿƥ ƆƢǔȇƗ Dz Ć&#x;Ć˘ÂşÇˆĆŤĆ—Č ȆÇ?ĆźÂşÇŒÇłĆĄČ Č†Ç´ĆťĆĄĆžÇłĆĄ Č… Č‚ĆŹÂşÇˆĹ­ĆĄ DzǡƢǠƏdzƥ Č…ĆžÇˇČ Č†Ç?ĆźÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ Č…Ćž Ĺ­ĆĄ ÇƒČ Ć˘Ć´ĆŹĆŹÇł ÇŚÇźÇ ÇłĆĄÇ‚ÇżĆĄČ‚ÇœÇł ÇśČˆÇżĆ˘Ç¨Çˇ ÇžÇ“Č Äż Ć”Č?ƚǿ ƾƢų ȅƞǡ ÇşÇ&#x; ƢǔȇƗ Dz Ć&#x;Ć˘ÂşÂşÂşÇˆĆŤĆ— Ĺˆ ĆœÇ§ ǎdzƿȆǴÇ&#x; Ć§Č Č?Ç&#x; ƽƥǂǧČ?ĆĄ śººƼ Â?Ć¨ČˆĆłÇ Ć˘ĹŹĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇ´ĆťĆĄĆžÇłĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇˇČ‚ÂşÇŹÇłĆĄ ǞºƌǝƥȂƳ ÇşÇ¸Ç”ĆŹČˆÇłÇŚÇźÇ ÇłĆĄ ǾȂȀǨǡ ƾƢǔȇƥ ÇşÇ&#x; ǾȂȀǨŭƥ ƥǀǿDzưǡ Äż Ć¨ČˆÂşÇ‡ Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ Ć˘ČˆÇ§ĆĄÇ‚Ç¤ĹŞĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÇŻÇ‚ÇŒÇłĆĄ ƢǔȇƗ Dz Ç¸ÇŒČˆÇłČ Ĺ›Č‡Ć˝Ć˘Ç? ƏºǍČ?ĆĄČ Ĺ›Ç‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄÇşÇˇ Ĺ›ÇŹĆĽĆ˘ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇŚ ǟǠdzƥ ƣƢƸ Ç?Č‹ ĆľĆ˘Ç¸Çˆ dzƥ ǪȇǂǗ ƜŊ ȅƞǡ Č…Ć— Ĺ…ĆĄ  ǹƢưŭƥ Ç˛ČˆÂşĆŚÇ‡ ȆǴǠǧ ƨǴǡƢǰdzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ§Ć˘Ç¨ÇŒÇłĆ˘ĆĽĆĄČ‚Ç¸ ÇˆĆŹČ‡ ǚȋ Dzǔǧƥ Ȇ Ç´Ç&#x; ǀƝȋƥ Çş ǡ ƊƢǡȂǰō ĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÇŻÇ‚ÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŒÇ´Çł ǞǸ ĆŹÄ?ĆĄČ Ç†Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƔƢǸǴÇ&#x; ƔȂºLJƗ ȆǴÇ&#x; Ć¨Č‡Ç Ć˘Ç¸Ç ĆŹÂşÇ‡Č?ĆĄ ŠƢÇ?Ĺ­ĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ÇŻÇ‚ÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ ĆŞÇ Ć´ ºNj ÇŚČˆÇŻČ ÇąĆĄČ‚ĆˇČ?ĆĄ ǞǸǗ Ǻǡ Ć¨ÂşĆŚĆŚÇˆĆŹĹ­ĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ ǹƢǸ Ç&#x;Č‹ DzǡƢǯ Ç˛ČˆÇ´Ĺ˘ Ǻǡ Dz ÇŤĆ— ÇąČ?Ćť Ǻǡ ǹƥȂơȋƥ Ć˘ÇťĆ˝Č Ç„Č‡ ƞº ÇŤ Č…Ç‚Ç°ÂşÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏºơČ?ĆĄČ ĆŁÇ‚ĹŤĆĄÇšĆ› Â&#x; Č†ÂşÇ‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆÇłĆĄ ĆžÂşÇŹĹŤĆĄČ ĆŠ Ć˘ÇŻÇ‚ÇŒÇłĆĄ Ć”ĆĄÇƒĆ› ǜȀǡ Ć˘Ç¸ĆŹÇżĆĄĆĄČ ĆžÂşĆŚČˆÇł ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄČ Ç†Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄĆ”Ć˘Ç¸Ç´Ç&#x; ȅƞȇƗ ȆǴÇ&#x; ƣǂǔǴdz ÇĽ Ć˘Ç˜ĹŹĆ˘ĆĽ ǼǂǠȇ Ƣǡ Ĺ…ĆĄ ĹšÂşÂşÂşÇŒ Çť Ć˘ÇźÇťĆœÇ§ÇŽÇłĆż Ç˛Ç Ç¨ÂşÂşĆĽČ Ç˛ ÇˇĆ˘ÂşÂşÇŒÇłĆĄČ Çś ÇœÇźĹ­ĆĄ njǟǠdzƥ ǕƢŜƥ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄČ Ç†Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄĆ”Ć˘Ç¸Ç´Ç&#x; ƊƢǰºƌNj Äż Č†Ç‡Ć˘ČˆÇˆ dzƥ DzǸǠdzƥ Ć§Ç ĆžÇť ǂǓƢōƥ ƪǍȂdzƢƼ Ç‚Ć°ÇŻĆ—Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆĽ Ć¨ČˆĆ¸Ç”ÇłĆĄ Ć¨Ç´Ç°ÇŒ ǡ Ç‘Ç‚Ç Çł ÇŚ ÇŤĆĄČ‚Ĺ­ĆĄ ǾƥDŽƏdzƥ ƊƢƌƯČ? ƨƳ Ƣōƥ Ĺ…Ć›Č Ć¤ČˆÇ?ǟƏdz ǾƢǠdzƥȅƗǂ dzƥ Ǟǡ ƞººǍƢǝ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆĽ Ç• ĆĄÇ‚ĹľČ?ĆĄČ ÇľĆ˘ÇœÇźÇłĆĄ Ć¨ÇťĆĄĆ˝Ć›Č Â?Ƣ ÂşĆˇČ‚Ç“Č śǿƢťČ?ĆĄ Č?ÇŻÄż Č?Ć˘ĹˇĆ›ÇšČ ĆžĆŚČ‡ Ǻȇǀdzƥ ǞǸƏÄ?ĆĄČ Ç†Ç¨ÇźÇłĆĄ ƔƢǸǴÇ&#x; * D epartm ent of Psycholog y and Social Change, M anche ster UKp.duckett@mmu.ac.uk

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79S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges


The Impact of Siege and Blockade on P alestinian Detain ees and their Families, in particular, the Gaza Detainees Mr. Abdel NasserAw ni Fer wana*

Accord ing to statistical data available at the ministry there are at present around ten thousand prisoners of war, among th em 94 women and 344 children d istributed over 25 prisons, detention centers and inc arceration centers. The list of vio lations committed against the detainees is extremely long an d has escalated in severity and brutality since the beginning of the siege, a ll in sile nce and w ithout an y media coverage. These include a violatio n of basic h uman righ ts, includ ing the collective deprivation of family visits for all de tainees fro m the Gaz a strip (about 920 detain ees) and the prevention of large numb ers of familie s from vis iting their children on an individual basis under the pret ext of security. This constitutes a violation of international conven tions and humanitarian laws. This la ck of visi tation dep rives the detainees from receiving funds for use in th e canteen, winterclothes, med ication, blankets, etc. In addition, the bank accounts of detainees are close d, their money is confiscated and they are fined for trivial re asons, causing extra stre ss for them and their families. It is a collective punishment that r esults in complex p sychologic al consequences for bot h parties and creates a socia l gap between them . The detaine es and their families continue to live a state of inse curity, each worrying ab out what is happening to the o ther. For families attempting to visit detaine es, a visit to the West Bank and Jerusalem is a tedious journey. It requires passin g through tens of military checkpo ints along roads and at entranc es to cam ps and cities. U pon arrival at pris ons or detention centers, which are located far from people's residenc es, family membe rs are subjected to maltreatment, humiliatin g searche s and long hours of wait ing in fro nt of the prison gat e before they are allowed inside. Sometime s they are beaten. O ther times , they may return home w ithout visiting their loved ones under weak, artificial pretexts. The num ber of detainees ha s increase d during the first year of the siege, reaching around 800 0 detainees in addition to 6 people who were martyred inside the prison s and detention centers . This paper focuses on the im pact of th e siege on POW and the ir families.

Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ Ĺ› Ç´ÇŹĆŹÇ Ĺ­ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç„ĆłĆĄČ‚ĹŤĆĄČ Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ĆŠĆĄĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ  ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ȆǴǏƏǠǡ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ‡ Č? ÇśČ€Č‡Č ĆżČ Ć¨ÇťĆĄČ Ç‚Ç§ ĹˆČ‚Ç&#x; Ç‚Ç?Ƣǟdzƥ ƞƌÇ&#x; ƞƳȂȇ ǞǝƢǧ Â? ÇşČ‡Ç Ç‚Ć„ĆĄČ ČƒÇ‚Ç‡Č‹ĆĄ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇƒČ Äż Ƣǟȇƞdz ƧǂǧȂƏŭƥ Ć¨ČˆĆ&#x;ƢÇ?ơČ?ĆĄ ĆŠ Ć˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆĆŚÇ´Çł Ć†Ć˘ÇŹÇ§Č Č Ĺ›Ç&#x;ÇƒČ‚Çˇ Ć”Č?ĆšÇżČ Â? Dz ǨǗ  Č Ć§ĹšÇ‡Ć—  ÇśČ€ÇźČˆĆĽ DzǏƏǠǡ   ƨƼƥǂǍ ǚȉƥ  ÇŚČˆÇŤČ‚ĆŤ Ç„ÇŻÇ‚ÇˇČ Ć†Č?ÇŹĆŹÇ ÇˇČ Ć†Ć˘ÇźĆ´Ç‡  ƨƼƥǂǍȄǴÇ&#x; ƢȀƏÇ&#x;Ć˘ÇœÇ§Č Ć˘Ä“Č Ć˘ÂşÇˆÇŤ ĆŠĆžĆŹÂşÇ‹ĆĄČ Ć†ĆĄĆžĆł ƨǴȇȂǗ ČƒÇ‚ÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ ÇŞĹž ƊƢǯƢȀƏǝČ?ĆĄ ƨǸĆ&#x;ƢǍ  Ć˘ÇżÇƒÇ‚ĆĽĆ—Č ÇľČ?Ç&#x;Č?ƥDzĆ&#x;Ć˘Ç‡Č ÇşÇ&#x; ĆĄĆžČˆÇ ĆĽČ ĆŞÇˇĆ˘Ç? Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆĽ Â? Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ƨȇƥƞƼ ǀǟǡ Ǻȇǀdzƥ Â?ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ ȆǴºǏƏǠǡ ƨǧƢǰdz ȆÇ&#x; ƢŌ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆĽ Dzǿȋƥ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Č‡Çƒ Ǻǡ ǚƢǡǂōƥ Ć§Ç Ć˘Č‡Çƒ Ǻǡ ČƒÇ‚ÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ ŅƢǿƗ Ǻǡ ƧŚƌǯ ƽƥƞÇ&#x;Ć— ÇžÇźÇˇČ Ç˛ÇŹĆŹÇ Çˇ  ºƼ ǜǿƽƞÇ&#x; Ç ĆžÇŹČ‡ ǚƢǡǂººơ řǠȇ ĆĄÇ€ÇżČ  řǡȋƥ Ǟǟŭƥ  ȄǸ ÂşÂşÇˆČ‡ Ƣǡ ƪŢ ȅƽǂǧ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÇŒĆĽ ǜȀĆ&#x;ƢǟºƼƗ Ć¨Č‡Č‚ĆŹÂşÂşÇŒÇłĆĄ džººƼ Č?Ĺ­ĆĄČ Â? DzǿȋƥǪȇǂǗ ÇşÇ&#x;  Ć˘ÇźČˆĆŹÇźÇ°ÇłĆĄ  ǹƥȂǡƗ ȆººǏǴƍ Ǻǡ ŚºLJȋƥ ČƒÇ‚ÂşÂşÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşÂşĆĽĆ˘ÇˆĆˇ ÇŠČ?ÇŁĆĄ Ĺ„ĆĄ ƨǧƢǓ Č?ƢºººƼ Â?Ć¨Č‡Č Ć˝Č‹ĆĄČ Ć¨Č‡Ç Č Ç‚Ç” dzƥ Ć¨ČˆÇ˜ÇŁČ‹ĆĄČ ÇśÂşÂşÇŤĆ˘Ç§ ƢŲ ƣƢºƌLJȋƥ ǞǨƍȋ ÇśČ€ČˆÇ´Ç&#x; Ć¨ČˆÇłĆ˘Çˇ ƊƢǡƥǂǣ Ç‘Ç‚Ç§Č ÇśĹŽĆĄČ‚ÇˇĆ— Ć§Ç Ć˝Ć˘Ç?ÇˇČ  ÇśČ€Č‡Č ĆżČ ČƒÇ‚Ç‡ Č‹ĆĄ ƧƢǝƢǠǡ Ǻǡ Ć¨ČˆÂşÇ‡Ć˘ÇŤ Ć¨ČˆÇˆÇ¨Çť ƨƼǂǓ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆŤČ Ç˛ÇżČ‹ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Č‡Çƒ Ǻǡ ǚƢǡǂōƥ ǚƢǧ ÇžČˆÇ§ ÇŽÇ‹ Č? Ć˘Ĺ˛Č Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƨǨÇ&#x;Ƣǔǡ ƨººƌǠÇ?Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť Ć†ĆĄÇ Ć˘ĆŻĆ• ǭǂƏȇ ȆÇ&#x;ƢŌ ƣƢººǏÇ&#x; Č‚ÇżČ Â? ǜȀºǏŞ Â?Ć˘Ç¸Č€ÇźČˆÂşÂşÂşĆĽ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ§ Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸƏƳČ?ĆĄ ƨººǍČ?Ǡdzƥ Äż Ć§Č‚Ć´Ç§ÇŞÇ´ĹşČ Â? Ĺ›Ç§Ç‚Ç˜ ÇłĆĄĆŠĆ˘ČˆÂşÂşÇˆÇ¨Çť Ć¨ÂşÇŤÇ Č Č Â? Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťĆĄ ƊƢƏǨdz Ĺ„ĆĄ ÇžÇłČ‚Ĺ˘Č Ç?Č Ç‚ÇŒĹ­ĆĄ ÇŞĹŤĆĄ ƥǀǿ ƤǴLJ DzÇ? ĆĄČ‚ĆŤ Ç˛ČˆĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ‚Ç‡ĆĄČ Ç˛ÇŻ ČƒĆžÇł ƭƞŚ Ƣŭ ĆĄÇ‚ÇœÇť ǪǴºǍ ƨdzƢºơ Äż ÇžČ‡Č ĆżČ ĹšÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ Č„ÂşÇŹĆŚČ‡Č Â? ƨǡ Č Ć˘ÇˆÇˇČ ÇƒĆĄÇ„ĆŹĆĽĆĄ ÇžČˆÇ§ ĆŠĆžÇ&#x;ƢÇ?ĆŤ ĆŞÂşÂşÇŤČ ÄżĆĄÇ€Çż ĹˆĆ˘Ć°ÇłĆĄ ÇĽÇ‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ ČƒĆžÇł ƨººǏǴǏǡ ƭƥƞºơƗ Ǻǡ ÇĽÇ‚Ç— ƨƼƥǂǍ Ĺ„ĆĄ ÇžČˆÇ§ śǴǏƏǠŭƥƽƞÇ&#x; DzÇ?Č Č Ç Ć˘Ç? ĹŤĆĄ Ǻǡ ÇąČ Č‹ĆĄ ǾƢǠdzƥ ÇąČ?Ćť ĆŠČ?ƢǏƏÇ&#x;Č?ĆĄ ĆŠČ?ÇŹĆŹÇ ÇˇČ ÇšČ‚Ć´Ç‡ DzƝƥƽ ČƒÇ‚Ç‡Ć—  ǞdzČ? Ćť ĆžČ€ÇŒĆŹÇ‡ĆĄ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÇ§ Â? ǺǗƥȂǡ 

ÇąČ?ƏơČ?ĆĄ Ć˘Ä”ĆœÇ§ Ç…ĆžÂşÂşÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÂşÂşÂşĆĽÇ‚Ç¤ÇłĆĄ ƨǨǔdzƥ ŅƢǿȋ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Č‡Ç„ÇłĆĄ ƪŤ ÇšĆ›Č Ć˘ÇżÇ Ć˘ĆŻĆ•Č Ç„ĆłĆĄČ‚ĹŤĆĄ Ć†ĆĄÇ Č Ç‚ÇˇČ Â? ĆŞČˆÂşĆŚÇłĆĄ Çş ǡ ĆąČ Ç‚ĹŹĆĄ Ć¨ÇœĹŤ Ǻǡ Ɨƞºƌ Əǧ Â? Â? Ć¨Č‡Ç ĆĄÇ‚Ç˜Ç“Ć› ƧƢǝƢǠǡ Ć¨Ç´ĆˇÇ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆŤ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşÇŤÇ‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƨǧƢưǰººƼ Ć§Ç‚ÂşÂşÇŒĆŹÇźĹ­ĆĄ Ć¨Č‡Ç‚Ç°ÂşÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄ DŽƳƥȂōƥ Ǻǡ ĆŠ ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇŒÇ ÇłĆĄ Ĺ?Ç&#x; ƨǓƢǨƏǝƥ ÇąČ?Ćť ǙȂºººƸǴǡ Ç˛Ç°ÂşÂşÂşÇŒĆĽ ĆŠ Ć˝ĆĄĆ˝ÇƒĆĄ Ĺ–ÇłĆĄČ ÇšĆžĹ­ĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘Ç¸ČˆĆźĹ­ĆĄ Ç˛ĆťĆĄĆžÇˇČ ÇšĆ˘Č€ĆŹÇˇĆĄČ Ç˛Č‡Č‚Ç˜ÇłĆĄ Ç Ć˘ÇœĆŹÇťČ?ĆĄČ ÇąČ?ĆżČ?ĆĄ ƢȀǴǴ ĆźĆŹČ‡Č Â? Ć¨ČˆÂşĆĽÇ‚Ç¤ÇłĆĄ ƨǨǔdzƥ Äż Č„Ç?ºǍȋƥ DzºǏƏǠǸǴdz Č Ć— Ǻƴ ÇˆÇ´Çł ǹȂÇ?Ȃdzƥ Ĺ›ĆˇČ Â? ƆČ? ȇȂǗ Ć˘ĆŹÇŤČ Č ĆĄĆžČ€Ćł ÇĽĹ—ĆŹÇˆ ĆŤČ Â? ƨǡƥǂǰǴdz Ć¨Ć ČˆÂşÂşÂşÇ‡ ƨǴǡƢǠŭ ǚȂǓǂǠƏȇ ÇśÄ”ĆœÇ§ Â? Çś ǿƢǟǰºººLJ ǺǯƢǡƗ ÇşÇ&#x; Ɔƥ ƞƳ ĆžČˆÇ ÂşÂşÂşĆŚÇłĆĄ DzººƌǍ ÇşĆ´ÂşÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ƨººƼƥȂƼ ǾƢǡƗ ƆČ?ȇȂǗ Ç Ć˘Çœ ƏǝȎdz ÇšČ Ç‚Ç˜Ç”Č‡Č Ć¨ÇłÇ€Çˇ ĆŠĆ˘ÂşÂşÇŒČˆĆŹÇ¨ĆŤČ Ć§ĹšĆ°ÇŻ Ć†Ć˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆÂşĆˇĆ— ÄżČ Â? ƣǂǔdzƢºƼ ÇśČ€ČˆÇ´Ç&#x; ČƒĆž ƏǠȇ Ć†Ć˘ÇťĆ˘ČˆÂşĆˇĆ—Č Â? Ć§Ç Ć˘Č‡Ç„ÇłĆ˘ÂşĆĽ Çś ĹŽ ĆľĆ˘Ç¸ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇşĆ´ÇˆÇłĆĄ Ć§Ç ĆĄĆ˝Ć› Ć˘Č€ÇŤČ‚ÇˆĆŤ Ć¨ČˆÇżĆĄČ ÇžĆ&#x;ĆĄÇ Ćż ĆŞĹ˘Č ÇśČ€Ć&#x;ƢǟƼƗ Ć§Ç Ć˘Č‡Çƒ ÇšČ Ć˝ ÇśÄ“Č‚ČˆĆĽ Ĺ„ĆĄ ÇšČ Ć˝Č‚Ç Č‡ ĆŠĆĄÇ‚ÇŒÇ ĆĽ Ç Č Ç‚Ĺ­ĆĄ Ĺ?Ç&#x; ČƒÇ‚ĆťĆĄĆ§Ć˘ÇťĆ˘Ç Çˇ Ç˛Ç°ÇŒĆŤ Çś ēƽȂÇ&#x; ǚƢǧ Â? Č? Ǿƥ Ć§Ç Ć˘Č‡Ç„ÇłĆĄ Ǻǡ ĆĄČ‚ÇźÇ°Ĺ¤Č Â?  Ć¨Č‡Ç‚Ç°ÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄÇ„ĆłĆĄČ‚ĹŤĆĄ ÇśČ€Č‡Č ĆżČ ČƒÇ‚ÂşÂşÇ‡Č‹ ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ Ç Ć˘ĆŻĆ• Ǻǡ ÇŚ ČˆÇ¨ĆźĆŹÇłĆĄ ÇąČ Ć˘Ĺ˘ ÇşČ‡Ç Ç‚Ć„ĆĄČ ČƒÇ‚ÂşÇ‡Č‹ĆĄ Ć§Ç ĆĄÇƒČ Ć¨ Ç&#x;Č‚ÇźĆŹĹ­ĆĄĆŠĆ˘ÇˇĆžĹŹĆĄČ ĆŠĆ˘ČˆÇłĆ˘Ç Ç¨ÇłĆĄČ Ć¨Ç˜ÇŒÇťČ‹ĆĄ Ǻǡ ƞȇ ƞǠdzƥ ÇąČ?Ćť Ǻǡ

E-mail : fer wana2@yahoo.com

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džǨǼdzơ ȆǴǟ ƧǂǘȈLjdzơȁ ƨȇƢǟǂǴdz řȇƽ ǥǂǠǯ ǹơǂǬdzơ ƧƔơǂǫ B ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ǺǷ ƾǠƥƗ ȂǿƢǷ Ņƛ ƔơƾȀnjdzơȁ śLJƢȈLjdzơ ƔƢǼƴLjdzơ ȅȁƿ ǺǷ ƨȈǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƩȐƟƢǠdzơ śƥ NJ ƫȂƥ ƩȂdz

ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳơ ƨººLJǁƢǸǸǯƨǤǴdzƢººƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ƢǸȈǧȁ ƢȀººLjǨǻ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ Ƶȁǁ Ņƛ

ǑȁǂǨŭơ ȆǴȈƟơǂºLJȍơ DZȐƬºƷȏơ ȄǴǟ ƨºƦƫǂƬŭơ ƲƟƢƬǼdzƢƥ ǵƢǸƬǿȏơ ǁƢǗơ Ŀ

ȆŮ ǹơǂºǬ dzơ ƧƔơǂǬdz ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ ƧƽƢǠdzơ ǹƗ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǑǂƬǨƫ  džǻƢǿ

ƨȇǂºLJȋơ ƩƢºǫȐǠdzơ ȆǴǟ ƩơŚƯƘƫǺǷ ǾdzƢǷȁ řȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƤǠºnj dzơȆǴǟ

ƾºǬƬǠȇȁ ƢǸǯ ƧǂLJȋơ ƽơǂǧƗ ǺǷ ǺȇǂƻȉƢƥ ƨȇƢǼǠdzơȁ ƨȈƫơǀdzơ ƨȇƢǼǠǴ dz ƨǴȈLJȁ ƢǸǯ ȆǨǗƢǠdzơȁ ȅƾºLjŪơ Ń ȋơȁ ǂƫȂƬdzơ ƧƾºƷ Ǻ Ƿ ǦǨţ ǹơǂºǬdzơ ƧƔơǂºǫ ǹƗ ǵƢǟ ňơƾȈŭơ DzǸǠdzơ Ņƛ ơƽƢǼƬLJơȁ ǹƢLjǻȍơ Dzƻơƽ Ŀ Őǐdzơ Ƶȁǁ Dž ǂǤƫ ƢĔƗ

ƣƢǠȈƬººLJơ ƨȈǨȈǯ ȄǴǟ ƔȂǔdzơ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǖǴººLjƫ ƨºƥơǂǬdzơ ƨǴǏȁ ǾdzȐƻ ǺǷ Ƥ ǗƢƼƬdzơȁ ǾƬººººººLJǁƢŲ ǶƬȇ ȆȈǼȇƽ ǥǂǠǯ  ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ǵȂȀǨǷ ƔơƾȀºnjdzơȁ śǼȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƔƢǼƴLjdzơ ǂLJƗ Dzƻơƽ ǒǫƢǼƬǷ Dzǰnjƥ Ǿǯơǁƽƛȁ

ƔƢǼƴºººLjdzơȁ ƔơƾȀººnjdzơ ǂººLJƗ śººƥ ƨȈººƥǂǤdzơ ƨǨǔdzơ Ŀ  

ǹƗ ǁƢºººƦƬǟơ ȆǴǟ DžƢǼdzơ ǺǷ ƨǼȈǠǷ ƨƠǨººƥ řǠƫ ƨººǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǹƜǧ ơǀđȁ

ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ ƧƽƢǠdzơ ǹƘnjƥ ǪȈǬƸƬ dzơ ǹƗ Ņƛ Śnjƫ ƨǫǁȂdzơ ǽǀǿ ǹƜǧ śȈLJƢȈLjdzơ

Ŀ ǂǜǼdzơ ǹƛ ƧƾȈǨƬºLjŭơ ƩȐƟƢǠdzơ śƥ ǺǷ Ƕǿ ƨȈdzȁȋơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ȆǷƾǬǷ

ƨȈǼȈǘººLj ǴǨdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ Ƶȁǁ Ŀ ƩƢººǫƢǬnjǻȏơ ƩǁƢƯƗ ƾºǫ ǹƕǂºǬdzơ ƧƔơǂºǬdz DzǷơǁƗȁ ƔƢǼƴ ºººLjdzơ ƩƢƳȁǃ ƣǁƢš Ŀ śººƦƬƫ ƩƢººǫƢǬnjǻȏơ ǽǀǿ ȅƾººƷƛȁ ǹơ ǶŮ DZȂºǬdzƢƥ ǦǗƢǠƬdzơ Ƕ Ů ǹȁƾºƦȇ ƧǂºLJȋơ ƽơǂǧƗ ǹƗ ƪȈºƷ ƔơƾȀnjdzơ

DZƢǘºººƥȋơ Ɣȏƚǿ ƩȐƟƢǟ ǹȋ ƨȈŷȋơ ƨȇƢǣ Ŀ ǂǷƗ Ȃǿ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ƩƢººLJǁƢŲ řȈǘºLjǴǨ dzơƤǠnjdzơ ǶŮ ǞǴǘƬȇ Ǻȇǀdzơ ǍƢƼNjȋơ ǺǷ Ƕǿ ś ȈǼǗȂdzơ DzǸū ǺȇǂǘǔǷ ƧǂººLJȋơ ƽơǂǧƗ ƾų ƢǼǻƜǧ ǂººLJȋ ơ ǽǀǿ Dzƻơƽ Ŀȁ ǾƬǷǂººƥ

Ǻǰdzȁ ǺȀƳ ơȁǃƗ ƣƢȈǣ ƨǼŰ ǺǷ ǦȈǨƼƬdzơ DzƳƗ ǺǷ ǹơǂºǬdzơ ƧƔơǂǫ ǶȀȈǴǟ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ǺǷ ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ ƩơƽƢǠdzơ ǽǀǿ DzưǷ ǹƗ Ņƛ ƨdz ƘºLjŭơ ǽǀǿ Ņƛ ǂǜ Ǽƫ ƧƗǂŭơ

ǒǠºƦdzơ ǶȀǔǠºƥ śºƥȁ ǶȀºǬƫƢǟ ȆǴǟ ƨȈǻơƾƳȂdzơȁ ƨȇƽƢŭơ ƩƢȈdzȂƠºLjŭơ ƢººǬǧȁȁ ƧƢǧȂdzơȁƗ ǺƴººLjdzơ Ƥ ººƦLjƥ Ǻººƥȍơ ȁƗ ƱȁDŽdzơ ƣƢȈǣ DZƢºƷ Ŀ Ǯdzƿȁ

ǶȀƬǼººººººƸŠȁ Ƕđ ǵƢǸƬǿ ȏơ džȈdzȁ ǶŮ DZƢŷȍơ ǾƳȁƗ ǺǷ ƢȀƳȁ ƾǠƫ DzǏȂȇ ȏ ȏ Ǯdzƿ ǹƘǧ ǹƕǂººǬdzơ ƧƔơǂºǬdz řȇƾdzơ ǥǂǠdzơ ƨºLJǁƢŲ ȄǐºǬƬƥȁ

ƨºººLJǁƢǸŭơ DZȐƻ ǺǷ džǰǠǼȇ Ǯdzƿ ǹƢǧ śǘºººLjǴǧ Ŀ ǵƢǠdzơ ƣ ƢǘƼǴdz ƩƢººǫȐǠdzơȁ ƩƢºLJǁƢǸŭơ ȆǴǟ Ƥưǯ Ǻǟ Ƨǂǜǻ ƢǼȈºǬdzơ ơƿƛ ƢǼǼǰdzȁ ƨ ȈǴǸǠdzơ

ȄǴǟ DŽȈǯǂƬdzƢººƥȁ ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ƩƢººLJǁƢǸŭ ƨǔºǫƢǼƬŭơ ňƢǠŭơ ǖºǬǧ

ƧƢȈū ŅƢưŭơ DzȈƼƬdzơ Ŀ ƣȂȈǟȁ ƩƢºǫƢǬnjǻơ ƢǼdz ƶ ǔƬȇ ǥȂºLjǧ ƨȇǂºLJȋơ

ƢǻƽȁDŽȇ ǹƗ ǾǻƘººNj ǺǷ ǮdzƿǹƜǧ ǹƢǟƿȎdz ƨȈǟơƾdzơ ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ Ʃ ƢººLJǁƢŲ śǼǷDŽǷ ƢººƸƦǏƗ Ǻȇǀdzơȁ ǦǼǠdzơȁ ƩƢǟơǂǐdzơ ǦȈǯ DZȂºƷ ƨºƦǫƢƯ ƧǂǜǼºƥ Ƣŭ ȆºººLJƢLJȋơ ǶȀǨǴdz ƧǂǏƢǠŭơ ƱƿƢǸǼdzơ ǺǷ Ɔȏƾººƥ ǡƢǧ ǭǁƾǼǿ

ǂƬǯƗ DzǸºnjȇ řȈǘLjǴǨdzơ ƤǠnjǴdz ňƢǰLjdzơ ƽ ơƾǠƬdzơ ǹȏ ơǂǜǻȁ ƧǂLJȋơ Dzǰºnjƫ ƨȈǷ ȐºLJȍơ ǶȈºǬdzơȁ ƩơƽƢǠdzơ ǹƜǧ ŅƢƬdzƢºƥśǸǴLjŭơ ǺǷ  ǺǷ ƩơƽƢǠdzơ ǽǀǿ ǶǿƗ ǺǷ DzǠdzȁ ƨȈǼȈǘºLjǴǨdzơ ƨȈǟƢǸƬƳȍơ ƧƢȈºƸǴdz ƆƢ LJƢLJƗ

ƧǂǏƢǠŭ ơ řȈǘLjǴǧ Ŀ ƨȈǟơǁ ƧǂLJƗ ǹȂǰȇ ǹƗ ǾȈǼǠȇ

ơǁȁƽ ƤǠǴƫ ƢĔ Ɨ ƮȈºººƷ ǵƢǸƬǿ ȏơȁ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ƔơƽƗ Ȇǿ ƩƢººLJǁƢǸŭơȁ ƨȈǼȇƾdzơ řǻƛ ƣǁƢºǫȋơȁ ƧǂºLJȋơ ƨȇƢǟǂºƥ ǪǴǠƬȇ ƢǸȈǧ ƢǸȈ LJȏȁ ǵȐLJȍơ Ŀ ƢȇǁȂŰ ƨȇƢǟǂdzơ ƨºLJǁƢǸŭ ơǁƢǗƛ Dzǰºnjȇ ȅǀdzơ ȆǫȐƻȋơ ȆŭƢǠdzơ ǵơDŽƬdzȏơ ơǀǿ ǞƳǁơ

81 S i ege and Mental H ealth… W alls vs. Bridges


Beyond Care - Reading the Qur'an as Religious Practices of Care and (self-) control in Palestinian families of Political Prisoners and Martyrs Ms. Lotte Buch *

Fram ed by a concern with the consequences of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian people on family relations and intimacy, this paper investigates how 'care' understood as a religious practice is enacted, negotiated and perceived contradictorily within families of Palestinian political prisoners and martyrs. The paper is thus concerned with the category of people considered to be the 'primary care givers' among beneficiaries' families. Examining religious practices of care among these families is significant because the families of the national heroes are someone the entire Palestinian population cares about. And, within these families, family members are obliged to take financial and emotional care of each other in the absence of the husband or son due to his imprisonment or decease. According to public discourse in Palestine this is reflected in practice, but taking a closer look at family relations and practices of care display significant fractures in this ideal imaginary of family life. Since the Palestinian population is comprised of 97 % Muslims, norms and values rooted in Islam underlie Palestinian social life. One such religious value and practice is the performance of care which in Islam plays a pivotal role, particularly with regards to caring for and about family and kin. I term the moral universe of obligation that frames practices of care for 'an ethos of care'.

Qur'an is a way of performing care for self and others in families. Reading the Qur'an is believed to relieve tension, emotional and bodily distress as well as engendering patience [sabr]. Based on fieldwork in 2007 and 2008 in the WestBank among families of martyrs and political prisoners, the paper suggests that investigating the religious practice of reading the Qur'an illuminates fractures within the Palestinian ethos of care. One such fracture shows in the experiences of prisoners' wives and martyrs' widows' of their family members' supposed display of care by telling them to'read the Qur'an' in order to alleviate the distress of enduring the absence of their husbands. But, to the women in question, these religious practices of care are perceived to display carelessness rather than care about their distress. Investigating the religious practice of reading the Qur'an therefore conveys not only the contested meanings of religious practices of ca re; a focu s on religious, intersubjective practices of care provides us with a glimpse of how violent conflict that has become chronic (Henrik Vigh 2008) rather than temporary m oulds the basic understanding of what it means to be a caring family in contemporary Palestine.

Regarding language as a social practice (Hanks 1995) this paper assumes that that the religious practice of reading the *Inst itute o f Ant hropo logy, Univ ersity of C openh agen Den mark / lotte.buch @an thro.k u.dk

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The Siege's Impact on Palestinian Prisoners in Israeli Jails Advocate Jam il Sar han*

Since its occupation of the West B ank an d the G aza St rip, the Israe li Occu pation Forces (IOF) i ntentionally br eaches human right s in diffe rent wa ys to co ntrol bo th man and land . It arre sted the Pales tinians and con tinued with its policy o f impri soning them in jails with in adequat e stand ard of l iving. P risoner s are d eprived from their m ost basi c huma n rights , especi ally the right n ot to be subje cted to torture and inh uman, cruel tre atment , right t o heath care a ndrigh t to fair trial. The I OF util ized the reperc ussions of the Hamas takeove r on 14 June 2007. It issued a numbe r of law s and de cisions with the aim to conti nue im posing a col lective punishment o f the civilian popu lation o f the Ga za Strip . Its dec ision to consid er the Strip as a hosti le territo ry has i mpacted the Palestinian prisone rs in the Israeli jails. As a result, familie s were banne d from visitin g their impr isoned p ersons. The IOF consid ered some of th ose imp risoned perso ns as 'il legal fig hters' in accord ance w ith an Is raeli law that is defia nt tothe standar ds of fai r trials a nd hum anitaria n laws. The p aper wi ll discuss the fo llowing : The i mpact o f the so -called 'pullout from G aza' on the Palestinian priso ners Bann ing Gaz a's priso ners fro m meet ing thei r familie s Appl ying the 'illegal fighter' law on s ome of the Strip 's priso ners The I OF's vi olation o f the ru les of th e intern ational l aw with regard to the Gaza S trip's pr isoners Spec ial cases The f irst topi c will ex plore th e impact of the so-calle d 'pullo ut from Gaza ' and re lated decisions on the Strip's prisone rs. The second will e xplore the IOF 's bann ing Gaz an fami lies from visiting their relati ves imp risoned in the Israeli j ails. It will als o deal w ith the Israe li measures against pri soners and the role of the Red Cross with regard t o such v isits. The third topic will discu ss the so -called law o f 'illega l fighter' and th e legal c onsequ ences o f applyi ng it on the S trip's prisoners. The fou rthtopic will di scuss th e standa rds of a fair t rial and to what extent t he Israe li laws are in de fiance w ith the intern ational law and Fourth Genev a Conv ention. Finally, the last topic will sh ed ligh t on th e case of Khal id bin Said an d other priso ners wh o were recentl y considered il legal fig hters. We will explo re afew aspects of the s uffering ofthei r familie s after b anning them from vi siting th eir relat ives imprisoned in the I sraeli ja ils.

83S i ege and Mental H ealth‌ W alls vs. Bridges

śǴǏƏǠŭƥ Ç?Ć˘Ç“Č Ć— Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Ç Ć˘Ç?ĹŤĆĄ ĹšĆŻĆ˜ĆŤ Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ ÇšČ‚Ć´ÇˆÇłĆĄ Äż Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ǚƢơǂLJ Ç˛ČˆĹŚ ƊƞǸÇ&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ ÂşÇŤČ Ć¨ČˆÂşĆĽÇ‚Ç¤ÇłĆĄ ƨǨǔǴdz Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJČ?ĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏơČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄČ‚ÇŤ ÇąČ?Əơƥ Ç€ ǟǡ Ć˘Ä“Ç‚Ç˜ ČˆÇ‡ Ç–ÇˆĆŚÇł ÇšĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ? ĆĄ NJȂǏơƊ ƢǯƢȀƏǝƥ Ǻǡ ƨÇ&#x;ȂǟƏǡ ǹƢǰNjƗ Ć¨Ç‡Ç Ć˘Ĺ˛ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƊǂǸƏ ÂşÂşÇ‡ĆĄČ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ǹƢººǏƏÇ&#x;ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƪǴǸǠǧ ÇšĆ˘ÂşÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄČ Ç‘Ç Č‹ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; Č?Č Ć¨Čˆ ÇťĆ˘ÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ Ć§Ć˘ČˆĹŤĆĄ Ç•Č Ç‚Ç‹ Ǟǡ ǪǨƏƍ Č? ÇƒĆ˘Ć´ĆŹĆˇĆĄ ǺǯƢǡƗ Äż ǜȀǠǓȂƼ Ć˘Č€ĆŹÇ‡Ć˘Čˆ LJ Ć˘Ç¸ČˆÂşÇ‡Č? ÇšĆ˘ÂşÇˆÇťČ?ĆĄ NJȂǏơ Ç–ÇˆĆĽĆ— Ǻǡ ǜĔƢǡǂơ ÄťČ Ć¨ČˆĆťĆ˘ÇźĹ­ĆĄ ÇĽČ Ç‚Çœ dzƥ Ǟǡ ǾƔČ?ĆŹĆŤ ÇŞĹŤĆĄČ ƨºƸÇ?dzƥ Äż ÇŞĹŤĆĄČ Ć¨Ć ČˆÂşÇˆÇłĆĄ ƨǴǡƢǠŭƥ Č Ć— ƤȇǀǠƏǴdz ǑǂǠƏdzƥ ǾƞÇ&#x; Äż ÇŞĹŤĆĄ ƨdzƽƢǠdzƥ ƨǸǯƢƄƥ Äż ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ Äż Č… Ç‚Ç°ÂşÇˆÇ ÇłĆĄ ÇśÂşÇˆĹŤĆĄ ƲĆ&#x;ƢƏǝ Č†Ç´Čˆ Ć&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄÇąČ?ƏơČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄČ‚ÇŤ ƪǴǤƏ LJƥ Ǽƞđ ĆŠĆĄÇ ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇŹÇłĆĄČ Ĺ›ÇťĆĄČ‚ÂşÇŹ dzƥ Ǻǡ ƨÇ&#x;ȂǸů Ç ĆĄĆž Ç?ĆœĆĽ ĆŠĆ—ĆžĆĽČ Çľ ĆşČ‡Ç Ć˘ĆŹĆĽ Ç ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇŹÇł ǚƢǰǧ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤÄż Ĺ›ČˆÇťĆžĹ­ĆĄ ÇšĆ˘Ç°ÇˆÇłĆĄ ÇŞĹž Ć¨ČˆÇ&#x;ƢǸŪƥ ƢēƢƼȂǏÇ&#x; ƨǴÇ?ĆĄ Ȃǡ Äż Ĺ›Čˆ ÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ śǴºǏƏǠŭƥ ĆŞÇ´Ĺż ĆĄÇ Ć˘ĆŻĆ• ƨȇƽƢǠǡ ƨºǏ Ç˜ÇźÇˇ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Ç Ć˘ĆŚ ĆŹÇ&#x;ĆĄ ÇśČ€Č‡Č Ç€Çł śǴººǏ ĆŹÇ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć§Ç Ć˘Č‡Çƒ Ǟǟǡ Ç ĆĄÇ‚ÂşÇŹÇłĆĄ ƥǀǿ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƤƍǂƏǧƨ ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJČ?ĆĄ ÇšČ‚Ć´ÂşÇˆ dzƥ ŚȇƢǠŭ njdzƢŹ Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJƛ ǚȂǝƢǏdz ƢǏǧ Č Ĺ›ČˆÇ&#x;Ç‚Ç‹ Śǣ śǴƍƢǏǡ ǜȀǔ Ç ĆĽ Ç Ć˘ĆŚĆŹ Ç&#x;ĆĄČ Ć¨ČˆÇťĆ˘Çˆ ÇťČ?ĆĄ Ĺ›ÇťĆĄČ‚ÇŹÇ´ÇłČ Ć¨ÇłĆ˝Ć˘Ç ÇłĆĄ ƊƢǸǯƢƄƥ Ç Č Ć˘Ĺ° Ć¨ÇˆĹ¨ DzǸǠdzƥ Ć¨ÇŤÇ Č ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹĆŹÇ‡ śǴººǏ ĆŹÇ Ĺ­ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÂşÇŤ Ǻǡƣ Ć˘ÂşĆ¸ÇˆÇťČ?ƢƼ ȆŊ Ƣǡ Ç‚ĆŻĆ—  ÇąČ Č‹ ĆĄ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ ÇśČ€Č‡Č Ç€ĆĽ ƔƢǏ ĆŹÇłČ?ĆĄ ǺǡƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ȆǴǏƏǠǡǞ ǟǡ  ĹˆĆ˘Ć° dzƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ ȆǴºǏƏ Ǡǡ ǒǠºƼ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ȆÇ&#x;ǂºNj Śǣ DzƍƢºǏŭƥ ǚȂǝƢǍ ÇŞČˆĆŚÇ˜ ĆŤ ƎdzƢư dzƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢºǏdzƥ ĆžÇ&#x;ƥȂǏdzȆ Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏơČ?ĆĄ ĆŠĆĄČ‚ÇŤ ƨǨdzƢŹ ǞƼƥǂdzƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ ƧDŽǣÇ?Ć˘Ç˜ÇŤ ȆǴǏ ƏǠǡ ƨǴǡƢǠǡ Äż ƨ Ç?ƢƝ ĆŠČ? Ƣơ džǡƢŏƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ Ǻǡ ƣƢƸ ÇˆÇťČ?Ć˘ĆĽČ„Ç¸ÇˆČ‡ ƢǡǂƯƗ DzǸǠdzƥƨ ÇŤÇ Č ÇşÇˇÇąČ Č‹ĆĄ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄÄż Ç‘Ç‚Ç ĆŹÇˆ ÇťČ Äż Ç‘Ç‚Ç ĆŹÂşÇˆÇť ƢǸǯ ƧDŽǣÇ? Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ Äż Ĺ› ǴºǏƏǠŭ ĆĄ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƨǍČ?Ǡdzƥ ĆŠĆĄĆż ĆŠĆĄÇ ĆĄÇ‚ÇŹÇłĆĄČ ƧDŽǣ Ǻǡ Ĺ›ČˆÇźČˆÇ˜ÂşÂşÇˆÇ´Ç¨ÇłĆĄ śǴººǏƏǠŭƥ Č†Ç´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJČ?ĆĄ ÇąČ?ƏºơČ?ĆĄ ƊƥȂºǍǞǟ ǡ ĹˆĆ˘Ć°ÇłĆĄ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ ǂŧȋ ĆĄ Ć¤ČˆÇ´Ç?dzƥ Ç Č Ć˝Č Ĺ›Ç´ÂşÇŹĆŹÇ Ĺ­ĆĄ ǽƢť Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂºLJ Č?ĆĄ ƊƥƔƥǂƳČ?ĆĄČ ÇśČ€Č‡Č Ç€ĆĽ ƔƢǏƏ ÇłČ?ĆĄ DzƍƢººǏ ŭƢƼ Č†Ç¸ÂşÇˆČ‡ Ƣǡ njȇǂǠƍ ƎdzƢưdzƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ Äż ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹÇť Ć˘Ç¸Čˆ ǧ ĆŠĆĄÇ Ć˘Č‡Ç„ÇłĆĄ Ç?ȂǓȂǡ Äż Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ Äż Č ƧDŽǣ Ç?Ć˘Ç˜ÂşÇŤ ȆǴºǏ ƏǠǡ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ÇžÂşÇŹČˆĆŚÇ˜ĆŹÇł Ć¨ČˆÇťČ‚ÇťĆ˘ÇŹ dzƥ Ć˝Ć˘Ç ĆĽČ‹ĆĄČ ȆÇ&#x;Ç‚Ç‹ Śǣ Ĺ›ÇťĆĄČ‚ÂşÂşÇŹÇłĆĄČ ĆŠĆĄĆ” ĆĄÇ‚ĆłČ?ĆĄ ƨǨdzƢŹ ČƒĆžÇˇČ Ć¨ÇłĆ˝Ć˘Ç ÇłĆĄ ƨǸǯƢƄƥ ŚȇƢǠǡ ÇąČ Ć˘ÇźĆŹÇźÂşÇ‡ ǞºƼƥǂdzƥ džǡƢŏƥ Ç Č‚Ć„ĆĄ ƢǡƗ ƨǠººƼƥǂdzƥ ÇŚČˆÇźČˆĆł ƨ ČˆÂşÂşÇŤĆ˘Ç¨ĆŤĆĄČ Ĺ…Č ĆžÇłĆĄ ǚȂǝƢººǏǴdz Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂººLJČ?ĆĄ Ĺ„Ć› ǜȀ ǴȇȂŢ ĝǺ Ų ÇşČ‡Ç‚ĆťĆ•Č Ćž ČˆÇ Ç‡ ǺƼ ƞdzƢƝ DzǏƏǠŭƥ ƨdzƢơ Č„Ç´Ç&#x; ƔȂǔdzƥ Ç–Ç´ÇˆČˆ LJ Č…Č Ćż ƧƢǝƢǠǡ Ç’Ç  ººƼ Ç‘Ç‚Ç  ĆŹÂşÂşÇˆÇźÇ‡Č ƧŚƝȋƥ ƨ ÇťČ Č‰ĆĄ Äż Ĺ› ČˆÇ&#x;ǂººNj Śǣ śǴƍƢºǏǡ ÇšČ‚Ć´ÂşÇˆ dzƥ Äż śǴǏƏǠŭƥǜȀĆ&#x;Ć˘ÇźĆĽĆ˜ĆĽ ƔƢǏƏdzČ?ĆĄ Ǻǡ ǜĔƢǡǂơ ƊƥƔƥǂƳƛ Çş ǡ śǴǏƏǠ Ĺ­ĆĄ Ć¨ČˆÇ´ČˆĆ&#x;ƥǂLJČ?ĆĄ E-mail: heba@ichr.p s


Siege and Mental Health