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Moving to the Beat Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman Bayard E. Lyons Janice Haaken


© 2012 Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman, Bayard Lyons, and Janice Haaken. All rights reserved. Cover © 2012 Moving to the Beat. All rights reserved. Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to include the following copyrighted material:

Edited by Cheri Woods-Edwin Cover design by Pablo Barbier Design & layout of curriculum by Emily García, Cathemeral Press Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman, Bayard E. Lyons, and Janice Haaken Moving to the Beat Published by Printed in


About the Authors Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman Jennifer Wallin-Ruschman is a community psychologist and activist currently living in Portland, Oregon. She holds a Master’s degree in Psychology and is in the final stages of completing her Ph.D. from Portland State University in Applied Social and Community Psychology.

Bayard E. Lyons Bayard Lyons is an anthropologist and educational reform consultant based in Portland, Oregon. He is a returned Peace Corps Volunteer from The Gambia in West Africa where he served as a Math and Science teacher and Women in Development Program Coordinator. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles and Master’s degrees in Gender and Women’s Studies from Middle East Technical University in Turkey and Education and International Development from Florida State University.

Janice Haaken Janice Haaken is professor emeritus of psychology at Portland State University, a clinical and community psychologist, a documentary filmmaker, and social justice activist. Haaken has published extensively in the areas of psychoanalysis and feminism, gender and the history of psychiatric diagnosis, group responses to violence and trauma, the psychology of storytelling, and processes of social change. Her research is based on video ethnography, discourse analysis, and social action research methods.


Acknowledgments Special Thanks to the following individuals for their invaluable contributions: Fawn Nioso for her work on transcribing portions of the film for use in the curriculum and her creation of the following: Performing the Self activity and handouts, Putting Dreams to a Beat activity, and the Supplemental Interview Guide handout. Simona Patange for her work on the Exploring the Immigrant Experience activity and the Rebel Moral Dilema Activity. Nicole Skala for her work on the Oregon Education Standards list. Caleb Heymann for his article: Making Moving to the Beat: Moving to the Beat and the Portland-Freetown Connection Kayt Zundel, Moving to the Beat Project Coordinator for her Blood Diamonds article and her Diamonds for Pennies activity. Cheri Woods-Edwin, Moving to the Beat Project Manager for her developmental and final edit on the Moving to the Beat curriculum and her biographical sketches. Emily GarcĂ­a of Cathemeral Press for the design and layout of the Moving to the Beat curriculum Pablo Barbier for the design of the Moving to the Beat logo and the cover of the curriculum guide.


Contents Moving to the Beat Curriculum Guide: An Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix How to Use the Curriculum Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi The Curriculum Guide and Education Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii

Unit One: Mapping the Ground and Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Module A: Challenging Stereotypes About Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Part One: Africa and Africans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Activity One: Mental Maps of Africa: What is Africa and Who are Africans? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Activity Two: Map Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Activity Three: The Problem of Stereotyping (Discussion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Activity Four: Stereotyping Africa and Africans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Activity Five: Western Media and the Stereotyping of Africa and Africans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Part Two: Understanding Sierra Leone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Activity One: Increasing Cross-cultural Dialogue with Africans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Activity Two: Understanding Sierra Leone through Its Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Activity Three: Understanding the Socio-Economic Climate of Sierra Leone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Evaluating Our Stereotypes and Bias: Reviewing STOP Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Mapping Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Blood Diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Mancala: Diamonds for Pennies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Module B: Exploring the Power of Hip-Hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Activity one: Defining the Genre of Hip-hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Activity Two: Recovering Hip-hop History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Activity Three: Exploring the Art of Hip-hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Activity Four: Researching Hip-hop in a Different Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Module C: Screening Moving to the Beat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Activity One: Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Making Moving to the Beat: Moving to the Beat and the Portland-Freetown Connection . . . . . . . . . . 25

Languages of the Sierra Leonean People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Salone for go Bifo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

The Radical Roots of Hip-Hop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

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Unit Two: Moving to the Beat of the Immigrant Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Module A: Exploring Individual Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

Activity One: I Am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Activity Two: Film Scene and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Activity Three: Art and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Activity Four: “Performing the Self” Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Art and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Performing the Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Module B: Exploring Social Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Activity One: Revisiting Previous Moving to the Beat Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Activity Two: Psychology and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Psychological Perspectives on Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Module C: Immigrant Hopes and American Dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

Activity One: Film Scenes and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Activity Two: Exploring the Immigrant Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Activity Three: Create Your Own American Dream Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Activity Four: Putting Dreams to a Beat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

A Dream Deferred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Immigrant Hopes and American Dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Exploring the Immigrant Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

The American Dream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

César Chávez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Cornel West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Malcolm X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Angela Davis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

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Unit Three: Pushing the Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Module A: Defining a Rebel and Moral Choice .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Activity One: Film Scene Screening and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Activity Two: Ethics Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Rebel Moral Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Module B: Getting to Know a Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

Activity One: Interviewing a Rebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Activity Two: Writing Up an Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Activity Three: Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Activity Four: Discussion and/or Review of

Previous Moving to the Beat Class: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Supplemental Interview Guide: A Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Rebel Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Interview Write-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Module C: Women Rebels: Women in Hip-hop and Stereotypes . . . . . . . . .

77

Activity One: Moving to the Beat film Scene Screening and Discussion: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Activity Two: Individual Free-writes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Activity Three: “Positive” Stereotypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Lady Bee: Being a Woman in a Man’s Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

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Unit Four: Changing the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Module A: Hip-hop and Activism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

Activity One: Hip-hop as a Weapon (Moving to the Beat Screening and Discussion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Activity Two: Kanye West Speaks Out for the SierraLeonean People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Activity Three: Personal Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

Activity Four: Fame, Wealth, and the Commercialization of Hip-hop Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Activity Five: Further Exploring the Intertwining of Progressive Hip-hop and Its Commercialization . . 84

Activity Six: Identifying Hip-hop Activists Throughout the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Kanye West Takes on the Hip-hop Culture and the Diamond Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Hip-hop Activism Across Continents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Module B: Fighting the Spread of HIV and AIDS with Hip-hop . . . . . . . .

89

Activity One: Common Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Activity Two: Global AIDS Epidemic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Activity Three: Fighting Against Stigma and Discrimination of Individuals with HIV (Discussion) . . . 90

Activity Four: Youth Speaking Out about AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Activity Five: Researching the Global AIDS Epidemic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Report Shows AIDS Epidemic Slowdown in 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Researching the Global AIDS/HIV Epidemic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Module C: Exploring Local Activism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

Activity One: The Need for Individual Activism or “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised” . . . . . . . . 98

Activity Two: Defining Ways of Being Activist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Activity Three: Researching Activism in Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

My Revolution Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Researching Activism in Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Module D: Developing a Plan of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102

Activity One: Identifying Social Problems within the Local Community (Discussion) . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Activity Two: Creating an Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

Creating an Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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Moving to the Beat Curriculum Guide: An Introduction Just as groups find common bonds through the emotional power of music, groups may establish outsiders or enemies through the alien sound of foreign music. Among the sounds that are often “lost in translation” across the generational divide, hip-hop has emerged as a contemporary marker of cultural conflict. The classroom offers a unique opportunity to bridge such divides and to enlarge students’ capacities to engage cultural differences. The Moving to the Beat curriculum is designed as a vessel for teachers and students to navigate these difficult waters, with hip-hop serving as the cultural cargo. The Moving to the Beat film was initiated in 2005 as a cross-cultural project carried out by documentary filmmakers in Sierra Leone and the United States. The project began as an exploration of the use of hiphop as a medium for positive social change. In the process of producing the film, the project took hold as an ongoing forum for young male and female hiphop artists to speak in their own voices about war, rebellion, healing, and forms of community reparation. The format of this curriculum guide reflects these same aims: to generate dialogue—both within the classroom and throughout the broader community—on issues affecting the lives of youth. The story of the Moving to the Beat documentary centers on a hip-hop group from Portland, Oregon, Rebel Soulz, as the group carries out a conversation with youth in war-torn Sierra Leone through the medium of hip-hop. The documentary enlists the narrative device of the journey—in this case, the journey of Rebel Soulz members—as they travel to Freetown, Sierra Leone to bring the radical roots of hip-hop to the “motherland.” Moving to the Beat tells a collective tale of Black youth searching for an identity that encompasses the trauma, ideals, hopes and losses born of their common and differing histories.

Moving to the Beat

Background to the Project The Moving to the Beat project emerged from an earlier international collaboration with Sierra Leonean women peace activists, a collaboration that included interviews with women in refugee camps along the border of Sierra Leone. The interviews focused on women’s perceptions of the causes of the civil war that had raged throughout their country in the 1990s and how women were conceptualizing the peace process. In carrying out this field study, our aim was to place female voices at the center of this inquiry into gender, war, and processes of peace and reconciliation. The interdisciplinary curriculum that resulted from the study, Speaking Out: Women, War, and the Global Economy (Haaken, Ladum, Zundel, et al, 2005) and its accompanying documentary film, Diamonds, Guns, and Rice, combine interview material, poetry, music, art, essays by Sierra Leonean women, and historical and economic analyses of policies that shape political conflict in West Africa. The Moving to the Beat collaboration grew out of a “wrap-up” visit to Sierra Leone in 2005 as youth— many of them the children of mothers interviewed for Speaking Out—connected with some of the members of our crew around their shared love of hip-hop. Sierra Leonean youth were using hip-hop, specifically rap music, to speak out on issues of post-war trauma, the AIDS/HIV epidemic, women’s rights, poverty and political corruption. For Sierra Leonean elders and many of us on the Speaking Out team, the question of whether youth were engaging hip-hop in a socially progressive or regressive way—whether it enlarged or blunted their relational and cultural capacities—motivated continuation of our collaborative inquiry. In returning to the United States, the crew met with the Speaking Out team and the Moving to the Beat team was formed to pursue this new area of collaboration with Sierra Leone. The

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second documentary, Moving to the Beat, showed how African youth went against the grain of consumerism and sexism that dominated much of the mainstream rap in the United States. In “putting down the gun and picking up the mic,” many of these youth, some of whom were former child soldiers in the Sierra Leonean conflict, sought to find an insurgent political voice through hip-hop. As documentary filmmakers, we wanted to capture the currents of this cultural movement and to document the lyrical aspects of hip-hop dialogue, itself an echo of the older Black tradition of call-andresponse. As the completed documentary circulated in schools and festivals in the United States and Britain, as well as countries in Africa (Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ivoire, and South Africa), demands followed for a curriculum guide to continue this dialogue in secondary level and college classrooms. In bridging the worlds of Africa and America, African immigrant youth carry precious cultural goods. These youth often are burdened with heavy responsibilities to send resources back to their homeland communities. But they have much to offer to their new home country as well. The story of hip-hop in Sierra Leone—and how that story is carried by youth immigrating to the United States—is one of those richly rewarding products of cultural exchange that students discover through the Moving to the Beat curriculum.

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How to Use the Curriculum Guide Young people today live in a world where both local and global influences shape their daily lives. The Internet, instrumental in shrinking our planet as it brings everyone closer together, empowers youth to connect across social and geographical boundaries. However, simply utilizing the Internet does not inevitably lead to greater insight or understanding about what connects them to the local or global. The documentary film Moving to the Beat opens a pathway between the local and the global through hip-hop culture. It illustrates how youth in Africa and America are using the language of hip-hop to speak out about pressing social issues such as war, poverty and AIDS. The film demonstrates how the art of the spoken word is capable of generating a shared language and context for activism. Moving to the Beat exemplifies how Hip-hop is a medium that expresses the common beat that connects people across cultures who are engaged in daily struggle for a better life and a better planet. Moving to the Beat tells the story of the emergent Sierra Leonean Hip-hop movement to tell a larger tale of the immigrant youth experience—a topic rarely addressed in film. Focusing on musician Abdul Fofana, a Sierra Leonean who immigrated to the United States at the age of eleven, Moving to the Beat reflects on his unique experience growing up in Portland, Oregon and watching from afar as the country of his birth is devastated by civil war. While living in the United States, Abdul finds an anchor in the Rebel Soulz, a progressive African-American hip-hop group based in Portland, Oregon. Once in his native Sierra Leone, Abdul finds strength in this group and the local hip-hop scene. Rebel Soulz and the group of hip-hop artists in Freetown, Sierra Leone, while located in different parts of the world, articulate the hopes, dreams and realities of many minority youth in America and

Moving to the Beat

Africa. They also tell a common immigrant’s tale framed by the barriers and boundaries constructed through centuries of slavery, colonialism, and corporate capitalism. The challenge of immigrant youth is in finding ways of transcending these barriers. Through the production of the Moving to the Beat documentary, Abdul returns to Sierra Leone to encourage youth to “rise up” through hip-hop, recognizing its potential to reach the youth of Sierra Leone. Abdul’s story of struggling to strike a balance between multiple identities—as a Sierra Leonean and American—is a familiar tale of immigrant youth everywhere. His story demonstrates how young people can affect personal and social change by picking up a pen, a paintbrush, or in the case of hip-hop, a microphone, and actively engaging in the world around them. Moving to the Beat sends a message by example that young people can and should be engaged in the pressing issues of immigration, war, poverty, sexism and AIDS. The goal of the Moving to the Beat curriculum is to empower and encourage youth, through education and support, to become active participants in the world around them.

The Curriculum Guide This curriculum guide covers topics addressed in the Moving to the Beat documentary while providing a set of discussion questions and activities around the major topics: African youth, immigrant identity and dreams, rebellion and moral choice, activism through art, women’s empowerment, and AIDS. While it is recommended that the documentary be shown in its entirety in one or two screenings, selected sections of the film could easily be integrated into the appropriate lesson plans found within the curriculum guide. Unit One in the Moving to the Beat curriculum, “Mapping the Ground and Screening” introduces

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students to the youth experience in Sierra Leone as well as issues faced by immigrant youths who struggle to fit into two cultures. Unit one also offers discourse on the importance of activism through art. This introductory lesson plan familiarizes students through handouts and activities that engage students to screen the film with an open mind and a solid knowledge base of the topics discussed. In Unit Two of the Moving to the Beat curriculum, “Moving to the Beat of the Immigrant Experience”, students will focus on the challenges often faced by immigrant youth by exploring, in depth, the concepts of identity and dreams—two important themes discussed in the documentary. In Unit Three, “Pushing the Limits,” the curriculum explores the difficult choices that young people, challenged by war and poverty, find themselves making. The Moving to the Beat curriculum also looks at the choices that young women, both in Africa and beyond, make in challenging the limitations placed before them. The role of language in imposing and challenging limits is also addressed in this unit. In Unit Four, “Changing the World,” the Moving to the Beat curriculum provides discussion topics and activities focused on artistic expression and activism. Based on the active role of the Sierra Leonean youth in speaking out about AIDS, Unit Four provides educators with suggestions on engaging students in conversations on global topics such as AIDS or local topics such as their active involvement in pressing issues in their own community. We also suggest some tools for encouraging students to engage in community assessment and how to develop their own plan for action.

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The Curriculum Guide and Education Standards In order to assist educators in applying the curriculum of Moving to the Beat with the Oregon Education Standards, a brief description of applicable standards are listed below. Please note: This is not a comprehensive list.

Arts The main Arts standards covered in the curriculum fall under the category, Create, Present and Perform, AR.HS.CP.01-03 ◉◉ AR.HS.CP.01 Select and combine essential elements and organizational principles to achieve a desired effect when creating, presenting and/or performing works of art for a variety of purposes. ◉◉ AR.HS.CP.02 Explain the choices made in the creative process when combining ideas, techniques, and problem solving to produce one’s work, and identify the impact that different choices might have made. ◉◉ AR.HS.CP.03 Create, present and/or perform a work of art by controlling essential elements and organizational principles and describe how well the work expresses an intended idea, mood or feeling.

Social Sciences The main Social Sciences standards present in the curriculum fall under the category, Social Science Analysis, SS.HS.SA.01-06 ◉◉ SS.HS.SA.01 Define, research, and explain an event, issue, problem or phenomenon and its significance to society. ◉◉ SS.HS.SA.02 Gather, analyze, use and document information from various sources, distinguishing facts, opinions, inferences, biases, stereotypes, and persuasive appeals.

Moving to the Beat

◉◉ SS.HS.SA.03 Understand what it means to be a critical consumer of information. ◉◉ SS.HS.SA.04 Analyze an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon from varied or opposed perspectives or points of view. ◉◉ SS.HS.SA.05 Analyze an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon, identifying characteristics, influences, causes and both short-term and long-term effects. ◉◉ SS.HS.SA.06 Propose, compare, and judge multiple responses, alternatives or solutions; then reach a defensible, supported conclusion.

English Language Arts Writing EL.HS.WR.21 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories: ◉◉ Relate a sequence of events, and communicate the significance of the events to the audience. ◉◉ Locate scenes and incidents in specific places. ◉◉ Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the character’s feelings. ◉◉ Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in mood and time. ◉◉ Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. EL.HS.WR.23 Write analytical essays and research reports: ◉◉ Gather evidence in support of a thesis, including information on all relevant perspectives. ◉◉ Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently. ◉◉ Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts and ideas.

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◉◉ Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs. ◉◉ Anticipate and address readers’ potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations. ◉◉ Use technical terms and notations accurately. ◉◉ Document sources. EL.HS.WR.24 Write persuasive compositions: ◉◉ Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion. ◉◉ Use specific rhetorical (communication) devices to support assertions, such as appealing to logic through reasoning; appealing to emotion or ethical beliefs; or relating a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy. ◉◉ Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning. ◉◉ Address readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

Reading ◉◉ EL.HS.RE.01 Read at an independent and instructional reading level appropriate to grade level. ◉◉ EL.HS.RE.02 Listen to, read, and understand a wide variety of informational and narrative text, including classic and contemporary literature, poetry, magazines, newspapers, reference materials, and online information. ◉◉ EL.HS.RE.03 Make connections to text, within text, and among texts through classic and/or small group interpretive discussions across the subject areas. ◉◉ EL.HS.RE.04 Demonstrate listening comprehension of more complex text through class and/or small group interpretive discussions across the subject areas. ◉◉ EL.HS.RE.08 Understand, learn, and use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly through informational texts, literary texts, and

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instruction across the subject areas. EL.RE.HS.09 Develop vocabulary by listening to and discussing both familiar and conceptually challenging selections read aloud across the subject areas. EL.HS.RE.15 Read textbooks; biographical sketches, letters, diaries, directions, procedures, magazines, essays, primary source historical documents, editorials, news stories, periodicals, bus routes, catalogs, technical directions, consumer, workplace, and public documents. EL.HS.RE.19 Identify and/or summarize sequence of events, main ideas, facts and supporting details, and opinions in informational and practical selections. EL.HS.RE.20 Clarify understanding of informational texts by creating sophisticated outlines, graphic organizers, diagrams, logical notes, or summaries. EL.HS.RE.24 Analyze implicit relationships, such as cause and effect, sequence time relationships, comparisons, classifications, and generalizations. EL.HS.RE.26 Draw conclusions about the author’s purpose based on evidence in the text. EL.HS.RE.33 Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched. EL.HS.RE.35 Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.

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Unit One

Mapping the Ground and Screening Unit One prepares students to engage with the Moving to the Beat documentary as an educational tool. The unit is structured around one or two-day screenings of the film, although there is flexibility in the pacing based on the approach of the instructor. However, whether one day or several days are spent discussing Moving to the Beat, it is strongly recommended that the Unit One modules be utilized preceding the screening. The unit is set up to specifically provide students with both the historical context and a basic understanding of the issues addressed within the documentary. Unit One includes a series of modules that address some of the major themes of the film: ◉◉ Africa and stereotyping ◉◉ Hip-hop history and culture ◉◉ The Moving to the Beat project Running time for the film is 44 minutes. When screening the film in two sessions, 27:17 is a useful starting point for the second session (when the narrator begins to talk about women in the hip-hop having to work twice as hard as men).

Please Note: Before beginning this section, it is important to go over classroom rules that stress respect, listening skills, active participation, and allowing room for divergent experiences. Moving to the Beat

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Module A

Challenging Stereotypes of Africa Students will engage with the Moving to the Beat documentary on a higher level if they are first provided with an introduction to Sierra Leone and its history. Module A includes activities designed to challenge a students’ perceptions of Africa and to encourage students to make personal connections with the lives of the African youth.

Objectives After completing this module students should be able to: ◉◉ Identify and define common Western stereotypes of Africans and Africa ◉◉ Explore the ways in which these stereotypes have been formed and perpetuated ◉◉ Develop a more complex picture of Africans with Sierra Leone serving as a case example ◉◉ Describe the historical relationship between the United States and Sierra Leone Module A is divided into two parts: ◉◉ The first part of the module focuses on stereotypes about Africa and Africans. ◉◉ The second part of the module focuses on Sierra Leone. Module A includes handouts to be read by students prior to the screening. These handouts can be found at the end of the module.

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Part One

Africa and Africans In the following activities, students explore their understanding of the continent of Africa and its people. These activities are particularly aimed at challenging misperceptions and stereotypes students may hold about Africans and offer insight into the geographical variation of Africa, the richness of African history, and the diversity of what it means to be African.

Activity One

Mental Maps of Africa: What is Africa and Who are Africans? Have students draw a map of Africa without referring to any sources. Instruct students to include:

Evaluating Our Stereotypes and Bias: Reviewing STOP Words. This handout contains a list of stop words that allows the students to assess the quality of materials on Africa. Encourage students not to reject all popular media as sources on Africa but to question the sources.

◉◉ Political characteristics such as cities and countries ◉◉ Physical characteristics such as mountains, deserts, rivers, oceans, vegetation types, etc. ◉◉ Economic characteristic such as resources, crops, etc. ◉◉ Historic characteristics such as religions, events, wars, people, current events, leaders, language, etc.

Mapping Africa offers students a sample of maps with which to compare their own maps. Mapping Africa asks students to evaluate the controversy over the size of Africa as depicted on a map. This discussion is followed by the inclusion of two maps:

Encourage students to use symbols and adjectives. This initial map can be revisited as students participate in subsequent activities. After the map is complete, encourage discussion with students on the following topics:

Once the students become familiar with the maps, have the students focus on Sierra Leone in relations to the information provided on the maps.

◉◉ Where did the information the students included on their map come from? ◉◉ Assess the quality of the sources and discuss ways of confirming and denying information that they hear about Africa Consider giving students access to the following handouts (found at the end of the module):

Moving to the Beat

◉◉ A comparative map on the size of the continent of Africa, ◉◉ A map outlining the current national boundaries.

Please Note: A map presenting an overview of the diverse geography on the continent can be accessed online. Activity Follow-up: After students participate in activities in the curriculum, have students draw a second version of the map, addressing the same topics with the knowledge obtained from the curriculum activities. When students have completed a second map of Africa, ask them to compare it to their first map and discuss the differences.

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Resource: http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/resources/curriculum/ wdwk2/

Activity Two

Map Interpretation In this activity students explore their understanding of size, political geography and climate of Africa. (See the maps in the “Mapping Africa” handout at the end of the Module for answers.) 1. Place these territories in order of size beginning with smallest: • Africa • Europe • China • United States 2. How many countries are there in Africa? 3. How does the climate variation in Africa compare with that of North America? Please note: A map depicting climate variation can be found online.

Activity Three

The Problem of Stereotyping (Discussion) As students develop critical awareness about stereotyping, they sometimes come to the conclusion that it is wrong to put people in categories. As this issue emerges in the classroom, it is important to engage students in thinking about important questions on stereotyping: ◉◉ What categories are useful when stereotyping groups? When are categories destructive? ◉◉ What is the difference between classifying, grouping, and generalizing—concepts vital for organizing experience and for functioning in the world—and stereotyping?

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Note to Instructor: A stereotype is a false generalization about an individual or group, even though the stereotype may have some basis in reality. Stereotyping involves drawing a conclusion that has the effect of creating social distance and closing down the process of learning about others. Furthermore, there is a political dimension to this form of categorizing. Stereotyping robs individuals and groups of complexity, reducing them to the crude dimension of a “type.” This is particularly destructive when the individual or group has a history of being defined in narrow or negative ways by the dominant group. Even “positive” stereotypes can be oppressive. For example, women and people of color are often viewed as more emotional, sensual, and spiritual than their white male counterparts. While these may be perceived as being positive characteristics, they are also used to place women and people of color in a position close to “nature”, and thus less culturally “advanced” than white males. Groups that have been stereotyped may make new uses of the characteristics in the process of redefining themselves, just as they may struggle to break free from older definitions altogether. Source: Scarves of Many Colors- Muslim Women and the Veil)

◉◉ Encourage students to spend 15 minutes writing a reflective essay on their own experiences with labels and stereotypes. Then have students, if comfortable, share these essays in small group discussions. Emphasize the following dimensions of stereotyping, including the idea that stereotypes may be either positive or negative: ◉◉ Unlike other ways of grouping or categorizing people, stereotyping: • Denies the complexity of individuals or groups by defining them through a single or limited set of characteristics; • Maintains systems of power by limiting the

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self-definition of groups to those categories that have been historically available to them, for example, businessmen, mothers, athletes, or hairdressers; • Creates social distance by limiting the full humanity of individuals or groups. Resources: Haaken, J., Wallin-Ruschman, J., & Patange, S. (2012). Global hip-hop identities: Black youth, psychoanalytic action research, and the Moving to the Beat project. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 22, 1, 63-74. Haaken, J. (in press). Picturing the field: Social action research, psychoanalytic theory, and documentary filmmaking. In P. Reavey (ed.) Visual psychologies: A handbook of methods. London: Routledge.

Activity Four

Stereotyping Africa and Africans Students work alone or in small groups to create two charts: ◉◉ One chart should list certain types of images that come to mind when discussing Africa. ◉◉ The second chart should list images that come to mind when discussing African people. Ask students to identify which images are stereotypes, making sure to emphasize that not all students will identify or share with the list of images. If the stereotypes are of the continent of Africa, ask students to consider how these images extend to stereotyping African peoples. For example, stereotypes such as “Africans live in trees” or “they don’t wear clothes” depict Africans as close and almost inseparable from the environment in which they live. Once students begin to explore the diversity of the continent and African ways of life students will be better able to make distinctions between the African terrain and its peoples.

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Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ Why should we care about stereotypes of Africa? ◉◉ How might stereotypes shape how Africans have been treated in Western countries and continue to be treated?

Activity Five

Western Media and the Stereotyping of Africa and Africans Please Note: When analyzing images in the media of Africa and Africans, students should be equipped with questions that serve as a framework for critique. Following the previous activity on stereotypes, present images from Africa from literature and film. Teachers may bring in example images or students may be requested to find images. Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ How does the media image (e.g., film, commercial, television programs) represent Africa or Africans? ◉◉ What type of story is being told and how are the characters portrayed in telling the story? ◉◉ Who are the main characters in the story? ◉◉ Are they sympathetic? ◉◉ Which character is important in resolving the conflict at the center of the story? ◉◉ How do the characters change or evolve throughout the story? ◉◉ Which character is important in resolving the conflict at the center of the story? ◉◉ Whose point of view is the story told from? How do these positions “map” onto African people? Rather than analyzing media by simply tallying positive versus negative images, the critical discussion should focus on: ◉◉ How the central characters are developed ◉◉ The subtleties in the relationships between

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characters in the development of the plot ◉◉ The relative importance and complexity of Africans as characters who are able to speak for themselves. Assignment: Have students work on finding examples of possible stereotypes in film, television, advertising, and theme parks. Once students have compiled a list of stereotypes, ask the group identify strategies for challenging those stereotypes. Students should specify the source and the nature of stereotype. Emphasize that stereotypes may not be obvious and that they can be either positive or negative.

Resource: See the following Smithsonian website for current images of Africa: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/peopleplaces/africa.html?onsite_source=smithsonianmag. com&onsite_medium=internal&onsite_ campaign=photogalleries&onsite_content=Africa:%20 Beyond%20the%20Stereotypes#

Part Two

Understanding Sierra Leone Activity One

Increasing Cross-cultural Dialogue with Africans Provide students with the handout “The Making of Moving to the Beat,” an essay by one of the documentary filmmakers, Caleb Heymann. This essay describes the efforts of an American youth to help create a film that captures the experience of the Sierra Leonean people from an outsider’s point of view. In the handout Heymann emphasizes the importance of listening and of openness to new experiences, and how entering another culture requires both curiosity and respect. Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ How were the Heymann’s perceptions influenced by his experiences traveling in West Africa? ◉◉ What experiences and thoughts do you identify with in his story? ◉◉ What images might you carry into this same journey?

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Assignment: Write a one-page essay on how the author’s perceptions changed after visiting Sierra Leone and what factors might account for those changes.

Activity Two

Understanding Sierra Leone through Its Languages Language use is essential to rap music and to forming collective identities. Through the Moving to the Beat documentary, students learn how language is used as a tool of hip-hop, and as a source for collective identity for the Sierra Leonean people to come together. Sierra Leone serves as a fascinating example of many of the challenges that African countries face. One way of exploring Sierra Leone is through its language. Please see the handout “Languages of the Sierra Leonean People” for a suggested activity.

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Assignment: The soundtrack to the Moving to the Beat documentary includes several songs with lyrics in Krio. Have students listen to track 13: Salone For Go Bifo while following the lyrics off of the handout with the same name. Have students identify and translate 20 words in Krio from the handout. Finally, have students examine the choice of words used in the song and explore their meaning and overall message.

Activity Three

Understanding the Socio-Economic Climate of Sierra Leone The purpose of this activity is to help participants understand how other countries exploit resources in Sierra Leone. This exploitation impacts the economy as well as employment opportunities for Sierra Leone youth and citizens. Time: Approximately 50 minutes

Materials: ◉◉ Blood Diamond Essay: Read this essay prior to the start of this activity ◉◉ Mancala Boards: These boards consist of two opposing rows of six small bowls. At each end there is a larger bowl, or Kalaha. Students can use empty egg cartons or ice cube trays with a small bowl placed at each end (1 Mancala Board per 4 students). ◉◉ Diamonds: Collect marbles, colored candies, dry beans or small stones to represent diamonds (24 diamonds per Diamond Worker, or half the students in the class) ◉◉ Play Money: Pass out play money in increments of 10 cents and $1,000: pennies or tokens to represent increments of 10 cents; pieces of colored construction paper to represent increments of $1,000. (Teachers need an equal amount of Play Money and Diamonds—see Procedure.) ◉◉ Power Distribution Cards: (1 per Diamond Worker) ◉◉ Mancala: Diamonds for Pennies handout (1 per student)

Module A Resources Michigan State offers resources to teachers and students about Africa: http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/ curriculum/m1/notes.php Documentary: “The Language You Cry In” tracing the historical connection between Sierra Leone and the U.S. http:// www.newsreel.org/nav/title.asp?tc=CN0053 Documentary: “What Do We Know About Africa?” http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/materials/videos/movie.html Haaken, J., Ladum, A., Zundel, K., DeTarr, S., & Heymann, C. (2005). Speaking out: Women, War, and the Global Economy. Portland, OR: Ooligan Press. http://www.google.com/earth/index.html http://www.maps.com/games/africa.aspx http://www.international.ucla.edu/africa/grca/global-link/index.asp http://www.brown.edu/Research/AAAH/

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Evaluating Our Stereotypes and Biases: Reviewing STOP Words How can one identify language in writing that reflects bias, stereotypes, or inaccurate information? Listed below are some guidelines for critical reading. The subtle shadings of opinion and omission of relevant information are perhaps more dangerous than the use of outrageous words. Let’s examine some of this subtle terminology more carefully. “STOP” words: when we see these words used, we recognize stereotypes or patronizing and degrading words. We can substitute less value-laden words for a more appropriate representation of the information.

STOP Words

Notes

Substitute

Jungle

Only 5% of Africa is rainforest

Rainforest

Tribe

Do we call the Welsh a British tribe, The French a Canadian tribe?

people, ethnic group, nation

Backward or Primitive

These words are patronizing and are used to point out inferior status.

Indigenous or traditional

Bush

About 40% of Africa is grassland or savannah.

Savannah

Savage, Native

These words are patronizing and are used to point out inferior status.

African or Tanzanian, Kenyan

Pagan

These words are used to lessen the importance of religions and beliefs other than Christianity.

Traditional religion

Juju or Superstition

Faith

Hut

Hut is used to denote an inferior building.

House

Bantu People

Bantu is not the name of a group of people. It is a language group.

Bantu language

Pigmy, Bushmen

These are derogatory names given by Europeans.

Mbuti, San

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Mapping Africa The controversy surrounding the representation of the size of the continent of Africa on maps and materials Read the following excerpt on the Peters Map controversy. When finished, discuss, either as a class or in small groups, whether or not his projection should be used more often. In 1974, German map maker, historian, and journalist Arno Peters developed an equal area map projection of a round world on a flat surface. He created this map in order to counter the commonly used “Euro-centric” Mercator map projection. He stated, “In our epoch, relatively young nations of the world have cast off the colonial dependencies and now fight for equal rights. It seems important to me that developed nations are no longer at the center of the world, but are plotted according to their true size.” He pointed out that, on the Mercator map, Europe’s 3.8 million square miles are made to appear larger than South America’s 6.9 million square miles. Peters argued that “the quest for the causes of arrogance and xenophobia has led me repeatedly back to the global map as being primarily responsible for forming people’s impression of the world.” It is important to note that the Mercator projection is rarely used today, except for navigation. However, many Mercator maps are still located in older classroom materials, and often used currently by many graphic artists. Cartographers have criticized the Peters map in part due to its distortion of the shapes of continents; one cartographer went so far as to describe the effect as being “the resulting land masses are somewhat reminiscent of wet, ragged, long winter underwear hung out to dry on the Arctic Circle.” While each continent is reflected accurately in terms of area proportion, the overall effect of the maps is not a realistic portrayal of the earth. Cartographers argue that numerous projections developed since the Mercator projection (such as the Robinson and the Goode projections) succeed in achieving a more realistic image of the world without a Europe-centered focus. Although equal area projections have existed since 1772, many international organizations have heralded the Peters map as a way for the “Third World” to break away from colonial constructs. Peters, as an accomplished journalist, knew the art of generating publicity. His assertions sparked an ongoing debate over the use of the Peters Map between cartographers and individuals who believed the map would change people’s perceptions about the developing world.

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Blood Diamonds By Kayt Zundel Established in the early nineteenth century as a colony for escaped slaves, Sierra Leone came under British control in 1896. In 1927 vast diamond deposits were discovered, and by 1932, De Beers, a British based company that originated in South Africa, struck a deal with the Sierra Leonean government giving De Beers sole diamond mining rights for 99 years. In exchange for 27% of net profits, the government nationalized ownership of all diamonds, making them government property. Nationalization in principle creates a form of public ownership over resources. But governments that are not accountable to the people can exploit public ownership for their own interests. The Sierra Leonean government served as a diamond broker for De Beers, with little of the revenue from the mines benefiting the country.

Alluvial and Kimberlite Diamond Deposits Both alluvial and kimberlite diamond deposits continue to be found in Sierra Leone. Kimberlite deposits are located in volcanic pipes, which originate deep beneath the earth’s surface and often require expensive mining equipment. Alluvial diamonds, which break loose from eroded kimberlite pipes, are found close to the earth’s surface. These diamonds travel down streams and rivers until they are eventually deposited in mud and thick gravel. David Keene, professor at the London School of Economics concluded: Historically most of the profits have accrued abroad. The Alluvial Diamond Mining Scheme set up in 1955 created the possibility of mining by local people, but in practice those who could afford the licenses and the necessary rudimentary equipment were primarily civil servants, chiefs, politicians and most importantly traders.” Keene added, “Meanwhile, chiefs in the diamondiferous areas grew rich off the gems, benefiting from their ability to grant licenses and often reserving the best areas for themselves. Ruling house families tended to have ownership in land which they would then lease to others. These licenses were often passed down on a hereditary basis, and ultimate ownership tended to remain with the ruling families, reinforcing their power.

Dirty and Clean Diamonds “Blood,” “dirty,” “illicit” and “conflict” are terms used to describe diamonds that are mined and sold illegally. These terms also refer to diamonds traded by rebel movements to finance military activities in opposition to internationally recognized governments. These illegal diamonds are smuggled over borders and often sold for cash or traded for guns. By illegally trafficking diamonds, rebel groups gained control over some of the richest diamond mines in Sierra Leone during the 1990s.

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Governments and recognized businesses or corporations legally mine “clean diamonds.” In response to public concern that the diamond trade was financing rebel groups in Liberia and Sierra Leone in the 1990s, a political campaign emerged in the United States to control the illegal trafficking in diamonds. In the legal markets, however, diamond mine workers typically labor for pennies a day, while corporate monopolies inflate diamond prices and generate enormous profits from diamonds sales around the world. Since diamonds are extracted for sale in foreign countries, profits are not invested in the development of the country. Although Sierra Leonean workers extract tens of millions of dollars in diamonds each year, the country is ranked as among the world’s poorest. In 1999 human rights groups accused De Beers—the corporation in control of the majority of diamonds worldwide since the early 1900s—of buying blood diamonds from rebels in order to maintain control over the diamond industry. In response, De Beers initiated a campaign to keep blood diamonds out of the world market.

Certificates of Origination The Kimberly Process, a plan with the goal of establishing worldwide standards for diamond certification, is aimed at preventing conflict diamonds from entering the world market. Under the Kimberly Process plan, diamond-producing countries must issue certificates declaring their diamonds legal and legitimate. Corporations, such as De Beers, have suggested that requiring a certificate of origination for diamonds makes it possible to track diamonds and to prevent rebel groups from using diamonds to finance their activities. Although over thirty countries have agreed to the certification plan there has not been an independent group formed to monitor diamond production worldwide, or to audit how certificates are issued. How or if they enforce the Kimberly Process is left to each country’s government. With no regulation certificates can be easily forged—even rebel groups have been able to successfully apply for and receive legal certification for illicitly traded diamonds.

Where Diamonds are Processed and Cut Whether diamonds are smuggled over borders or given certificates of legitimacy, it is impossible to distinguish between clean and dirty diamonds once they have entered the world market. Approximately 20% of the world’s consumer quality diamonds are processed and cut in Tel Aviv, India and New York City. An estimated 80% of the world’s consumer quality diamonds are sent to Antwerp, Belgium, where the majority have been received for over 50 years with no questions asked. In Antwerp legitimate and illicit diamonds are cut and polished, traded and transferred until the difference between clean diamonds and blood diamonds becomes murky. These diamonds, the majority of which are ultimately purchased in US markets, are sold and resold with little or no paperwork.

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Sources: All About Diamonds. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2003, from http://www.goldandsilvermines. com/aboutd.htm Amnesty International. The True Cost of Diamonds. [n.d.]. Retrieved February 4, 2003, from http:// web.amnesty.org/pages/ec_kimberley_process The Belgium Diamond Market. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Conflict Diamonds: Analyses, Actions, Solutions http://www.conflictdiamonds.com/pages/Interface/reportframe.html Campbell, G. (2002). Diamonds: Tracing the Deadly Path of the World’s Most Precious Stones. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Cockburn, A. (2002). Diamonds the Real Story. National Geographic, March, 6–38. Doyle, M. (2000). Call for West Africa Diamond Boycott. Retrieved August 21, 2001, from http:// news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/600475.stm Epstein, E. & Epstein, J. (1982). The Rise and Fall of Diamonds. New York: Simon & Schuster. Hart, M. (2002). Diamond: The History of a Cold Blooded Love Affair. New York: Plume. Kanfer, S. (1993). Last Empire: De Beers, Diamonds, and the World. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Keene, D. (2003). Greedy Elites, Dwindling Resources, Alienated Youths: The Anatomy of Protracted Violence in Sierra Leone. International Politics and Society, 2. Retrieved from http://fesportal.fes.de/pls/portal30/docs/FOLDER/IPG/IPG2_2003/ARTKEEN.HTM

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Mancala: Diamonds for Pennies Please Note: The game Mancala is readily available for purchase. You may find it at your local non-profit toy store, or you can collect the materials below to assemble it yourself. The game may also be played the traditional way as a cultural exercise. Mancala is appropriate for ages five years through adulthood.

Brief History of Mancala Historians believe that Mancala, a traditional African game, is the oldest game in the world. Children and adults in most African countries enjoy some version of Mancala. In some African villages Mancala is used as a ceremonial rite of passage; in other villages it is simply a form of recreation. In Africa, children play the game of Mancala by digging a few simple holes in the ground and using pebbles as game pieces. The game can also be played on elaborate wooden playing boards.

Diamonds for Pennies Activity Directions Place the Mancala Board on a flat surface between you. Take 24 diamonds each and put four in each of the six bowls on your side of the board. Do not put any in your Kalaha. These must be empty at the start of the game. Starting the Game: If you are first, scoop all the diamonds from any bowl on your side of the board. Moving to the right, drop one diamond into each bowl. If you come to your Kalaha, drop in one diamond. If you still have Diamonds continue dropping them into bowls on your opponent’s side, but skip their Kalaha. Diamonds for Pennies is divided into two game phases:

Phase One 1. Have students read the Blood Diamond Essay 2. Divide the students into competing pairs. In the Diamond for Pennies version, one person of the pair represents the Diamond Worker, and the other person represents the Cartel Partner. • Diamond Workers represent the people doing the manual labor in diamond mining. • Cartel Partners represent the business agents of the large diamond companies. 3. Distribute Mancala Boards (1 per pair), and “diamonds” (24 to each Diamond Worker). 4. Review the instructions with the students to make sure they understand the rules of the game of Mancala before playing.

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5. The Diamond Workers start out with six bowls of “diamonds”. Throughout the game, Diamond Workers may move any “diamond” on their side of the board, but they may not move “diamonds” on their opponent’s side. 6. During the game, the Cartel Partners is in a position of power over their Diamond Worker counterparts. This means that if there is a dispute over a maneuver or other process in the game, the Cartel Partner has the power to override the Diamond Worker in all cases of dispute. 7. The first part of the Diamonds for Pennies Mancala game ends when all six bowls of either player are empty. The player with “diamonds” remaining in their bowls puts them into their Kalaha, or one of the two larger bowls at each end of the board. The object of the game is to end up with the most “diamonds” in the Kalaha. Please note: ◉◉ Taking an Additional Turn: You may go again if your last “diamond” lands in your own Kalaha. Otherwise, it becomes your opponent’s turn when you run out of the “diamonds” you scooped from the bowl. ◉◉ Capturing Your Opponents “Diamonds”: If the last “diamond” you drop goes into an empty bowl on your side of the board, you capture your opponent’s “diamonds” in the bowl directly across from yours by putting them in your Kalaha. It becomes your opponent’s turn after you make a capture. The end of Phase One: The game ends when all six bowls belonging to either Diamond Worker are empty. The Diamond Worker whose “diamonds” remain in the bowls moves them to their Kalaha.

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Phase Two 1. The Cartel Partner takes over when the Diamond Workers finish playing Mancala. As students finish playing, have the Cartel Partner distribute a “Power Distribution” Card to each Diamond Worker. 2. Have the Diamond Workers follow the directions on the “Power Distribution” card. 3. Instruct the Diamond Workers to give their remaining “diamonds” to their Cartel Partners. 4. Next, ask the Cartel Partners to turn in their “diamonds” to the teacher. Explain that the Cartel Partners will receive $1,000.10 for each “diamond”, but instruct them to pay their Diamond Workers only 10 cents for each “diamond”. Take out the “money,” pay the Cartel Partners, and let the Cartel Partners pay the Diamond Workers. 5. Once the Diamond Workers and the Cartel Partners have secured their “funds”, have the students reflect on the discrepancies of payment to the Cartel Partners and the Diamond Workers. 6. Guide a class discussion based on the following questions: • Why might the team with the most diamonds lose at the end of the game? How does this mirror the situation of Sierra Leoneans? • How did it feel being a Diamond Worker? How did it feel being a Cartel Partner? How did you feel watching the other person in their role? • There are different types and sources of power. Which partner held what kinds of power during the game (e.g., the Cartel Partner held economic power; the Diamond Worker held the power of his labor)? What are other examples of forms of power? • Within the rules there seems to be no way to resist. What would the Diamond Workers have to do to win this game? In the real world, what forms of resistance could the diamond workers engage in? • In Western culture diamonds generally are viewed as a valuable commodity. Did the experience of playing this game change students’ perceptions of diamonds’ value? Source: Taken from Speaking Out: Women, War and the Global Economy

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Power Distribution Cards

You were captured and forced to work as a slave in You have a family to care for and must take time out the diamond mines. You escaped but with only 2 to look for food. diamonds. Lose ½ of your diamonds. Turn ½ over to your Cartel Lose all but 2 diamonds. Turn the 2 diamonds over partner. to your Cartel partner.

You were captured and forced to work as a slave in You were attacked by rebels and lost an arm. You the diamond mines. You have found many diacan no longer work as quickly as the other diamond monds but are not allowed to keep any for yourself. workers. Lose all but 1/3 of your diamonds. Turn over your remaining 1/3 to your Cartel partner.

You are a local chief. In return for controlling the youth in your village, you are entitled to half of all mined diamonds. Keep all of your diamonds and take ½ of every other diamond worker’s remaining diamonds. Turn over all of collected diamonds to your Cartel Partner.

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Lose all of your diamonds. Explain to your Cartel partner that you no longer have any diamonds.

You are hired as a guard for the diamond mines. Your village shuns you because of your position and you are not allowed to keep any diamonds from the mines. Turn over all of your diamonds to your Cartel partner and wait for your daily pay of 10 cents.

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Module B

Exploring the Power of Hip-hop Most students have some knowledge of hip-hop culture; yet little understand its rich and varied history in the United States and throughout the globe. The process of inquiry outlined in this module includes a journey to uncover the roots of hip-hop—a fascinating and often forgotten area of American history. Understanding the history of this musical culture prepares students to recognize both the positive and the destructive aspects of hip-hop culture. The following activities create a shared framework for discussing the conventions of hip-hop performed in Moving to the Beat, and for the subsequent units of the curriculum.

Objectives After completing this module students should be able to: ◉◉ Gain an introductory understanding of key elements of hip-hop culture ◉◉ Learn about the historical and social roots of hip-hop ◉◉ Identify both positive and negative aspects of a culture ◉◉ Develop research skills with a specific focus on cross-cultural analysis

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Activity one

Defining the Genre of Hip-hop To set the stage for the hip-hop centered activities in this module, it is important to assess the familiarity of students with Hip-hop music and culture: ◉◉ What do students know about hip-hop? ◉◉ What are their assumptions and preconceptions? ◉◉ Have students work individually or in groups to complete the following sentences: Hip-hop is_________________________________ . Hip-hop should_____________________________ . Hip-hop cannot_____________________________ . Hip-hop should never________________________ . Hip-hop must______________________________ . Source: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0603/060302-hiphop-e.html

After the students have completed the above activity, ask each person or group to share some of their responses. It may be useful to record the student’s responses so that they can be referred back to at a later time. Observe the points of agreement or disagreement among the students. Note areas of disagreement and return to these areas later. ◉◉ Although this instruction could pertain to many discussions in the curriculum guide, disagreement is particularly likely to occur when students’ discuss hip-hop. ◉◉ Hip-hop means many different things to many people. In fact, part of its strength is encompassing areas as broad as art, activism, and identity. But there is also disagreement about the flexibility of hip-hop. Some argue that a hip-hop way of thinking can be applied to almost anything,

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while others suggest hip-hop lives in the “original elements”, such as DJ’ing, MC’ing, break dancing, and graffiti art. The preceding activity likely brought up these areas of disagreement.

Activity Two

Recovering Hip-hop History Like any cultural phenomenon, hip-hop enjoys a complex history. Although the initial development of hip-hop is tied to one specific place in geography and time, the global spread of hip-hop has produced many sub-genres and additional elements (e.g. theatre, fashion, and film). For this activity, distribute the handout “The Radical Roots of Hip-Hop” (found at the end of the module) to students at the beginning of class. Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ What was surprising about the history of hip-hop handout? ◉◉ Why do you think the handout was titled: “The Radical Roots of Hip-hop”? ◉◉ What is the definition of radical? What does the word mean to the students? Is hip-hop still radical? Why or why not? ◉◉ What would you, as a student, add to this history of hip-hop? Assignment: Have students conduct research on an aspect of hip-hop culture or history, including the key question guiding the research. This type of research can be done at a library, museum, or online.

Activity Three

Exploring the Art of Hip-hop In this activity, students explore the elements of hiphop. Provide students with various visual and audio examples of hip-hop culture (e.g. walk to a graffiti

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covered area in your community, play a rap music song, show a video of a break dancing group, and/or invite a DJ to class). Have students discuss the commonalities and differences of hip-hop in visual and audio forms. Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ What characteristics of the media explored identify it as an example of hip-hop? ◉◉ Is the media explored a positive form of hip-hop? What are the characteristics of “positive” versus destructive hip-hop? ◉◉ What other examples of hip-hop can you think of? ◉◉ Have students explore the different ways in how their peers respond to these artistic expressions?

Activity Four

Researching Hip-hop in a Different Country Begin with a review of key points in “the Radical Roots of Hip-Hop” handout, focusing on hip-hop as a global phenomenon. While Moving to the Beat looks at how youth in Sierra Leone are taking up this cultural form, many other countries have strong local hip-hop scenes. For this activity students can work individually or in groups to carry out research on the hip-hop movement and culture in another country. Each assignment should include: ◉◉ A brief description, history, and map of the country. ◉◉ A portrayal of hip-hop culture in the country. ◉◉ An analysis of the benefits or harm hip-hop is causing in the country. ◉◉ The student might also include a sample of hiphop from their assigned area.

Module B Resources Rose, T. (2008). The hip-hop wars: What we talk about when we talk about hip-hop—and why it matters. New York: BasicCivitas. Rose, T. (1994). Black noise: Rap music and Black culture in contemporary America. Hanover, CT: Wesleyan University Press. Chang, J. (2005). Can’t stop, won’t stop: A history of the hip-hop generation. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Pardue, D. (2004). “Writing in the margins”: Brazilian hip-hop as an educational project. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 35(1), 411–432. Pennycook, A. (2007). Language, localization, and the real: Hip-hop and the global spread of authenticity. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 6(2), 101–115. Clay, A. (2003). Keepin’ it real: Black youth, hip-hop culture, and Black identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10), 1346–1358.

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Module C

Screening Moving to the Beat The film has a running time of forty-four minutes. The Moving to the Beat music score (included in the DVD package) includes rap pieces on the history of Sierra Leonean hip-hop. In order to arouse interest in the stories and characters of the documentary, the CD can be played as students enter the classroom.

Objectives After viewing Moving to the Beat, students should be able to: ◉◉ Identify the film’s main themes and characters. ◉◉ Identify a favorite character in the film. ◉◉ Understand the purpose and importance of the film. ◉◉ Identify and explore at least two new ideas learned from the film.

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Activity One

Screening

Encourage students to take notes on the main themes of the film, what parts speak to them, the characters and stories with which they most identify, and any questions they might have as they watch. If you plan on showing the film in two segments a useful stopping place is at 27:17. Assignment: After completing the viewing of the documentary, engage in a dialogue with students, exploring their initial responses to the overall film and its characters. Ask students to identify in writing or orally key themes in the documentary. Discuss situations in the film with which students may have identified strongly.

Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ What did you think about the film? What was your favorite part? Why? ◉◉ Who was your favorite character? Why? OR What character did you identify most with? Why? ◉◉ What were some of the main themes in this film? Do you think the film was trying to say something? What was it trying to say? ◉◉ If it is observed that students laugh at certain parts of the documentary, it might be appropriate to prompt students with a discussion: “I noticed you laughed at certain points in the film. Why do you think that was?”

Module C Resources Chang, J. (2006). Can’t stop, won’t stop: A history of the hip-hop generation. New York: Picador. Rose, T. (1994). Black noise: Rap music and black culture in contemporary America. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. Rose, T. (2008). The hip-hop wars: What we talk about when we talk about hip-hop—and why it matters. New York: BasicCivitas.

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Making the Documentary: Moving to the Beat and the Portland-Freetown Connection By Caleb Heymann In the winter of 2007, a group of Portland-based musicians and filmmakers boarded a plane for Freetown, Sierra Leone. The trip had different meanings for the various people heading for this small country in West Africa. For Sawif and Ciiz, members of the Portland-based hip-hop group, Rebel Soulz, it was an opportunity to showcase their music to an overseas audience and to fulfill their dream of connecting with their spiritual homeland as AfricanAmericans. For Sierra Leonean-American Abdul, it was an actual homecoming to a place where he’d spent his childhood before immigrating to America. And for me, as a Portlandbased filmmaker living in South Africa, it was a chance to return to Western Africa where I had shot my first documentary film eight years earlier as a high school student.. That trip between my junior and senior years of high school started me on a journey that continues today in discovering the fascinating histories of Africa. Our two-week trip in 2007 became the foundation for the Moving to the Beat documentary, a project that had begun several years prior. I filmed Sawif, Ciiz and Abdul as they mingled with their musical counterparts on the beaches of Freetown, visited with refugees and amputees victimized by the decade-long civil war, and performed live at local clubs. Through interviews, radio appearances, casual conversations and freestyles, the dialogue was broad and ambitious. There was palpable excitement in the air, as if long-lost brothers and sisters were coming together. The chant of “Salon fo go bifo! (Sierra Leone must progress!)” and “Forward ahead to Africa” followed us like a steady drum-beat throughout the trip. The central idea behind Moving to the Beat is that hip-hop bridges the worlds of black youth in Africa and America. Hip-hop is more than the music—it’s a language, an attitude, a way of dressing and moving that forms a common bond and identity. As Afrika Bambaataa observed, hip-hop “dates all the way back to the motherland, where tribes would use call-and-response chants.” Roots can be traced through Cab Calloway’s jazz rhyming and the poetic ‘rapping’ of Isaac Hayes, to the angry political rhetoric of Malcom X. And with this phase of globalization, it’s come full circle back to Africa, where youth rock Tupac tattoos and holler “West Side!” Bigger-than-life images of Tupac and other hip-hop celebrities were displayed on posters and passing cars—Fancy cars, “bling” and white picket mansions. And this presence of American hip-hop on the streets of Freetown led to a general consensus among our Sierra Leonean friends that America was indeed a “second heaven.” At the same time, they struggled to untangle the radical and commercial roots of American hip-hop. There was

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a genuine response to our call to demystify America as the Wonderland. “Moving to the Beat” became a process of breaking down misconceptions that existed between Africa and America, and recovering the radical soul of hip-hop. The local hip-hop style of Freetown may be derivative of commercial American rap in style and attitude. But in terms of substance and lyrical content, it is far more progressive than most Western hip-hop. In Sierra Leone, there is widespread awareness that music plays an educational and political role through “sensitizing” the masses to social issues. Songs promoting safe sex actually play in clubs as local hits. Young women turned to hip-hop to speak out against sexism, while young men—many of whom had been child war soldiers—put down the gun and picked up the microphone to attack repressive traditions with “lyrical ammunition.” When we boarded the plane back to America, we knew that this was still a beginning. Sierra Leoneans had embraced the Rebel Soulz and turned them into local celebrities, and now they were already planning their next trip to “Sa’lone.” As co-directors, Abdul and I knew that we had our work cut out in editing the footage back in Portland. But more than that this project had started a small movement, and our connections laid the groundwork for the Moving to the Beat Freetown organization that is currently fifty members strong. The commitment to social change and building an American – African activist connection through progressive hip-hop remains strong. Our documentary Moving to the Beat has recently been screened at film festivals in New York, Atlanta and Amsterdam, and selected for inclusion in the Afropop series by the National Black Programming Consortium. If you’d like more information or to get involved in the project, please visit our website at www.moving2thebeat.com and send us an email.

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Languages of the Sierra Leonean People This is the first of several activities in this curriculum where we address the importance of language in shaping identity and social interaction. Sierra Leone is comprised of sixteen ethnic groups, five of these considered to be primary. Of these five, the Temne (35%) and the Mende (31%) are the two largest groups. The first language Sierra Leoneans learn is that of their ethnic group. However, there are two other languages widely spoken among Sierra Leoneans. The first language is English. English was assigned as the official language of Sierra Leone after British colonization in the sixteenth century. The English provided a lingua franca—a language for commerce and communication throughout the British Empires. Although English is the official language of the country, the most commonly spoken language among Sierra Leoneans is Krio. Krio originates from African Pidgin English, a trading language evolving from English-Creole, the language primarily used in the 17th and 18th centuries to facilitate communication between African and European traders. As it evolved, the Krio language also created a form of communication between slaves brought to America from all over Africa. Although its use was discouraged during British colonial rule, over the years Krio has become the popular choice for cross ethnic group communication in Sierra Leone. After gaining its independence in 1961, the Krio language has grown in popularity, offering Sierra Leoneans a source of collective identity. English remains the official language that Sierra Leonean youth learn in school. In addition to the collective Krio language, children are taught the language of their individual ethnic group. This dual-language instruction allows Krio to remain the predominate language of Sierra Leone. The rap songs included on the soundtrack of this documentary reflect the importance of these two languages that both provide an individual and collective identity for the youth of Sierra Leone as well as the general population of the country. Sierra Leone is made up of diverse groups of individuals with distinct ethnic identities brought together under a history of slavery and colonialism. The evolution of the Krio language as a collective identity speaks to this past. The wide adoption of the Krio language by the country reflects the determination of the Sierra Leoneans to retain a distinct identity, language and culture even after years of oppression. Although the Krio language is often seen as a positive force in bringing the Sierra Leones people together, the diversified backgrounds of the Sierra Leonean people often complicate attempts to unify the country. However, a unified language is only one of the challenges Sierra Leoneans are currently facing. For a more detailed overview of Krio and the other languages of Sierra Leone see “Sierra Leone: Krio and the Quest for National Integration: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/181/ An activity in Krio language: The following is a link to internet site where fun and upbeat lessons in Krio language are given. (The lessons come with and without subtitles.) http://www.weowntv.org/ posts/67/lesson-one-le-wi-lan-krio-introduction/ Moving to the Beat

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Salone For go Bifo by Mednike INTRODUCTION: Sierra Leone is yet at the bottom of the UN Human and Economic Index. Sierra Leone does not deserve this pression. Iearn Sierra Leone says. . . . CHORUS: Salone for go bifo, e lek sef we don taya bo. The only thing say we nor for bloh, because Salone for go bifo. Book learning sef, na we bin start am moh. West Africa Salone for go bifo. Brigi dop brigi dop luxson jay na the stage leh we stop all this damage get up and think about your age and turn to new page , pach up usai all damage Salone for go bifo leh for cry the country don. Watin we go do for make we rich the top. From 1961 up till now we de na gron. Usai we bin de we the country just de fall. Stop for dig the grave make you nor go see scull Diamond and gold buxite we get am worp. E go able sworp education go bifo. Salone na we land na we for make a better plan. All do we de waka up en down with empty hand. Mama papa send you pikin na school for go learn. Sierra Leone tiday na lekeh lion na the jungle. We the poor wan dem taya for live in pain and struggle. How we nor go gruble , school fees just de high os rent sef de up the sky. The youth dem nor get wok en me sus in hill don brok. The teacher dem yone pay, na by God in yone grace The country nor for flat lek pancake we nor get oil. No more poverty. Peace, love and unity yor. CHORUS: Salone for go bifo, e lek sef we don taya bo. The only thing say we nor for bloh, because Salone for go bifo Book learning sef na we bin start am moh, West Africa Salone for go bifo.

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Sierra Leone our motherland, and we have to really stand firm. If you look at our country’s economy, everything is falling down. Lets call all the tribes in this country and let us wash our hands. We should pray to the lord for forgiveness and let us build our land. Sierra Leone our sweet home . . . Let’s construct all the roads to success, so our children’s children will always be happy to talk about the good work done. Sierra Leone was the Athens of Africa, now we are falling down. But as long Mednike live long Sierra Leone will reach the top. CHORUS: Salone for go bifo, e lek sef we don taya bo. The only thing say we nor for bloh, because Salone for go bifo. Book learning sef, na we bin start am moh. West Africa Salone for go bifo. Wom wicked man what is the matter you better stand up put sa-lone na the chapter. All of the man dem know say soma dem akata. Any sai dem step dema talk boto bata. You better watch dem dema coni lek arata. You Mr. Big Man you better change your character. Nor bada shoot gun make dem mana dem skata. Salone na we yone so mana boy make we format am. Wom man the system traumatize me. Angry, starvation just day pan minimize me. We ar bus na the school the principle penalize e. Say pas commot na do. CHORUS: Salone for go bifo, e lek sef we don taya bo. the only thing say we nor for bloh, because Salone for go bifo. Book learning sef, na we bin start am moh. West Africa Salone for go bifo. Leh we put pan agriculture, lef for make lek vulture. Hey Salone man you for really know you culture . Take you cutlas en hoe, leh we go na farm sam en na now. You for really get you plan man. Take you book en pen man leh we go na school bo leh. We sweet Salone go go bifo bo, hey Salone. Salone na we country bo, en we wan make e go bifo. E don tay way we day surfer bo, oh na we country sweet Salone.

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We day call all we good citizens, for make we build we sweet country. Salone for go bifo, oh e kek we don taya bo. Supa nike say say Salone. CHORUS: Salone for go bifo, e lek sef we don taya bo. The only thing say we nor for bloh, because Salone for go bifo. Book learning sef, na we bin start am moh. West Africa Salone for go bifo. We been really de na di top. Because of some fault, now we don’t really drop. En we get for stand up, leh we economy rise up. En we get for backup, for make we sweet Salone go develop. Iearn-Sierra Leone say, hey Salone for go bifo, o na na na na na na na na na. Salone for go bifo.

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The Radical Roots of Hip-Hop Moving to the Beat—the documentary film, music videos, and songs—grew out of a global youth movement to enlist the language of hip-hop to express outrage and call for change. Musician Disiplin, featured in Moving to the Beat, describes hip-hop as the “soundtrack to our lives.” Hip-hop tells a story—the language of the art form captures a rich history of sounds, movements and images. If hip-hop remains the “soundtrack” for many black youths, it will find a responsive chord in streets throughout the world—from Freetown to cities around the globe—where young people struggle to survive and search for a united voice. Although decidedly contemporary, hip-hop draws on a rich history of musical influences from the art and styles of Africa, America, and the Caribbean—specifically reggae music prevalent on the Caribbean island of Jamaica. For example, rapping echoes African and African-American oral traditions of rhyming and chanting. The call and response pattern of communicating, common in Black religious celebrations, is also used in hip-hop. Oral traditions such as ‘playing the dozens’ as well as jazz and spoken work poetry have been influential in the development of the MC’ing aspect found in hip-hop culture. The origins of hip-hop are heavily debated and are difficult to trace back to a specific person or group. Many contemporary sources point to the Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc as the true origin of the hip-hop movement. In the early 1970s, with his massive speaker systems nicknamed “The Herculoids”, DJ Kool Herc made hip-hop music an unavoidable aspect of the streets of New York City. In addition to his reclamation of space with his speakers, DJ Kool Herc is also credited with beginning the process of isolating rhythmic drumbeats, or “the break”, in vinyl records. This distinctive music would become the archetypal sound of hip-hop. In actuality, many people and circumstances created and shaped hip-hop as a movement. The continued evolution of hip-hop took place in 1970s in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. The music was a reactionary response on the part of young people to the deteriorating social conditions that plagued their city. Just one generation after many disenfranchised youth sought change through active participation in the civil-rights movement, their children found themselves losing ground economically and struggling to survive. The following decade saw further economic downturn as the country spiraled into a recession. This nationwide crisis served to intensify the already difficult situations of the youth in the less affluent communities. The transition of economic resources from the urban centers out to the suburbs, combined with factory closures that wiped out employment opportunities for living-wage jobs, resulted in cuts to social services. Urban renewal, such as the displacement caused by the Cross Bronx Expressway, devastated many of the inner city neighborhoods, as did the influx of drugs and the increasing availability of lethal weaponry. The trauma and violence that many disenfranchised youth experienced in the urban ghettos created the circumstances that gave birth to hip-hop.

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While rap music is currently the most popular element of hip-hop art, the culture is multifaceted. Graffiti art, DJ’ing and breakdance once dominated the hip-hop scene. Graffiti, the oldest of the hip-hop elements, involved the use of spray paint to “tag” buildings, trains, and other urban spaces. The graffiti tags were often elaborate and complex pieces of visual art. The auditory art form of DJ’ing and the physical art form of breakdancing evolved together. DJ’ing originally consisted of the music DJ’s creative ability to isolate and loop break beats. These break beats were then used as the backdrop of battles between breakdancing “crews” such as the B-Boys and B-Girls. In a contest to out do one another, DJ’s developed other skills such as scratching. Competition also forced breakdancing to evolve into a complicated, choreographed form of expression. As hip-hop captured a widening youth audience, American entertainment companies sought to capitalize on its burgeoning appeal. The identity of mainstream hip-hop began to shift from being music “from the streets for the streets,” to a studio produced sound for mass consumption. Hip-hop also contributed to the link between “coolness” and black culture. African-Americans had been creatively influencing the arts for years. In fact, at its inception, both Rock-and-Roll and country music had drawn heavily on the work of Black artists. However, as white recording artists began recording in both genres, and, subsequently, the audience of the genre became more Caucasian, the cultural meaning and roots of many of the African chants and rhymes were lost. Hip-hop as an emerging art form recaptured the rawness and angst of the African-American experience. However, as hip-hop became mainstream, it was stripped of its message and its original purpose was often lost in the shuffle. Although Commercial hip-hop still held deep associations with Black urban culture, most of the lyrics were laundered of their political edge. As the genre attracted a widening audience of white youth, often affluent and from the suburbs, recording studios marketed the hip-hop identity as the cool outlaw. In the 1990s, the hip-hop genre saw the emergence of gangsta rap, a narrative outlet describing inner city life, quickly became the preeminent form of hip-hop music available to mainstream audiences. However, these raw narratives became more exaggerated and one-dimensional as rap became increasingly mainstream. The commodification of hip-hop—its mass distribution and consumption for purposes of making profits—led some prominent hip-hop artists, such as the rap artist Nas, to proclaim the death of hip-hop. While it appeared on the surface that commercial hip-hop, void of any real political agenda, was being embraced by the American youth, the radical roots of American hip-hop were being “imported” by the youth into other countries. Looking for a voice, many disenfranchised youth who were experiencing their own socio-economic issues in their environment embraced the hip-hop art form as a medium of getting their message out to all who would listen. A progressive movement of rap music and hip-hop culture thrived in diverse countries such as England, Japan, South Africa, Palestine, and Brazil. Many of the youth in these countries have embraced American hip-hop, yet they have crafted the style and lyrics to

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speak to their local social conditions. The underground scene includes artists such as The Coup, Immortal Technique, Rebel Diaz, and Dead Prez. These artists speak out on injustice, oppression, and the corporate cooptation of mainstream hip-hop. Progressive artists in America are looking to bring hip-hop back to its roots, making rap music, as rap artist Chuck D once described it, “the Black CNN”. Following in the footsteps of earlier rap artists, such as Public Enemy, the first openly political rap group, current hip-hop artists are bringing real-life issues back into the music. Almost two decades ago, Public Enemy infused their rap with a Black stance, often drawing on the work of Black Panther leader, Malcolm X. Their music, although mainstream, sent a radical and progressive message to listeners worldwide. Currently, many of the more progressive musicians adopt a radical vision of hip-hop and its role in social change. However, their music often perpetuates the continued discrimination of gender and sexual orientation. While rapping about the problematic nature of racism and capitalistic exploitation, these same artists use derogatory language and descriptors associated with women and sexual minorities. This will be a challenge for future rap artists to grapple with as they continue to use the medium for social change. Hip-hop has moved beyond the original four elements (i.e., MC’ing, DJ’ing, graffiti, and breaking) and extends into theatre, fashion, writing, and filmmaking. Artists from these new aspects of hip-hop often take hip-hop beyond its association with bubble letters and rap music. For these artists, hip-hop is a way of life and an identity that may or may not include the original elements. This expansion offers opportunities for hip-hop to continue to develop in areas outside of mainstream commercial, white culture. Dominant powers have the ability to take an art, identify, or culture based in some from of resistance and transform it into an agent of commercial culture. But hip-hop is equipped with the ability to constantly evolve and change. In fact, this constant change is often considered one of the primary tenants of hip-hop culture as a whole. The changing face of hip-hop makes it hard to study and understand but it also equips hip-hop with the tools to regenerate itself in the face of challenges. If hip-hop continues to be the “soundtrack” of the youth searching to find a united voice, it will always find a responsive chord—from Freetown to cities around the globe. Moving to the Beat—the documentary film, music videos, and songs—grew out of this type of global youth movement to enlist the language of hip-hop to express outrage and call for change. The metaphorical soundtrack to Moving to the Beat, as well as the actual one, relays stories of the brutal side of living and surviving in America: hustling money, sex and drugs, and fighting the police. But the soundtrack also carries a message of hope for hard times, and radical possibilities for change.

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Unit Two

Moving to the Beat of the Immigrant Experience Settling in a new country, living within its social constructs, and understanding its culture is a challenging experience, but one that often leads to individual and collective change. This section of the curriculum explores this transformation and the challenges immigrants confront when balancing their cultural identity and their dreams for a better life—dreams that often become nightmares for many immigrants. In Moving to the Beat, Portland hip-hop artists, Rebel Soulz, travel to Sierra Leone to bring the radical roots of American hip-hop to Africa and to find their spiritual homeland. The cultural exchanges and individual experiences of these young artists eventually transform into a global youth movement that uses hip-hop as the collective voice. For the AfricanAmerican members of Rebel Soulz, the trip to Sierra Leone represents a return to their ancestral home in Africa. The documentary also looks at the immigrant experience through the eyes of an individual. Abdul Fofanah, co-director of Moving to the Beat, shares his personal story of how his family and other Sierra Leoneans immigrated to the U.S. to escape conditions in his war-torn country.

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Module A

Exploring Individual Identities The goal of this module is to: explore the concept of identity by introducing students to the concept of identity; look at how identity definitions can vary; and explore the role that the concept of identity plays in people’s lives. Identity is personal, social, and political in nature. An individual can identify with dimensions of gender, race, age and other group experiences that allow them to connect with others on a personal and psychological level. Historical change also affects the kinds of identities available to people, and influences which identities are thought to be positive versus negative. In this section of the curriculum, students are asked to critically engage with their multiple identities and personal experiences of belonging to a group. Please note: because it is impossible to predict which aspects of identity students will relate to, it is important to use this module as a starting point for stimulating dialogue with the group. The interests and experiences of the students should determine further discussions, activities and assignments. Throughout this module, teachers are encouraged to challenge students further by engaging in dialogue that explores which aspects of their identities are valued or privileged in the dominant culture, and the costs to other groups of those identities.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Understand the concept of identity through a guided discussion on the topic. ◉◉ Demonstrate understanding of self-identity by creating album covers that reflect these interests. ◉◉ Explore the concept of self-identity by completing statements about themselves.

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Activity One

Activity Three

I Am

Art and Identity

If students are not actively participating or engaging with a topic, it may be useful to introduce a warm up activity such as I Am. In this activity, students are asked to write the statement “I am ______” 5–20 times, and directed to fill in the blanks. This activity can be done as a group or on an individual level. It can also be modified to simply one question, such as “Who am I”.

To explore the concept of identity through a creative process, students are going to produce a cover image for their own hip-hop album. (See the Art and Identity handout at the end of the module.).

Source: Adapted from Kuhn and McPartland, 1954

Activity Two

Film Scene and Discussion Have students watch the following scene from Moving to the Beat: Scenes: 11:45–14:20 [Hip-hop as an identity and a bridge] After students have finished watching this scene, assign the following questions to small groups or discuss the questions as a group. Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ How would you define identity? ◉◉ What does it mean to identify with someone or something? ◉◉ Are some parts of identity more important than others? Which parts? Why are some parts more important than others? ◉◉ What do you identify with? Why? ◉◉ What makes up your identity/identities? ◉◉ Did you choose your identities? ◉◉ How does gender and/or race play a role in a person’s identity?

Moving to the Beat

Introduce students to the activity by either providing examples of existing album or CD covers, either in physical form or in pictures, or by having students bring in their own samples. ◉◉ Ask students to include covers of albums/CDs of both international musicians (including Africa), and from artists in the US. ◉◉ Assign students with the task of creating an Acknowledgments section for their album cover. • In the acknowledgments, ask the students to explain the image of their cover, and how it represents their identity. • Students may also use this section to ‘acknowledge’ people, places, events, or experiences that are important to their identity. Because CD covers are very small, encourage students to imagine they are creating a cover for a record. Although not as popular with music consumers as they once were records are still an integral part of hip-hop culture because of the role they play in DJ’ing, a central element of hip-hop culture. Assignment: There are three source options for this assignment: ◉◉ Photos: Have students take or compile existing pictures of events, monuments, places, people, or objects that they view as reflective of their identities. ◉◉ Magazines and Internet: Have students create a collage that reflects their identities. Images for the collage may come from magazines, printed from the Internet, or pictures the students already own

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(as long as they have permission to use them). ◉◉ Draw or Paint: Students may also draw or paint their album covers.

Activity Four

“Performing the Self” Project Students participate in a project based on one of the five options listed on the “Performing the Self” handout found at the end of the module: Assignment: Have students choose one of the options below as their expressive medium for the project: ◉◉ “Song of Self”: Students write their own song lyrics that reflect who they are. ◉◉ “Breakin’ ur Self”: Students choreograph their own dance routine to a song of their choice. ◉◉ “Mixin’ the Self”: Students create a playlist of songs and videos that represent their identity. ◉◉ “Graffiti the Self”: Students make an art piece that uses language to show who they are. ◉◉ “Dress Ur Self”: Students design their own style and outfit to express their identity. Instruct students to fulfill the following criteria when completing the project:

students the opportunity to share and/or discuss their experiences. This can be done individually in front of the whole class, in pairs, or in small groups. If the students are split into groups, do so by either separating according to the “Performing the Self” option they completed, or by putting one person from each option into small groups. This first option will allow students to choose a collective way of presenting their specific expression For example, those who choose to write a “Song of Self” could take the form of a large group performance. The second option allows for small groups to have exposure to all expressive forms. Students should consider the following questions during their discussions: ◉◉ What was the students overall experiences with their chosen expression. ◉◉ Struggles the students faced when learning about themselves and others. ◉◉ The emotional connections the student made with their project and what it taught them about their individual identities. ◉◉ What “A-ha” moments, if any, did the student experience during the creative process that helped them learn something about their self. For example, or cypher (a circle where students take turns performing their lyrics, often with others providing the beat).

◉◉ Create a stage name or nickname that represents their identity. ◉◉ Relate specific aspects of their project to their identity. ◉◉ Provide an explanation of why they chose a particular option. ◉◉ Write a reflection on the personal journey experienced while completing the “Performing the Self” project. ◉◉ Complete the directions for their chosen option. As a way to engage students in dialogue about the overall process of completing the project, give

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Art and Identity Using images from the Internet, magazines, photos, or art, you are going to create a collage that reflects different aspects of your identity. These images may include, events, people, monuments, places, or anything else that you feel represents some aspect of your identity. You are designing this collage to be the cover of your new hip-hop album. Be sure to create an acknowledgments section to accompany your album cover. The acknowledgment section should explain the collage and how it relates to your identity, as well as serving as a space for any ‘shout-outs’ to people, places, events, or phenomenon that have shaped your identity over time. Because CD’s are small we will be creating an album cover the size of a record case. Don’t laugh, records are very important to hip-hop music and culture! ◉◉ Photos: If you have access to cameras and a way to print photographs, you should take pictures of events, monuments, places, people, or anything else that you see is part of your identity or reflects your identity. ◉◉ Magazine and Internet: Alternatively, you may also create a collage that reflects your identity. Images for the collage may come from magazine, printed from the Internet, or pictures you already own. ◉◉ Draw or Pain: For a third option you could create a collage by producing the images by drawing and/or painting.

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Performing the Self In this assignment, you will choose one of the five options described below. The objective of this assignment is to express your life story and identity in a creative and artful process. Your reflection is an important part of this assignment, so it is imperative that you consider the factors that contribute to who you are as a person. It is important that you stay true to your identity. Therefore, you choose the option that you are passionate about or feel a real connection to. Remember, this project is an artistic reflection of how you perceive yourself, as well as a chance to communicate who you are to the others in your group. What do you want to say about you?

“Song of Self” Write a song about your life and identity. (Refer to the Supplemental Guide if you need help writing lyrics). The Lyrics ◉◉ Follow a basic structure such as an intro, two verses, a chorus, and a bridge. ◉◉ You may find an existing instrumental, make your own instrumental, or have no instrumental. ◉◉ Include one reference to a significant story that has impacted your life ◉◉ Include one reference to a significant person(s) who made an impact on who you are (this can be a ‘shout out’ at the beginning or end of the song) ◉◉ Include any strength that you have and are proud of. For example: • Persistence • Street smarts • Strength • Independence • Consideration ◉◉ Include one of your demographics, or a stereotype people make about you. For example: • Your name • Your age • Your gender • Your race • The location where you live, or where you are originally from. ◉◉ Include an additional issue that is important to you. For example: • An event • A goal for your future • Something you wish was different about your life, or life as a whole • Something in your life that you hope will not change

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In addition to the lyrics, write a narrative describing your creative process. It should include the following: ◉◉ Why you chose this option instead of the others to describe yourself ◉◉ A full description of each reference within your song and why you included it. For example: • Tell the story behind your lyrical reference • Explain why the person you mentioned in your lyrics is significant • Why you are proud of your strengths? • What is it about your demographic that is significant? • What stereotypes in your lyrics influence your identity (bad and/or good)? • Why are the issues mentioned in your lyrics important to you? ◉◉ What genre would your song fall into? ◉◉ How did it feel to write a song all about you? Describe the process. Include any struggles you had, any revelations, whether you enjoyed it, disliked it, or anything else. ◉◉ Create a nick-name or stage name for yourself. What would you want people to call you, and why?

“Mixin’ the Self” Create a playlist of songs/videos that reflect your life and your identity. The Playlist ◉◉ All song/video sources are cited with the name of the artist, the year it was created, etc. (If you need help citing, refer to the supplemental guide) ◉◉ Have a minimum of five songs on your playlist that represent at least one aspect of your identity ◉◉ Include one song/video that you can play over and over again without getting tired of it ◉◉ Include one song/video that represents one of your strengths that you are proud of. For example: • Independence • Persistence • Skill • Attitude ◉◉ Include one song/video that reflects one of your demographics, or a stereotype people make about you. You may agree or disagree with the message of the song. ◉◉ Include one sample from non-musical source that you feel addresses or relates to your identity. For example: • Television show • News report • Radio station announcement • Radio or television talk show ◉◉ Include one song/video that relates to a story or a person that has impacted your life up to this point. This song can be one by an artist that you admire, or a song that depicts something you went through.

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In addition to compiling the playlist, write a narrative describing your creative process. It should include the following: ◉◉ Why you chose this option instead of the others ◉◉ A full description of each song/video/sample and why you included it. For example: • Tell your story • Describe the person who has impacted your life • Why you are proud of your strengths ? • What about your chosen demographic/stereotype influences who you are (bad and/ or good)? • Why do you never tire of that one song you listen to over and over? • What do your samples refer to and why do you feel they are important? ◉◉ Would you remix any of the songs/videos/samples? If so, why and how? If not, why? ◉◉ How did you feel when creating a playlist all about yourself? Describe the process in detail. Include any struggles you may have had, any personal revelations, and whether you did or did not enjoy the process. ◉◉ Create a nick-name or stage name for yourself. What would you want people to call you, and why?

“Breakin’ Ur Self” Choreograph a dance routine to a song of your choice that reflects your life and identity. The Dance ◉◉ Choose one minute of an auditory sample of something that you identify with and represents who you are in the best possible way. For example: • A song • A poem read aloud • An instrumental that has no words ◉◉ Write out a description of the “choreography” of each move and the order it should be performed. Also, include the lyrics to the song/poem if this option was chosen. ◉◉ Include a dance move from one of your favorite dances into your project. ◉◉ Include a dance move that signifies one of your demographics, or a stereotype people make about you. ◉◉ Include one reference/move to a story or person who has impacted your life. This can be in the choreography or in the background music track. For example: • The body posture of a person important to you • A song/poem that talks about a story similar to one that happened to you ◉◉ Include one dance move that represents a strength you possess that you are proud of. This can include a move you made up on your own to represent your creativity. ◉◉ Include one reference to an emotion, whether in the choreography or in the background track, that is portrayed in your routine. Is your dance meant to help you loosen up, or is it meant to relax you?

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In addition to the lyrics, write a narrative describing your creative process. It should include the following: ◉◉ Why you chose this option instead of the others ◉◉ A full description of the background track you chose and why ◉◉ A full description of the moves you performed and why. This question should answer the following: • Tell the story or describe the person that has impacted your life • Explain why you are proud of your strengths included in the dance • Explain how demographic/stereotypes influence who you are • Explain why the move or dance you chose was your favorite • Describe what emotion are you trying to portray in your dance and why ◉◉ Would your routine fit into a certain style of dance? ◉◉ How did it feel to choreograph this dance? Describe the creative process. Include any struggles, revelations, and whether you enjoyed or disliked it the process. ◉◉ Create a nick-name or stage name for yourself. What would you want people to call you and why?

“Graffiti the Self”: Design a graphic or art piece that symbolizes your life and identity. The Graffiti Art ◉◉ Decide what type of art piece this will be. For example, will is be a collage, a comic strip, a collection of symbols, a photograph, or a collection of phrases. ◉◉ Get creative! This can be hand drawn, a collection of images pieced together, a sculpture, a painting, a photo shopped image, etc. ◉◉ Include one symbol (image/phrase/color/design) that represents a story that has significantly impacted your life. ◉◉ Include one symbol that refers to one of your demographics, or a stereotype people make about you. ◉◉ Include one symbol that describes one of the strengths you are proud to have. ◉◉ Include one symbol that reflects on an issue or message that is important to you. ◉◉ Include one symbol that refers to a person who has significantly impacted who you are and your life today. The assignment should include: ◉◉ Why you chose this option instead of the others ◉◉ A full description of each symbol and what they represent. This would be where you tell the story or describe the person that has impacted your life, why you are proud of that strength, what about that demographic/stereotype influences who you are (bad and/or good), what issue is portrayed and why it is important to you.

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◉◉ Where could you imagine this art piece being displayed? On the street corner telephone pole? In an art gallery? On the side of a train? ◉◉ How did it feel to create this piece of art, describe the process. Include any struggles you had, any revelations, whether you enjoyed it, disliked it, or anything else. ◉◉ Create a nick-name or stage name for yourself. What would you want people to call you and why?

“Dress Ur Self” Design an outfit that reflects your own personal style, life, and identity. The Outfit ◉◉ Decide on how you will portray the outfit. You will need to turn in a visual of your outfit whether it is a drawing, a photograph, or a page with the different pieces glued on it. ◉◉ You may include cutouts from magazines, drawings of your own design, actual clothes you already own, and as many accessories as you see fit. ◉◉ Include one piece that represents a story that has impacted your life. For example, a graphic on a tee shirt, or the first pair of shoes you bought with your own money. ◉◉ Include one piece that relates to a person who has significantly impacted who you are today. For example, a bag made by your favorite designer/brand, or a gift someone gave you. ◉◉ Include one accessory that symbolizes a strength you are proud of. For example, a backpack to represent your commitment to school, or a necklace/chain with a microphone on it to represent your musical talent. ◉◉ Include something that relates to a demographic you are a part of, or a stereotype people make about you. ◉◉ Include one more piece that relates to an issue/message/or aspect of you that is important. For example, a recycle symbol on your t-shirt that represents your commitment to keeping the planet clean. The assignment should include: ◉◉ Why you chose this option instead of the others ◉◉ A full description of each piece and what they represent. This would be where you tell the story or describe the person that has impacted your life, why you are proud of that strength, what about that demographic/stereotype influences who you are (bad and/or good), what issue/message/aspect is portrayed and why it is important to you. ◉◉ Where would you wear this outfit? Could you wear it anywhere? What would others say about your style? ◉◉ How did it feel to create this piece of art, describe the process. Include any struggles you had, any revelations, whether you enjoyed it, disliked it, or anything else. ◉◉ Create a nick-name or stage name for yourself. What would you want people to call you and why?

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Module B

Exploring Social Identities Straddling the border between society and the individual, the idea of social identity carries a hefty conceptual load. Simultaneously conceived as both a product of psychological development and of culture, the term refers to self-representations within a relational field that extends into group life. In this section, the activities center on the process of unraveling the mysteries of identity—of how people are linked in both positive and hurtful ways through their inner pictures of themselves. Students are offered the opportunity to explore how psychology, as a social science, defines and understands identity. Central to this unique perspective is the concept of social norms and recognizing the benefits and costs of rigid versus flexible identities. This discussion also touches on issues of binary thinking and dichotomy in a general context.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Understand the negative and positive aspects of identity. ◉◉ Demonstrate understanding of the negative and positive aspects of identity by answering reflection questions on the topic in writing. ◉◉ Demonstrate the characteristics and limitations of binary thinking.

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Activity One

Revisiting Previous Moving to the Beat Discussions This review will take the place of a brief synopsis from the teachers. Students would share with the class activities or assignments they have written. Another option is to engage the class in a discussion focusing on the following questions: ◉◉ Who or what defines/shapes your identity? ◉◉ Who shares your identity/identities? ◉◉ In what ways is your identity local, national, regional, and global? ◉◉ How has your identity changed overtime? ◉◉ Why is your identity important? ◉◉ Is hip-hop an identity? ◉◉ If so, what does it mean? ◉◉ If not, why? Assignment: Have students reflect on the discussion questions proposed throughout the curriculum in a personal journal. Give the students the option of reading their entries aloud or keeping them private.

Moving to the Beat

Activity Two

Psychology and Identity Assign the “Psychological Perspectives on Identity” handout (found at the end of the module) to students and, in a group or in their journals, have them respond to the following reflection questions: ◉◉ What is a norm? ◉◉ What norms can you think of that shape identity formation? ◉◉ How might these be the same or different in American or Sierra Leonean cultures? What about mainstream American culture and hip-hop culture? ◉◉ Do you feel any conflict over your identities or identifications? ◉◉ Is it possible to identify with someone or something? ◉◉ How can we respect those with different identities? ◉◉ Are your identities or identifications: • Dynamic? • Rigid? • Open? • Closed? • Unconscious?

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Psychological Perspectives on Identity For over a century, psychologists have studied identity development and debated over the best ways to understand how humans draw on relations with others to form their selfconcepts. Some psychologists emphasize the role of imitation and how humans pattern themselves after valued role models, such as parents, teachers, or cultural figures. Other psychologists suggest that identities develop as ways of expressing group membership. Gender identity, for example, involves knowing how to act feminine or masculine in ways that conform to societal norms and role expectations. All human societies produce norms that shape identity formation, although they vary considerably in the range and flexibility of those norms. The Moving to the Beat project builds on cultural and psychological theories that attend to the more active, fluctuating, and culturally variable aspects of human identity. Many of these theories also focus on conflict as a driving force in identity development. Humans do not simply copy others but rather struggle over aspects of others that are incorporated into images of the self. In working with gender, race, and generational aspects of hip-hop, we drew on structures that stress the historically fluid (as opposed to fixed) and multilayered aspects of hip-hop identities as well as how such emerging identities can be a source of conflict and ambivalence (holding negative and positive feelings at the same time, such as love and hate or attraction and disgust) for both youth and their elders in that they reveal a break from valued attachments in the past. From a psychological perspective, the rejection of old identities and the formation of new ones may generate feelings of guilt and loss, as well as pleasure in breaking free of binding attachments. Psychologists generally agree that healthy identities are based on flexibility and openness to change, as well as on abilities to see aspects of one’s self in others. Rigid or inflexible identities are less flexible and may contribute to feelings of fear and anxiety, particularly when confronted by people who seem different. Since hip-hop is often associated with masculine identity, we were interested in how female artists and activists used this cultural world to broaden categories of the “feminine.” As women were entering the field of hip-hop performance, we sought to understand how these artists/activists were taking up the aggressive style of this cultural language, as well as the multiple expressions of masculinities produced through hip-hop. From a psychoanalytic perspective, an approach to psychology that stresses states of mind outside of awareness, some parts of identity remain unconscious (pushed out of mind) because they do not conform to the “ego ideal” or to social norms. The development of female identity, for example, may involve pushing out of awareness (or repressing) thoughts and feelings that are coded in the society as masculine (for example, aggressiveness or toughness). In the course of male development, boys may push out of mind aspects of themselves that they experience as feminine, such as fear or feelings of vulnerability. These unconscious aspects of identity, or forbidden images of the self, may emerge in disguised

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forms, whether in hating particular groups that express these forbidden images or in using drugs or alcohol to “allow” expressions of identity that do not conform to the conscious ideal of the self. People vary in whether they feel conflict with their assigned social identities, just as societies vary in how restrictive or repressive they are in supporting a range of identities. Similarly, there may be more or less inflexible forms of hip-hop identity. Hip-hop may be the basis of a inflexible group identity (that excludes some individuals because they don’t belong to the in-group)—or it may be flexible and broad enough to allow for a wide range of capacities to think, feel, move, and relate to others.

Reflection Questions: ◉◉ What is a norm? ◉◉ What norms can you think of that influence how people develop their identities? ◉◉ How might these norms be the same or different in American or Sierra Leonean cultures? ◉◉ How are norms different in mainstream American culture and hip-hop culture? ◉◉ What parts of your identity are you more comfortable with? What parts are you more uncomfortable with? ◉◉ How do the groups that you belong to help you to feel good about your identity? ◉◉ What is important in being able to feel some connection with people who have different identities? How are people able to relate to those who seem different?

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Module C

Immigrant Hopes and American Dreams All nations are founded on ideals driven by historical forces that give rise to their formation. The dreams of a nation are not only shaped by shared ideals, but by the histories of the existing groups within a society who share different circumstances and fates. As civil rights activist and Black Panther leader Malcom X once stated: “…the American Dream for many in the United States is a living nightmare.” The American dream of hard work and perseverance leading to wealth and happiness has motivated generations of Americans and immigrants. For many, the road to achieving the American dream has proven to be fairly smooth. For others, however, the experience has been one of many bumpy and narrow roads, leading some to believe that there is no road at all. Since the 1960s, the American dream has been a road under construction. Hip-hop, especially in the 1980s, was an important tool for African-American youth to speak about the obstacles AfricanAmericans have faced in pursuing the American dream. This module explores the role of the national dream and how it fits into the individual dreams of various ethnic groups. The activities allow students to listen to the dreams of others while evaluating their own.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Explore the relationship between a personal dream and a national dream. ◉◉ Consider what the American dream has historically meant to Americans. ◉◉ Question what the American dream means to people from other countries. Should immigrants get to share in the American dream or is it only for Americans? ◉◉ Evaluate whether the American dream remains a possibility for those living in its borders. ◉◉ Investigate what role hip-hop has in shaping the American dream.

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Activity One

Film Scenes and Discussion Distribute the Immigrant Hopes and American Dreams handout (found at the end of the module) and have students watch the following scene from Moving to the Beat: time code: 13:57–19:03 [Dialogue on America] Have students respond to one or more of the reflection questions in a free write. After watching this scene, select a few of the following questions for small or large group discussion: ◉◉ What are the expectations that Sierra Leoneans have of life in America and what pressures do they experience once they have moved to America? ◉◉ What experience do you think Rebel Soulz are expecting in their trip to Sierra Leone? ◉◉ Compare what the artists in Sierra Leone say to what is said by those who actually live in America. In what ways are they similar? Different? ◉◉ What formed the opinion of each group? What influences their perspective? ◉◉ What do you think about America? Assignment: Have students discuss Langston Hughs’s poem, A Dream Deferred, published in 1951 (found at the end of the module). Using the poem as a catalyst, have students evaluate how people in Sierra Leone and in the United States have experienced their dreams, both as a country and as individuals, over time.

Activity Two

Exploring the Immigrant Experience Distribute the “Exploring the Immigrant Experience” handout (found at the end of the module) and instruct students to complete one of the following activity options. The options provide for a range of time restrictions and skills levels.

Moving to the Beat

Assignment: The student may select or the teacher may assign one of the following options. Write a Letter About America: Write a letter to a person who is thinking about moving to America. ◉◉ What would you tell them? ◉◉ What would you want to know from them? Interview Someone New to the Country: Interview someone who has immigrated to the U.S. ◉◉ What did they think America would be like when they came? ◉◉ Has their perception changed? Interview a First Generation American: Interview a first generation American. ◉◉ What is their view of America? ◉◉ How do they combine the heritage of their family with the American culture? ◉◉ Do they identify more with one or the other? Reading an Immigrant’s Diary or Interview: Find a personal essay or diary entry of an immigrant who came to America. ◉◉ What were their expectations of America, and what did they find? ◉◉ How do they compare to the experiences of the Sierra Leonean refugees?

Activity Three

Create Your Own American Dream Portfolio For many, national dreams are only ever partially realized. When stories of individual triumphs are celebrated as demonstrative of power of a national dreams the nation represents a utopia. However, when individuals are prevented from reaching these dreams by barriers of racism, sexism, poverty or other injustices it draws into question the ability of those in power and national institutions in ensuring

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that these dreams can be kept alive for all. At moments when it seems that national promises have not been kept nations appear more like dystopias and dreams are replaced by nightmares. Artistic expression and reflection of both the utopian visions and dystopian realities are important for the health of a nation. In the following exercise students will explore artistic evaluations of the American dream. Students are asked to put together a portfolio of music, visual art and literature evaluating each for expression of utopian visions and dystopian realities. Assignment: Students will create a portfolio that includes the following elements: Soundtrack: Select at least three songs that portray the idea of the American Dream in some way. ◉◉ Look for lyrics that express a “someone seeking something that will make he/she happy” idea. ◉◉ Look for lyrics that express a “someone who has a vision of what success will look like, etc” . ◉◉ Make at least one of the songs supportive/positive/utopic and at least one critical of/negative/ dystopic. ◉◉ Write one paragraph about each song, explaining the lyrics’ connection to the American Dream. (We suggest TuPac’s “Words of Wisdom” or Eternal Swyft’s “The American Dream”)

Source: This exercise has been borrowed from: http://www.us.mensa.org/ linkservid/F00E8DB5-071D-428F-D852963DFE9BAE89/ showMeta/0/]

Activity Four

Putting Dreams to a Beat Divide the class into small groups and distribute the “American Dream” handout and the biographies of the civil rights movement leaders (found at the end of the module). If time permits, select songs that create an atmosphere for this activity. Please Note: Music from the Moving to the Beat DVD might be appropriate, specifically the title music of the DVD. After the groups complete the activity, have students perform their rap songs. You might invite the class to write down the main points of each rap as they express dreams or nightmares. Some questions to follow this activity might be: ◉◉ Why is it important to be able to express your dreams, nightmares, opinions, and experiences? ◉◉ What does expressing yourself allow? ◉◉ What did the leaders accomplish when they were giving speeches about their dreams?

Art: Select an image (painting, photograph, or drawing) that reflects a manifestation of the American Dream. In a well-organized paragraph, explain how this image depicts the American Dream. Literature: Select a piece of literature (poem, essay, short story, or novel) that explores the idea of the American Dream in some way. The connection may be overt, or it may be subtle. In an essay of no fewer than 500 words, describe how the work could be changed to shift it from utopic to dystopic or vice versa.

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A Dream Deferred By Langston Hughs What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore — And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over — like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

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Immigrant Hopes and American Dreams What is the American Dream?

Is there more than one American dream?

How is the American dream created and passed on from generation to generation?

How does your experience living in this country relate to the American dream? Are you living the American dream?

Do all the people living in this country have an equal opportunity to realize the American dream?

What changes need to be made to ensure that everyone has a fair chance to live the American dream?

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Exploring the Immigrant Experience Pick one of the following options to explore the immigrant experience.

I. Write a letter Write a letter to a person who is thinking about moving to America. Some questions to consider: ◉◉ What would you tell them about America? ◉◉ What would you want to know from them? ◉◉ How do they think America will be different from their homeland? ◉◉ Any advice you want to give them?

II. Interview someone Interview someone who has immigrated to the U.S. and write-up the interview. Some questions to consider: ◉◉ What did they think America would be like when they came? ◉◉ Has their perception changed? ◉◉ How is it similar and different from their homeland? ◉◉ What has been the best part of living in America? ◉◉ What are some of the things they find most difficult? ◉◉ How do they combine the heritage of their family with the American culture? Do they identify more with one or the other?

III. Find a personal essay or diary entry Find a personal essay or diary entry of an immigrant who came to America and write a response in your journal. Some questions to consider: ◉◉ What were their expectations of America, and what did they find? ◉◉ How do they compare to the experiences of the Sierra Leonean refugees? ◉◉ How is it similar and different from their homeland? ◉◉ What has been the best part of living in America? ◉◉ What are some of the things they find most difficult? ◉◉ How do they combine the heritage of their family with the American culture? Do they identify more with one or the other?

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The American Dream Much like social movement leaders use their speeches, hip-hop artists use their art, music, and dance to gain attention and express their concerns, fears, dreams, and ideas for a better community. They enlist hip-hop as a medium of communication to be heard. Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. where known for their public speaking abilities, what if these two leaders also enlisted hip-hop as a way of communicating their dreams? How and what would they rap about? One way to think of hip-hop is that rap lyrics are speeches put to rhythm and rhyme. In your group read, read over the quotes on the civil rights movement leader biography sheets and use them to write a rap from the perspective of your leader. You may rearrange the words/quotes, use the full quote, or add words to the rap to make it rhyme. Remember: you are reflecting your leaders dreams and ideas for America, not your own. You may also add graffiti, colors, and illustrations. Be sure your rap easily conveys at least (4) of the following topics: ◉◉ Dreams and hopes ◉◉ Fears and nightmares ◉◉ Life experiences ◉◉ Future Wishes ◉◉ Opinion on violence ◉◉ Opinion on segregation You’re facilitator/teacher may be giving you time to perform during class. You may choose one person to perform, or split the lines among yourselves.

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César Chávez By Cheri Woods-Edwin Students must have initiative; they should not be mere imitators. They must learn to think and act for themselves—and be free ~ César Chávez When César Chávez was born in 1927, his parents were the owners of a small farm outside of Yuma, Arizona. As a small boy, Chávez worked alongside his siblings to contribute to the running of the family business. His parents encouraged their children to learn, emphasizing the importance of education at an early age. Although his early years were full of hard work, they were also a time of great happiness and stability for a young child. When Chávez turned ten, his family became victims of the Great Depression. They lost their family farm and were forced to become migrant workers, traveling from place to place in order to survive. Although Chávez left school in the eighth grade in order to work full time in the fields, he never stopped learning. In fact, his unique experience as both a farmer and migrant worker allowed Chávez to recognize the need for reform within the agricultural community. After serving in the US Navy following the end of World War Two, César Chávez found work in the vineyards of Central California. Finding himself once again a migrant farmer, Chávez was reminded of the inequalities and mistreatments suffered by the field workers and their families. Now a father himself, Chávez felt compelled to crusade for the rights of the migrant workers. In 1952, Chávez joined a prominent civil rights group, fighting for greater representation of farmers through voter registration drives, as well as campaigning against other forms of racial and economic discrimination. He would eventually become the director of the Community Service Organization, working with the group for ten years. In 1962 César Chávez founded what was to become the United Farm Workers union, the first successful union of migrant workers in the United States. As a well-respected activist and leader of the union, Chávez promoted a nonviolent approach to social change, often through boycotts and strikes. Chávez’ hard work, dedication, and inspiration eventually manifested into the 1975 California Agricultural Relations Act, a ground-breaking piece of legislation that offered some protection to the migrant farm workers. The Act has offered protection to subsequent generations of migrant workers in the agricultural community. César Chávez earned the respect of many political activists of his time, such as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi. Chávez died in his sleep on April 23, 1993.

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César Chávez Quotes “We draw our strength from the very despair in which we have been forced to live. We shall endure.” “We must understand that the highest form of freedom carries with it the greatest measure of discipline.” “We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and forget about progress and prosperity for our community...Our ambitions must be broad enough to include the aspirations and needs of others, for their sakes and for our own.” “Preservation of one’s own culture does not require contempt or disrespect for other cultures.” “We need to help students and parents cherish and preserve the ethnic and cultural diversity that nourishes and strengthens this community—and this nation.” “Do not romanticize the poor...We are all people, human beings subject to the same temptations and faults as all others. Our poverty damages our dignity.” “From the depth of need an despair, people can work together, can organize themselves to solve their own problems and fill their own needs with dignity and strength.” “It’s ironic that those who till the soil, cultivate and harvest the fruits, vegetables, and other foods that fill your tables with abundance have nothing left for themselves.” “Our very lives are dependent, for sustenance, on the sweat and sacrifice of the campesinos. Children of farm workers should be as proud of their parents’ professions as other children are of theirs.” “People who have lost their hunger for justice are not ultimately powerful. They are like sick people who have lost their appetite for what is truly nourishing. Such sick people should not frighten or discourage us. They should be prayed for along with the sick people who are in the hospital. “The love for justice that is in us is not only the best part of our being but it is also the most true to our nature.” “We are confident. We have ourselves. We know how to sacrifice. We know how to work. We know how to combat the forces that oppose us. But even more than that, we are true believers in the whole idea of justice. Justice is so much on our side, that that is going to see us through.”

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“We shall strike. We shall organize boycotts. We shall demonstrate and have political campaigns. We shall pursue the revolution we have proposed. We are sons and daughters of the farm workers’ revolution, a revolution of the poor seeking bread and justice.” “The road to social justice for the farm worker is the road of unionization. Our cause, our strike against table grapes and our international boycott are all founded upon our deep conviction that the form of collective self-help, which is unionization, holds far more hope for the farm worker than any other single approach, whether public or private. This conviction is what brings spirit, high hope and optimism to everything we do.” “Non-violence is a very powerful weapon. Most people don’t understand the power of non-violence and tend to be amazed by the whole idea. Those who have been involved in bringing about change and see the difference between violence and non-violence are firmly committed to a lifetime of non-violence, not because it is easy or because it is cowardly, but because it is an effective and very powerful way.” “Non-violence is not inaction. It is not discussion. It is not for the timid or weak...Nonviolence is hard work. It is the willingness to sacrifice. It is the patience to win.” “Violence just hurts those who are already hurt...Instead of exposing the brutality of the oppressor, it justifies it.” “We are convinced that non-violence is more powerful than violence. We are convinced that non-violence supports you if you have a just and moral cause...If you use violence; you have to sell part of yourself for that violence. Then you are no longer a master of your own struggle.”

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Cornel West By Cheri Woods-Edwin Never forget that justice is what love looks like in public ~ Cornel West Cornel West, a successful Harvard professor, a philosopher, a theologian, and a social activist, spent his youth experiencing the Civil Rights Movement first hand. Born in 1953, his impressionable years were spent witnessing the human rights activism of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X. Inspired by events taking place in the world around him, West used his position as the president of his high school class to organize protests demanding black studies courses for the student body. West graduated from Harvard University in 1973, and then continued on to Princeton University, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1980. As a professor at Yale Divinity School, West participated in protests revolving around the ideas of a clerical labor union and divestment from the apartheid in South Africa. In his early days of teaching, West was arrested during a campus protest, and spent time in jail. West would later use the act of being arrested as a form of protestation. As a professor at Harvard, West taught a popular African-American course, where he encouraged students to engage in dialogue about social injustices and activism. In 1995, West participated in the Million Man March, a grassroots event that brought together many of the leading civil rights organizations and human rights activists together on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. West, along with distinguished speakers such as Maya Angelou, Jesse Jackson, and Louis Farrakhan, encouraged to unit and work together in order to address the socio-economic crisis that plague the African-American community. In addition to promoting civil rights in the African-American community, West also advocates for the people involved in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, even being arrested for a peaceful demonstration with Rabbi Michael Learner in 2002. West also advocates against inhumane farming practices and human trafficking. In 2011, West was arrested during the Occupy D.C. protest. He was again arrested five days later in Harlem, participating in a protest against the New York Police Department. As a post Civil War activist, West continues to use his education, his position, and his voice to speak out against a variety of injustices and human rights violations.

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Cornel West Quotes “You can’t lead the people if you don’t love the people. You can’t save the people if you don’t serve the people.” “The country is in deep trouble. We’ve forgotten that a rich life consists fundamentally of serving others, trying to leave the world a little better than you found it. We need the courage to question the powers that be, the courage to be impatient with evil and patient with people, the courage to fight for social justice. In many instances we will be stepping out on nothing, and just hoping to land on something. But that’s the struggle. To live is to wrestle with despair, yet never allow despair to have the last word.” “Music at its best...is the grand archeology into and transfiguration of our guttural cry, the great human effort to grasp in time our deepest passions and yearnings as prisoners of time. Profound music leads us—beyond language—to the dark roots of our scream and the celestial heights of our silence. ” “Never forget that justice is what love looks like in public” “White supremacist ideology is based first and foremost on the degradation of black bodies in order to control them. One of the best ways to instill fear in people is to terrorize them. Yet this fear is best sustained by convincing them that their bodies are ugly, their intellect is inherently underdeveloped, their culture is less civilized, and their future warrants less concern than that of other peoples.” “Aesthetics have substantial political consequences. How one views oneself as beautiful or not beautiful or desirable or not desirable has deep consequences in terms of one’s feelings of self-worth and one’s capacity to be a political agent.” “I’m a bluesman moving through a blues-soaked America, a blues-soaked world, a planet where catastrophe and celebration—joy and pain sit side by side. The blues started off in some field, some plantation, in some mind, in some imagination, in some heart. The blues blew over to the next plantation, and then the next state. The blues went south to north, got electrified and even sanctified. The blues got mixed up with jazz and gospel and rock and roll.”

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Malcolm X By Cheri Woods-Edwin A race of people is like an individual man; until it uses its own talent, takes pride in its own history, expresses its own culture, affirms its own selfhood, it can never fulfill itself ~ Malcolm X Malcolm Little was born on May 19th, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. He was one of eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader, Marcus Garvey. Earl Little’s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization, Black Legion. In 1929 the family’s Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl Little’s body was found lying across the town’s trolley tracks. Although police ruled both incidents accidents, Malcolm’s family believed members of the Black Legion were responsible. Although Malcolm Little did very well in school, he eventually dropped out and moved to Massachusetts to live with his sister. He eventually made his way to New York City, where he became involved with drug dealing and gambling. In 1946, while spending time in prison for breaking and entering, Malcolm Little converted to Islam and became a devoted follower, changing his “slave name” of Little to the surname “X” to signify his lost tribal name. In 1950, Malcolm X wrote a letter to President Truman expressing his opposition to the Korean War and proclaiming himself a communist—an act that caused the FBI to open a file on him. For the next several years he established many Muslim temples and encouraged thousands of African Americans to join the Nation of Islam through his leadership and speaking skills. Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. In 1964 Malcolm X broke off ties with the Nation of Islam and spoke out against many of the elements of the civil rights movement, such as lifting segregation in the schools and nonviolent protests. Instead, Malcolm X asserted that African Americans should secede into their own country and that they should use any means necessary to protect themselves, even if that meant using violence. On February 21, 1965, while preparing to address an audience of over 400 attendees, Malcolm X attempted to quash a disturbance in the crowd. In the melee, three gunmen shot Malcolm X fifteen times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York’s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

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Malcolm X Quotes “A man who stands for nothing will fall for anything.” “We are nonviolent with people who are nonviolent with us.” “Don’t be in a hurry to condemn because he doesn’t do what you do or think as you think or as fast. There was a time when you didn’t know what you know today.” “There is no better than adversity. Every defeat, every heartbreak, every loss, contains its own seed, its own lesson on how to improve your performance next time.” “Concerning nonviolence, it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks.” “I for one believe that if you give people a thorough understanding of what confronts them and the basic causes that produce it, they’ll create their own program, and when the people create a program, you get action.” “I believe that there will ultimately be a clash between the oppressed and those that do the oppressing. I believe that there will be a clash between those who want freedom, justice and equality for everyone and those who want to continue the systems of exploitation.” “Without education, you’re not going anywhere in this world.” “When a person places the proper value on freedom, there is nothing under the sun that he will not do to acquire that freedom. Whenever you hear a man saying he wants freedom, but in the next breath he is going to tell you what he won’t do to get it, or what he doesn’t believe in doing in order to get it, he doesn’t believe in freedom. A man who believes in freedom will do anything under the sun to acquire . . . or preserve his freedom.” “You don’t have to be a man to fight for freedom. All you have to do is to be an intelligent human being.” “I am not a racist. I am against every form of racism and segregation, every form of discrimination. I believe in human beings, and that all human beings should be respected as such, regardless of their color.” “I’m not going to sit at your table and watch you eat, with nothing on my plate, and call myself a diner. Sitting at the table doesn’t make you a diner, unless you eat some of what’s on that plate. Being here in America doesn’t make you an American.... No I’m not an American, I’m one of the 22 million black people who are the victims of Americanism. One of the 22 million black people who are the victims of democracy, nothing but disguised hypocrisy.... I’m speaking as a victim of this American system. And I see America through the eyes of a victim. I don’t see any American dream; I see an American nightmare.”

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“Who ever heard of angry revolutionists all harmonizing ‘We shall overcome ... Suum Day...’ while tripping and swaying along arm-in-arm with the very people they were supposed to be angrily revolting against ? Who ever heard of angry revolutionists swinging their bare feet together with their oppressor in lily-pad park pools, with gospels and guitars and ‘I have a dream’ speeches? And the black masses in America were--and still are--having a nightmare.”

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Angela Davis By Cheri Woods-Edwin Radical simply means grasping things at the root ~Angela Davis Civil rights activist and educator, Angela Davis, grew up in a volatile neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama. Dynamite Hill, so named for the radical acts of racial violence taking place against the African American community. In fact, in 1963, when Davis was nineteen years old, a bomb detonated in a Birmingham church in her neighborhood killing four young girls and injuring twenty-two others. Although Davis was attending college in Massachusetts at the time, she was acquainted with many of the victims of this violent act. Growing up in Alabama had exposed Angela Davis to the harsh reality of racial intolerance. Her parents, both members of the NAACP and the Communist Party, encouraged Angela to appreciate the plight of the racially and socially oppressed. After graduating from University of California Los Angeles with a philosophy degree, Davis eventually joined the faculty at the college as an associate professor. In 1968 Davis joined the Communist Party and the Black Panther Party in an attempt to bring about social change. Affiliation with these parties, and their perceived radical agendas, led to Davis losing her teaching position with the university. In early 1970, after losing her teaching position at UCLA, Davis turned her attention to a court case involving three African American inmates accused of murdering a prison guard in a Soledad, California prison. Believing the men to be unfairly accused, many social activists and celebrities supported their cause and worked to raise money for their defense. In August of the same year, one of the men attempted to escape during his trial using guns allegedly registered in Davis’ name. After being convicted of attempted murder, Davis spent 18 months in jail before being acquitted of the crime. After being acquitted of attempted murder in 1972, Davis immediately started a grassroots movement against “the prison industrial complex,” and the death penalty. She also lectures on prison reform and the injustices of the current judicial system at many of the major colleges in the United States, including Brown, Stanford, Bryn Mawr, and Syracuse University. She has also advocated for the release of convicted criminals Kevin Cooper and Stanley “Tookie” Williams. In 2011, Angela Davis was actively involved in the Occupy Wall Street movement. The author of over ten books and the subject of multiple interviews, Angela Davis is currently a professor at University of California Santa Cruz.

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Angela Davis Quotes “Radical simply means grasping things at the root.” “We have to talk about liberating minds as well as liberating society.” “Jails and prisons are designed to break human beings, to convert the population into specimens in a zoo - obedient to our keepers, but dangerous to each other.” “No march, movement, or agenda that defines manhood in the narrowest terms and seeks to make women lesser partners in this quest for equality can be considered a positive step.” “Progressive art can assist people to learn not only about the objective forces at work in the society in which they live, but also about the intensely social character of their interior lives. Ultimately, it can propel people toward social emancipation.” “The idea of freedom is inspiring. But what does it mean? If you are free in a political sense but have no food, what’s that? The freedom to starve?” “I try never to take myself for granted as somebody who should be out there speaking. Rather, I’m doing it only because I feel there’s something important that needs to be conveyed.” “If they come for me in the morning, they will come for you in the night.” “One of the reasons that so many people of color and poor people are in prison is that the deindustrialization of the economy has led to the creation of new economies and the expansion of some old ones – I have already mentioned the drug trade and the market for sexual services. At the same time, though, there are any number of communities that more than welcome prisons as a source of employment. Communities even compete with one another to be the site where new prisons will be constructed because prisons create a significant number of relatively good jobs for their residents” “[Prison] relieves us of the responsibility of seriously engaging with the problems of our society, especially those produced by racism and, increasingly, global capitalism.”

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Unit Three

Pushing the Limits In the documentary Moving to the Beat, young people in Sierra Leone and the U.S. challenge social norms through music. Unit III of the Moving to the Beat curriculum explores ways to challenge social norms while focusing on the potential improvement of society. Unit III encourages students to discuss and debate ethical issues while considering the power of language and how it’s meaning changes through context. It also invites students to consider how the word rebel has both positive and negative connotations, depending on the context, and to critically reflect on their own associations with rebels and the act of rebellion. Through the process of interviewing a “rebel” in their life, students are encouraged to recognize and appreciate what it takes for one to push the limits of social and societal norms and cultural pressures. Students are also encouraged to discuss the role of stereotypes in perpetuating social norms that are damaging to a society or culture. Used together, the activities included in Unit III move students toward a nuanced understanding of what it means to rebel or “push the limits” for personal or collective agendas. After discussion of the differing meanings of the term rebel in Moving to the Beat, students are given multiple options to explore what it means to be a rebel. Options include: writing a short essay on a selected historical figure and how this figure may be viewed as a rebel in either positive or negative

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ways, identifying a rebel in their own lives, explain why they identify with this person, and discuss social or cultural perspectives that might shape views of rebellion in this context. Students learn how the meanings of terms are contextual and often socially and politically contested. Students gain a deeper understanding of the differing associations with the concept of rebel, its meanings in their own lives, and the ethical dilemmas that accompany such identifications.

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Module A

Defining a Rebel and Moral Choice In Module A, teachers are encouraged to first show the students a portion of the Moving to the Beat documentary that centers on the dialogue around the multiple, and often conflicting, definition of the word “rebel”. Encourage students to explore how this dialogue focuses primarily on how different cultures determine the role of the word, and the role context of the word plays in a native language. Students should look specifically at the different meanings attached to the word “rebel” in U.S. and Sierra Leone cultures. In the second part of Module A, students will explore an ethical dilemma designed as a modern update of Lawrence Kohlberg’s classic pharmacy dilemma. Kohlberg presents this dilemma, which involves a husband who needs medication to keep his wife alive, but he cannot afford the cost. The dilemma for the man is that he has to choose to steal the medication to save the life of his wife, or not steal the medicine and his wife dies. When Kohlberg presents such dilemmas to youth, he is not looking for a correct answer from children. Rather he is looking at how the children will argue their chosen position. Kohlberg used this data to make judgments about the child’s level of ‘moral development’. As the teacher, try to keep the focus of the exercise off of which answer is ‘correct’. Instead, encourage students to make sound arguments in support of their choice, and encourage the students to explore the limitations of their choice.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Understand the concept of rebellion through a guided discussion on the topic. ◉◉ Demonstrate their understanding of dilemmas by arguing a course of action for one.

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Activity One

Film Scene Screening and Discussion Have students watch the following scene from Moving to the Beat: ◉◉ Scenes: 20:08–23:30 [Dialogue about the word rebel] ◉◉ Distribute the Rebel hand out and after watching this scene pick a few of the following questions for small or large group discussion: Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ When Rebel Soulz states, “You have to rebel, and that’s just for your soul and for your survival’s sake”, what are they saying? ◉◉ In what kinds of situations is it good to be a rebel? ◉◉ Are there times it is not appropriate to be a rebel? ◉◉ What does being a rebel mean to Sierra Leoneans? ◉◉ What does being a rebel mean to the hip-hop artist Rebel Soulz? ◉◉ Why does the group Rebel Soulz consider themselves to be rebels? ◉◉ What is Rebel Soulz trying to accomplish with their rebel stance?

When Kohlberg presented this dilemma to a group of children, he was not looking for a definitive correct answer. Instead he was observing the process of how children would argue their chosen position. Kohlberg used this information to access the child’s level of ‘moral development’. As this ethics exercise is presented to the students, try to keep the focus off which answer is ‘correct’. Instead encourage students to make sound arguments in support of their choice, as well as discussing the limitations of their argument. Encourage students to conduct their own ethics exercise with a person they identify as a rebel. After discussing Kohlberg’s exercise on ethics, direct students to review the Rebel Moral Dilemma handout (found at the end of the module). Engage the students in a dialogue discussing the dilemmas presented in the handout. Encourage students to focus on the logic of their chosen arguments, and not whether an answer is right or wrong.

Activity Two

Ethics Debate For this in-class activity, the students will review a modern update of Lawrence Kohlberg’s classic pharmacy ethics dilemma. Kohlberg’s ethical dilemma involves the decision a husband must make to keep his wife alive. The wife needs a certain type of medication to live. However, the husband cannot afford the price of the medicine. The husband faces the ultimate dilemma: either he steals the medication to save his wife, or choose to not steal the medicine on ethical grounds and watch his wife die.

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Rebel Moral Dilemma Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) was a psychologist who studied the development of moral reasoning in individuals as they matured. Kohlberg constructed human dilemmas, such as the one below, to measure how people would react if confronted with a morally troubling situation. He also observed and recorded how an individual might justify their decision.

Situation One: The Interview You have just finished attending classes for the day, and are on your way to the bus stop. You are headed to a job interview, and it is really important that it goes well. Jobs are hard to come by in the inner city area where you live, and so you are really grateful to have this opportunity. It is farther away from where you live, but the pay is good, the neighborhood is safe, and the work should be interesting. At the bus stop, you suddenly realize you do not have your wallet, which has your money and bus pass, and you know the bus driver will not let you on without it. You dash over to the drugstore nearby. Once in, you notice that the cashier is helping another customer at the back of the store. You know from a friend who works at the store that the security camera above the counter stopped working a while ago. The bus tickets are located behind the counter and within your reach. It would be very easy to pull one off. Should you steal one to go to the interview? The Dilemma List all the possible outcomes that might arise from you stealing the tickets from the drugstore. What outcome might there be if you do not taking the bus ticket. How high are the stakes in each consequence? What would you do? Why?

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Situation Two: The Promise Life in your neighborhood is rough, and there is constant talk of gang violence. You ask your friend if you can borrow his gun to protect yourself. Your friend agrees to lend you the weapon, but only if you promise to return it to him immediately if he ever asks for it. You agree to your friends’ terms, and he agrees to lend you the gun. Things are fine for a while, and your friend makes no requests for you to return his gun. However, one day your friend doesn’t show up to school and doesn’t answer your calls. On your way home from school, you run into your friend. It is clear from his demeanor and the look on his face that something terrible has happened; he is in a furious rage and you worry for his sanity. He asks if you have the gun with you, and when you say yes, he demands you give it back to him. You are genuinely concerned about what your friend plans to do with the gun if you return it to him as promised. Your gut instinct tells you that he is angry enough to use it, if provoked. You also remember the agreement you made with your friend to return the weapon upon request. Should you give the gun back to your friend? The Dilemma List all the possible outcomes that might arise from you returning the gun to your friend in his current state of mind. What outcome might there be if you do not return the gun? How high are the stakes in each consequence? What would you do? why?

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Module B

Getting to Know a Rebel In this module students learn about the definition of the word rebellion from an individual who identifies as a rebel through the interview process. The skills acquired through the interviewing process can help students obtain experiential knowledge about other topics in the future. Interviewing also helps students appreciate the experiences and feelings of others, and allows for future opportunities to build intergenerational connections.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Learn about conducting an interview by reading the Supplemental Interview Guide found at the end of the module. ◉◉ Demonstrate an understanding of the word rebel by identifying, and then interviewing an individual who conforms to their idea of a rebel. ◉◉ Conduct an interview and provide information in narrative form.

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Activity One

word, rebel, as well as the importance of the interviewing process.

Interviewing a Rebel Distribute the Supplemental Interview Guide and the Rebel Interview Worksheet (found at the end of the module). Explain to students that they should identify an individual in their life that they perceive of having rebel qualities and conduct an interview. This interview can be an individual assignment, or one done as a team. Instructors may consider showing students the interview with Ishmael Beah on the Moving to the Beat DVD as an example on how to conduct an interview. If conducting actual interviews is not feasible for the schedule of the classroom, students can alternatively research a person they perceive or identify as a rebel and imagine the possible responses to an interview with this person.

Activity Two

Writing Up an Interview After conducting interviews, real or imagined, students should take the information from the interviewing process and create an article such as one that might be published in a newspaper or magazine. Have the students provide a back-story on the subject and other pertinent information regarding the interviewee before delving into the interview itself. See the interview write up handout (found at the end of the module) for more information. Final interviews should be one to two pages in length.

Activity Three

Discussion

After completing the interview and article, instruct students to work in small groups of three to four and discuss what they learned about the definition of the

Moving to the Beat

Questions for class discussion ◉◉ Did you learn anything surprising in you interview? What? ◉◉ Did this information change you or your thinking in any way? ◉◉ Is your understanding or the word rebel the same as before? Why or why not? ◉◉ How were your group’s experiences similar? Different? ◉◉ Did you enjoy conducting the interview? Would you like to interview someone else? Who? After students discuss these questions in small group have a representative report back to the whole class.

Activity Four

Discussion and/or Review of Previous Moving to the Beat Class: This review could take the place of a brief synopsis from the teachers, students could share activities or reflection they have written or the class could engage in a discussion with some of the following questions. (Optional: record responses) ◉◉ What does it mean to you to be a rebel? ◉◉ Did your thoughts on the word rebel changes during this activity? ◉◉ Did your thoughts on the word rebel change after watching the film? ◉◉ Do you consider yourself to be a rebel? • If so, in what ways? • If not, do the activities in this module encourage change? ◉◉ How are rebels perceived by your society? Why is this? ◉◉ Is being a rebel part of identity?

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Supplemental Interview Guide: A Summary Interviewing a subject is an important way to learn about a subjects motivations and reasons for going against the status quo. For the Interview Assignment you have been instructed to identify a person in your life that you consider a “rebel”. Contact this person and ask them for an hour of their time to conduct an interview. If possible, conduct the interview in person. Don’t be discouraged if the first person you approach says no or does not have time. Once you have a person willing to participate in the interview, you will want to set up a time and an agreed upon location for conducting the interview. Once the time and location are set, you will want to begin preparing for the interview. To prepare, think about the topic “Rebel” as it was discussed in class. Why did you choose this person to interview? What are you hoping to learn by talking to your rebel? Do you have any pre-existing expectations of the interview? Now build questions around the topic. Think about the questions on the homework sheet. What could you ask to relate those broader questions to their specific experience? If you are having trouble coming up with questions think about what you would like to know about their experiences. You want to get a full picture of what being a rebel was like in their shoes. Potential areas to ask about include behaviors, opinions/values, feelings, knowledge, and background. When wording your questions keep these guidelines in mind: ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉

Wording should be open-ended. Questions should be as neutral as possible. Questions should be asked one at a time and allow for flexibility. Questions should be worded clearly. Avoid “Why” questions, or be careful in asking them. Remember, you will probably only need 6–10 interview questions, if they are well written.

The ordering of your questions is also important in an interview. Here are a few guidelines: ◉◉ Before asking about controversial (feelings and opinions) questions, start with the facts (knowledge and background). ◉◉ Intersperse fact-based questions throughout the interview. ◉◉ Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future. ◉◉ The last questions can be the most open ended. ◉◉ When the time comes for the interview you want to have practiced your questions beforehand. Also, be sure to do the following: ◉◉ Choose a quiet setting with little distraction. ◉◉ Re-explain the purpose of the interview.

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◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉

Address the terms of confidentiality. Explain the format of the interview. Indicate how long you expect the interview to last (aim for one hour). Don’t count on your memory. Be sure to have a pad and paper if you plan on taking notes, or ask their permission to use a tape recorder (be sure to test it beforehand). ◉◉ Ask the interviewee if they have any questions and be sure to thank them for their time. ◉◉ If you will be typing up the interview or writing a paper on it, be sure to offer a copy to your interviewee.

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Rebel Interview Think about the people you know in your everyday life. Is there anyone individual who seems like the type of person to stand up for what they believe in, no matter what the cost? Do you know someone who will go against the advice of others in order to stand up for what they believe in? Do you know of anyone in your family or group of friends who will join causes and stand up to others regardless of peer pressure to back down? For this assignment, identify a person in your life—be it a family member, a friend, or an acquaintance— someone who you believe has rebel qualities or identifies with being a rebel. Request and conduct an interview with the individual. Use the supplemental guide to prepare for the interview. Some concepts you should consider addressing while creating unique interview questions for your subject are: ◉◉ What circumstances led to them becoming a rebel?

◉◉ What establishment did they rebel against?

◉◉ What was the goal or aim of their rebellion?

◉◉ What did they hope to accomplish by going against the ideas of others?

◉◉ In rebelling did they try to create something new? Something they considered better?

◉◉ What are your thoughts about this?

◉◉ How does love and hate play a role in being a rebel?

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Interview Write-Up Using your interview material create a 1–2 page write up of the interview for a newspaper or magazine. Think of an article you have recently read about a politician, celebrity, sports figure or other predominate figure. Was the article formatted to read like a simple question-answer interview? Did the article contain descriptions of the subject being interviewed, such as what they were wearing or what facial expressions they used during while answering the questions? Did the author of the interview include other pertinent information in the article, like statistics, quotes from other individuals, or basic background information on the subject? Did the author provide his overall thoughts on the individual, and the subjects discussed in the article? In most circumstances, articles located in newspapers, journals, magazines, or online are not simple When you read an interview in a magazine, newspaper, or online, you are not reading the general transcripts of just the questions and answers gleaned from an interview with an individual or group. Instead, what you are reading is the combination of responses of well thought out questions, supplementary information to flesh out the subject and its relevance, and the impressions of the writer as they conduct the interview, reflect on what was discussed, and analyze the entirety of the interview. The end result is an article that tells a reader about the thoughts, motivations, and personalities of a subject. As you create individual questions for our subject, keep in mind that you not only want to get information about why your subject has chosen to rebel against an establishment, but also look for overall themes in the subjects’ answers. When writing the article, do not just provide your reader with a summary of the interview. Flesh out your article by providing your readers with background information, underlying themes, and supplementary information, on the key theme(s) of your interview subject. Consider submitting the article to the school newspaper or other publications.

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Module C

Women Rebels: Women in Hip-hop and Stereotypes In this module, students are introduced to Lady Bee, a specific example of a rebel, in the Moving to the Beat documentary. The interview with Lady Bee addresses many of the issues and hardships of being a female hip-hop artist. The interview also allows for the students to reflect back to the section on identity and encourages further reflection. Students should consider how Lady Bee’s treatment as a woman in the predominately male genre of hip-hop encourages her rebellion and shapes her social identity.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Explore the idea of sexism through a guided discussion on the topic. ◉◉ Demonstrate their knowledge of sexism by responding to a prompt on the topic in writing. ◉◉ Lean about stereotypes through a discussion and activity. ◉◉ Investigate what role hip-hop has in shaping the American dream.

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Activity One

Moving to the Beat film Scene Screening and Discussion: Distribute the Lady Bee Handouts (found at the end of the module) and have students watch the following scene from Moving to the Beat: Scene: 29:18–32:02 [Lady Bee’s Performance] After watching Lady Bee’s performance, assign one of the following questions to a small group or discuss one or more of the following questions as a large group: Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ Why do you think she was cut off? ◉◉ What is her explanation? ◉◉ Do you agree with her? ◉◉ Have you ever experienced something like this? ◉◉ What are common stereotypes or phobias in hiphop music? Where do these come from? Who is hurt/benefits from stereotypes?

Activity Two

Individual Free-writes Have students respond to one or more of the reflection question listed above as a free-write. Encourage the students to write without worrying about grammar, sentence structures, etc. Ask for volunteers willing to share their free-writes to the class to encourage discussion.

Activity Three

“Positive” Stereotypes While most people agree that negative stereotypes are problematic, not everyone is aware of the issues arising from “positive” stereotypes (e.g. Asians are good at math). The problem of “positive” stereotypes is particularly relevant for women.

Moving to the Beat

While it is generally considered socially unacceptable to be openly sexist, women are limited by another form of sexism: Benevolent Sexism. Benevolent sexism functions by limiting female roles and the careers women can pursue, by attributing “positive” traits to their gender. In this activity students will experience how limiting “positive” labels or stereotypes can be. Although benevolent stereotypes can affect all groups, we will concentrate on the female gender in this exercise. However, the lesson can easily extend to other groups in the discussion debrief. 1. Create enough labels so that each student participating in the activity will get one. a. The labels should be created on something large enough for others to read, but small enough to fit on a student’s forehead. Consider using a Post-It or small index card. b. The labels should include the following “positive” stereotypes of women: i. Empathetic ii. Emotional iii. Nurturing iv. Sensitive v. Good communicator vi. Delicate vii. Good at relationships viii. Expressive ix. Cute x. Pretty xi. Maternal xii. Moral xiii. Pure xiv. Multitasking xv. Good at English/Literature. xvi. Feel free to add any others you come up with

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2. Distribute the labels in a way that students cannot see what is on them. a. Each student should have a label that they either hold up to their forehead, post on their forehead, or tape on their forehead. They must do this without looking at their individual label. b. Make it clear that these labels are being assigned randomly and have nothing to do with students’ actual attributes. 3. Ask students to spend 15 minutes talking with each other about “future goals” (Another general topic can be chosen, but this one works well in eliciting responses to the labels). 4. Tell students that they should circulate around the room and engage in dialogue with the other students participating in the activity. a. Direct students to interact with one another according to the other person’s labeled attribute. For example, if someone is labeled “forgetful”, a student might be repeatedly giving the same information over and over to the student.

uncomfortable applying to a fellow student? ◉◉ Was your label what you guessed, or were you surprised by it? ◉◉ When people stereotyped you, were you able to disregard it? ◉◉ Did you try to disprove the stereotype? If so, did it work? ◉◉ How did you feel toward the person who was stereotyping you? ◉◉ If your attribute was positive (e.g., “good at math”), how did you feel? ◉◉ When stereotyping others, how easy was it to find confirming evidence? ◉◉ When stereotyping others, how did you react to disconfirming evidence? Please note: After the completion of this exercise, consider re-visiting the Lady Bee clip and handout from the beginning of the module. After completing Activity Three, students will have a better basis for understanding the significance of the interview. Source: Based on an activity from: http://www.understandingprejudice.org/teach/activity/labels.htm

5. After 15 minutes, reconvene the class and ask students to leave their labels on for a little while longer (if the class size and furniture allows, it’s best to sit in a circle). Questions for class discussion: ◉◉ How did they feel about the way the other students were treating them? ◉◉ Were they able to identify their stereotype based solely on the way others were interacting with them? ◉◉ How did students feel when stereotyping other students? ◉◉ Were there stereotypes that the student felt more comfortable with? ◉◉ Were there stereotypes that made the student feel

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Lady Bee: Being a Woman in a Man’s Business Watch the performance of Lady Bee on the Moving to the Beat documentary. As a class discuss the following questions: ◉◉ What is lady Bee’s explanation for why she was cut off during the performance?

◉◉ Do you agree with her explanation?

◉◉ Have you experienced such blatant discrimination? If so: • Where and in what situation? • How did such discrimination make you feel? • How did you handle the discrimination?

◉◉ What views do the Sierra Leonean men have of women hip-hop artists?

◉◉ What views do the Sierra Leonean women have of the men in their community? How do the women view themselves in their community?

◉◉ What are the common stereotypes in hip-hop music? Where do these stereotypes come from? Who is hurt by gender stereotypes? Who benefits from gender stereotypes?

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Unit Four

Changing the World Students often see problems in their communities, but few feel empowered to act on those problems. This unit seeks to familiarize students with activists and social change organizations. Students are challenged to think about issues in their own communities, learn what is already being done, and create a plan of action to become involved. In Moving to the Beat, Sierra Leone youth use hip-hop as a tool for activism and for dialogue across cultural borders. Hip-hop provides the sounding board for these youth to critique those in power, to educate those with less power, and to find common ground with hip-hop artists and activists in the United States. In finding a common ground, the two groups also confront differences in their histories and identification as rebels. But they share a vision as activists of “putting down the gun and picking up the “mic”—of non-violent strategies for social change.

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Module A

Hip-hop and Activism Moving to the Beat is an exploration of self-expression and self-discovery through music. More importantly, this film addresses the power of hiphop to identify social problems and advocate for change. The following activities are designed to expose students to activism and the possibilities of hip-hop for social change at the local and global levels.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Describe what an activist does and provide an example of a youth activist. ◉◉ Explain how hip-hop can be used for activism. ◉◉ Explore the impact of socially activist hip-hop. ◉◉ Identify causes for which the student feels strongly and potential avenues of engagement.

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Activity One

Hip-hop as a Weapon (Moving to the Beat Screening and Discussion)

1. Have students watch the following scene from Moving to the Beat: a. Scenes: 5:42–8:04 [we are the future song/hiphop as a weapon] 2. After screening this scene pick a few of the following questions for small or large group discussion: (Optional: record responses) a. What does it mean to be an activist? b. What does “hip-hop as a weapon” mean to you? c. Are activists rebels? d. Can youth be activists? e. Is there a difference between a youth activist and an adult activist? f. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using hip hop for activism? g. Do you know of youth activists or hip-hop activists in your own community?

Activity Two

Kanye West Speaks Out for the Sierra Leonean People In the following activity, students will interpret Kanye West’s “Diamonds from Sierra Leone”. The lyrics of this song can be found online. The discussion of West’s song opens up an opportunity to talk about West’s activism and the history of the diamond industry and the detrimental effect it has had on the people of Sierra Leone. This activity might be coupled with or follow the Diamonds for Pennies activity in Unit One. In this previous activity, students played a modified version of the African game Mancala to demonstrate the dramatically different meanings that diamonds have for the Sierra Leonean people.

Moving to the Beat

The discussion of West’s song can be followed up by the third activity in this section, possibly as a homework assignment, to investigate a progressive/activist hip hop artist from either the U.S. or from another part of the world. This homework assignment encourages students to explore the spread of hip hop throughout the world, as well as to uncover social and political issues taken up by hip-hop artists.

Activity Three

Personal Resistance 1. Ask students to think about a time when something bad was happening to them or to someone they know and felt powerless to help; or to think about a time when they saw or found out about something upsetting that went against their personal values. (Possible responses might include: you’re in the cafeteria and someone tells an ethnic/ racial/homophobic joke; you’re on the bus and someone uses an ethnic/racial/homophobic slur when talking to or about another student; something related to a local issue in your community). 2. Ask students to think about a time when they stood up for someone’s feelings or rights in a small way – or thought about what they could do. What are some examples of things they could have done? Make a list of the board/chart paper. (Possible responses might include: say something when you hear an ethnic/racial/homophobic joke or slur, write something in the school paper about a rule that you think isn’t just, etc.) 3. After making the list of situations choose one or two and for each one ask students the following questions: a. How would you feel if you were the person being “oppressed” by this situation? (What does it mean to be oppressed, versus just treated badly?) b. How would you want someone else to help?

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c. What could you do as an act of personal resistance if you were a “witness” to this situation? 4. Break the class into small groups. Have each group choose a situation from the class list, or come up with a different situation, and develop a skit dramatizing the situation and an act of personal resistance. 5. Have each group present their skit. Discuss as a class the types of personal resistance presented in the skits, what obstacles they may confront in real life, and alternative courses of action. 6. If time permits, have students reflect, either in pairs or in their journals, about conscience, risktaking, and resistance. Ask students to respond to one of the following questions: a. What does my conscience tell me to do? b. What causes motivate me? c. What risks am I willing to take on behalf of others? d. When is a time that I resisted? Source: This activity was taken from: http://jwa.org/teach/ livingthelegacy/moments-of-personal-resistance

Activity Four

Fame, Wealth, and the Commercialization of Hip-hop Culture In the Moving to the Beat documentary, hip-hop offers Rebel Soulz, Abdul Fofanah and the Sierra Leonean artists a means of achieving a dream. Like many other art forms, progressive forms of hip-hop music encourage people to think critically about their world and their community, and provide new ways of thinking about human needs and relations of power. However, there is another side of hip-hop that focuses on power through domination, money and

Moving to the Beat

fame. This form of hip-hop is more focused on individual power, and less on the collective social good. As seen in the following excerpt, the line between these two worlds can be quickly traversed. Hiphop artists and advocates, Rebel Soulz and Fofanah emphasize the distinction between these two forms of hip-hop. The documentary offers critical discuss of the commercialization of hip-hop in the U.S. 1. Have students watch the following scene from the Moving to the Beat documentary: (7:37 – 13:31) 2. Have students answer/discuss the following questions: a. What are some issues that Sierra Leonean hiphop artists speak out about? b. How do the Portland based hip-hop artists describe the change of hip-hop in the U.S.? c. Has hip-hop in Sierra Leone undergone a similar change? d. How does power, fame – through global mass media and pop culture shape hip-hop? e. How has hip-hop culture been adopted in Sierra Leone? What are the effects of these changes?

Activity Five

Further Exploring the Intertwining of Progressive Hip-hop and Its Commercialization In The Hip Hop Wars, author Trica Rose identifies two traditions found within hip-hop that are often confused with each other when people talk of hip-hop as progressive. These are the traditions of “keeping it real”, and the tradition of “speaking truth to power”. In the tradition of “keeping it real”, hip-hop artists often speak of living in the ghetto. Hip-hop is an art form that was born out this experience, and relates authentic tales through the medium of rap of the

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suffering experienced by young African Americans growing up in the poverty. “Speaking truth to power,” on the other hand, focuses on confronting authority figures that abuse and misuse their power. These two traditions are intertwined. As progressive hip hop artists speak truth to power, they do so by speaking from personal experience of the abuses suffered while growing up in the ghetto. However, Rose argues that the one distinguishing factor between the two traditions is that “keeping it real” is more susceptible to becoming commercialized. Stories of the street become a commodity that sells, which means that the more an artist glorifies the street in the music, the higher chance a record label will pick it up. Ultimately, the consumer market strongly shapes and determines what is eventually heard by the masses as the authentic story of the street. Young hip hop artists are made painfully aware of the expectations of the music industry to create scenarios in their storytelling that will attract the most attention. Sadly, many artists struggle to create their stories on their own terms against these pressures. Rappers, corporate executives and hip-hop advocates often defend lyrics and videos as being in the tradition of “keeping it real”, arguing that their music is just a reflection of a life lived in racial oppression and poverty. Rose writes: The ‘keeping it real’ line is far too often used to justify the way that rappers and corporate executives rely on voyeuristic fantasies about black people as pimps, hustlers, and gang-bangers to sell records. The fact of the matter is that artists who consistently bring too much complexity or too wide a range of non-stereotypical images of black men and women to commercial hip hop are destined to end up a at the margins of commercial success (Rose 2008:141).

Moving to the Beat

1. In this activity students are split into two groups: a. The “keeping it real” group b. The “speaking truth to power” group 2. Using examples from hip-hop, students will engage in a debate over the critique that Rose makes that the “keeping it real” tradition camouflages the commercialization of hip-hop. a. The side arguing against this claim must argue that, as a hip-hop advocate Russell Simmons has argued, “[p]overty creates these conditions and these conditions create these words [lyrics of rap songs]” and that “the rap community always tells the truth”.

Activity Six

Identifying Hip-hop Activists Throughout the World 1. Students in this activity are asked to research a hip-hop artist. 2. Students should contextualize the lyrics of one progressive song pertaining to the history of the country and a connection to the artist’s life. For this activity, please refer to the Hip-hop Activism across Continents handout (found at the end of the module). The hip-hop artists listed are from all over the world. This is to emphasize the universal accessibility and power of hip-hop as a progressive art form.

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Module A Resources And You Don’t Stop: 30 Years of Hip Hop (Documentary) African Underground: Democracy in Dakar (The film follows rappers, DJs, journalists, professors and people on the street at the time before during and after the controversial 2007 presidential election in Senegal and examines hip-hop’s role on the political process.) Interview with North African hip hop artists http://worldblog.msnbc.msn. com/_news/2011/09/15/7758131-how-rap-music-fueled-the-arab-spring-uprisings Anti-Injustice Movement Jeff Chang Can’t Stop Won’t Stop – analysis of the hip hop activist movement The Freechild Project: UN Millinium Campaign to end poverty—resources for schools to get students active in the campaign. Ardizonne, Leonisa 2007 Gettin’ my word out: voices of urban youth activists. SUNY Press. Halpin, Mikki 2004 It’s Your World—If You Don’t Like It Change It: Activism for Teenagers. Simon and Schuster. Sitomer, Alan Lawrence and Cirelli, Michael 2004 Hip Hop Poetry and the Classics East of Havana” Documentary on the role of hip hop as a voice for the poor and the oppressed of Cuba. Rose, Tricia 2008 The hip hop wars: what we talk about when we talk about hip hop--and why it matters. Basic Civitas Books.

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Kanye West Takes on the Hip-hop Culture and the Diamond Industry Over the years, companies such as De Beers and the World Diamond Council have used advertising to create a mystique around diamonds in the Western world. Diamonds now play an important role in how Westerners celebrate weddings, anniversaries, Valentine’s Day, and other special occasions associated with romance. Although the significance attached to diamonds in North America and Europe has benefited the diamond industry, it has come at a great cost to countries like Sierra Leone, Africa. The robust diamond trade, from which the average Sierra Leonean receives little benefit, plays a significant role in fueling the bloodshed taking place in Sierra Leone. In his song, Diamonds from Sierra Leone, Kanye West critiques American rap artists obsession with diamonds, claiming by promoting an image based on the wearing of diamonds contributes to the tragedy in Sierra Leone. Lyrics to West’s Diamonds from Sierra Leone are available online. For this exercise you might focus on the verses beginning, “Good Morning, this ain’t Vietnam . . . “ and ending with, “It’s in a black person’s soul to rock that gold . . .”

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Hip-hop Activism Across Continents In history, youth culture has played a significant role in changing the world by speaking out and organizing for a common cause. In the 1960s, young people all over the world were making an impact in the struggle for civil rights, social injustice, warfare, and colonialism. Recently, we have seen young people play a prominent role in the Arab spring movements that brought down governments in North Africa and the Middle East. Music has historically been a powerful genre of protest employed by the youth, its song lyrics documenting for prosperity of the common people’s struggles against perceived injustice. In the Arab spring movements, rappers like El General in Tunisia, and Boge in Libya, helped to give voice to a movement and build momentum for mass efforts to enact change in their countries. The genre of Hip-hop, which was born in the 1970s and 1980s in the United States, shares a long tradition of activism through music with many cultures around the world. Hip-hop has been a powerful medium in the US because of its tradition of speaking out. Once called “the black CNN” by Chuck D’, hip-hop is rooted in the experience of poverty and racism the African American communities were experiencing in the 1980s. Ultimately, rap music is popular because of its accessibility. Soccer is the world’s most popular game because all that is needed is some sort of ball. Pele, one of the greatest soccer players ever, learned to play using a grapefruit. The magic of the game is what you do with that ball. With hip-hop, all you need is a beat. It is then up to the artist armed with language to craft his words around the beat. While anyone can employ beat and speech to enact social change, hip-hop music has been the tool of young people in the United States, and now plays a significant role all over the world. The following is a list of youth from all over the world who have used hip-hop to speak out for social change. Your job is to pick one of these individuals/groups and investigate the causes they speak for in their music. This will involve a review of the country’s history as well as the artist’s personal history. ◉◉ The Roots (U.S.A.) ◉◉ Black Star—Mos Def and Talib Kweli (U.S.A.) ◉◉ Immortal Technique (U.S.A.) ◉◉ Lupe Fiasco (U.S.A.) ◉◉ Blue Scholars (U.S.A.) ◉◉ Le General (Tunisia)

Moving to the Beat

◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉

Sister Fa (Senegal) Keur Gui (Senegal) Magia (Cuba) IAM (France/Marseille) Cartel (Germany) Racionais MC’s (Brazil) Francis Magalona (Philippines)

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Module B

Fighting the Spread of HIV and AIDS with Hip-hop The following activities are designed to explore how hip-hop is and can be used in the fight against the spread of HIV. These activities also are aimed at raising awareness about the existing rates of HIV infection around the world— especially the AIDS epidemic currently being faced in Africa. AIDS is an epidemic that exists in all our communities. Solutions for fighting the disease lie in sharing strategies across cultures in promoting awareness and promoting an increased understanding about HIV and AIDS. The following activities provide students an opportunity to engage in an open discussion about AIDS as a both a local and global problem.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Gauge their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. ◉◉ Identify discrimination against individuals with HIV. ◉◉ Reflect on the successes and challenges faced by hip-hop artists in Sierra Leone and the U.S. in trying to increase public awareness about HIV and AIDS. ◉◉ Expand on their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. ◉◉ Recount recent developments in HIV/AIDS prevention that have curbed new AIDS cases in some countries. ◉◉ Research and present on how various countries are impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. ◉◉ Create relevant media campaigns to promote HIV/AIDS awareness in various countries.

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Activity One

of the module) focusing on the following questions:

Common Ground 1. Ask the students to form a circle. 2. The teacher will read a statement and students will be directed to step into the circle if they share common ground on that particular issue. a. ISSUES: i. Step into the circle if you have taken a class that taught you about HIV or AIDS. ii. Step into the circle if you have read an article or book that taught you about HIV or AIDS. iii. Step into the circle if you have seen a television show with a character that has HIV or AIDS. iv. Step into the circle if you know the difference between HIV and AIDS. v. Step into the circle if you can name the ways that HIV is transmitted. vi. Step into the circle if you know someone who has HIV or AIDS. 3. After students have stepped into the circle when appropriate, they will move back to their place. a. This process will continue until all statements have been read. b. Students should notice who is in the circle and who is not in the circle for each question. This activity will help prepare students for a dialogue about their own HIV/AIDS awareness. 4. Students will share what they noticed about each other’s responses, and discuss what they learned from the activity.

Activity Two

Global AIDS Epidemic As a class, read and discuss the article, Report Shows AIDS Epidemic Slowdown in 2005 (found at the end

Moving to the Beat

◉◉ What does the United Nations report say about the global AIDS epidemic? ◉◉ What does the report cite as a “…turning point for AIDS financing”? ◉◉ What does Dr. Piot list as some of the reasons for the decline in new HIV cases? ◉◉ What areas of the world have shown declines in new cases of HIV? ◉◉ Where have “grim findings” been reported? ◉◉ How do you think “changing social norms” might slow a pandemic like HIV? ◉◉ Where does the epicenter of the epidemic remain? ◉◉ Given the “weaknesses” listed in this report, what do you think the world could do to slow this epidemic?

Activity Three

Fighting Against Stigma and Discrimination of Individuals with HIV (Discussion) 1. For this activity students are broken up into small groups of 4–8 and each group is given a Take the Lead worksheet (found at the end of the module). 2. First, have each group assign a scribe/presenter. 3. Assign each group one of the first three statements. Additionally, each group should be assigned the last statement. 4. Allow students 15 minutes to discuss the statements giving each student in the group an opportunity to comment on the meaning the statement has for him/her. 5. Allow another 5–10 minutes for students to discuss their responses to the three questions appearing on the Take the Lead worksheet.

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Statements for discussion and suggested responses: ◉◉ People who are HIV positive are promiscuous. Disagree. People who are HIV positive could have got the infection through non-sexual transmission (e.g., sharing contaminated needles). And even if they got the virus from unprotected sex, that does not mean they are promiscuous. Although promiscuity can increase one’s chances of contracting HIV, the virus can be contracted from having unprotected sex just once. ◉◉ Students who are HIV positive should be allowed to go to school with other students. Agree. All students have a right to an education. In addition, students who are HIV positive should not be excluded nor discriminated against, and HIV is not contagious through the everyday contact that students have in school. ◉◉ Teachers who are HIV positive should not be teaching. Disagree. Having HIV does not make a person ‘bad’ or a poor role model. As with many diseases, with the right treatment many teachers living with HIV can continue to carry out their work efficiently. Everyone has the right to work regardless of their HIV status. ◉◉ (All groups should be assigned this statement.) If you see someone insulting or bullying a person because of HIV, it is best not to interfere. Disagree. If you do not say or do something, your silence may be seen as complicit support for what the bully is doing. Tell the person to stop immediately and explain that it is unacceptable to discriminate against someone because of their HIV status. Your actions will help decrease stigma and discrimination. Source: Activity is excerpted from: http://download.eiie.org/Docs/ WebDepot/English_One%20Hour%20on%20AIDS_ lesson%20plan.pdf

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Activity Four

Youth Speaking Out about AIDS This activity explores the involvement by young hiphop artists in HIV and AIDS awareness campaigns in Sierra Leone. 1. This activity begins with a screening of an excerpt from the film (23:38 – 27:07). In this segment, Sierra Leonean hip-hop artists speak about their efforts to promote AIDS awareness. 2. Following the screening, students are divided into groups. a. Each group is given the task to evaluate the efforts made by Sierra Leonean youth to promote safe sex and AIDS awareness. b. Explore some of the challenges that the young people face that are related to age and generational differences. c. Students are to evaluate the perceptions about HIV and AIDS presented in the documentary and the challenges that Sierra Leonean young people face in trying to change these perceptions especially among their elders. 3. Each group should address the following questions: a. Was there anything in this segment that surprised you? b. How is music used to address the issue of HIV/ AIDS? i. Do you think the songs are effective? ii. How are these songs used most effectively in promoting awareness (e.g., played on the radio, performed live by the artist, analyzed by students, played as background music during presentations? c. What were the messages and challenges the young people in the film faced around advocacy around condom use? d. Are there any problems created when outside

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groups like UNICEF or governments fund and guide HIV and AIDS awareness interventions? How might these problems be resolved? e. Would you have a different strategy for promoting AIDS awareness amongst your peers than those used in the film? i. How would your strategy be different if you were working with adults? ii. Are there cultural differences in your local community or with the U.S. that might require different strategies for spreading HIV and AIDS awareness? iii. Could hip-hop be used effectively in each of these cases? f. Are you aware of any efforts by hip-hop artists to promote HIV and AIDS awareness in the United States?

Activity Five

Researching the Global AIDS Epidemic 1. Explain to students that they will conduct research and create a presentation for the class based on the global AIDS/HIV epidemic. 2. Students should be divided into small groups, and assigned a country to investigate. a. Countries include: United States, Canada, Dominican Republic, Barbados, Jamaica, Haiti, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, England, Japan, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Australia, India, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, and South Africa.

3. After the selection process, students are to answer the following guiding questions to explore how the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being dealt with in their assigned country. 4. After conducting their research, students should present their findings to the class. a. Students may be given newsprint and markers to create a visual image of the key points of their research. b. Students should have time for presentations and a question and answer period. c. Students should address the question: Why do you think there has been a decline in some countries or areas, but not in others? 5. Utilizing their research, students should create a media campaign promoting HIV/AIDS prevention and awareness for the country that they have researched. a. The media campaign should include a script for a public service announcement or a piece of hip-hop art (rap, dance, graffiti etc.). b. Students should address the question: What factors do you think are important in raising awareness about HIV/AIDS?

Source: Activities two, three and four above have been excerpted from the New York Times’ site: The Learning Network: Outbreak by Marcella Runell and Yasmin Chin Eisenhauer, June 1, 2006 (http://learning.blogs.nytimes. com/2006/06/01/outbreak/)

Module B Resources Brooklyn rapper MAGZ performs “People are You Listening” as part of a UNICEF initiative to fight the spread of HIV and AIDS

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Report Shows AIDS Epidemic Slowdown in 2005 By Lawrence K. Altman June 1, 2006 UNITED NATIONS, May 30. New surveys suggest that the global AIDS epidemic has begun to slow, with a decline in new HIV infections in about 10 countries, the leader of the United Nations AIDS program said Tuesday. Outside of those countries, which include Haiti, Cambodia, Kenya and Zimbabwe, the number of new AIDS infections continues to rise or hover at its current pace. Meanwhile, public health efforts are reaching only a small proportion of people at risk, Dr. Peter Piot, the executive director of Unaids, said at a news conference here on Tuesday. “It’s a very complex epidemic,” he said. “We can no longer talk about AIDS” as a single epidemic, but as many diverse ones. The progress against AIDS in some regions represents dividends from a surge in financing since 2001, when the United Nations pledged its commitment to stem the epidemic by 2010. That declaration called for countries to report regularly on their responses to AIDS. This week, the General Assembly will review the progress that 126 countries have said they have made. The report, the most comprehensive survey ever compiled from country data, pointed to the 2001 United Nations meeting as a turning point for AIDS financing. In 2005, the United States and the rest of the world spent $8.3 billion on AIDS, compared with $1.6 billion in 2001. “We are seeing the impact,” Dr. Piot said. “It’s about time.” He cited increased condom use, a rise in the postponement of sexual intercourse and a decrease in the number of sex partners as factors in the slowing of the epidemic. Summarizing the report’s findings, Dr. Piot said that “2005 was the least bad year in the history of the AIDS epidemic,” first detected 25 years ago. The most promising news, Dr. Piot said, is that the number of new HIV infections has dropped in three African countries: Kenya, Zimbabwe and urban areas of Burkina Faso. Earlier, Uganda reported decreases. Dr. Piot said Cambodia and four states in India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu) showed a drop in new infections, joining Thailand’s earlier success.

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In the Caribbean, the world’s second-most-affected region behind Africa, new infections have declined in urban areas of Haiti and in the Bahamas. AIDS is the region’s leading cause of death in people aged 15 to 44. In Haiti, the percentage of pregnant women infected with HIV declined to 3.7 percent in 2003–2004 from 9.4 percent in 1993, Dr. Piot said. Despite the positive trends, Dr. Piot reported grim findings from China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Russia and Vietnam, with signs of outbreaks in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Ending the pandemic will depend largely on changing social norms like empowering women, reducing the stigma of the disease and encouraging a greater reduction in the number of sex partners, the report said. Most countries have strong foundations for building an effective response against AIDS, the report said, but systems to carry out the plans remain inconsistent. The thoroughness of the individual national reports varied, and many countries did not provide data for all categories, so summarizing them was difficult, Dr. Piot said in an interview. Still, the replies identified significant weaknesses, he said: ◉◉ Fewer than 50 percent of young people achieved comprehensive knowledge levels about HIV, far fewer than the 90 percent goal. ◉◉ Only 9 percent of gay men and fewer than 20 percent of intravenous drug users received any kind of HIV prevention help in 2005. ◉◉ Services to prevent HIV infections in infants have not scaled up as rapidly as programs to provide antiretroviral therapy. Just 9 percent of pregnant women were covered. The United States, Britain, Canada, France and Germany gave no statistics on surveys about the percentage of young people who correctly identify ways to prevent HIV; who had sex with casual partners in the last year; who had sex before 15; or who used condoms during the most recent sexual intercourse with casual partners. Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, the United Nations Population Fund executive director, said the world needed to increase its prevention efforts. The report shows that the epicenter of the epidemic remains in sub-Saharan Africa. There the epidemic has reached a peak, but incidence remains unacceptably high, Dr. Piot said. Across most of Africa, HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending clinics has remained roughly level for several years. The United Nations disputed contentions by some observers that the leveling off showed a turning point in the AIDS epidemic in Africa. “Available evidence does not offer grounds for such conclusions,” Dr. Piot said, in part because “the actual number of people infected continues to rise because of population growth.”

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Researching the Global AIDS/HIV Epidemic Country: _________________________________ 1. Continent (circle): Africa

Asia

North America

South America

Europe

Australia

2. Number of people infected with HIV? __________________________

3. Countries general demographics (age, ethnicity, gender)? _________________________________________________________________________

4. Demographics for those infected with HIV and how has this changed over time? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

5. What is the availability of medical treatment, drugs and prevention education? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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6. What is the current situation for children who had HIV or AIDS, or who have lost parents as a result of HIV/AIDS? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

7. What current laws and/or policies are in effect regarding the spread of HIV/AIDS? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

8. Is there a social stigma attached to women or other social groups who have HIV/AIDS? Are all those afflicted treated equally? Why or why not? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

9. Are there groups or foundations active in effecting change? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Module C

Exploring Local Activism In modules A and B, we explored how hip-hop has been used as an effective tool for activism. Module C includes activities that encourage students to explore activism in their own community, and to meet activists who have worked for change.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Reflect on the consequences of inaction ◉◉ Identify issues that they feel passionate about ◉◉ Understand the three forms of activism ◉◉ Identify change in their local community or school that was a result of activism ◉◉ Communicate with local activists ◉◉ Comprehend the challenges and successes of local activism on various issues

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Activity One

The Need for Individual Activism or “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised”

This activity uses Gil Scott Heron’s classic performance poem, The Revolution Will Not Be Televised, to get students to reflect on the consequences of not being engaged in their communities. Gil Scott Heron’s poem, a precursor to the hip-hop movement, demonstrates that poetry can be a powerful form of activism. Given the advances in technology since Heron first wrote this piece, students should be encouraged to evaluate to what extent the role of media has in activism today. Students using the handout are asked to write their own poem of what their revolution would be. Source: This activity was excerpted from http:// teachemgood.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/ lesson-plan-poetry-as-art-activism/

Activity Two

Defining Ways of Being Activist 1. Write the following words on the board: Educate, Advocate, Donate. 2. Ask students: how is educating (yourself, someone else) a form of activism? a. If you see a problem, first you need to educate yourself. Read newspaper articles, search the internet, and ask teachers or other experts for information. Once you feel like you have enough information, you have to pass it on: share it with your friends, family, and members of your community. b. Other people in your school, your family, or your whole community may not know as much as you do about the issues that interest you most. Your friends, family and community

Moving to the Beat

members can become your biggest supporters if they’re educated about the issues you care about. c. What are some methods of educating ourselves (reading, searching the internet, researching at the library, asking experts)? d. What are some methods of educating the people around us (presentations, posters, flyers, letters, etc)? e. Record answers on board, and encourage students to record notes. 3. Ask students: What does “advocate” mean? What does it mean “to advocate?” a. To advocate is to speak out in favor of or in defense of an issue or person. Advocating draws attention to a problem and helps get support for dealing with that issue. b. Advocating takes educating to the next level, often by getting a lot of support for an issue and bringing that support to the attention of officials (in the school, government, or international community). c. What are some methods of advocating for an issue (petitions, letter writing campaigns, etc)? 4. Ask students: When we talk about donating, most of the time we are specifically talking about fundraising. Why does it help to raise money for an issue you care about? a. Fighting for a good cause takes time and talent, but it also takes money. If you want to feed the homeless, for example, someone has to pay for the food. If you want to build libraries in communities where there are none, someone has to pay for the books. b. What are some of the methods by which we can raise money for a cause? (bake sales, book sales, read-a-thons, contests, raffles, etc.) Source: Taken from Global Citizenship & Youth Philanthropy (GCYP) wiki. GCYP is a media and school-based

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program implemented by Relief International-Schools Online (RI-SOL) to motivate young people—our future leaders—to create a better world through collaborative projects worldwide.: http://gcyp.wikispaces.com/ Methods+of+Youth+Activist

Activity Three

Researching Activism in Your Community This activity is focused on understanding the lives and passions of local community activists. It is also an opportunity for young people to find out from community activists how young people can and have contributed to solving local problems.

4. Students should then identify other students in their school or nearby schools who are actively addressing these issues. 5. Additionally, students should identify two local organizations for each issue and find out as much as they can about these organizations. 6. The final step of the research process is to contact these organizations. Plan a visit to the organization’s headquarters or invite a representative of the organization to come in and speak with students.

1. Identify some of the social issues students are passionate about. a. For example: environmental issues, poverty, health related issues, government services, issues of equality and equity etc. b. Alternatively, students may focus on issues they feel they need to be addressed in their school or local schools. 2. After the students have identified some of the issues within their community, they should then divide themselves according to the particular issue(s) they are interested in researching. Encourage each group to choose a secondary issue in case little information is available on the primary issue. 3. Students should begin by researching the history of the issue within their community. a. Has there have been any significant advances in resolving this issue? b. Who was involved in bringing about the change? c. What role did activists in the local community play?

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My Revolution Poem My revolution is____________________________________________________________ My revolution will___________________________________________________________ My revolution will___________________________________________________________ My revolution will___________________________________________________________ Because my revolution_______________________________________________________

There will be_______________________________________________________________ There is no time for__________________________________________________________ Or_______________________________________________________________________ S Because___________________________________________________________________ My revolution______________________________________________________________

There will be no pictures of____________________________________________________ There won’t be any__________________________________________________________ But there will be____________________________________________________________ And I know________________________________________________________________ Because___________________________________________________________________ And my revolution__________________________________________________________

Source: http://teachemgood.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/lesson-plan-poetry-as-art-activism

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Researching Activism in Your Community Each group should receive two copies of this handout. Each group should keep a journal or a blog of their findings based on the questions below. The journal may include brochures, images etc.

Identify the issue ◉◉ Are there any students or student organizations in your school or neighboring schools that are currently actively working on these issues?

◉◉ Are there any organizations in your community that are addressing the issue?

◉◉ Why are these organizations involved, and how long have they been addressing the issue?

◉◉ What do the individuals, groups, or organizations hope to accomplish?

◉◉ Who are the people that work on these issues? Do they get paid? How did they begin? Why do they continue to do it?

◉◉ In what ways have these organizations or individuals been successful thus far?

◉◉ What are some of the difficulties they face?

◉◉ What role can young people play in contributing to addressing the issue?

◉◉ What are the types of activities are activists currently engaged in?

◉◉ What are three things key pieces of information these groups or individuals could provide you with if you were interested in trying to advocate on this issue?

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Module D

Developing a Plan of Action As a culminating experience, students are encouraged to apply the skills and knowledge they have learned from Moving to the Beat documentary and curriculum. Students are encouraged to look first at the activism within their own community that has led to their communities becoming a better place. Inspired by changes made at the local level, students are then encouraged to work together in small groups to identify an issue within their school or community and create an action plan to bring about change in their community. As this project may take some time to complete, teachers are encouraged to periodically check in on the progress of the action plan and provide feedback and further instruction when necessary.

Objectives After completing this module, students should be able to: ◉◉ Identify and evaluate current problems in their community. ◉◉ Develop a plan of action to address current problems in the community.

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Activity One

Identifying Social Problems within the Local Community (Discussion) ◉◉ What are some of the problems your community is struggling with? Please be as specific as possible. ◉◉ What has been done in the past to solve this problem? ◉◉ What type of activism would students be interested in pursuing (education, donation, advocacy)? ◉◉ What are some tactics to overcome or improve these issues?

Activity Two

Creating an Action Plan 1. Distribute the Creating an Action Plan Handout (found at the end of the module) 2. Break students into groups of 3–4 based on their interest in their identified activist issues. 3. Have groups create an action plan focused on something specific to the issue they want to improve in their school or community (see handout). 4. If time allows continue this activity through out the year and periodically have students present back to the class.

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Creating an Action Plan In small groups, create an action plan addressing an issue your group has identified within the community as needing improvement. Include the following information in your action plan:

The Issue ◉◉ A description of the issue and the reasoning for choosing it ◉◉ Is the change a reform of an existing system, or the creation of something new? ◉◉ What are the cost and benefits of these types of changes?

The Goals ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉

What do you hope to achieve with your action plan? How will the campaign make concrete improvements in peoples’ lives? How will it give them a sense of their own power? How will the campaign alter the relations of power? What if you ‘lose’ or do not achieve your ultimate goal? What are some other accomplishments you hope to achieve in the process?

The Strategy ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉ ◉◉

What tactics will you employ to bring about the desired change? What steps are necessary and when? Who is responsible for what? Assign responsibilities to participants. What are the potential ‘road blocks’ that may hinder the efforts of participants? How can you ensure that your action plan will bring about lasting changes? What will you include in the plan to facilitate this?

The Resources ◉◉ What resources are needed for your action plan to be successful? ◉◉ How will you collect or gain access to your needed resources? ◉◉ What resources or strengths does your community provide that will assist you in bringing about your goals.

The Evaluation ◉◉ How will you keep track of your efforts? ◉◉ How will you evaluate your successes? Please Note: When setting goals it is important that they be attainable and measurable. You should set short-term goals that can demonstrate progress and allow you to celebrate your successes along the way toward your long-term goals. Even if you ‘lose’, accomplishing some or all of your short-term goals will remain as a demonstration of your accomplishments.

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Moving to the Beat Curriculum