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Dreams are powerful. They

inspire us to imagine that things could be radically different than they are today, and then believe we can progress toward that imaginary world. -Dunn






he world as we know it today would not be the world as we know it tomorrow. Who we are today will not be who we will be tomorrow. Just as this argument stands, architecture and the environment we know today will not be the same tomorrow. It could be developed or destroyed, nurtured or neglected, whatever it may seem, we can to an extent predict the possible future but never be assured of its placement. However as designers we are namely called to be creative problem solvers or rather dreamers who can defy and challenge what logic and protocols the world has put us in today. Computation has given designers an advanced platform to eventually build structures that play with materialism, environments, typography, and endless variables that could be adjusted to our desire. The accuracy and complexity of computation opens a new dimension to architecture and design, constantly being developed to help human kind. We cannot for a second rewind the destruction brought upon the planet but we can however take precaution in our outputs so not to enhance the process of destruction but to at minimal effort, slow it down with this enhanced technology.




n current times, the city of China is experiencing large amounts of pollution due to overpopulation in the country. This leads to the growing scarcity of space, increasing number of motor vehicles, traffic and in effect causes heritage buildings to be torn down while deteriorating health of the public and rippling a social disruption. Xu and Chen captured the concept of futuristic design entirely through creating an airborne structure to solve the dawning problems of China. The Light Park is a public space taking zero amount of land but providing hectors worth of space for social activities.

The green space in return can positively impact the environment through clearing air pollution and effectively returning health to the public. It is a low-energy consuming architecture specically designed to minimalize noise and shadow pollution. The unbuilt project challenged the concept of having what presumably is a heavy structure to be floating on air while benefiting the environment through inbuilt translucent solar collectors and rainwater catchment facilities, each providing power and water sources for irrigation purposes.





ustainable design within the architectural world is now highly strived for encompassing new ideas to be challanged and inventions constantly reinvented for the better future. The Quantum Skyscraper inspired by growing crystals is a sctructure designed to visually tie with parametric geometry. Maltsev and Melnik believes that within the events unfolding around the world, a Multipurpose Research Complex is needed to help discover more ways to save and produce energy with minimal harmful effects.

Unique materials allow the structure to be mobile to fit into the surrounding landscapes varying from slopes, rivers, high peaks and even withstanding floods, earthquakes and hurricanes. Quantum Skyscaper is a muilti-functional research facility hence accomodating for laboratories, lecture halls, and areas for meditation taking up a total of 65% of the total space. The rest of the space are filled with a cafe, media center and a conference room. These foors are also made with materials that can adapt according to the fascade movements.

The desire for man to restore the environment is challenged with the ability of nature to restore itself. The concern nurtured the idea to have a static rod in the building which can be used to generate and store required energy when needed. Futuristic design is also incorporated toying with the idea of adaptable external surfaces.

This design focuses strongly upon light weight materials hence projecting a different take on colour, transparency, heat, straing and weight of the envelope. Although it is an unbuilt project, it does expend future possibilities of having generated mobile structures even developing ideas of varying floor areas and fascades according to the environment.




“Computation enables new ways of thinking”






oving forward into contemporary times, computational design has allowed futuristic design to grow and subsequently changed the design process. Traditionally done with hand drawn sketches and art forms are now in the past with the help of Rhinocerus and Grasshopper, new parametric forms can be achieved easily with higher complexity. Practices now can access forms faster with more precision hence opening a door to endless design possibilities without human limitations. Oxman states of how ‘the growing capability for scripting algorithms of a mediated variability that can be selectively studied for perfomative behaviours such as energy and structural performance.” In a digital age, these digital morphogenesis are able to intertwine tectonics of digital material and performative simulation to create naturally ecologic structure and systems. Computers are also able to generate cleaner graphical representation in a result based form useful for developing new ideas. These representations can keep track of changes, updates and even give alerts for inconsistancies and errors. Kalay quotes ‘computers could provide an alternative “space” for human inhabitation - the so called cyberspace- which could offer a new stage for human activities, from education to commerce to entertainment’

The Institute for Computational Design (ICD)and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart used digital designing as a platform to produce a bionic research pavilion. This design encompasses the concept of biometic investigation investigating on materialism in the modern world. The layer consists of double layered fibre composites whilst reducing the required formwork with geometric flexibility. This design was complimented for its efficient construction and performance as a lightweight structure having made out of glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymers with computation being a part of the design process. The design challenged materialism as a concept trying to push what man had known to be heavy structures to structures that are strong but light weight and pleasing to the eye. The multiple scans and calculations from various universities allowed the project to be successful while instantly scraping the hand drawn sketches design process straight to digital designing based on a futuristic material concept. The industry now look for complex geometrical shapes incorporating possibilities of forming structures that can defy what logic has on the current society.






he parametric model fetched first price for Singapore Institure of Architects’ 2013 Parametric Design Ideas Competition which inheritantly challenged architects to come up with a design vision for a temporary pavilion for the public using Dhoby Ghaut Green -a public park at the heart of Singaporeas a site of the built Archifest pavilion. Designers Alex and Yu Nong developed around the idea of spatial planning, data visualisation, facade and structural design. It is designed through analyzing daylight factors and structural displacements using computational reasons to produce a skin that responds to nature and the public accomodating the tropical climate as well. The pavilion is set for public feature not only being an eye pleaser but also serves as a recreational outdoor space, a small library, a discussion exhibition space as well as circulation. Technology can now help minimize shadow pollution was and enhance circulation. The project was successful in a sense where a complicated geometry was formed having in mind time restraint, availability of materials and environmental factors that needed to be taken to account.




A.3 COMPOSITION & GENERATION “For computational techniques to be useful, they must be flexible, they must adapt to the constantly changing parameters of architectural design .”


rchitecture revolves around form and composition which was revolutionized with the growing technological industry. Hand drawings and handicraft are still appreciated but being vastly overtaken with parametric forms and structure easily achieved with –what would be- ‘computational architecture’. This in effect changes the way designers can manipulate or even to an extent design a building and hence, manipulating the design process. Peters defined computation as ‘the processing of information and interactions between elements which constitute a specific environment; it provides framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, with the capacity to generate complex order, form and structure.’ Programs created are now enabled to customize their design environments using architectural design softwares such as Rhino Script or Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) fetching far fetched accuracy for data collection.

Computation so highly developed can now be flexible in changing various parameters of architectural design which then increases the capability to solve complex problems then deriving the potential to inspire designers to go beyond limits. Computation is constantly being used in the design industry being normalized and beginning to forget the form of old artwork, hand drawn lines and emotive concepts or craft embeded in architectural work. Howver, through computation efficiency and accuracy increased along with and possibilities that can be widely explored. Algorithmic design is celebrated world wide but even with every positive remark, there would be a negative. Whitehead brings up the issue of how it could be an obsessive concentration. The skill mentioned could be allowed to divert attention from real design to an isolated craft instead of developing it into an integrated form.





he design soncept captures multi-diciplinary problems and solves it through adaption and integration generated from synthesis mechanism. Structure, materiality and architecture are consequently developed based upon studies of circumstantial, technological, social and environmental changes such as floods, rain, stroms, hurricains and other variable weather conditions. The computer generated formwork allows fibrous microstructures which are designed to form monocoque pattern that increases strength and durability. This biotech material is used to form the structure through generic configuration. The process bgan with stimulous accretion of various nodes then being connected together to form the bio geometrical shape. It acts as a scaffold having structural efficiency but also acts as a photovatylic biodegradable polymer (PLA) which essentially is not harmful to the environment and works as an oxygen emitter. The material functions to reduce atmospheric pollutants and could also be used as a fertilizer. Computation is used in this design to find topography of the land then generating a level site for the project to stand upon.







he Helsinki Public Library is a commercial building that carries the concept of applying minimal building volume while extending public use through its ground floor and pedestrian entry. Renewable timber is used to construct the building along with inbuilt furniture. The project is clearly a tectonic design using post-tension as structural stability while playing with space organization, circulation, ventilation and day light. The building interestingly is a self-supporting system using posttension compression to uphold the structure with individual timber members. Using generative design, it is able to incorporate positive environmental and economic factors such having passive and active features that ensures the comfort level of the user with minimal pollution and cost. Black photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors are placed on the rooftop while the BIM system has low-energy consumption in correspondence to the mechanical systems.




omputational design has enabled all mankind into a world of fantasy, being able to create what seems to be possible or even probable in the future, being given aid for the most complex design in structure and materialism.

Computation has allowed parametrics to be built in real life, for example the ITKE Research Pavilion and Venice Biennale 2014 structure that was not considered to be possible a century ago.

It is the beauty of design, it has endless possibilities and each can be generated to another idea, another possibility, another future. The Light Park and Quantum Skyscraper takes in the concept of futuristic design, although not possible yet in present times but could be possible in the future. Envisioning sustainability and ensuring earths preserverence is what makes the design strike beyond what architecture use to be.

This leads to a combination of both dreamers and technology working together to produce an ideal world where positive outputs are so desired. Design has many definitions, aspirations and effects but in learning how powerful dreams can be, why stand in a confined box with limitations when we will always be closer to the ‘dreams’ we have for tomorrow. Creating a second nature in the site with performative design surfaces that contributes to the space users positively





hrough the readings I’ve found that theres more to architecture than just a building, it has a theory, and idea and a process that allows the project to be built. Modern architecture would not exist if it weren’t for the many softwares that were produced to aid design in its field, futuristic ideas would only be ideas that were far fetched but now are abled to be closely called ‘possible’. I’ve now pushed myself further into the vast option of possibility in architecture having known how accurate and flexible computation can perform. My hope as a designer is to keep originality within the




hese sketches were mainly developed from the transform menu tutorials having played with contoured lines and how it can be varied between shapes and forms. The variables that were tested were the distances between contour lines playing within the X and Y inputs which then varies the distances that were contoured within each axis. The curved form that was input into the geometry area produced different levels of platforms able to be controlled through the number sliders connected to the contour tab. The planar surfaces were also composed on the form to create maxium amount of surface area inside the structure. This can be used to utilize the way a structure can be held taking in account the amount of area and levels that the structure needs. The sphere is used in contrast to a parallel curved form, using the same script to produce the form with an addition of a triangulated mesh that was used to produce the sphere’s interesting shape that toys with the idea of having minimal amount of vision to enter through the sphere. The contours, again can be flexible giving the structure a chance to play with materiality and surface areas. It can be used to help environmentally friendly causes such as reducing shadow pollution and increasing solar gain on panels.




REFFERENCES Aldridge, P. (2013) ‘Quantum Skyscraper: Multipurpose Research Complex’, eVolo < competition/quantum-skyscraper-multipurpose-research-complex/#more-23486> [ accessed 20 March 2015] Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Kasimati (2013) ‘P24|DER BAU’, Centre for Mediterranean Architecture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, <> [ accessed 18 March 2015] Khew (2014) ‘ Making Sense|National Design Centre Singpore’, Studio|Khew + Cornelius <> Khew (2014) ‘ Venice Architecture Biennale 2014’, Studio|Khew + Cornelius < http://khewcornelius. com/1/post/2014/06/venice-architecture-biennale-2014.html> [ accessed 20 March 2015] ‘Light Park Floating Skyscraper’, Evolo (2013) light-park-floating-skyscraper/ [accessed 13 March 2015] Matt Davis, Light Park Floating Skyscraper | Ting Xu & Yiming Chen < http://www.arch2o. com/light-park-floating-skyscraper-ting-xu-yiming-chen/> [accessed 13 March 2015] Menges, Achim. (2014) ‘ ICD/ITKE Reasearch Pavilion 2013-14’, University of Stuttgart, Institute for Computational Design <> [ accessed 19 March 2015] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 SuckerPunch (2014) ‘Helsinki Public Library’, Robert Stuart-Smith Design < http://www.> [ accessed 15 March 2015]







â&#x20AC;&#x153;Biomimicry is famously known as finding natu take inspiration from it to create a produ

Nature has been fabricated in a certain way to material, flight, acoustics, or light, each of them achieve desired goals that were set out from b developed to better their system, constantly cha is reached in their marked ambition. In architectu and taken as inspiration for each individual form structure, sustainability, efficiency, durability, stre to replace mechanical systems or even be in



ure’s best properties, studying and being able to uct that has the same functional properties.”

o its best design for each purpose, whether it be to a certain degree are fabricated naturally to help birth. Throughout evolution, they have constantly anging in form and making sure that optimal result ure, biomimicry allows these functions to be studied m and structure ensuring and serving as guidance to ength and more. This empowers today’s generation ncorporated with to provide optimal outcomes.





n Germany, BOWOOS Summer Pavilion was a showcase with a brief of incorporating traditional wood joinery using the modern day’s way of form finding. The brief also incorporates lightweight structure within parametric concept design. BOWOOSS Summer Pavillion takes itself from a biomimicry research field from the School of Architecture Saar (SAS). In using generative ways to create the pavillion’s form, methods have been used to implement CAD-results which were then used with techniques of timber industry to compose the design’s volume, material and structure. The national BIONA-program has researched on the concepts of biomimicry taking inspiration from natural products such as nature’s shell. It’s structure, strength and materiality is studied to be translated to variables in the design. Techniques on studying the shell is further developed, classified and compared to fully delicate the potential of the research.

The national BIONA-program took interest in the silicate envelopes of diatoms (singlecellular-algae) of the species Synedrosphenia and Actinoptychus und Arachnodiscus. Interestingly, they have interesting morphological systems that enables the shell to have a dynamic load-bearing capacity. Computer generated calculations and studies showed that the shell structure composites of three-dimensional ribs and pore-like openings that enables them to have a solid structure.

The basic structure of these shells are derived from the multi-layered system where surfaces with pores Laminated timber struts were used as both the primary and secondary structure which are permanently connected to the hull of the structure. The formed ribs are made out of 60-80mm laminated wood, permanently fixed to 30mm plywood foldings. The biological system reflects the structure of the pavilion by also enabling it to have multiple layers which are all self-sustaining. The pores of the structure were fabricated using computer generated tools. These pores affect the structural weight and load bearing capacity severely, where non continuous curved pores are deliberately fabricated to distribute load paths. The pavilion also includes assembled furniture in a cause to optimize materiality. The pavilion emphasizes on the importance of intergrating computation and old crafmanship technologies together. Computer generated designs unlocks indefinite potential for high complexity surfaces, geometries and a world of exploration, but given old tools of draftmanship, it can be used hand in hand with the accuracy generated from CAD data. Through this pavilion, it shows that craftsmanship can be done within our abilities and cutting machines such as CAM-driven robots or 5-axis-miling only opens up doors to those who only know how they work. CAD-basis does help with repetitive surfaces and in return increases optimization for production, planning and a costeffective project. It opens up doors for sustainable architecture.




he bridge is substantially inspired by a shell structure for a pedestrian bridge in China. The bridge is supposedly 120 meters in length laid at the stone forest in China. The laser cut model is featured as a centrepiece of the architecture room at the Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition. The fabrication process done with Arup consists of digital modelling and analysis to create a self-supporting structure from flat sheet of materials. One of the materials taken into consideration is steel. The form of the bridge is formed through structural analysis of a shell. Ed Clark, the director of Arup says “shell lace structure seeks to develop intelligent forms that respond to multiple design and construction parameters. The result is a new breed of single surface structure”

The rough corrugated surface of a shell enables Liu to use it as application to the bridge structure taking in the stiffness and its curvature. The bridge was named after the Shi Ling stone forest in the Yunnan Province of China, it serves as a pedestrian bridge which is 85 meters long, the materials that were used were just a 16mm thick steel that were digitally fabricated and welded together. As time passes by, evolution will continue developing the shell structure to be better than before, hence shell structures now have optimized curvature corrugation and contortion. Similarly, the bridge’s structure follows the basic system of a shell : curvature. Perforations that were different in sizes were used to minimize weight by removing material in areas of low stress.

The design has its own aesthetics points through bringing a sense of transparency and curvature which catches light and enhances the form. This particular form is made to be rigid with steel and fabricated from laser cutting technology which also helps with material consumption as the area where materials are cut could be measured and adjusted. This way, measures can be taken to save material consumption through minimizing wastage areas and maximizing surfaces that would be used. A fault found with this form was that there was no room for kinks in the structure as it was fully emphasised on curves, hence there was no folding involved but instead the steel is welded together.

Tonkin not only used laser cutters to help him with the whole design process but also used a 3D software to scan his hand made plasticine and paper model just as a basic form then started to play with variables to develop surfaces that specifically could be cut from a flat piece of metal. From there, Arup took the design and used a structural analysis software to analyse where the stresses are and to define structural requirements. The next step after setting the geometry was minimalizing plate thickness and material wastage. Grasshopper was used to remove unwanted material from the structure based on the output of the structural analysis. In result, a light-weight, structurally stable, aesthetically pleasing structure is born which can be taken into fragments of flat plates and allows economical fabrication without taking away options of having a complex geometry.



iven the Morning Line definition it was possible to explore various ways of changing its form, pattern, shape, volume, scale, postion and more. I decided to focus on structure and panelling for my model hence the following iterations were made. A wide variety of variables were changed and explored, I decided to pick the few that were relatively relevant in forming peforated holes in order to get a suitable structure and also for the outer shell to perform well in acoustic distribution of sound waves through panelling of surfaces taking heavy note of the aesthetic prospect. The first row consist of the baking of ‘Biezer Span’ which is a command that makes lines upon the mathematical function only known to the Grasshopper world. These lines were interesting as they have created many peforated areas in the polygon. The main form of the polygon was maintained and showed through the outlines of the baked ‘Biezer Span’ lines. These lines could be used for structural purposes of construction if used in the right way to generate a base. The variation consists of changed values that input into the cluster which was changing the scale and the number of open areas on the surface. Through the input of higher values, the more open areas are found on the skeleton but the scale of the polygon would be smaller. The second row consist of what I thought was a better way to construct a structure. I multipled the lines through polar array which gave me a surprisingly aesthetical form and also a better structure for those whose lines were very limited. Through this function, the amount of peforated skeleton were also multiplied, being able to disperce and break sound waves better when it hits the surface.

The third row is explored for panelling purposes of its ability to break sound waves and create an acoustically harmonious environment. I chose to change variables regarding the mathematical input to x^2 instead of the pythogerous theory which gave me a sharper polygon. The variables of scale were explored to give the many polygons of differing surface areas. The higher the value, the better acoustic performance as the result produced a larger amount of peforated surface areas compared to the lower values. The fourth row is made through the idea of multiplicating the amount of peforated areas. ‘Polar array’ was used and created polygons that had a larger amount of edges which defeated the purpose of breaking sound waves but at a certain numerical plug in, it does create my desired outcome which was ‘more peforated surfaces’. However, past the ‘0.6’ plug in, there were no open surfaces shown and the polygon surface is fully closed. The final row is probably one of the most successful rows as not only does it come with aesthetic quality, it changes the structure of the polygon. Through changing the mathematical expression plug in to (x/y)^2 - x^2 I was able to change the number of polygon segments pass the limit of 3 to 5 with the sqtt((x/y)^2 -x^2) equation. I chose the four to demonstrate that as the number of segments decreases, the polygon gets flatter, therefore being able reflect and break more sound waves and perform better for a better acoustic environment.





B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 THE eden project by nicholas grimshaw


he Eden Project is located in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, specifically made for unique plants, some from international grounds that require different forms of environment to be able to be inhabitable. Hence the creation of two pavillion structures called biomes which were designed to accomodate to a warm and humid environment. The first biome was made for a tropical environment and high humidity levels while the second biome was made for a Mefiterranean environment. Grimshaw specifically emphasized on structural and material performance of the biomes because of its lightweight structure with its capacity to create an optimal surface area. The study of carbon molecules, pollen grains and radiolaria that have lead him to create a structural hexagonal and triangular double frame as its support structure. This framework is easily fabricated because of its minimal count and fairly lightweight components. Instead of using glass to panel the framework, Grimshaw uses ETFE which is a high strength polymer that enables the surface area of each hexagon to be stretched therefore giving an optimal total surface area for each biome. It has definitely succeeded in achieving what it was set out to do however the materiality does provide limitations such as creating a very soft shell that can easily be broken. The structure is lightweight as well which would not end so well if encountered with natural disaster.




Make base curve and hexagonal grid, and put them together to get desired geometry

Draw two lines where the kinks of the circles ar connected to Curve Pull which is then connecte â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Force Obejctsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of Kangaroo Physics in order to more spherical shape


Region Intersect them to get curves inside the base curve. Find anchor points by using the Curve| Curve (CCX) input to be pluged into kangaroo




re to be ed into o get a

Pipe to give curves a solid frame



ggle in Kangaroo with Z factor Unary Force





he first row of iterations were considered using a joinery of kangaroo and graph controller. These iterations were made to find a suitable structure using differing patterns that could integrate to be multifunctional structure such as what was spoken of before, a skeleton or surface that could break and disperse sound waves. I have adjusted the thickness of the curves through the weaverbird plug in just to give more surface area and thickness for structural purposes. In the midst of toggling with kangaroo, a mushroom was created fulfilling a need for a sound barrier and a support system. Most of the iterations thereafter were about exploring different canopy structures, making sure that the canopy should be curved as curved surfaces enhance reflection of sound waves. The exploration of curved surfaces were also explored through changes of unary force inpus, the multiplication input to each rest length and the stiffness input.

Several of the iterations were not chosen because of the limitation to height. If anchor points are placed too close together within a grid, the product will result to have a shorter height span. I looked upon ways to fix that and one of them was to reduce the size of the grid in order to have a shorter line which makes the grid flexible therefore being able to have an increase in height.

THE CONCEPT: Sound wave scatters when it is hit with a surface in which the surface is corrugated and peforated. Therefore I decided to explore different ways of panelling these surfaces as similar to peforated or corrugated like surfaces.





B.5 PROTOTYPES Sound waves scatters and deflects when it is hit with any surface but especially with rough and corrugated surfaces, it scatters with a higher array but each array with lower amplitude. Taking this into account, I decided to explore different ways of panelling these surfaces as similar to peforated or corrugated like surfaces. The first iteration is on booleen differencing a triangulated panel with a sphere and finding a form that is not only functional for acoustic purposes but also to be structurally stable. As I produced several iterations trying to vary the size of the sphere, I found that too much cut off from the triangulated surface would end up being a fairly difficult model to fabricate as the skin structure is thin and plane. While the other panels which are in figures 3 and 4 are more structurally stable as well as fabricatable. It performs its designed function better than the surfaces created in Figure 1 and Figure 2 as it has enough curvature on the surface to reflect sound waves where as panels in Figure 1 and 2 would have very minimal deflection due to the larger opening cut by the sphere.


figure 1

figure 2 22

figure 3

figure 4 23


Prototype 1

Prototype 2



Prototype 1 is a panel with a triangulated surface and Prototype Two is a panel with a curved surface. I tried experimenting on 3D printing and using its material but found that it was too dense to be able to absorb sound. The experimentation continued on how I could join these panels together whilst maintaining its curved form taking tensile forces on each edge. Hence using tradional methods of joinery I decided to try using the Mortise & Tenon joint which I thought could withstand all forces and maintain its form. However when fabricated, I found that the joinery did not work because the adjoining holes were too small when fabricated with 3D, if the holes were made larger, the panels would not hold together hence, wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t maintain itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s shape.



B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL The site I chose was at the bridge upon exiting CERES site then turning on the right towards Arthurton Road. The line highlighted in yellow is the busy road that I personally found distrupts the surrounding environment by noise pollution. As I was walking through the path, I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t hear cyclist coming by which made me unconfortable. The proposal is a canopy that would serve to scatter or deflect these sound waves coming from Arthurton Road. I found that these pathways have strong circulation patterns as many users would be using these routes. Users such as walkers, joggers, cyclists, and dog walkers can noe get a more peaceful experience through the path. The canopy acts as a bonus to light during the night as there were very minimal or at least no sources of light for the pathways as the sun retires its purpose.


From the previous prototype and iterations, I decided to move foward with a curvature in between Figure 3 and Figure 4, a panel which has the most angled and articulated curve.


B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOME In this studio I’ve learned about the power of digital design and model making. Grasshopper has tools that can create models that generally quite impossible or rather tedious to create by hand or even through digital modeling softwares such as Rhino. It creates parametric designs that some how fulfills the aesthetics of architecture but also open doors for problem solving. I learned that almost anything is possible to create as long as the will and desire to make the product work is there as all these fabricational and digital tools are there to make it possible. It just needs direction and input in order to create something. I thought it was only gifted to computer geeks who have the upper hand in grasshopper, but in actual fact, anyone can learn it and use it to its full potential. Making the Eden Project with Kangaroo was the first time I’ve actually digitally imitated a building. I found that it does save time compared to manually making the model in Rhino and it can be further challenged to create more things. It’s never ending. Iterations can be created forever, these tools are powerful and can be used to shape the world as we see it today.








References 1. Alan Brooks, Chris Grech, Connections : studies in building assembly (Oxford Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1992), p. 60-88. 2. Amanda Birch, ‘Tonkin Liu’s Shi Ling Bridge’, , , (2011), 1-3, in <http://> [accessed 25 May 2015].Brady Peters & Terri Peters, Inside Smartgeometry , ed. by Miriam Swift (United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2013), p. 100265. 3. Jane Szita, ‘Pop-up pavillion by BOWOOSS Research Project’, Nature Inspires Inspirational Architecture , , (2012), 1, in < news/pop-up-pavilion-by-bowooss-research-project> [accessed 30 May 2015]. 4. Kostika Spaho, BIOMIMICY; Architecture that imitates nature’s function, forms, and part (2015) < biomi micr y-architect u re-that-i m it ates-nat u re-s-f u nctions-for ms-andparts/25849832> [accessed 20 May 2015]. 5. Michel Rider, Designing with Creo Parametric 2.0 ([n.p.]: SDC Publications, 2013), p. 63-85. 6. Mohd Shahril Bin Ab Sahak, ‘Biomimicry in Architectural Sustainable Approach’, , 1.1, (2013), 2-10, in < Biomimicry_in_Architectural_Sustainable_Approach> [accessed 22 May 2015]. 7. NUDL, JUNGLIM architecture, Make the imagination real , ed. by Junglim architecture. Kim Seonwook, trans. by Flora Lee, Hann, Garam (Seol, Korea: DAMDI Publishing, 2011), p. 243. 8. POHL Architekten, BOWOOSS-Summer Pavillion (2014) <> [accessed 28 May 2015]. 9. Seratts Marta, Prefab Houses designsource , 1 edn (New York: Harper Design, 2012), p. 67. 10. University of Bristol, Computational Intelligence and Design, ISCID, 2nd edn (Hangzhou, China: IEEE Computer Society, 2014), p. 67-68. 11. Yoshida, Nobuyuki, Serpentine Gallery Pavilions : visions of new architecture 2000-2013 (Tokyo: A+U Publication, 2013), p. 16-26.


C â&#x20AC;&#x153;Space has always been the spiritual dimension of architecture. It is not the physical statement of the structure so much as what it contains that moves usâ&#x20AC;? 39



n the previous feedback, there were several ways the panelling could be fixed to work at its best function, the several were incorporating a sound test with grasshopper along the panels to test which panelled surface would suit best. The proposed design could also be altered to best fir desired aim. However, the fabrication and elements of wool presented a result reflecting its exceptional sound insulation performance. In reference to previous writings, the higher perforation profile in a micro detailed surface, the more desirable performance would result from creating a panel in use for sound resistance. Cooporating with two other students in the studio, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve also altered our use and performance description of the design while keeping initial use. Ke Xinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prototype on paper panelling was considered and developed along with Wei Chernâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s field lines which was chosen for a primary structure or skeleton.


The panelling for papers were to represent a microscopic scale of microorganisms in the site, also to represent the image of a peforated wool for sound bearing purposes. Upon visiting the site, we discovered a few materials that could be used for the paper panelling, these materials were chosen based on their disintegration properties. Over time, these materials could decay to the ground without causing harm to the environment but could also be ressurrected once the need arises. The users can then interact with the structure on 1:! scale of microscopic views which would give a form of serenity in the environment. The proposed site was considered at Merri Creek where most of the sustainable designs were considered. The few materials taken into consideration were the materials found on the ground of the site. Reeds. grass and twigs were taken for sampling.


SPECIES 2: fine textured reed

SPECIES 3: bioplastic Adhesive surface

SPECIES 4: recycled paper prototype





SPECIES 10: COARSE REED with adhesive

SPECIES 11: brown tissue paper


SPECIES 12: home made dried paper pulp 41








C.1 FIELD LINES ITERATION Several techniques were used to identify a process that would be undertaken for the design execution. One of the main focus of the procedures carried were the fact that it would be eco-friendly and recyclable. The trial went from forming bioplastic, dried paper pulp and paper mache. The bioplastic was found to be transparent but the properties were too flimsy to be able to construct a panel upon a surface. The paper pulp was also too thick to show desired light effects.Hence, a paper mache technique was chosen as a development across the design process. Each species shown above was tested using various materials for prototyping and disintegration properties. These properties needed to be assembled at an expeditious speed so as to finish the construction in an optimum time frame. Species that revolved around natural materials (leaves, reeds, grass) in between the paper mache didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t give a capable result as it does not form a sound structure to carry dead loads such as its own weight. The more successful prototypes were made with structural wire in between the paper mache along with reeds, grass and leaves, however these natural materials can only be a certain thickness and rigidity to enhance the structural purposes of the design. The fine textured reeds were thin enough to be placed in between each skin of paper while holding to the adhesive while the coarse textured reed was too thick to give a smoother surface. A few iterations were done in response to the site, attraction and reppeling forces set into points. Iteration 4 was chosen to be developed as it showed the most controlled variable as well as the most fitting to the site. Iterations onw, two, three and four were found to have smaller openings compared to the fourth design. Using graph panels, they were used to create a 3D form in relation to the site. Once the form is achieved, It was lofted into a surface, contoured and projected on the surface for fabrication. The projected lines were measured for 6 mm in depth cut MDF board, however there were limitations to the amount of boards there were in the fabrication lab. Therefore there was an alteration to change the boardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thickness to 3mm but the amount was doubled.


SPIN FORCE radius: 20 REPELLING FORCE: 0.2 ATTRACTION FORCE: 0 graph type: parabola graph divide curve count: 35 negative point charge: 2


SPIN FORCE radius: 0 REPELLING FORCE: 0.2 ATTRACTION FORCE: 5 graph type: parabola graph divide curve count: 35 negative point charge: 6


SPIN FORCE radius: 20 REPELLING FORCE: 0.2 ATTRACTION FORCE: 2 graph type: linear graph divide curve count: 35 negative point charge: 5


SPIN FORCE radius: 20 REPELLING FORCE: 0.2 ATTRACTION FORCE: 0 graph type: BEZIER graph divide curve count: 35 negative point charge: 2



C.1 SITE CONSIDERATION The structure was originally built to replace two existing buildings in the site which were the performance stage in decaying stature with the a meeting building that is two meters within the stage distance. The stage lifespan was predicted to last no more than a few decades, as its current condition is not desirable for users as well. We decided to take upon the challenge on remaking a space where users can be invited easily to the site while experiencing the site within the structure. The initial design was to replace the meeting building and also the stage. The name of the structure is name Zymogenous as this is a type of classification for a bacteria that is essential in breaking down nutrients in soil for feeding of vegetation. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;breaking downâ&#x20AC;? cycle is repeated in the natural process once trees decay to the ground where microorganisms would then again break the nutrients for other living organisms to feed on the food chain. This chain is responsible in keeping the ecosystem alive therefore, the inspiration deriving from the repeated cycle from the surrounding environment. Once both form and site were chosen, we proceeded to fabricating the form. The desired form was initially curves that form a structure but it could be made possible once a surface is created within the curves. Once lofted, we created a contour along the surface in order to project it on the ground to create a separate curve used to loft the contoured lines on the surface and the curves formed from the projected lines. The outlines of these lofted surfaces were sent for laser cut fabricaion.




3. PROJECT & loft




C.1 DIAGRAMATIC FABRICATION & LAYOUT Using iteration four from the previous diagram, iteration four had four initial points to generate and form the pattern of field lines. One of the field lines generated was found to intersect with the neighbouring pattern of field lines, this creates an intertwining between both field line patterns generated from two inital points. This intertwining effect increases the complexity of fabrication as the panels cannot be lofted if they are intersecting one another. Site access is also restricted in between the field line patterns. In order to solve these issues, one of the points were removed to create an access to the site and reduce the complexity of fabrication. There were a few considerations that were taken in order to fabricate the formwork such as removing the thin tissue surface and placing the wires on the formwork.


Each thin layer of tissue once covered in adhesive glue will not be able to hold itself on a thin wired surface with large hollow sections but could be placed easily on a solid surface (eg.balloon). However this solid surface may cause difficulty in removing the thin layer of tissue as it causes tearing of the membrane. The team decided to rest on a contour formwork for a more convenient removal process as well as ensuring the tissue can be placed on the formwork without deforming its desired shape. Proceeding with the digital fabrication process of the model, we divided the process into three steps: graph panelling, contouring and project & loft. The first step of digital fabrication was to create a three dimensional space for users to walk beneath the surface of the desired form. Using the loft command, a surface was generated on the field lines therefore giving a clearer dynamic form and a sense of space within the surrounding environment.

The second step was to divide the surfaces using contours from grasshopper which was then used to section the panels into equally divided spaces. Fourty two panels were fabricated using the contouring method however it did not create a three dimensional layout that could be cut out from a physical fabrication. Following the issue, the contoured sections were projected on the ground base to create a vertical mirror of the contoured lines created on the surface. The mirrored medium were just curves reflected on the base of rhino, which in effect still does not give a layout for each fourty two sections to be laser cut. In order to create a surface for the panel, the loft command was applied to both contoured lines on the formâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface and the projected mirrored curves on the base of rhino. Once lofted, the general shape and outline of each panel was generated. These panels had to be rotated to face the horizontal plane for easy organization in fabrication boards.

A few factors in chosing the material for cutting were considered, the few were involving physical fabrication: if the material formwork could withhold paper membranes or if it would tear the paper membrane in the process of removal, could it stand vertically and what distance and spacing would each panel be from each other to ease the removal process. The team decided to chose MDF boards as material for its diverse range of thickness gives more options, each of these options are above two millimeters that would allow each of the panels to stand. Laser cutting was the most suitable medium for fabrication because it gives precise cutting for each layout. The formwork was divided to three components - each following the starting point that created the field lines respectively. Part A (red), B (green) and C (blue) were labeled accordingly for distinguishing purposes. The panels were then arranged into five MDF boards (900 x 600) and sent for fabrication.





The protypes followed paper mache procedure, strips of recycled tissue paper were torn while a thin layer of mod podge glue is placed on top The papers were then placed on a balloon to give a temporary form, while a second layer of tissue paper is placed on top, the form is then left to dry. It was left for 24 hours to dry until the paper has formed a stronger shell to hold its self structure. The balloon is poped to form the paper mache as seen above. In order to give a desired microscopic effect, reeds found on the site were also put on the test using paper mache procedures. The result was less successfull as the surface area stuck on the balloon was minimized from the reeds properties. The glue did not perform either resulting to misplacements of reeds. However using a small piece of the prototype, it was placed inside the paper mache structure to test on light effects. The issues were identified for the next process: placing thinner reeds in between two layers of tissue paper. Since this was also a smaller prototype, we decided to inclue a wire frame for structural purposes as well as project the field lines as shadow cast by the sun or controlled light at the sight. 53










figure 1

C.2 fabrication Upon the choices given for the thickness of MDF boards, we decided to go with 6mm out of the range thinking that it could be placed vertically. The spacings between each panel was 30mm to be able to remove the membrane easily. The projected curves on the base were printed out for reference of placement of each panel. However, due to technical issues and shortage of MDF boards, we had to resolve to 3mm MDF boards. These boards were cut twice to accomodate to the original six millimiters that was lost. Once the MDF panels were ready, a black foamboard was bought to slit the MDF panels into the base (foamboard) in order to uphold the form. The reference paper of the mirrored projected lines were placed on top of the foamboard and cut accordingly.

This form will then be used as a temporary structure to paste the paper mache membrane on. Upon the first layer of paper mache, thinner and smaller pieces of reeds were placed into position, then wires of two millimeters in diameter were placed on top of the reeds. A final layer of paper is placed on the form to seal both reeds and wire. The final product can be seen through image number six. In order to get the best possible light effect, LED lights were bought to project onto the structure. A warmer light was chosen to have a similar colour scheme as the natural ground material. The reeds would then show designed intentions through these projected lights or from natural sunlight where users can experience the structural pavillion surrounding the site.


figure 2

figure 3 56

figure 4

C.3 FINAL DETAIL MODEL A few minor scaled models were done before commencing with a larger scale model. The smaller scaled model tested on twigs as a material in between each membrane but it tore through the membranes because the paper membranes were too thin and delicate for the process. We also tried using leaves but this prototype did not achieve the proposal we were after which was a one to one experience live at the site of a microscopic view not visible to the human eye. The two protorypes were also structurally unstable, it did not hold its self weight, reinforcing the use of wire as a material placed in between the two paper membranes as it provides structure and acts as the skeleton for the paper membranes which act as cladding. Different types of tissue paper were also explored before making the full scale model. The crepe paper had a more obvious texture on the surface and holds better with adhesive glue but was too thick for the reeds to be visible. Hence, the decision was made to use tissue paper because of its lightweight and higher opacity properties. The first full scale prototype was successful as shown in figure 1 but it did not show desired field lines projected onto the surface. Instead, there was only a straight line running across the form for support as shown in figure 4. A second full scale prototype was made to emphasize on a curved field line projected from the sunlight on to the ground during the day and lit up during the night (figure 3). The feedback given during the final presentation was a step for improvement. Room for improvement can be made with the model considering its scale: height, width and placement within the site. The formwork could also be improved as it does not guide the wires to form the curves of field lines generated by grasshopper. In reality it would need to be constructed in a managable way which the model has not shown, therefore the project needed more development and critical thinking. As a result, the field lines were explored again with more relation to the site, stage, and uses. The structure was rethought to provide better support with pragmatic construction steps and further development for fabrication processes were explored to manage a better outcome for a curved wire.









C.2 site consideration As stated from the beginning of the design intention, the structure was originally built to replace two existing buildings in the site which were the performance stage in decaying stature with the a meeting building that is two meters within the stage distance. The site circulation, vegetation and a few other factors were considered in placement of the field lines. After consideration from the presentation critics, the site was reevaluated, entrances, circulation and pathways were noted, and presented in the diagram for better explanation to site and designed performance. Initially there were four starting points to create field lines covering a vast amount of land. However this scale is reduced in order to limit the area of coverage. The meeting building is also kept in place while the structure would replace the stage.

In the first diagram, the indicated lines are possible circulation pathways into the site as well as out of the chosen site. Within the circulation pathways, points were placed where the structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s column would be constructed so as not to obstruct the circulation pathways. Once the anchor points were placed, the field lines would be generated to better distinguish the amount of area that the structure would cover. In figure four, four repelling points were placed on pathway openings in the site to create an entrance to the structure. Spinning force points were placed where trees are to create sunlight paths and to enable the structure would wrap around the tree instead of obstructing its view. The number of field lines were reduced to form a more realistic construction process.



â&#x20AC;&#x153;Each material has its own shadow. The shadow of stone is not the same as that of a brittle autumn leaf. The shadow penetrates the material and radiates its message.â&#x20AC;?

-Sverre Fern





C.3 DIGITal fabrication Due to time constrainst, only a few curves were picked out to be physically fabricated. As stated in the feedback form, the curves needed to have a higher level of control in each of them. We decided to fabricate them through three dimensional printing, the curves represented in red were chosen for printing.




















C.3 digital fabrication The selected curves were piped into eight millimeters diameter while the interior pipe was at four diameters. The interior pipe served to guide the wire through then used as a connection piece. Unfortunately with limited space (140 x 140) at the 3D panel, there could only be two or four printed at once. Hence the four longer pipes were divided into four segments while the two shorter pipes were divided into two segments in order to successfully submit and print the design.


Each fabrication took the time of two to four hours each submission. These submissions need to be monitored and adjusted at its supported structure. The supported structure was set at â&#x20AC;&#x153;minimalâ&#x20AC;? option to allow each dowel joint to be fitted into the piped diameter. Once each pipe was finished, the supported structure is removed.

Exess pipes were removed and wires were inserted where the length would allow. The chosen curves were also lofted to get a layout of each panel for placing the paper membrane. There were five categories as shown, A,B,C,D, and E. Once they were unrolled as a surface, we printed them and used them to panel the piped structure. Each printed pipe had support on them which had to be removed, then a wire was placed into each piped interior for connection. A black foamboard surface represents the ground onto which the pipes would punch through. After laying out the skeleton, the paper membranes were paneled on top of the sketeon. However with a few changes, the initial reed paper was placed underneath the tissue paper which was placed beneath the pipes to ensure the pipes visibility.





printed in four

wire inserted

connection joint 67


C.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES During the process of designing, there were several outcomes from the crit that was taken into consideration. Realism plays a vital role in architecture as well as fabrication process. Models can be constructed in the fabrication studio but critical thought upon the realistic approaches to each step in fabricating the architecture would need to be included. In the beginning of this studio grasshopper was thought to be a powerful computational design method which makes design explorations possible and pushed further than decades ago. More complex designs can be generated with a less hefty price. However the computational design has its limits where joinery is not included and would need to be done in order to fix and fabricate each panel together. There are always going to be problems, but designers would need to think ahead to prevent the problems from happening or even think outside the box to solve them. I learned that anything is possible but there are different levels of workability in each design. In the end, it is possible to say that there are several ways compurational design can be fabricated, this studio allows architecture to be developed and explored while having the intentions of improving lifestyle and the environment alone with aesthetic considerations. I would like to thank my two partners in this studio for making the design studio a possible, fun and memorable one, Soon Wei Chern and Ang Ke Xin.















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