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First published 2013 This book is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, criticism or review as permitted under the copyright act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Inquires should be made to the manager of Blurb. Copying for educational purposes. The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (‘Act’) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10 per cent of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by an educational institution purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a renumeration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (‘CAL’) under the act. The information contained in this book is to the best of the author’s and publisher’s knowledge true and correct. Every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy, but the author and publisher do not accept responsibility for any loss, injury or damage arising from such information. Editor: Vashti Barker Written by: Vashti Barker with text outsourced from Ellen Lupton, Nolen Strals, Bruce Willen. Typesetting and Design by: Vashti Barker Printed and Bound by: Blurb. Copyright © 2013 by: Vashti Barker


VASHTI BARKER


TABLE OF

CONTENTS 07 09 10 13 15 17 19 21

Foreword Introduction Dedication Kerning Leading Sizing Typefaces Caps Lock

22 25 27 29 30 32 33

Break the Rules Type Families Three Typefaces Only What Not to Do Letter Anatomy Credits Thank You


TY· POG· RA· PHY

(tahy· pog· ruh· fee)

n the art or process of printing with type, the composition of printed material from movable type, and the arrangement or appearance of printed matter. We see it every day on signs, billboards, packaging, in books and magazines; typography helps to understand the world around us. To quote Spiderman “with great power, comes great responsibility.” Before you can create great type, you first need to understand the basics. This book is just the tip of the iceberg in understanding letter anatomy. You will find within these pages tips and tricks from lines and spacing, to height and scale. Use it as a guide for how to best treat kerning and leading, among other things.


INTRODUCTION It all began with an interest in photography and a willingness to learn. Little did I know that three years later I would develop a passion for typography and the desire to help others understand how typography is more than just Times New Roman or Arial. This book is filled with everything I have learnt whilst at university, and much more. I am taking this opportunity to educate others of the beauty found in type, the sexiness of a little black serif font, and how type has the ability to make people stop and stare. These rules can be used as a guide to understanding how type should be displayed, how it can speak to people without saying a word, and especially how it should never, ever, ever be used.


This book was created for a university course entitled Typography for Print. I would like to dedicate this book to my grandpa, Keith “Roppy� More, who has always been a source of strength for me.


GERARD UNGER

IT IS ALMOST

IMPOSSIBLE TO LOOK

TO READ

AT THE SAME TIME THEY ARE

DIFFERENT


99.9% of all subconscious minds pick up when type has not been correctly kerned.*


HOW TO

KERN PROPERLY

Any type designer will tell you that the space between letters is just as important as the letter forms themselves. A type designer not only sees the letters but the space around each character. As well as black lines on a white field, a page of text is also white space punctuated by black forms.

“A type designer not only sees the letters but the space around each character.” Spacing a font in itself is considered an art form. Great spacing can give an dull font new life. Poor spacing can ruin even the most gorgeously designed typeface. The shape of a letter works in with its side bearings, left and right. Spacing can be improved by small alterations to a character’s form. Properly spaced, the typeface should have an even colour without any distracting gaps or heavy areas within words.

Each font has a unique spacing requirement, depending on the end use and visual characteristics. Some typefaces may be more generously spaced to maintain legibility at small sizes, while more compact spacing can be used on display faces. One of the problems with poor kerning is when gaps appear between several pairs of characters, making it awkward to read. Be aware of things like punctuation and combinations of upper and lowercase letters that frequently require kerning to maintain an even spacing. *This information is not presented by a medical practitioner and is for educational and information purposes only. Also, it’s 100% made up by me.

13


Sentences that are too close together start to look cramped and illegible. This doesn’t feel good, does it?


I’LL LEAVE THE

LEADING UP TO YOU

Hello, I am an example of body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes!

Hello, I am an example of body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes!

10pt/10 Georgia

10pt/14.4 Georgia

Hello, I am an example of body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes!

Hello, I am an example of body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes!

10pt/12 Georgia

10pt/18 Georgia 15


They’ re lyi ng wh en the y say si ze doe sn’t ma tter.


GET THE

SIZING RIGHT

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

12/14 Georgia

12/14 Times New Roman

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

12/14 Trebuchet

12/14 Helvetica Neue 17


Do not use this font when describing the latest medical break through.


CHOOSE YOUR

TYPEFACE RESPONSIBLY

Letters and the words they form are the base for language and ideas. They reflect the design and personality of their content. While letters are mostly functional, their appearance can be professional and formal to playful and casual. A typeface can be used to convey a specific emotion and meaning to the reader. The designer balances the alphabet’s functional nature with context and legibility in their own creative way.

“Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and noneffective communication.” —Peter Bilak Letters or words whose visual form that does not match the message confuses the reader, disrupts communication, and reduces their own functionality. While most disruptions are undesirable, sometimes they can serve

the purpose of causing the reader to be a more active participant in the reading process. Unusual, illustrative, or otherwise hard-to-read letters are often used to convey a specific visual or intellectual tone. Such letterforms are meant to be looked at rather than through. Choose your typefaces carefully and consider the context of the article, publication, or book. Peter Bilak is known for his quote on graphic design, which can easily applied to typography. Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication. Journal articles on the latest medical break through will be disregarded and thought of as a joke if written in Lucida Blackletter. The very feel of the typeface would give the article a medieval feel, a time when medicine was very basic. That is definitely not the right perception to associate with modern medicine. 19


YOU MUST NEVER TYPE LIKE THIS. NEVER EVER. UNLESS YOU ARE ANGRY OR A MAGICAL UNICORN THAT CAN GRANT WISHES.


DON’T FORGET TO TURN YOUR

CAPS LOCK OFF

THERE ARE VERY FEW TIMES WHEN IT IS ACCEPTABLE TO WRITE ALL IN CAPITALS. UNLESS IT IS AN ARTISTIC PIECE, CALLING THE READER TO LOOK AT THE MESSAGE AS AN IMAGE, THERE IS NO CALL FOR THE TEXT TO BE ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS. NOT ONLY IS IT HARD TO READ BUT IT IS UNCOMFORTABLE TO LOOK AT AND UNINSPIRING. IT WOULD TAKE GREAT EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE READER TO CONTINUE TO READ A BLOCK OF TEXT THAT CONSISTS ONLY OF CAPITAL LETTERS. THERE IS NO FLOW THROUGH THE TEXT, NO PAUSES OR BREAKS THAT ALLOW THE READERS EYES TO REST. INSTEAD THE TEXT YELLS AT THE READER, SHOUTS TO THEM THAT EVERY SINGLE WORD IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS THE LAST. TEXT WRITTEN IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS CASTS DOUBT ON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE ARTICLE.

“THERE IS NO FLOW THROUGH THE TEXT, NO PAUSES OR BREAKS THAT ALLOW THE READERS EYES TO REST.” IN FACT, IF YOU ARE STILL READING THIS THEN KUDOS TO YOU. I CANNOT STOP THINKING ABOUT THE MAGICAL UNICORN THAT CAN GRANT WISHES. IF SUCH A CREATURE EXISTED, MY FIRST WISH WOULD BE THAT THIS PAGE WAS FULL OF CAPITAL AND LOWERCASE LETTERS, MAKING IT PRETTY AND LEGIBLE. SOME THINGS IN LIFE ARE WORTH BREAKING THE RULES FOR, BUT BLOCKS OF CAPITAL LETTERS AREN’T ONE OF THEM.

21


TRY SOMETHING

DIFFERENT NOW AND THEN

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that. Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that. Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that.

Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that. Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that.

22


Do not be afraid to break the rules every once in a while.


Let me introduce you to the family.


IT’S A

TYPE FAMILY

THING

There are a lot of members in my family.

There are a lot of members in my family.

Minion Pro Regular

Minion Pro Bold Condensed Italic

There are a lot of members in my family.

There are a lot of members in my family.

Minion Pro Italic

Minion Pro Semi Bold

There are a lot of members in my family.

There are a lot of members in my family.

Minion Pro Medium

Minion Pro Semi Bold Italic

There are a lot of members in my family.

There are a lot of members in my family.

Minion Pro Medium Italic

Minion Pro Bold

There are a lot of members in my family.

There are a lot of members in my family.

Minion Pro Bold Condensed

Minion Pro Bold Italic

25


I don’t know about you but I think this looks great.


NO MORE THAN

THREE TYPEFACES

I am a headline

I am a subheading, here to create some interest in the story.

This is an example. Hello, I am body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

“I am a witty quote that will offer insight into the article you are reading. I will also look pretty doing it.�

This is an example. I am some more body copy. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes. This is an example. And some more body copy, just so you get the picture. My sole purpose in being in this book is to be an example and a teaching tool. In the mean time, I would like to see how this font works with italics, punctuation marks, for example the comma mark, maybe a question mark, or an exclamation mark as well; I am a little bit of a bold rebel like that sometimes.

27


NEVER EVER EVER EVER NEVER EVER NEVER EVER EVER NEVER DO THIS.


Strokes that encroach upon letterforms. Bad line breaks in headlines and body text. "Use dumb quotes instead of smart quotes."

“Failure to keep punctuation within quotes”. Failure to use accent marks. Incorrectly abbreviating a.m. or p.m.

Failure to provide margins for type in a box. Failure to eliminate orphans. LARGE AMOUNT OF BODY TEXT IN CAPITAL LETTERS. Using process colours for blocks of text.

Large amounts of reversed type. Underlining titles instead of italicising them.

Indenting the first paragraph.

Failure to use or create fractions. This is not something you can 1/2 attempt.

Never use comic sans. Faux italic/oblique, bold and small cap type.

Negative letterspacing. Vertically scaled type. Failure to indent bullet lists.

Use double space in between words. Failure to align baselines of type in adjacent columns of body text. Failure to use ligeratures. Make sure you get the Hyphen - En dash – Em dash ­— right

Never ever use comic sans. No excuses. Failure to eliminate widows.

29


ARM STEM

SERIF

BOWL

COUNTER

30


EAR

TERMINAL

CAP HEIGHT

ASCENDER

X-HEIGHT

BASELINE LOOP

DESCENDER

TAIL

31


CREDITS BOOKS Lupton, Ellen. Thinking with Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2004. Willen, Bruce, and Nolen Strals. Lettering & Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009. WEBSITES www.desktoppub.about.com www.onsydney.com.au www.raifceyhunsahin.wordpress.com www.thinkingwithtype.com www.vanseodesign.com www.visual.ly/sins-typography 32


I would like to thank my mum and brother for their continued encouragement and support. To my dog, Kitty, for helping me keep my sanity by taking small breaks to play. Lastly, a big thanks to type, for without it there would be no book.

33


www.vashtibarker.com



Typography book c8 colour