Catherine Wheater Technology Integrated Report

Page 1

Catherine Wheater

Catherine Wheater _____ Masters of Architecture Cinematic Commons DSIT B Architectural Technology Keith Andrews www.cathwheater.co.uk


Catherine Wheater

Contents 1.0

Contextual Analysis Proposition Site Analysis Programme Analysis

2.0

Precedent Analysis

3.0

Building Description

4.0

Environmental strategy

5.0

Structure and Material Choice

6.0

References


Catherine Wheater

1.0 Chapter | Contextual Analysis


1.1 _ Outline

Catherine Wheater

Dsit B The Intention of my DSIT Technology report is to provide the contextual and technological information in order to support my thesis design project development. The report will focus on the environmental context of my project based in Tokyo through a developing understanding of the context of the project but also with influence from varying technical precendences which strategies are in parralel with my architectural intent and will inform my choices. Through taking lessons from traditional vernacular architectural approaches and their modern interpretations in the details of structural materiality and environmental considerations I will in turn apply these lessons in key aspects of my design. I will then employ this knowledge in developing the best and most appropriate tactics in developing my own architectural strategy applied to my thesis project.

Brief My Final Year Thesis Project is a critique in a new approach to preservation in the use of memory and integration of community based within Yanesen, Tokyo Japan. The masterplan of the area is connected through the unearthing of the lost river of Aizan in the area that is now known as Snake Street. The river will add an extra layer of unearthering and re-engaging the communtity, its users and visitors in to a more intimate environment. Alongside being utilised in the factory production area through the development of washi paper ( to be used for architectural detailing, shoji screens, wall paper, local currency and the re-printing of a new magazine) it will also acts a a catalyst for urban regeneration providing water for tasks within the neighbourhood and irrigation of community allotments and mulberry tree plantation areas. The river will be integrated in to the homes of the sight, and be used a tool to transport details to and from the main area of the ‘Memory Museum.’ The Key area of the site the ‘Memory Museum’ will act as the testing ground of key moments shaped architecturally in the community along the new river. Through the application of layering, adaptability and threshold connections the project looks to develop an urban strategy through the integration of the Memory Museum, Community, and Factory sites to draw the community , and ‘outsiders’ in to a experience of the strong community in Yanesen and act as a prototype for other areas that are becoming lost in a drive towards ‘Modernisation.’


1.1 _ Primary Research

The Yanesen Workshop Whilst undertaking my research trip within Tokyo, Japan I had already made contact with key groups which have shaped my design thesis’s path of study. I made contact with the Yanesen Workshop which is the Headquarters of Yanesen Magazine, which acts as an unofficial centre for community groups and local politians along with representatives to gather and discuss matters effecting the Yanesen Area. Through reading Tokyo Vernacular I came in to contact with the writer and historian Jordaan Sands who opened up contact with the Yanesen Group and arranged an meeting and interview through translations with the group. Though talking with them I gained an amazing insight to the area, the importance of the role the Yanesen Magazine had in developing community identity in connecting stories and preserving artefacts from the area. Through word of mouth I learnt about projects they were working on within the area in terms of calling for their preservation, as well as stopping certain re-developments destroying aspects of community. I was able to talk to them in detail about my proposition

Catherine Wheater


1.1 _ Proposition

Catherine Wheater

Studio _ Cinematic Commons Within the development of the Cinematic Commons Studio at the Leeds School of architecture, this report looks to study the contextual, historical and environmental parameters in the development of a technically, environmetally efficient design project in corrolation with my thesis research path.

Site Location

The development of this project began in association with the Cinematic Commons Unit at the Leeds School of Architecture ( Leeds Beckett University )Within my unit we look at the social issues within a contextual, historical environment and we study for the development of a proposition which resonates with the themes of the area taking particular consideration of the people and the social environments development in the community.

Project Location The Thesis Project is based in Yanesen in Tokyo, Japan. Based in the centre of the city the project looks to explore the relationship of the community in relation to growing modernisation impacting the traditional timber buildings in the area, and how the architectural environment thus far has encouraged the development of the community. The project looks to design with historical and geographical context in mind, unearthing lost stories, details and rivers in unsuring an urban strategy creates an experience of living memory, for those living within the area, but also in a stance against the developments that are taking over other area of tokyo, and around the world. The project is an exercise in harnessing the local culture in a critique of other tested ways of preservation.

Key aspects of the Design Project In the following report I will outline my key design features I will use as way of achieving my projects intentions. They are outlined as follows : 1.

4.

Reclaiming the lost river of snake street (Aizan River )facilitating the development of a washi paper production factory and to be used in the development and cultivation of a community resource and mulberry tree plantation ( to my used in the paper making process )

Identifying and designing the characteristics of traditional architecture which shape the activities of community

2.

Integrating the production of paper in to the activities of the neighborhood and the physical environment ( applied within the architecture in shoji screens, wall paper) 3. Integrating the river in uses within the community and workshops

5. Testing details in an adaptable prototype of the Memory Museum


1.2 _ Site Location

Catherine Wheater

Japan

Tropic of Cancer

Equator Line

Tropic of Capricorn

Japan in Context Japan is an east asian island within the subregion of the Asian continent along the Pacific Coast. Japan is located in the North Pacific off the coast of Russia and the Korean peninsula. Japan is made up of 6,852 islands along the Pacific coast of East Asia. The Main islands of Japan are from North to South; Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. These islands are known as the Japanese Archipelago. Japan is over 70% mountainous terrain with approximately 18% land mass suitable for human settlement. Japanese cities are typically sprawling and densely populated. Tokyo, a megalopolis and the capital of Japan, is located on Honshu island. Central Tokyo has a population of 12 million people, with the population of the Greater Tokyo Area estimated at over 35 million people.

The area of Japan is 377,873km² in size. Japan is currently home to a Population of 127 Million people.

The area of Tokyo is 2,188 km² in size. Japan is currently home to a Population of 13.62 million peo-


1.2 _ Climate

Catherine Wheater

Temperature | Japan When researching my proposition an understanding of the macro environment in the context of my design needs to be understood and researched in relation to my site of Tokyo. The following diagram shows a macro perspective of the temperatures across the globe and Japan in relation to this. It will help further my understanding of the site conditions in application of environmental strategies but also towards but understanding of how architecture has developed as a consequence of these con-

Fahrenheit < -21 -20.5 to -13 -13.5 to 5.0 5.5 to 14.0 14.5 to -23 23.5 to 32 32.5 to 41 41.5 to 50.0 51.5 to 59. 59.5 to 68 68.5 to 86 86.5 to 95.0 95.5 to 104 > 20.0

Centigrade < -29.5 -29.5 to 25.0 -24.5 to -15.0 -14.5 to -10.0 -9.5 to -5.0 -4.5 to 0.0 0.5 to 5.0 5.5 to 10.0 10.5 to 15.0 15.5 to 20.0 20.5 to 30.0 30.5 to 35.0 35.5 to 40.0 > 20.0

Climate of Japan The climate within Japan is fairly moderate in comparison to other areas of east asia and is comparable to the weather in mid atlantic America. Unlike other asian countries Japan has four distinct seasons. The climate within these periods rangs from subartic in the North to subtropic in the south.

Analysis :

Particular interesting is given that Japan is an asian continent, it finds itself experience a wide range in weather temperaments givens it’s location. Often temperatures are similar to the united kingdom, though during the summer the temperatures can soar. Systems applied within Northern Japan has warm summers and very the building should take in to account the vercold winters with heavy snow on the Sea of saility of temperature changes to the condition of the site and environmental aspects and Japan side and in mountainous areas. requirements that will be applied within the Eastern Japan has hot and humid summers building. and cold winters with very heavy snow on the Sea of Japan side and in mountainous areas. Western Japan has very hot and humid summers (with temperatures sometimes reaching 35 oC or above) and moderate cold winters. Okinawa and Amami have a subtropical oceanic climate. These areas have hot and humid summers (with temperatures rarely reaching 35 oC or above) and mild winters.

Warn continental climate/ Humid continental climate Temperate continental climate/ Humid continental climate Warm oceanic climate/ Humid continental climate Temperate continental climate/ Humid continental climate


1.2 _ Rainfall

Catherine Wheater

Rainfall | Japan When researching my propositionan understanding of the climate in relation to rainfall and seasonal changes in neccesary. In application to japan this information can inform buildings materiality and changes in soil types and so the requirements of foundation structures to deal with these issues.

Millimeters 0 to 24 25 to 74 75 to 124 125 to 224 225 to 274 275 to 374 375 to 474 475 to 724 725 to 974 975 to 1474 1475 to 2474 2475 to 4974 4975 to 7474 7475 to 10004 > 10005

Inches < 0.9 1.0 to 2.9 3.0 to 4.9 5.0 to 8.9 9.0 to 10.8 10.9 to 14.8 14.9 to 18.7 18.8 to 18.5 28.6 to 38.4 38.5 to 58.1 58.2 to 97.4 97.5 to 195.9 196.0 to 294.3 294.4 to 394.0 >394.0

Rainfall Map

Rainfall Analysis Within Japan the climate is typically characterised as being Monsoonal meaning that there are periods when the area has particular downfalls of high volumne and regular contents of rain. The main influences are the country’s latitude and surrounding oceans and it’s proximity to the larger land mass of Asia. Areas of the country are prone to numerious climatic variations as outlined in the following : Winter Monsoon : Late September to late March picks up moisture over the Sea of japan. Durin the winter monsoon deposits of moisture as rain or snow come to the side of Japan.During this period the area is susceptible to dry windy weather. Summer Monsoon : during the Summer season the pressure systems are reversed, with air movements from the east and south from Mid April to early September. During this period there will be warmer period and increase in rainfall. This is the period when the area as to account for dramatic changes which will effect materiality and potentially structure.

During this time cyclonic storms are frequent and the potential for destructive typhoons may occure during late summer and early fall, particularly in the southwest of the country. Analysis: Even though Japan is within the Asian continent, it’s weather differers in that is suffers from heavy rainfall and a temperate environment at times. This has offered benefits within it’s soil and resources in paddy fields and production but it has also shaped the type of architecture developed within Japan. As the climate begins to change around the world, changes in food resources, seasonsonal changes will become more apparent. Currently Details such as extended eaves are harnessed in timber houses to ensure rainfall does not effect soils. Foundations are to be selected to account for water content to ensure stability

- < 50mm - < 100mm -< 150mm -< 200mm -<200mm +


1.2 _ Tokyo Location

Catherine Wheater

Location of the Site in Tokyo The location of the site was picked due to the impact of the changing nature of Tokyo. As the area has evolved the past century, the Area of Yanesen has retained much of it’s historical architectural characteristics. I became particularly interested in the area due to the strong sense of community ‘place-making.’ Whereas other areas of the Tokyo has beebeen re-developed over and over. This has caused an evolution of the architectural typologies within the area. The area of Yanesen in located in a combination of the neighbourhoods of Nezu, Sendagi and Yakana, and is location in the Bunkyo Ward of Tokyo.


1.2 _ Yanesen Location

Catherine Wheater

Shinobazu Street

Site Location The development of the choice of site location began to be critiqued through the analysing the area of Yanesen. The area has currently become a

The ‘City of Tokyo’ has a population of about 8’795’223 people. If we take into consideration the Tokyo Metropolis, it concentrates more than a tenth of the population of Japan. This percentage rises to 27% if we take the Metropolitan Area, while its surface represents only 0.6%, respectively 3.6%, of the entire national area5. In this work, we will be principally concerned by Tokyo in its extents as ‘City of Tokyo’, but we will begin by giving a topographical overview of the ‘Tokyo Metropolis’ fi rst.

2.

1. Snake Street

Site of Ribbon Printing Factory

3.

4.

Yanesen Tourist Centre

Nippori Station

Wards of the City

Yanesen

Tokyo as a City is seperated in to 23 different wards. The Area Yanesen which comprimises of the municipal areas of Yanaka, Nezu, and Sendagi is in the Bunkyo Ward of Tokyo.

The Yanesen area is made up of the district of Nezu, Sendagi, and Yanaka. The area of Yanesen has developed much of it’s identity due to it’s community spirit and development through the use of the Yanesen Magazine.

Due to the size of the City the different wards of the city are characterised differently in terms of the building tyologies, and the way of life that the area represents. Other areas of the city such as Ginza, Shibuya and Roppongi are more westernized in terms of the building typologies in terms of high-rise commercial centres popular with businessmen and tourists. This acts in comparison to to Yanesen which currently has retained many of it’s two storey buildings and local atmosphere.

Yanaka

Sendagi

Nezu


1.2 _ Wind Observations

Catherine Wheater

Wind Direction Distribution ( % )

Wind Analysis Analysis through the application of windpath diagrams upon the site suggest that the predominantant directions that apply to the Tokyo site and considerations of this are that the design should look towards considerations of North North West, North North East and Southernly winds. This applies within my design as to how I will utilise these climatic considerations. Any natural ventiliation or driving devices should take in to account the directions of the predominant winds that should be utlised in application to my building

The wind will be driven down through the site and so considerations in the drying on paper and the natural ventilation process will be considered within the environmental strategies of my site.

The predominat winds of the site at follows : NNW 10% NNE 11% S 13%

January Febuary March April May June July August September October November December Year

1


1.2 _ Summer Sunpath

Catherine Wheater

Summer 9 :00 am As the sun travels from the east shadows will be case over the journey between the sites, though due to the Memory Museum site being in a larger open area of land, the impact of over shadowing buildings does not reach the sites footprint and so the area will be able to utlise the early morning sun, through it’s solar energy as well as a means of natural lighting. solar radiation.

N

Summer 12:00 am

Summer Solstice Solar Study

Solar Radiation

For me to understand the lighting conditions of the site I have documented the impact of the changes in the solar progression upon the site. Through retaining this knowledge I am able to understand the impact that surrounding buildings and objects will have upon the site in help me utilise particular changes in the solar studies.

Solar Energy emitted by the sun is defined as radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly electromagnetic energy.

Within the axonometric view the following information allows me to see the progression of the sun within the daylight hours, up to the middle of day when the sun is at it’s highest point.

The shadows upon the large master plan of the site are shorter and so allow for solar light to to reach all parts of the master plans site footprint. At the highest point of the day all the site is about to benefit from solar gains and radiation.

Solar Penetration Impact of the solar orientation and direction of rays to the site, and casting of shadows upon ofer areas.

Summer 15:00 am As the Sun moves around the site, parts of the community neighbourhood area begin to gain some shading, with the larger museum site remains in the light, apart from shadows casting over the lower parts of the building. Large parts of the site still are able to gain the benefits of solar radiation


1.2 _ Winter Sunpath

Catherine Wheater

Winter 9 :20 am At 9:20 on the winter solstice the shadows upon the sight at at their longest, impacting all areas of the site. The sun is at a low angle casting a shadow impacting natural lighting upon the site. The impact of the urban means that at this time of year artificial light will need to be utilised and energy resources must be utilised on the sight at this time.

N

Winter 12:00 am

Winter Solstice Solar Study

Solar Radiation

To understand the time of year when the site will be gaining the least amount of the sun for the whole year I have studied the solar path and the impact of the site in December. during the Winter Soltice. In axonometric view I will to be to see the shadows that are cast up on the site through the day and the impact this will have on key areas.

Solar Energy emitted by the sun is defined as radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly electromagnetic energy.

The midday sun is the best conditions of the winter solstice. It offers a small amount of improvement to the light of the sight. In the factory production of the sight the growing allotment will be able to utilise solar radiation. There is still an amount of reduction in solar penetration, but solar radiation is able to be utilised through the sight.

Solar Penetration Impact of the solar orientation and direction of rays to the site, and casting of shadows upon ofer areas.

Winter 15:00 Pm At 15:00pm the sun again is at it’s lowest position though due to the nature of the site, and it’s surrounding buildings the shadows do not impact the sight as much as they had at the morning lowest point.


1.2 _ Site Critique areas of interest

Catherine Wheater

1.

Site Critique When choosing areas of the site of particular interest I began by looking at the currently most popular areas for both tourists, residents and commercial businesses to reside. Critiqueing their current approaches of community engagement and using knowledge of the area to pinpoint my design. The area of Yanesen has numerous side streets and alleys for users to meander along though the usual route that is followed is from the Nippori station through to the centre of Yanesen where many of users stick to the main trail and don’t explore further along the site which are of particular importance to the community.

Nippori Station Nippori Station is a major station interchange in central Tokyo. It connects the Kesei and Toei Line, alongside the East Japan Railway Company. The station currently has links to the major connection lines in tokyo, along with the skyrail to the airport so brings a lot of tourists and people from other parts of tokyo to the area. The Nippori Site is usually the starting point of many of the pedestrian journeys throughout the site.

3. 2. 1.

Printing Factory Site

Yanesen Tourist Centre

Whilst in Tokyo through speaking to the community at Yanesen Magazine I found out about the old printing factory which was removed 3 years ago. Located along the area of snake street the space has now become a car parking area and whilst we were at the sight the area was being prepared for building work. Given it’s proximity to Shinobazu street and the structures that are becoming common place the area it will probably be a large scale resident site or commercial unit due to the value of it’s size.

The area known as Yanesen Ginza has become the main area of the site with many of the ‘tourist’ cafes situated here. The site houses variations of cafes catering to tourist appetites alongside selling of souvernirs in the area. There is little in the way in a way of real engagement with the area. There is no information about the history of the area, this type of information is gained through speaking to the local people of the area. It appears that people just come here for a taste of the areas ‘quiantness’.

4. Snake Street as to work further along the site in to parts of historical importance, travelling along towards Sendagi Station you come to the beginning of a windy road. This road is called Hebimich by the locals due to its characteristic shape. It acts as the unofficial border between Bunkyo and Taito Wards. The road used to be the place of the Aizomegawa, a river that ran through the area. The river was turned in to a culvert in mid the 20th centuru. It is said that their are 15 corners to Hebimichi.


1.2 _ Threat of Shinobazu Street and beyond

Shinobazu Street

Jiageya

The area of Shinobazu street is beginning to have an increasing impact on Yanesen. The road has undergone it’s own evolution in the past 50 years but it’s impact of the traditional housing typologies of the area is beginning to have an impact on it’s residents. For many people living in the Sendagi, Nezu and Yakana area this street acts as the main road. Although traffic has always be relatively busy compared to Yanesen in the 1980’s; the area experienced an awakening to the large scale developments that were already effecting other areas of Tokyo.

As areas have undergone development the effects of sky-rocketing land prices has effected the quintessential neighbourhood. With these increases in sky-rises the profession of real estate speculators (Jiageya) have taken a nasty turn. Jiageya combine physical threats with subtler forms of infiltration to remove people from their homes and communities within the neighbourhood. They take advantage of peoples strong sense of obligation. The developments taking place are indicative of developers oblivious to the concerns of the people.

Catherine Wheater

Key “... this one’s been demolished too! Mama - what was here before?” “ What was it - I can’t remember.” “Oh - wasn’t it a bicycle shop?”

Shinobazu Site Journey Site Location

They say that with the money it would take to buy all of the land in Tokyo right now you could buy the entire United States.

Your house and mine are about the only ones left in the neighbourhood with the door unlocked, where you can just call out konichiwa and get invited in.


1.2 _ Building Typologies in Yanesen

Catherine Wheater

Building Typology Heights

Traditional Edo Typology Buke-Yashi House

Machiya

1-2 3-4 5-6 7 +

Nagoya

Building Typologies With the increase in land prices and developers wishing to create larger scale developments within the area the Typical Building Typologies are beginning to become effected by the current trend towards modernisation.

ContemporaryTypology

Typically within the Yanesen area the houses consist of the traditional Japanese Timber houses characterised as the Machiya or Nagoya Houses typical of commericial and residential houses throughout Japan. These buildings have retained their characteristcs of timber framed partision homes. But slowly with the addition of development over time in the from of larger buildings and new requirements they are beginning to introduce different materials and retrofitting techniques in to the developing typologies of the area. The following diagram highlights the evolving styles of the houses development within the Yanesen Area.

N

0

50

100

Contemporary Typologies

Machiya

Nagoya

Contemporary developments have become to begin to become a typical typology in the area. They are typically re-inforced concrete in terms of structural materiality and the increase in stories to accomodate people up to 7 stories within the residential area.

Are traditional wooden townhoues found throughout Japan and typically found in Kyoto, but spread throughout Japan. They are charactertised as the Japanese Vernacular Architecture known as minka ( folk dwellings) The front of the machiya has wooden lattice doors with the second storey typically made of earthwork.

Nagoya houses are typically characterised as the residential houses you’ll find in tokyo. They follow the same patterns in their layout and have porch areas designed in to their structure to created a space for greeting and welcome visitors.


1.2 _ Growth of Yanesen | Neighbourhood evolution

Catherine Wheater

Evolution of the Neighbourhood With the growth of commercial interest in the area, spurned by the development of Shinobazu street, so have the neighbourhood environment of the area. A Key area of interest in my project is how traditional aspects/details of architecture have been used to encourage community relationships and envrionments in which conversations are had. Throughout the neighbourhood currently the area is holding on to it’s last vestiges of community spirit. This is mapped out in the neighbourhood and explored within my proposition through models.

1886 - 88

1911

Contemporary

Details of the Neighbourhood

As the areas has evolved and grown, as too have the houses in the area, a study of the details within the area highlights the community characteristics that have shaped social functions and formation, which have gone on to develop relationships and the community within Yanesen.


1.2 _ Vernacular Architecture

Catherine Wheater

Rules in the Vernacular

Traditional Japanese Architecture

Materiality

Given the location of my site and the typologies within the area, an understanding of the techniques and themes developed in the Japanese architecture of Yanesen is neccesary to develop a design in keeping with the history of the area and the modern interpretations of these sets of rules applied within my proposition. Japanese architecture is designed to be in harmony with it’s environment and nature in both materiality, and form.

Architecture in Japan has always been influenced by the climate. This is reflected in the traditional spaces of the buildings. Summers are typically long and humid. The traditional house is raised somewhat so that the air can move around and beneath it. Wood was the material of choice because it is cool in summer, warm in winter, and more flexible when subjected to earthquakes. In the following section I will outline key characteristics in the vernacular which can be applied within design.

The distinctive feature of a traditional Japanese building is the way in which the house is open to nature. The main materials used are wood, earth, and paper, and the construction spreads out sideways rather than upwards. Japanese houses over the years have begun to combine traditional techniques with modern technology to improve their resistance to fire and convenience.

Roof

Transitional Spaces

The frame of Japanese house is made of the wooden timber frame the weight is supported by vertical columns. One characteristic of Japanese houses is that they have a large roof and deep eaves to protect the houses from long summers.

The way in which Japanese view the interior and the exterior of the house is a key aspect of traditional design. Instead of seeing the inside and outside as two distinctly different environments, they are thought of as being continuous elements. In architecture the space between the interior and exterior of the building is carefully designed. The passage from the passageway to the street consists of gentle progressions to the interior.

Shoji Screens Within traditional homes the shoji screens are predominately used to to seperate rooms instead of walls. The use of the shoji screen allows for soft naturalal light to be infused in to the home. Shoji screens are typically removable as to allow for interchangeable spatial configurations. The materiality of the screens also creates a level of transparency so spaces are not cut off and defined as a closed off area.

Engawa The Engawa acts as the transition space between the outside and internal spaces. The Japanese veranda ( engawa), which acts as a kind of transition space from inside to outside the house.

Component

Entrance There is Symbology in the entrance within Japanese architecture. This is the space where occupants would traditionall yspeak to guests in the entrance hall with neighbours letting themselves in through the shinto doors in order to develop community relationships. Tatami Traditional Homes are made up of wood and tatami mat floors. Typically house sizes are based on the size and 1/2 of these tatami mats.The balance in the space is defined by the tatami mats.

A. Top Rail B. Base Rail C. Side Frame D. Shoji Door


1.2 _ Changes in regulations due to Earthquakes

Catherine Wheater

Changes to buildings in Tokyo As cities begin to grow larger, and with more people living in smaller areas due to an increasingly population, changes to building regulations had to be made to ensure in the event of earthquakes buildings could withstand vibrations. Much of Tokyo’s evolving materiality has been shaped by the destruction and changes in building regulations of the past century. It is a key reason that areas outside of Yanesen have been unable to retain the typology that the area has. The predominant reasons for changes in regulations is due to the damage caused by earthquakes in the past. With areas being susceptible to destruction and then replaced, an over-view of the building regulations and how they have shaped architecture in the area is a key part of my technical research.

Extended Eaves

Cantilevered Beams

Shinbashira

Timber bracing

With Japan being a particularly moist country, within traditional architectural design the eaves of buildings were dramatically extended to ensure any excess water run-off . This stopped water from running off in to the soils which supported the building structure.

Cantilvered Beams were used to prop up the weight of the extended over-hangs. Builders ensure the run out was removed from underneath the walls of the structure which withstood 50% of the building’s width.

Central Pillar as a structural column of supportive weight. Though intially thought of as being the central post of structural strength on further reading the shinbashira post ( when applied within pagodas) acts a weight that actually dangles, created a tuned mass dampner effect

Timber bracing is typically applied within timber structures developing in the early 20th century, the structural strengh of the bracing system gave the loadbearing walls more structural integrity. It is often retrofitted. Bracing is attached to studs to provide lateral support to wall framing. Metal straps, timber or sheet bracing can be used for bracing, and can provide the building stability in the case of earthquake movment.

Treated Eaves Detail Description

1890 Earthquake Resistant construction regulations introduced

Due to the large nature of the eaves and the building being exposed through their eaves to fire, they were laden with heavy earthenware to prevents tinders from igniting the wooden structure underneath.

Japanese architecture techniques began studies in to more wide scale earthquake resistant construction within cities. This included the introduction of thickness of beams, re-inforced concrete and braces installed. These applications were only enforced in town areas. These attempts were made to make living more safe.

1919 The Urban Building Law & Urban Planning Law

Re- inforced concrete begins to be developed as a structure. Reinforced concrete construction is used in regions of high seismic activity. The horizontal and vertical elements are connected by rigid joints. These structures are typically cast monolithically. Reinforced frames with concrete infill walls also known as dual systems

1920 The Building Law Enforcement Regulations

20m

Ground Floor Construction

Foundation Development

Typically within the wooden houses of Japanese construction the roof of the building defines the structure of the timber frame, and the placement of the foundations to withstand this load. The elevated floor in this type of construction usually raises the building 700mm above the ground in order to avoid moisture effecting the building.

In the event of earthquakes buildings can be development so that there can be an intermittent cushioning that shares the shock of movement. Previously houses were directly connected to the ground. Early japanese buildings were building with thicker columns. In 1928 "base-isolated pillars" were proposed that included deformable membranes between the foundations and the superstructure intended to absorb the quakes energy and slow oscillations.

Introduction of the use of seismic coefficient of design. By taking into account the assumption that buildings are rigid and fixed to the ground causing stress to be applied to an inflexible material. The height of reinforced buildings was limied to 20 metres height.

Seismic co-efficient of buildings increased to 0.2 allowing for the increase in allowable stress of materials.

are

1923

1924

1945

1948

1950

Kobe Earthquake

Revision of Urban Building Law Enforcement Regulation

Mikawa Earthquake

Fukui Earthquake

Building Standard Law


1.2 _ Changes in regulations due to Earthquakes

Concrete Shear Wall

Post Construction Structuraljacketing allied to structure

Reinforced Concrete

Base isolation

Reinforced Concrete frames with concrete infill walls, also known as dual systems, are very common in earthquake-prone areas. The reinforcement of the steel rods within the structure allow flexibility and strength. For example the rods allow for ducibility whereas if the concrete were to be used alone, the material would act like chalk when subject to force. With reinforcement it bends like apaper clip. Detailing of the distribution of steel rods within a structure are developed in conherance with the seismic areas building code specifications.

base isolation -- involves floating a building above its foundation on a system of bearings, springs or padded cylinders and has become predominately more introduction within large structures. Engineers use a variety of bearing pad designs, but they often choose lead-rubber bearings, which contain a solid lead core wrapped in alternating layers of rubber and steel. The lead core makes the bearing stiff and strong in the vertical direction, while the rubber and steel bands make the bearing flexible in the horizontal direction. Bearings attach to the building and foundation via steel plates and then, when an earthquake hits, allow the foundation to move without moving the structure above it. As a result, the building’s horizontal acceleration is reduced and suffers far less deformation and damage.

Removal of Building Height Limitations. With this revision change buildings above 45 metres were required the approval of the Minister of Contruction.

Investigated the method to improve the ductility of re-inforced concrete members by lateral confining reinforcement.

45m

1963 Building Standard Law Enforcement Order

Catherine Wheater

1971 Amendments to the act for shearing reinforcement and re-inforced concrete foundations

1978

Miyagi Earthquake

Modern High-Rise construction has begun to develop buildings that withstand the impact of earthquakes. These techniques include ; Cross-bracing, Shear Walls, Shear Core, Moat & Base Isolators.

1983 : Earthquake Resistant technology introduced ensured that buildings and roads were built on top of shock absorbing rubberbearing isolators and metal dampers.

1981 New Earthquake Resistant Building Standard Amendment

1995

Kobe Earthquake

2000 Earthquake Resistant construction regulations introduced

2001 New Earthquake resistant building standard amendment

2011

Tohoku Earthquake


1.2 _ Topography

Catherine Wheater

Japan Topography

Topographical Analysis

The country of Japan geographically speaking is farely young. This is displayed in it’s turbulent geographical climate whereby it is susceptible to the conditions of the three plates in fraction with one another that places it within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Due to these geographical plates the area of Japan is a particularly mountainous region with 75% of the lands surface being covered by mountains. There are 25 mountains with peaks over 3,000 ( 9800ft) The highest of these peaks in Mt Fuji. There are 265 volcanoes with 20 remaining active.

To understand my site more in terms of geographical and environmental conditions, the topographic terrain must be analysed to understand ground condition in Japan, and specifically the area of Tokyo. The susceptibility to earthquakes and the subsequent conditions needed for buildings due to their location effects the development of my design. Japan is particularly susceptible along it’s North East coast, with the majority of it’s larger scale earthquakes taking place here. And so all major design decisions must be taken in to account to employ the best possible technical application to withstand earthquakes

North American Plate Pacific Plate

Eurasian Plate

Phillipine Sea

North American Plate

Japan Tr ench

Eurasian Plate

Location of Major Earthquakes in Japan over the Years

Metres above Sea level 1500m | 4921 ft 1000m | 3281 ft

N

ai ank

500m | 1640 ft

ch ren

T

Sean Level Phillipine Sea Plate


1.2 _ Tectonics & Ground Condition

Catherine Wheater

Tokyo Earthquakes Japan is located along the western edge of the Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic activity that rings the Pacific Ocean. Within this volatile area they experience 90% of the worlds total earthquakes and 80 percent of the worlds largest earthquakes. Due to this the risk of earthquakes has become a daily way of life within the major cities and surrounding areas. Particularly within Tokyo. Due to the location of the plates which converge at the Honshu plate lines connection, the area of Tokyo and it’s surrounding makes it susceptible to the largest earthquakes. The impact of earthquakes of all aspects of life is felt within waning systems as well as structural consideration, impacts on soils and beyond. Pre - emptive Early Warning Systems Early warning systems have been integrated in to life for the people of Tokyo. As much as earthquakes are designed for, in a city that has structures developed at different times and within different conditions warning plans and evacuation processes and neccesary. Through this people are able to gain an 80 second warning in the event of a range of earthquakes. Area is particularly prone to earthquakes.

Subduction

Japan

Pacific Ocean

In Japan the Pacific Plate is sliding under the North American Plate creating a subduction zone as the crust of Pacific Plate is subducted ( or goes under ) into the earth’s mantle. This is termed a convergent zone by geologists. Because the crust is not perfectly smooth, it will lock in place as it is subducted and then suddently released once pressure builds up and friction between the plates is over-come.

Overriding Plate

Subdu

cting P

late

It is this sudden release that created the large destructive nature of earthquakes in Japan. Earthquakes such as on March 2011, and the massive earthquake that killed 6400 people in Kobe Japan in 1995. In the case of the 2011 earthquake, scientists believe that the plates moved between 60 - 80 metres, a huge single event movement. Japan also experienced it’s largest earthquake in 1923 ( the Great Kanto Earthquake ) that killed over 140, 000 people.

Tokyo Earthquake Timeline 1923

1995

2011

The Great Kanto Earthquake

The Kobe Earthquake

The Great East Japan Earthquake

The worst earthquake in recorded history to this point saw the destruction of areas of Tokyo. The earthquake hit the Kanto Plain around Tokyo, resulted in the deaths of 100,000 people.

A strong earthquake that hit the city of Kobe and the surrounding areas. It killed 6000 people and injured 415,000.

The strongest earthquake ever recorded which triggered a huge tsaunami along the Pacific Coast of North East Japan.


1.2 _ Liquidification

Catherine Wheater

Considering Liquidification

Effects to Soil

Young Soils

As Tokyo has become increasingly susceptible to this phenomenan, an understanding of Liquidification must be researched and understood to the potential of damage and impact on an area as it is often one of the side effects of areas that are at risk of earthquake.

Liquidification is a phenomenon in which watersaturated sandy layers of earth act like liquids due to the pressure created by earthquakes. In Japan some degree of soil liquefaction is common in almost any major earthquake. It’s a phenomenon in which saturated soils, particularly recent sediments, sand, gravel or fill, can lose much of their strength and flow during an earthquake. This can allow structures to shift or sink and significantly magnify the structural damage produced by the shaking itself. In some parts of Japan there are reports of structures sinking as much as four feet, impacting not only structures but also infrastructure, sewage and drainage in some areas.

Japan has recently begun to feel the impact of liquidifcation due to the developing nature of the earthquakes. Previously structures could withstand earthquakes lengths of up to 30 seconds. As earthquakes have increased in length structures begin to shake a tilt during these periods. In areas such as Tokyo the soils are at particular risk as it is becoming clear that younger sediments, and especially areas built on recently filled ground, are much more vulnerable to changes of building thickness

The Ground Condition of soil build up impacts the risk during earthquakes and the potential for issues with liquidifcation apply within high impact areas. The conditions that come with liquidification, making soils unstable are a serious condition that must be handled and designed for in regards to the type of structures and foundations to be considered.

Normal Pressure Soft Sands can maintain strength or hardness because of friction from the grains touching, even though they are saturated with water. Changes in pressure cause liquidification. Due to the impact of the Force from an earthquake causing the water to increase in pressure This in turn, with enough pressure forces the water to break the friction in the grains and fill the space causing liquidifcation.

Ground Surface

Soil

Sediment layer

Movement Sand layers can slide causing rips in the ground surface or uneven settling of building foundations. The sand can even push up through the ground. This upward movement can cause pentration in the ground surface.

Host Sediments

Water saturated granular layer

Sand Duke ( filled fissure ) Liquidifed Sand Earthquake Waves


1.2 _ Topography

Mountain Range of Kanto

Seperation in areas of Tokyo Many people assume the area of Tokyo is confined to the area known as the City of Tokyo, but it has a much further reach than would be expected, With 4 categories of areas. The areas of Tokyo can be defined as ; ‘City of Tokyo’ ‘Tokyo Metropolis’ and the ‘Tokyo Metropolitan Area.’ The City of Tokyo is composed of 23 wards which make up the larger area of the central area of Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis is the entire region under the adminstration of the prefecture. T h e s e include the wards, the islands of tokyo, and the Tama area. The Yanesen area is within the defintion of this area. Tokyo Metropolitan Area is the larger area

Catherine Wheater

Plateau of Musashinodai The Kantō Mountain Range, also spelled Kwanto Range, Japanese Kantō-sammyaku, mountain range, on Honshu, Japan, lying to the west of the Kantō Plain. Extends 80 miles (130 km) from north to south and 50 miles (80 km) from east to west, it forms the physical division between Kantō region (chihō; east) and Chūbu region (west).

Plateau of Yamanote

Alluvial lowlands of Tokyo


1.2 _ Ground Condition | Reclaimed land

Catherine Wheater

Reclaimed Tokyo Approximately 0.5 % of Japans total area is made up of reclaimed land. Reclaiming became a practice in the 12th century. During the Tohuku Earthquake a proportion of the reclaimed land of Tokyo became damaged. As a result of reclaimed land being more susceptible to damage after an earthquake residents of the city are increasingly looking to locate on more sold ground in the centre of the city.

Reclaimed infill

1590

1620

Reclaimed land is created with landfill from waste materials, sand from dredging, soil removed from construction sites. It is not just used to create man-made islands in harbors, but is also used to make embankments in inland areas, so even some inland areas can be at risk of liquefaction.

In the edo period the main proportion of the city was placed on the verge of the plateau. The river which flowed into the bay was called Hirakawa-river.

To protect the river from floods the Hiraka-river is diverted through Kanda hill..

Diagram showing the progression of the original formation of the river to how it is seen today.

1636

Flow of Hirakawa-river changes and drys out the bay area.

The structure of great edo is established and the connection to the kanda river is completed.

1606

2009

The bay of Hibiya is filled up

The riverways are no longer a way of life for the residents of tokyo, they become needless. fragments are still visible but are beginning to become a new layer to the city.

Added Progression of Land of out in to Tokyo Bay.

Tranportation

Dredging

1592

Temporary Placement

Mixing

Added Slag Pneumatic flow

Pneumatic Barge

Grab Dredger

Pusher Boat

Energy absorber

Hopper Barge

Piston Pump

Dredged Soil Dredged Soil

Processes for Reclaimation in the removal of land

Excavator

Converter Slag

Vessel

Slag Stabilised Soil

Reclaimed Land and river progression throughout the centuries


1.2 _ Walking on Water

Catherine Wheater

Sumidagawa River Kandagawa River

Lost Rivers of the City As the City of Tokyo has evolved over the centuries the relationship between water and land has had as much to do with Tokyo as a city as the people who have created it. During the Edo period - where the center of Tokyo originated from the ‘Edo gawa’ ward as it is named today - the waterways became the main means of transport around the city and and for the transfer of goods and services. As shown in a historic painting below water as a key way of life.

The megarivers and mid-sized rivers are clearly marked on the map of Tokyo. But in the second half of the 20th century many rivers in Tokyo were infilled, diverting and moved underground and lost of maps. These river networks of Tokyo are only noticeable when studying maps of Tokyo for their traces, visiting the site and the characteristic give-aways of pre existing rivers and also through word of mouth. Tokyo is now a network of rivers some marked, some forgotten and some covered over.

Furakawa River

As the city center has evolved though and moved to the ‘Ground of modern Tokyo’, as have it’s rivers. There are many uncovered networks of moving water in tokyo. The mega-rivers you see today as the major bodies of water are the Tagaawa, Sumida, Arakaw and Edogawa rivers. Alongside small to mid size rivers and canals such as the Kanda, Meguro and Zenpukujigawa Rivers. But below the city are many uncovered, un-named and often lost water courses.

Ground of Modern Tokyo

Megurogawa River

Historic City of Edo

Signs of the Lost River

Tell Tale Signs

Signs of the lost rivers can be seen throughout the city, with emphasis on my site the existance of a previous river is shaped by the formation of houses around the site. The buildings are moulded around the winding course of the river. In other parts of tokyo tell tale signs of infilled and diverted rivers are clear through the following signs

- Often lost rivers can be identified by the characteristic of roads which would be too thin to allow for any type of car to travel down. - The sudden stopping of a route that seemed to be travelling in a direction - The raising of walk-ways along ways which use to the the old embankments of rivers.


1.2 _ Aizomegawa River

Catherine Wheater

Aizan River Tokyo

Current River

As is the case with many waterways in Tokyo It was through word of mouth and walking through the site of Yanesen that I became in interested in the area known as Snake Street or Hebi-michi street is it’s official name. The area is is the site of an old river named the Aizan River which ran through the site.

As the pre-existing river have been diverted underground in the form of a culvert, there is potential to re-surface this existing water source as part of the scheme. The culvert structure allows water flow under the path of snake street.

Through reading sources and from my experience of the site Hebi -michi street used be the passage of Aizomegawa ( the Aizan River ) The River used to used by factories within the area but has since been turned in to a culvert so the river can no longer be seen but whilst at the sight you got the sense you could hear it. The culvert work was carried out in 1921 and like the pre-existing river the flow drains in to the Ueno Park.

The culvert used to act as a water source for the residents wtihin the area, along with providing support to in the production in the factories of the area. It was used to wash away dyes for materials in particular, but within my scheme I wish to introduce my own factory in the form of paper production which uses water in the production of it’s product.

Ueno Park

Shinobazu Pond


1.2 _ De-Culverting

Catherine Wheater

Reclaiming the culvert The substructure of ‘Snake Street’ now is a culvert structure that allows water to flow under a road following the route of the old river and flowing in to Ueno Park. In the development of Yanesen I must speculate to how it was formed due to information on this old river being only mentioned in passing history references, but typically the structure which the water flows through is embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, and hardcore for soil strength.

The culvert itself may be made from a pipe or box of reinforced concrete or other material. In the United Kingdom the word can also be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse.The structure of the culvert comes in varying types. Typically these are created in the form of the single or double pipe culverts, or the box culvert. Within this report I will assume the culvert used is the boxed culvert as this is typically ised for medium sized rivers that run underground. The culvert is typically made out of re-inforced concrete.

De-culverting or Daylighting is often seen as radical move towards river restoration as the exposure to sunlight and exposure in general can develop drastic changes to the river, but it reality there is more to de-culverting that removing the ‘lid’ of the culvert. The process needs to include a degree of restoration to restore and improve the rivers structure. Physical daylighting can be expensive. There is not currently a good way of estimating the costs, as there are so many sitespecific interventions, such as contaminated land being revealed along the river banks, structural works to buildings, roads and buried sewers, and the style of deculverting required. What is clear, however, is that culvert removal is increasingly considered as a viable alternative to costly repairs of existing, ageing, and structurally poor culverts. Alongside the environmental, and cultural benefits of the process.

Process of De-culverting The activity of reclaiming the Aizan river which has been lost is known as ‘de-culverting’ or daylighting. This process looks are opening up buried water courses and restoring the bed of the river, or it’s bank and it’s running corridor to more natural conditions.

Culverted Watercourse

Soffit Lid Removal

There are a number of ways to de-culvert the Aizan river . This can be done through : Completely removing the culvert and bank reprofiling to renaturalise the watercourse Remove the ‘lid’ of the culvert

There are many beneficial aspects of uncovering the lost Aizan River, in application to my project. I wish to re-use it as a resource for the community, to bring life back to the area through the integration of it in production of washi paper, and also to be used within the community of Yanesen in residential acitivity. Alongside this though there are further benefits to the uncovering of this resource:

Soffit Lid Removal and Bank Re-grading

or Create gaps in the culvert top to provide daylight into the watercourse In application to my project I wish to remove the soffit lid and work bank regarding and bed profilling to develop the river it to a useable resource.

Benefits of Uncovering this Resource

Soffit Removal, banks re-grading and channel bed profiling.

- They can boost the ecology of the area. By depriving the water of sunlight, buried watercourses become devoid of any natural life. Exposing rivers or streams to daylight allows for the re-establishment of plant and animal life. - Drive urban regeneration in areas. The process of uncovering hidden waterways can completely transform an urban area from a quite street with little engagement to a dynamic urban space. - They can tackle pollution due to the fact that culverts often hide away the issues of water run off in to the culvert which often retains a lot of urban pollution. Through it’s uncovering issues can be monitored and dealt with quicker.


1.2 _ Reclaiming river for production

Catherine Wheater

Reclaim Exploration Through the application of the set model in keeping with the themes of the Cinematic Commons Unit I began to explore the relationship users within the area would have with the re-development of the river network as a means for production, alongside further integration in to the homes of the community. The following model looks at the testing after the opening up of the culvert in the area in the shape of which the river had previous run, and how the new river would work in relation to existing residential infrastructures and the new development of the factory production areas in the form of a new structure utilising the river beginning within the process of paper making.

Washi Paper making Washi Paper s a style of paper that was first made in Japan. This style of type of paper making is typically found and used for printing and typically used in the screens of shoji screens. Due to it’s nature and process of development means that changes in thickness can be developed depending on specification.


1.2 _ Process of Paper making & Impact

Catherine Wheater

Paper Making Paper making within Japan is a traditional process driven activity that I wish to introduce in to my site, both in the production of my own paper source in eventually developing a new community magazine to be re-distributed out to a wider public, but also as a resource for architectural details in the development of larger scale shoji paper doors and wall paper. Paper can be developed from a number of materials with bamboo, hemp, rice or wheat be alternatives and potential resources for my product which can be filtered in to the scheme. in the residential areas .

Mulberry Plant (Kozo) is the primary material for Washi and grows up to 10 feet during it’s annual harvest. The Bark of the Kozo is made up of three layers of bark. The black outer layer, the middle green layer and the white inner layer. Some paper making techniques take all the bark layers, but mostly stick with white.

To understand the neccesary requirements for the factory site, the process of paper making must be understood in depth to outline it’s programmatic requirements alongside any environment conditions neccesary for its succesful development. The following diagrams show the process of washi paper making from growing the product through to it’s use in production.

Cultivating bushes for raw material. The harvesting of material generally takes place between the November to Febuary.

Growth of Product Currently I will be growing Kozo Mulbbery ias it farmed cropped and developed regularly so is not seen a resource which is suffering to make product for paper. It is the most widely used fibre, and the strongest. The use of the product in shoji screeens is seen as more desirable due to it’s strength.

The Harvest

Stripping the Bark

Drying Hundreds of paper are staced and pressed gradually overnight to remove excess water. The paper is then separated and one by one placed on drying boards and taken out into the sun. The sun and wind will dry and bleach the paper, making an impressive sight on a fine day.

Press and Seperation

Sheet Making

The Screen and layers of sheets are removed from the mould and held in posts to hold the newly formed papers. The sheets are left overnight to drain and then layered and press in to already existing paper until approximately 30% of moisture is removed.

Pulps of Kozo and Neri are mixed together through the sifting of water. In a bamboo screen the mixture is moved back and forth across a mold to form the sheet. As the fibers settle the steps are repeated over again to till the desired thickness is achieved. The overhead suspension system counterbalances the weight of the pulp mixture on the screens surface.

The next step is the removal of the black outer layer from the strips of bark. The softened bark is carefully stepped on in water and rubbed between the feet to remove the loosened black bark without damaging he fibers. Then the green layer is carefully scraped away with a knife. The natural whiteness of the paper is determined by how much of the green layer is removed. The now cleaned white bark (shirokawa) is dried in a cool, shaded area until ready for further processing.

Bleaching in the River The light bark is then placed in the shallow waters of a clean running river to wash away all impurities, at the same time bleaching of the Kozo bark occurs in direct sunlight giving it a natural white color.

Double cropping ; paddy, rice dominant with wheat and barley as dry crops. Single cropping ; paddy rice. Single cropping ; chiefly wheat, barley and oats Forest limit of winter crops in paddy fields.


1.3 _ Programme Analysis

Catherine Wheater

Programme Within my design thesis I aim to develop an urban strategy with interventions that compliment one another whilst taking in to account the driving force of the project which is the sharing, and projection of memory in a physical manifestation in activities and moments that can be distributed between the sights. As the community is used as the basis of design through stories and vernacular knowledge of the area the spaces aim to be living memory experiences that feed in to one another in a critique of preservation which re-engages the community and could be developed as a prototype for the lessons to apply in other areas of Tokyo.

Memory Museum

Memory in the Community

Memory Factory

The Museum space aims to be an area designed to have all aspects of the site feed in to this area. The ‘Museum’ is the product or protoype of the communtiy or residents, architectural details and vernacular practices applied within the design of the building. The space will be interchangeable - a transition space- both metaphorically and physically. The space will aim to emulate characteristics of community activities tested within the neighbourhood.

The residential area will develop through using the neighbourhood, taking over parts of existing buildings, whilst using the reclaimation of the river to infiltrate daily routines of the neighbourhood. The space will connect the community to the wider context of the city and further towards tourists who may visit the space. Allowing them to experience the routines in the way of life of people within the area. The series of workshops along this area will make use of the paper production from the factory site

The Factory are makes use of the reclaiming of the Aizan river. Using traditional paper making techniques to bring alive the original function of the river within the area ,the memory factory works to develop a space which uses the production of paper within the area to continue the traditional development of architectural details, providing a resource for the community to continue to grow and to be spread through the neighbourhood.

Connected through the river


Catherine Wheater

1.3 _ Museum Programme Analysis

Entrance Collection

Public Auditorium

Exhibit Space

Description : Requirement of space is to provide an intial communal entrance space for users which will acts as the area of congragation on arrival to the Museum Community Centre.

Description : Auditorium open space potentially combined with Entrance to the building. The area will have varying users acting as an unofficial gathering space but during the evenings or at specific times the area will be used of lectures of talks given by the community or external speakers. The Periods of people remaining within the space will therefore remain between 1-3 hours aswell as transitional space.

Description : The Exhibit space will be interchangeable with the exhibit being part of the structure of the building at times, as well as housing artefacts of history and community work within the space.

Environmental Requirements : Ventiliation considerations are to be designed to take in to account for the number of users within the space to enjoy a comfortable environment. Heating to be maintained at a moderate level and prone to fluctuations considering the amount of people within the space at interchanging times. Considerations in lighting to take in to account it’s constant use when building is open. The building will utilise natural lighting during the summer, but will make use of it’s power resources in the summer months,

Environmental Requirements : Due to the long periods people will be spending within the space and also regarding the higher volumnes of people the space should account for these changes in fluctuations and encourage concentration over longer periods. There ventiliation systems will be utilise and solar enhancement of shading will be utilised depending on different times of the day.

Environmental Requirements : Cool to Moderate temperatures within the exhibit space to avoid damage to the exhibits. Artifical Ventiliation to be provided in order to reduce damage to objects through natural ventilation processes. Also when parts of the exhibit structure are being adapted temperatures should remain cool for those working within the space. Artificial Lighting to be utilised for specific artefacts, though natural lighting will be utilised for the proportion of the exhibitions viewing.

Occupants :200 Activity : Constant Lux : 200

Occupants : 200 Activity : Constant but varying Lux : 200 - 300

Occupants : 200 Activity : Dependant on Exhibits Lux : 300

Archive

Dis/Assembly Area

Meeting/ Social Rooms

Description : Storage of aged material from the neighbourhood. Material that has already been collected includes aged pottery, timber structures and interview notes that editors of the Yanesen Magazine collected in the form of stories. The space will also become a storage area of new artefacts as this collection system comes back in to motion with the building as a catalyst of re-engagement.

Description : The areas is required for the change of of exhibit space and structures integrated within the exhibit space, whether this by smaller scale exhibits or change in parts of the building structure to accomodate newer artefacts or exhibitis to be integrated it to the building

Description : The area must be confortable for groups of 5 - 10 people who wish to undertake private meetings or discussion of sensitive issues regarding the community.

Environmental Requirements : Controlled temperature and ventilation systems in in accordance with new and old objects of varying materiality in storage.

Environment Requirements : Due to Physical activity taken place the temperatures to be controlled through natural ventilation depending on physical exercision and user requirements. Lighting to remain constant to adhieve varying level of skill-set tasks.

Occupants : 4 -5 Activity : Minimal Lux : 150

Occupants : 10-20 Activity Dependant on Exhibits Lux : 500

Environmental Requirements : Moderate temperature to be achieved. Use of Nature Ventilation to be adjusted to suit smaller user groups needs.

Occupant : 5- 10 Activity : Varying Lux : 300


1.3 _ Community Programme Analysis

Catherine Wheater

Resident Interviews

Story Collection Point

Dis/Assembly Area

Description : Space where users can record their stories from the area, or talking about any issues they are having within the community, a space to interact with users, and guests in an open environment.

Description : The point at which any artefacts of stories can be attached within the sight to be send onwards to the ‘museum’ space. Yet to design the architecture for this but envisioning some sort of pulley system or way that objects can to transported around the site

Description : The areas is required for the change of space and structures integrated within the neighbourhood.

Environmental Requirements :Ventiliation considerations accounting for the number of users within the space to enjoy a comfortable environment. Heating to be maintained at a moderate level and prone to fluctuations considering the amount of people within the space at interchanging times. Space is making use of existing structures so should compliment the vernacular architecture in the existing. Occupants : 2-3 Activity : Moderate Lux : 300

Environmental Conditions : The external areas will be subject to conditions outside as the collection points will be along the residential areas of the site whereby the area of reasonably sheltered from the elements the conditions within the space will be subject to the natural environment. Occupants : 1-3 Activity : Moderate Lux : 300

Environment Requirements : Due to Physical activity taken place the temperatures to be controlled through natural ventilation depending on physical exercision and user requirements. Lighting to remain constant to adhieve varying level of skill-set tasks within the space.

Occupants : 5 Activity : Dependant on scale of project Lux : 500

Workshops

Book and Magazine Shop

Description : Space will be required to utilise the product of paper used in the paper production site. The areas of workshops will have different functions. Workshops will house the production of shoji screens, wall paper painting, and printing. It will also act as headquarts for writing new material for the new addition of the Yanesen Magazine

Description : This space will act as the distribution point of the new magazine aswell as becoming a point along the Book Street festival activities which I researched were becoming to develop within the site.

Environmental Requirements :Ventiliation considerations accounting for the number of users within the space to enjoy a comfortable environment for the browsing of books, good lighting to be able to read through material before purchase is neccesary in the space’s design.

Environmental Requirements :Due to the space being used in physical activities in the production of final products the space must take in to account a moderate heating levels which will be applied within the spaces that are taken over from existing buildings. Due to the small nature of the buildings and taking into accoutn existing form, artifical lighting will be added to the spaces which were previously lit for domestic use. Occupants : 5- 10 Activity : High Levels Lux : 500

Occupants : 10-20 Activity : Moderate Lux : 500

Acoomodation

Communal Food Preparation

Description : The space will be the integration of new occupants, residents and visitors which allow everyone to experience living within the neighbourhood.

Communal House Hold

Description : To understand the spatial requirements of the proposition. An understanding of the room requirements within each space is neccesary to begin designing and positioning of spaces within the parameters of the commuEnvironment Requirements : The sizes of a nity museum space. number of common items of living room furniture are given in the ergonomics section and Environmental Requirements : Natural Ventiliwill provide the basis for the sizing given within ation to be employed in cooking areas to ensure the room. over-heating does not occur. Natural light with the additio of artificial in the event of preparing materials for cooking.

Description : The area must be confortable for the number of people within the neighbourhood at any given time, the river at the front of the houses will be accessed along the route and integrated in to some areas of the home

Occupants : 10 - 20 Activity : Space occupied at night Lux : 300

Occupants : 5- 10 people Activity : Moderate Lux : 300

Occupants : 50 people Activity : Moderate Lux : 300

Environmental Requirements Provide a clean environment for cooking as well as ensure adequate heating and ventilation in utilised at all times given the heating activities taking place.


1.3 _ Factory Programme Analysis

Growth

Sapling Growth Laboratories

Mulberry Tree Plantation

Description : Before Mulberry Plants can be placed in the external environment of the the site, up until they grow a stem the plants will be tended for in the sapling laboratories. The spaces will provide an extra layer to the building and utilise the solar gains it will recieve. my anticipation is that this area will be a part of the structure of the building.

Description : Area for plantation is situated away for the building as mulberrie trees have shallow, aggressively spreading root systems, so plant the trees away from sidewalks, driveways and buildings to ensure they don’t effect the foundations of the building.

Harvesting Area

Allotment

Description : The Mulberry harvesting area of the project aims to be the space where product is filtered and processed for use. The space will allow for the implementation of tools and areas to strip and tend to the crop of the Mulberry plant. The harvesting time of the crop is between December and Febuary and takes Environmental Requirements : Environmental place once the bare crop of the mulberry reconditions of the growth of Mulberry tree once mains and leaves have fallen from the plant they are re-appropriated is that they prefer full sun and rich soil but will tolerate part shade Environmental Requirements: The harvesting and a variety of soils conditions area of the site has to remain dry to take in to account for the onwards storage of the materials. Occupants : 200 people Activity : Light to moderate gardening Occupants : 30- 50 Lux : dependant on natural site conditions on Activity : Physical exertion site Lux : 300

Description : This area of the site will become a more open space with the use of redundant space for plantation of trees, given the communal aspect of the design the potential to grow other plant life within the space developing community gardens and edible products from and within the space.

Drying Area

Paper Production Area

Material Store

Steam Area

Description : The space is for drying of the product. It could potentially become part of the building in the layering of it’s drying proximity of the paper created in the paper making process. However space will have to be made for the drying of washi paper in the production process as an addition space as well as part of the building fabric.

Description : The process of washi paper making is very labour intensive for the user. The paper production area must facilitate the overhead systems of the paper making tray with sive the paper in the process of layering up to the product.

Description: The space will be for the storage of bark that is has been cultivated from the harvest and not being used in the paper production process yet.

Description : The space is for the use of steaming the bark so that it is more easy to strip

Environmental Requirements : Ventiliation considerations accounting for the number of users within the space to enjoy a comfortable environment. Space to achieve de-hudification Occupants : 20-30 Activity : Minimal, light work Lux Levels : 300

Production

Catherine Wheater

Environmental Requirements : Natural Ventilation in the area utilising the cross winds of the site. Position of the Washi Paper will take in to account how wind will effect the site.

Occupants : 10 Activity : Attachment of material to the structure to allow for nature drying of materials. Lux Levels : 300

Environmental Requirements :The space must remain dry and at a moderate temperature at a Environmental Requirements : The space consistent level makes use of the water that runs through the site. In the process of washi paper making the water must remain cool to stop bacteria from being introduced in the paper process. Reed filtration systems will ensure the water in kept clean throughout the process. Occupants : 5 people Occupants : 10 - 20 people Activity : Limited as it is an area of storage only Activity : Physical exertion using natural cross considered when people are moving in and winds out of the space Lux Levels : 300 Lux Levels : 50

Environmental Requirements : Requirements of the space are dependant on environmental paramaters and consideration of vegetables and plants to be within the space. Occupants : 200 people Activity : Physical exertion Lux : Dependant on natural site conditions on the site.

Requirements : the development of a natural steam room will be utlised through the solar gains of the site and the choice of the space of the programme to utilise water from the space connected with solar gains.

Occupants : 5- 10 people Activity : Heated moisture space Lux levels : 200


1.3 _ Ergonomics

Catherine Wheater

Specific Ergonomics of Space Within my design and programme requirements their are a number of of ergonomic spatially key to the projects design and the particular activitys that take place there. With consultation of the metric handbook I will use these to gain a knowledge of these general requirements in community areas, cooking and general public spaces. I wish to focus on key parts of my design to show how these requirements are important within my project

Key Spaces General Requirements Within my design a general consideration for comfortable working heights ensure that all activities take place without damage to the user, the following diagram shows general comfortable working heights for users within a space. Particularly within areas such as the gardening space the user needs to have a workable allowance around them within the space.

Mulberry Tree Planting Area and community allotment applicable to working height standards.

Residential Preparation Activities

Paper Production In the areas of paper production consideration of working heights must be considered in the development of these spaces to ensure appropriate working conditions for the user particulary given the physical nature of activity. Support will be given by the structures used to follow the paper sifting equipment.

In the residential areas consideration of communal activities must be taken in to consideration such as the preparation of food to include working heights of spaces and particualry with users utilising the river and have to move and bend over in to this space. Consideration of this movement within space for areas in between the residential houses and the river allow for safe movement. These are highlighted in the above and below diagrams and will be utilised in the design of these spaces.


Catherine Wheater

2.0 Chapter | Precedent Analysis


Catherine Wheater

2.1 _ Precedent Theory

Eco Veil

Tamedia Office Building

Nest We Grow

Kengo Kuma

Shigeru Ban

Kengo Kuma

Tokyo

Switzerland

California

Layered Facade

Structural Components

Layered Environments

Earth House BCHO Architects Seoul Underground Structure and Geothermal Properties.

Vernacular Behaviours / Techniques


2.1 _ Precedent Analysis

Catherine Wheater

Eco Veil | Kengo Kuma Taking inspiration from the vernacular architecture of traditional Japanese architecture but applied within a modern environment Kengo kumas eco veil became a key precedent for it’s environmental application .Within typical Japanese timber buildings the plan of the building was based around the technique of layering spaces through the traditional room layouts and the use of screens to seperate and open up spaces. It is these principles that I wish to adapt in my own work, in forced behaviours but also technically in the buildings structural and environmental components.

Layered Materiality

Louver Outer Skin

The project looks towards a Co-existance of using traditional techniques to introduce nature in to the fabric of the building, allowing it work more environmentally efficiently, along with supporting materials to enhance the environmental conditions on the interior.

Inner Skin SUN RAYS Outer Skin

Inner Skin Water Pipe

The layered facade is made up of different components and is designed to work like the leaves of a tree. Solar panels, recycled wood, window blinds and spaces for plants are used equally to layer the exterior. “ The facade creates protecThrough using the Eco Veil by Kengo Kuma as tion for the glare of the sun whilst ensuring the a precedent I have begun to understand how building is still able to make use of the natural the lessons of traditional japanese architec- light it provides. tural can be applied in a more detailed sense in the case of the facade and potentially been adapted in to my environmental strategy. The exaduration of spaces allows for these areas to be used in the growing of plant life, the movement of environmental systems on the surface of the buildings development as wells as for solar shading and ventilation

50%

Office Space

Photovoltaics 20%

Fin EVAPORATION

In between area

Space for Plants

Recycled wood window blinds

Office Space

Solar Photovoltaic Panels Moss Planting Device

Benefits of the layered Facade The layered facade or double skinned properties create a system that consists of typically two or more skins ( this is done through the plants, blinds and solar panels.) The benefit is that they are often placed in a way that air flows between the immediate cavity usually utilising the use of natural ventiliation methods to move air between spaces, forcing the movement of air within the space, an application to be used within my own system as a way of shaping the direction of ventilation through my buildings. Within the eco veil the facade system receives sunshine and photosynthesizes, shuts off rain and wind, creates gentle lighting and changes the face of the building season to season. The benefits of the shading devices and plant systems within this space ensure the air moving throughout the building is cool as well and pure, creating a facade that works with the need and comfort of the user. This layering in the buildings facade alsos for environmental as well as practical and it can be changed to increase lighting or shut of the impact of rain and wind, creating a barrier when neccesary to the outside elements.


2.1 _ Precedent Analysis

Tamedia Office Building Shigeru Ban as an architect believes in creating architecture which responds to it’s environment, and brings materiality in terms of the most appropriate resource method depending on the site or the building’s intention. As the Tamedia Office is built and based in Switzerland - where Shigeru believes the best timber construction is developed- he saw the use of timber construction within this project as the most appropriate outcome. The timber due to it’s ease and sustainability seemed like the most appropriate construction method due to these advantages of the material.

Material Analysis Within my own building the structured frame of my proposal could act as the super structure for the project. The timber main structural system is the great innovation of the project. The structural elements of the structure in their exposed nature gives a special character and high quality spatially to the building. The main structural detail that you are drawn to within the building is the beauty in the joint system in the construction Joint Construction Within the building frames all the joints consist of the same material. The wood splices which usually are made out of metal, are created from wood giving the project almost as a feeling of it being put together by hand. This emphasises further the craftmanship in the beauty of the building. With the building remaining glazed glazed externall it shows the detail of the buildings structure to the people on the outside aswell as internally, creating a readable building.

Catherine Wheater


2.1 _ Materiality Precendent

Catherine Wheater

Nest we Grow Structural Benefits I was drawn to Kengo Kuma’s nest we grow due to the social functions that it seemed to - Structural Composite Timber Core : Designed encourage in its design in the centre of the the around the principle of larch forests and how building and how everything formed around they were used by communities to hang out it’s structural core. food from tree, the internal structures core is based around the use of composite columns The open public structure, developed to bring of timber, through which all the weight of the the community together within the area. The building and the changing loads from live loads idea that the architecture is fed by the comto environmental conditions and routine. munity in terms of the layout and encourageIt becomes the main super structure. ment of community gathering through it’s plan drew parralels within the thought process of -Moveable Facade : The facade system that is my design. This centralisation from which eveattached to the timber structure acts as an enrything hangs both structural and socially. vironmental regulator. With parts of the facade being moveable depending on the environmental, and ventilation being wished to be utilised within the space. .

1

-Protective Rammed Earth Base Wall : Through the use of the rammed earth wall at the buildings base the building is protected for prevailing winds.

2

-Corrugated sheets : By using these on the facade and roof, it allows light in for the plants and heating of the space in the colder winter months.

Key

3

1. Central Cooking Space 2. Rammed Earth Walls 3 Composite Timber Columns from which the structural integrating of the building is based.

Environmental Considerations The use of the rammed earth wall creats a shelter for the building from prevailing winds whilst all providing integration of thermal mass to be utlised within the building. The sliding panels of the facade are used to facilitate the movement of air. It emulates the use of the shoji screens in design to partision spaces in an adaptable architectural form. As the tea platform is moveable in the space during the cooler moves it moves within the space to transfer hot air around the sight.


2.1 _ Precedent Analysis

Catherine Wheater

Earth House by BCHO Architects The earth house developed by BCHO Architects is an example of an architecture that aims to blur the lines of nature and humans, through it’s materiality as well as it’s sunken form within the landscape and utilising the properties that the nature environment can offer, both in terms of materiality but the environmental conditions that can be utilised through particular systems which in term will power spaces.. The building was developed to become a ‘house of the sky’ and based upon the work of a Korean poet who commented on the ‘stars and sky,;

Benefits of the Geothermal Grid Sytem Geothermal Grid system in the integration of the building. is used to transfer heat to and from the ground, and this geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump that can be used in the ventilation systems through the site as well as in the cool system of the building at varying times.

Structural

Applied Benefits

An 14 x 17m concrete box is buried in the ground with two earth filled courtyards which are open to the elements above. The pressure of the excavated earth in to the landscape around the structure of the building is resisted by a thick concrete retaining wall. Rammed earth walls developed from the excavation of the site provide all the interior spatial divisions within the space. There is also a hidden steel column in the center wall that reinforced the structural plates.

The techniques used within the earth house interest me due to : -Structural the retaining walls and integration of rammed earth from waste product in the buildings internal build up and the impacts on the interior spaces as a result of this. -A combination of passive cooling and geothermal tubes which are buried in the earth around the buildings keep the temperature cool in summer and warm in winter.

- The use of geothermal as as an energy sources within a sensitive space to be retained and used as different times or functions of the building as it changes.


2.1 _ Materiality Precendent

Catherine Wheater

Traditional Practices The following examples comments of behavioral precedents or rather ideas I wish to apply within my design. Though they are not technical in their application at this stage I do wish to implement them within my design somehow due to their charactertics in keeping with the approaches to certain details whether as a social function, or a behavioural practice

The Village of Living | Water Kabarta As I am looking to developing a system that re-awakens the network of water within my site as a means of production, in the making of paper and also in as a way of reconnecting residents within the neighbourhood to interact with one another. I found the practice of Kabarta a way of also using water to open upon home fronts, and create openings in to the private lifeas the area is still also highly populated by residential houses I became particularly interested in the traditional process Kintsugi The practice of Kintsugi is seen as the ‘art of broken pieces.’ It is a method for repairing broken ceramics through the application of special laquer mixed with gold, silver or paltinum. The Philosophy behind the technique is to recognize the history of the object and to visibibly incorporate the repair into the new piece of work rather than disguising it, making it an integral part of the objects history. If i could find a technique in building construction which emulates this characteristic as I wish to re-apply it back within the design of my buidling,

of the intergration of nature in a process more intune with it’s envronment. More a social precedent than technical the integration of another life system in to the balanced relationship Japan has with nature. The introduction of karp to the water system could help reduce any excess waste within the are


Catherine Wheater

3.0 Chapter | Building Description


Catherine Wheater

3.0 _ Strategy 1.

2.

The Strategy The project aims to be a the integrated of 3 main sites in a disovering of the neighbourhood. Through the use of the reclaimed river that runs under snake street currently, the sites feed in to eachother through the develop of the river and from this the production of paper integrated throughout the community. From this the river and it’s developed workshops and integration in the neighbourhood will act as the testing ground for the larger site of the ‘Memory Museum’ which will be an interchangeable space testing out different architectural community characteristics whilst providing the hub of the centre of Yanesen becoming the area for discussion of issues and display of key arfefacts from the past.

3.

Memory Museum Prototype Typology

Memory Factory Typology

Community Integration

3.

2.

1.


3.0 _ Memory Museum Prototype

Catherine Wheater

7.

1. 8. 5.

6. 4. 3.

2.

Below Ground

Programme Key 01.Exhibition Space 02. Archives 03. Material Storage 04. Central Entrance 05. Auditorium 06. Arfefact drop - off 07. Dis-assembly 08. Moving Meeting / Conversation Rooms


3.0 _ Memory Neighbourhood

Catherine Wheater

Programme Key 01.Resident Interviews 02. Story Collection 03. Dis/Assembly area 04. Book / Magazine Shop 05. Communal Area 06. Food preparation 07. Accomodation 08. Production Workshops.

8.

8.

7.

4.

3.

5.

6.

2. 1.


3.0 _ Memory ‘Factory’ Production

Catherine Wheater

6.

5.

4.

3.

7.

2.

2. 8.

1.

Programme Key 01. Washi Paper Process Area 02. Harvesting Tunnel 03. Community 04. Sapling Growth Laboratories 05. Mulberry Tree Plantation 06. Community Allotments 07 Steam Room 08. Drying Area


Catherine Wheater

4.0 Chapter | Environmental


4.0 _ Memory ‘Factory’

Catherine Wheater

Key Activities 01 Sapling Laboratories Green House Through optimising the technique of layering throughout the building, areas can be utilised environmentally such as in the case in the development of the memory factory area. The central community workings spaces at it’s core can be added to become a function in itself by developing the spaces of the sapling laboratories in an extension of it’s facade. These areas can be designed to make use of natural heating and ventilation in the cross flow and retenion of solar heat sources in the growth of the plant. Whilst improving the internal conditions of the central internal space.

Environmental Strategy.

Ventilation

Power of Photovoltaics

Water

The Laboratories make use of the natural sunshine and the re-tension of heat storing techniques to aid in the continued growth of sapling samples. The Air must be clear of contaminant which will be ensure though cross ventilation This also reduces humidifcation of the space and the cleaning of the air can improve the internal environments of the factory space.

In the Summer the strategy will focus on the cross ventilation of the building through pressure differences within the building, this will also aid the cooling of the paper making area dependant on winds to avoid the growth of bacteria within the production process. Within the winter the strategyis focused on the heat recyling with limited to around 20% overall air cycle incoming fresh air. In addition the indoor air is purified and humidified by the green house effect of the laboratory space.

Through the direction of the sun as it positions itself around the site the use of photovoltaics on the angled roof of the structure will make use of the easterly rising sun throughout the day and retaining this as an energy source, whilst the plants will not be exposed to the direct glare of the sunlight until after lunchtime when temperatures will decrease and be a more comfortable environment for plant life to grow.

Water will be used within the in the sapling growth areas and further in the community allotments and mulberry growing areas making use of the natural resources of the river. The activities within these growth sites will make sure of the natual grey water running through the site.

Key Activities 02 Paper Production Platforms

Retained Rammed Earth Wall

The space will make minimal use of artifical lighting and ventilation, given it’s position and the utilisation of cross winds. As all processes taking place are hand and human powered the sight will make use of the natural sources of light through it’s photovoltaics as an energy resource.

The retaining rammed earth wall of the river allows for thermal heat sources to be caught with the energy of the earth wall, and slowly realised ensuring that temperatures are kept at a moderate temperature and not prone to flunctuations of dramatic increases in the heat which can effect the production process of washi paper making.

The main function of the space is to ensure that workers are within a comfortable environment given the manual nature of tasks. This is done through the use of NNW AND NNE cross ventilation winds to ensure users are kept cool and ensure the paper produced is able to dry.

Key Artificial Ventiliation Artificial Lighting Natural Ventilation Water Natural Lighting Acoustics Photovoltaics Geothermal


4.0 _ Memory Museum

Catherine Wheater

Key Activities 02 Museum Dis/Assembly Through optimising the technique of layering throughout the building, areas can be utilised environmentally such as in the case in the development of the memory factory area the central community spaces at it’s core can be added by the paper production and the sapling laboratories in an extension of it’s facade. These areas can be designed to make use of natural heating and ventilation in the cross flow and retenion of solar heat sources.

Ventilation

Photovoltaics

Natural Ventiliation is to be promoted through the changing nature of the facade. The designed will develop a system to create moveable components within it, emulating the characteristcis from Kengo Kuma’s Nest we grow where by in the warmer summer months the changes in pressure of the space will make use of the prevailing winds resource.

Photovoltaics are to in an integrated in to the panels on the exterior, to be utilsed as a source of energy for areas such as the cafe area were food will be prepared along with illuminating the exhibit space when it is on display and for particular spatial functions. Due to the large surface area of the panels the potential to retain power for solar energy to be utilised in other parts of the neighbourhood could potential be another stage of energy use. This energy will be stored and retained within the central plant room of the space.

Rammed Earth Within the construction of my build the use of rammed earth as the base layer to my construction has been chosen for it’s varying properties for areas of my programme which must be controlled at a moderate level such as int he archive spaces of the museum Rammed earth behaves as heavyweight masonry with a high thermal mass. Thermal mass absorbs or ‘slows down’ the passage of heat through a material and then releases that heat slowly either over night or over the course of the day.

Key

Retaining Rammed Earth Wall also ensures that the potential for cross winds to effect the lower spaces where sensitive objects are kept is removed, and this areas are kept at an average temperature over the course of the 24 hours.

Artificial Ventiliation Artificial Lighting Natural Ventilation Water Natural Lighting Acoustics Photovoltaics Geothermal

Accoustic Screens

Geothermal Grid System

Due to the large open conversational nature of the space I wish to make use of movetable acoustic screens to ensure that the travel of sound is retained within particular areas. Such as when a large lecture is taking place, these screens can be lowered so are to reduce the spread of sound to other areas, or interupt other activites happening on or around the site.

Due to the nature of the site, and excavation in to the ground that will take place in th development of the archive space, the use of a geothermal grid system worked in to this excavation seems an appropriate reponse to retaining extra heating sources within the space In the even of using the sources to heat when neceesary in the spaces above as they may suffere cooling from the changes within the space.

Plant Room


4.0 _ Water Purification

Catherine Wheater

Key Activities Water Purification for the Neighbourhood With the river being reclaimed underneath the site through the reclaimation of the culvert that flows underneath, the river will be used for the production of paper primarily. Though this process is natural and free of any additives within the water as the river progresses to be used within the home, a process of purification must take place to ensure it is usual in activities

Water Purification Strategy

Functionality

As water will be used for general washing and potentially within use within the home potentially cooking I began analysing ways of improving the water condition within the area.

Vertical flow reed beds require a fall of at least 1.5 metres to provide good treatment, and about 2 square metres per person served, with the necessary size per person reducing for as the number of people increases. A horizontal flow bed requires about 1 square metre per person (but a minimum of 6 square metres). Reedbed maintenance is basic; just ensure that they are functioning effectively and keep reeds and other plants in check.

Inlet from primary source

Reed beds will not treat any type of sewage treatment, but this strategy is not applied that purpose, but rather for washing and domestic activities within the home. Reed beds are aquatic plant based systems which allow bacteria, fungi and algae to digest any large contaminents in the area and clean the water. There are two types of reed beds, either vertical flow and horizontal flow. The best system results in a combination of the two. With two vertical flow reeds beds, one will operate and one will rest. They operate aurobically with oxygen and break down the pollutants. A way of regulating the maintenance of the system procedure is to swap from one to another. The maintenance of this is every two weeks which will be the responsibility of the users throughout the site.

Reeds

Purification

Sand and Gravel Matrix

Through this process clean water will be harnessed in the factory production and grey water facilities in the home and workshops such as water systems, irrigating and upkeeping the plant life in the factory area but a further step of purifcation will need to take place if the water is to be used in homes for other uses such as for drinking.


Catherine Wheater

5.0 Chapter | Material and Structural


5.0 _ Principles in Earthquake design

Principles of Design

Test in Failures of Design

Within the development of my design, a major impact on all design decisions is shaped by the principles of earthquake design. By outlining the problems faced due to earthquake then solutions can be found in my investigation of technical details in relation to foundations, structure etc. The following section will outline the considerations and general principles to be adhered to on developing my design in the early stages in terms of layout

The following diagrams show the failures which occur in the simulation of seismic movements if rules are not applied within the design of my new buildings, this particularly applies to the addition spaces that I will be making when I take over parts of the neighbour, either through completely new design, but also through retrofitting and repairing areas of the neighbourhood to make they physical compliable :

The quality of Earthquake design can be deduced in the following formula of

-Lintels can disatabilize the walls if they are not long enough

Structual Quality = Resistance and Ductility.

-The wall between window and door must be long enough otherwise they will fall away from the structure

Catherine Wheater

10.

9.

1. 4.

2.

6. 4.

7. 5.

8. 1. Ring Beam is lacking 2. Lintel does not reach deeply in to structure 3. The distance between door and window is too small 4. The distance between openings and wall corner is too small. 5. Plinth is lacking 6. The window is too wide in proportion to its height. 7. The wall is too think in relation to height 8.The quality of the mortar is too poor, the vertical joints are not totally filled, the horizontal joints are too thick 9. The roof is too heavy 10. The roof is not sufficiently fixed to the wall.

-Without a ring beam the wall will suffer from perpendicular loads in an earthquake.

Seismic Design Factors impacting buildings : Issues to design out

Bad

Good

Ideal 1.

Torsion

2.

Objects and buildings have a center of mass, a point by which the object (building) can be balanced without rotation occurring. If the mass is uniformly distributed then the geometric center of the floor and the center of mass may coincide. Symmetric arrnagement of masses result in balanced stiffness and reduce Torsion 4.

The diagrams above show the layouts which basic design in earthquake areas must adhere to if they are not to suffer for avoidable structure faults within the building.

Building Configuration This term defines a building’s size and shape, and structural and nonstructural elements. Building configuration determines the way seismic forces are distributed within the structure, their relative magnitude, and problematic design concerns.

Damping Buildings in general are poor resonators to dynamic shock and dissipate vibration by absorbing it. Damping is a rate at which natural vibration is absorbed. Mass Dampners are often employed within buildings to reduce the ocillation motion that can a buildings structure / fabric.

5.

Strength and Stiffness Strength is the ability of the material to resist and bear applied forces within a safe limit. Stiffness of a material is a degree of resistance to deflection or drift (drift being a horizontal storyto-story relative displacement).

3.

Ductility Ductility is the characteristic of a material (such as steel) to bend, flex, or move, but fails only after considerable deformation has occurred. Non-ductile materials (such as poorly reinforced concrete) fail abruptly by crumbling. Good ductility can be achieved with carefully detailed joints. Materials such as timber have great ductility in it’s flexibility.


5.0 _ Foundation

Catherine Wheater

Foundations

Foundations Analysis

Anaylse of foundation types at this stage are integral to the the longevity of the building and so will be undertaken in the following diagrams.Within Japan with it’s susceptibility for earthquakes the analysis of foundation types and application is integral to the developing design of the building. Foundations that are at least risk of Earthquake provide the best possibilities of safe-guarding a buildings collapse as it is from the foundations that buildings retain their strengh, and transfer the submittance of loads ( dead, live and otherwise ). Foundations are provided to transmit the load of the superstructure to the underlying soil.

With Glu-lam Timber being selected at the preferential superstructure due to it’s outlined benefits in an improvement of tradition timber flexibility and strength ( as outlined in the next section) , the design of the foundations can take place to compliment their ability to with stand issues in regards to forces applied by issues like liquidification and earthquakes. Glu lam frames already offer the flexibiility in their connection to the slab, but the connection from the slab in the form of the foundations is the most important part.. In the following section I will highlight the points at which the flexibility in my structure

Strip and Pile foundations are the typically used in earthquake zones. They both provide structural integrity to the building, but they differ in application depending on materiality or height of the building. Strip foundations: where used in traditional timber houses as they acted as the direct transmittance of load through which the typically load bearing walls were transferred. Pile Foundations : Provide great tension capacity when driven in to bedrorck Base Isolation Many problems develop with a buildings durability during earthquakes due to it’s lack of flexibility. This lack of flexibility is acutely felt at the base of the building. The use of base isolators prevent the building from absorbing the shock of the earthquake rather than the superstructure. The structural bearing technique is one of those tools to reduce the lateral displacement of the building, to increase the structural safety, and to increase the human comfort during the occurrence of such an event. The addition of base isolation adds an additional benefit in the application of the foundations, as the majority of the movement is felt and absorbed through these rubber dampners that in essence act as transferrable springs for the building.

Strip Foundation

Pile Foundation

Strip foundations consist of a continuous strip, usually of concrete, formed centrally under load bearing walls. They were typically adopted in timber framed buildings.

Pile foundations offer stability in changing ground conditions. With the areas tendancy towards instability in it’s soil, through earthquakes, liquidification, and the changing condition of the site through the reclaim of Aizan River the pile foundation seems the most appropriate within this application. The only issue is the removal of earth to constructed them, but with areas of the site already undertaking excavation for the river this isn’t a completely new task. Also excavation can provide the material for rammed earth walls

Glu-lam Frame

Floor Plate

Static

Earthquake Concrete Slab

Base Isolator

Pile Foundation


5.0 _ Structure

Catherine Wheater

Timber Construction Traditionally Japanese architecture has always been preferrably made from wood. Not only for it’s versatile applications and beauty, but due to it’s flexibility, sturdiness and adaptability. In application the consideration of other materials as the main structual component seem void, espeically given the advancements in timber construction upon it’s previous benefits, and considering the sensitivity in my project in keeping with the traditional materials of the area, and keeping with the scale of the propositions

Glu-lam Frame Glu-lam is a manufactured timber product that offers an amazing alternative to normal timber. It is created when smaller pieces of machined timber are glued together using advanced adhesives. The result of this is a strong piece of structural timber. As well as being used for straight beams and columns it can also be used for curved beams and arching timbers. There many advantages of using glulam timber over untreated timber.

In application to Earthquake Satisfactory performance of timber buildings, in general, can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of wood itself, and to the lightness and high redundancy of most wood-based structural systems. The lateral redundancy plays an important role in seismic performance of timber structures.

In application to Fire Typically fire has been attributed to the developing evolution of construction within Japan as the potential for fire from earthquake or other reasons could cause widespread damage to structures, yet in reality the adaptability of timber construction meant that the more lightweight parts of the building such as shoji screens were removeable and the thicker parts of the actual structure remained in place, even if badly charred. With

Analysis of the Benefits Varsatile : Can be used in any type of structures and developed in to a variaty of shapes Light : At one sixth the weight of a re-inforced concrete beam Fire Resistant : In the event of fires caused my earthquake. Timber does not deform like steel

Load duration factors: – Long term 1.00 (ie dead + live load) – Medium term 1.25 (ie dead + snow load) – Short term 1.50 (ie dead + live + snow load) – Very short term 1.75 (ie dead + live + snow + wind load)

Transmittance of Load

Strength : The timber is able to retain a good weight to stength ratio with approximately twice the amount of steel Approve British Standard : 4169 :1988 and BS EN 386 :1995 ‘ Specification for Glue laminated Timber Structural Members.


5.0 _ Joints

Catherine Wheater

Adaptable Nature

Strength

The adaptability of the structure will be integrated in to the structural integrity of the building. Through looking at the development of Japanese joinery and the potential of using this in an adaptable environment the craftmanship in the beauty of the joinery appears to me to be a method which will allow for a level of flexibility within the structure. Particularly in the non load bearing areas of the structure as the building is not conenct through nails or glue give the sense the structure is not permanent.

The strength in Japanse joinery is characterised in it’s ability to be connected strengthwise without the use of screws or fixings. In the case of the Japanese timber framed buildings the frame is deloped as a smaller system with members that come together to be unified in a strengthed whole. These type of joints are seen as being the best in the event of earthquakes

Within Japanese timber architecture the use of and development of traditional joining systems has been a craft honed over many centuries, in the following section i will highlight this joining systems and analyse their strenght whilst looking at their alternative modern interpretation.

Shiguchi Typically joints within japan are designed to connect timbers at an angle. The most common means of connecting these joints is through the mortise and tenon joints. Within the joints they are created so they will resist tension stress and compression forces. The angels connect at a point of 90 degrees


5.0 _ Wall and loadbearing

Catherine Wheater

Pneumatic backfill dampner

Rammed Earth Analysis As area of the site will be uncovered and further excavated to expose the culvert of the river I wish to employ the use of rammed earth walls, using parts of the soil structure that is excavated from the site, in loadbearing capacity as well as for it;s benefits in thermal mass. Using the material as a constant ‘base’ of my interventions wherby permanent structures and areas that need to be kept within certain evironmental conditions ( such as in the Memory Museum archive’s ) The rammed earth structure will compliment the dis-assembling skeleton of the building that will change as it moves around the sight whilst energy through solar gains or geothermal heating can be retain and slowly released. Taking in to account the excavation taking place in the reclaimation of the river this process makes use of an otherwise wasted material, utilising the material existing on the site to development a base to the architectural interventions and as load bearing walls

Moist Earth

Visible layers of compacted earth

Reinforced Plywood Frame

Building of a rammed earth wall consists of compressing a mixture of damp earth with proprtions of sand, gravel and clay ( sometimes with an added stabilizer )

Step 1

Step 2

Framework is built and a layer of moist earth is filled in

The layer of moist earth is compressed

Step 1 Next layer of moist earth is added

Step 1

Step 1

Succesive layers of moist earth are added and compressed.

Framework is removed leaving the compacted earth wall.

Rammed Earth Construcrion Rammed earth construction involves compressing a damp mixture of earth made up of the proportions of sand gravel and clay that is typically excavated as earth. Typically the process is supported by a frame or mould creating a solid wall. Stabilizers can be added to th mix of earth, with cement of asphalt emulsions being used. Colouration of the soils as they are rammed in seperate levels gives the structure it’s particular colourly characteristics.

Benefits of Rammed Earth The structures of Rammed Earth retain great thermal mass where even in the warmed periods of the summer you’ll find the interior to be cool. Whilst when the temperatures lower in the evenings the interiors of the space will warm up as the building cools down keeping regualted temperatures which will not fluctuate. This is due to the flywheel efect whereby the walls hold in the warmth and slowly realise over 12 hours. Earth construction has the ability to balance indoor humidity like no other building material. It offers a constant means of regulating the temperature within the building


5.0 _ Material Considerations

Catherine Wheater

Rammed Earth Walls

Glu - Lamb Timber

Photovoltaic Glass

The use of rammed earth construction provides many benefits within this environment. Utilising the thermal mass properties and using the construction method as a means of retaining some of this energy in the areas of my structure which aim to act as the basis for adaptable spaces above.

Timber has been used in timber construction for centuries, it’s properties have made it the best in terms of seismic reactant in the event of the frequence earthquakes that the area suffers from. With the introduction of glu-lam timber techniques the benefits in flexibility and adaptibility which were once out weighed by it’s flammability to fires. Now with glu-laminated timber the structure there is no longer this risk. The structure can structure can also be developed in to many architectural shapes.

With the use of glu-lam timber as the frame to the building and wishing to display the beauty in the design of this structure the use of photovoltaic glass is utilised within areas to gain the benefit of converting solar gains in to energy in the form of electricity. The structure of photovoltaic glass is developed so that cells are sandwiched between two sheets of glass. Photovoltaic glass is not perfectly transparent but allows some of the available light through and also adds to the opacity reflected in shinto paper.

Washi Paper With the development of washi paper within the factory area of the site the project looks to utilise the production of paper through architectural details transferred throughout the adaptable data of the site.

Joinery The detailing of connections is very important because the more integrated and interconnected the structure is, the more load distribution possibilities there are the stronger the building becomes. Alongside this joinery has been an integral part of Japanese architecture, the study of these details will further my understanding of their structural properties but also analyse the detail in their connection.

ETFE

Insitu Concrete

The use of the ETFE film will offer an alternative materiality in the place of photovoltaic glass in the application of a more lightweight material in areas such as the Memory Factory area. Through the application of this material I will be able to enclose space whilst allowing the benefits of solar gains to penetrate particular spaces.

Cast In-Situ Concrete will be applied to create the slab from which the glu lam structural will be connected. In the development of rammed earth walls it will also contibute to the re-inforcement of this structure.


5.0 _ Material Considerations

Catherine Wheater

Water

Plants

The reclaiming of the river source through out the running of my site proposition will become a key feature of the project, and experience of the user. The water will act as a resource as well as an experiential moment within the site. The water will move between the sites and through it’s integration will improve the ecological environment along with creating a new urban regeneration in the area, people will be drawn to the site within this area for this unearthing or history and physical nostalgia the water brings.

Plant life improves the experience of the user throughout the site, and integrated in the development spaces of facades. The softscape aterial blurs the edges of where the architecture and external spaces meet. They also offer evolving properties in their changing shape through growth, this will effect the spaces which they are attached to. Alongside this the smell of plant life will improve the experience for the user.

Shoji Screens

Reeds

Hanging System

Transparency in the Shoji Screens has the ability to transform the site from changing private to public spaces. This illusion of privacy and ability to see what is going on behind the screens, though not in details draws users in to the space.

Reeds throughtout the site will soften the existance of the running river source throughout the neighbourhood, it also offers the potential for the development of further water based plant life.

This will varying in the scale of it’s application in the development of my design I wish to use of hoisting or pulley system to allow for the interchanging of the site internally and also for the allowance for the movement of objects around the site on smaller scales. The use of this system


Catherine Wheater

6.0 Chapter | References


6.0 _ References

Catherine Wheater

Websites http://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/79605/TFG%20 alberto%20gaudo.pdf;sequence=1 https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/11784/1/ Branco_Neves_193-200.pdf http://www.preventionweb.net/files/5230_ManualMinke[1].pdf https://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-121999-224250/ unrestricted/1Machiya_112999.pdf https://www.bing.com/search?q=strip+foundation+in+earthquake&f orm=EDGTCT&qs=PF&cvid=9d43248e574b46ac874618da88249b04& pq=strip+foundation+in+earthquake&elv=AXXfrEiqqD9r3GuelwApulqnSf1btxZkdF%21HdwGQn2DoE1ZNGPUXk9DWWOhFDGNABjtoyVOV WXS3PBuBSn0amqrSlsIPrOEaAoaYbgrYh0Tv http://www.brighthubengineering.com/geotechnicalengineering/101535-design-parameters-of-foundations-in-seismiczones/ https://www.bing.com/search?q=strip+foundation+earthquake&qs=n &form=QBRE&sp=-1&pq=strip+foundation+ear&sc=0-20&sk=&cvid=0 C5997F9B8A04A1793257FBCD7F6A665

Books http://factsanddetails.com/japan/cat20/sub129/item687.html

Charleson, A (2008). Seismic Design For Architects. Oxford: Architectural Press

https://www.japantoday.com/category/lifestyle/view/why-doesjapan-have-so-many-overhead-power-lines

David Littlefield (2012). Metric Handbook, Planning and Design Data. Oxon: Architectural Press

https://www.windfinder.com/windstatistics/tokyo_airport

Minke, G (2001). Construction manual for earthquake-resistant houses built of earth. Eschborn: GATE-BASIN

https://www.bing.com/search?q=young+soils+of+tokyo+impact+on+s tructures&form=EDGNTC&qs=PF&cvid=f3cef1f4dbec44bc9881bb7f16 eb16a5&pq=young+soils+of+tokyo+impact+on+structures&elv=AXXfr EiqqD9r3GuelwApulqGQucDnY*9OVTOWanar5Sy4lPsYCWtR0Ubwf%2 1qmvkjMxkfTXn4OZCtVCVtwuOW26VNCTd9zZu0C%21MED0n6awFs

Kiyosi Seike (2016). The Art of Japanese Joinery . Colorado: Shambhala Publications. 126.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0038080612000972

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https://www.britannica.com/place/Japan/Soils http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00380768.1955.10434 386?needAccess=true http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00380768.1955.10434 386?needAccess=true

https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB17997.pdf

http://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C16/E1-57-18.pdf

http://www.acoustic-supplies.com/products/acoustic-screens/

https://gbank.gsj.jp/seamless/index_en.html

http://www.stanton-bonna.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/ Installation-Guide-for-Culverts-B.pdf http://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/79605/TFG%20 alberto%20gaudo.pdf;sequence=1

Tokyo Underground Rivers https://thetokyofiles.com/2016/01/17/walking-on-water-the-underground-rivers-of-tokyo/ https://landarchs.com/10-reasons-why-cities-should-daylight-rivers/

https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/11784/1/ Branco_Neves_193-200.pdf

https://therivermanagementblog.wordpress.com/2013/03/11/whatto-do-with-lost-urban-rivers-beneath-our-feet/

http://www.preventionweb.net/files/5230_ManualMinke[1].pdf

http://japanpropertycentral.com/real-estate-faq/reclaimed-land-injapan/

https://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-121999-224250/ unrestricted/1Machiya_112999.pdf https://www.bing.com/search?q=strip+foundation+in+earthquake&f orm=EDGTCT&qs=PF&cvid=9d43248e574b46ac874618da88249b04& pq=strip+foundation+in+earthquake&elv=AXXfrEiqqD9r3GuelwApulqnSf1btxZkdF%21HdwGQn2DoE1ZNGPUXk9DWWOhFDGNABjtoyVOV WXS3PBuBSn0amqrSlsIPrOEaAoaYbgrYh0Tv http://www.brighthubengineering.com/geotechnicalengineering/101535-design-parameters-of-foundations-in-seismiczones/ https://www.bing.com/search?q=strip+foundation+earthquake&qs=n &form=QBRE&sp=-1&pq=strip+foundation+ear&sc=0-20&sk=&cvid=0 C5997F9B8A04A1793257FBCD7F6A665 http://www.ciwem.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Deculvertingof-water-courses.pdf https://deculverting.com/ http://www.stanton-bonna.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/ Installation-Guide-for-Culverts-B.pdf

https://www.disegnodaily.com/article/toyo-ito-s-home-for-all-completes https://qz.com/406712/kengo-kuma-is-reclaiming-japanese-architecture/ http://www.archdaily.com/office/shigeru-ban-architects http://www.arcspace.com/features/sanaa/ http://www.archdaily.com/73831/earth-house-bcho-architects/5012 6caa28ba0d1b4c000764-earth-house-bcho-architects-plan https://qz.com/406712/kengo-kuma-is-reclaiming-japanese-architecture/ Joinery http://woodworking.about.com/od/joinery/

Jordan Sands (2013). Tokyo Vernacular. California: University of California Press. 208.

Gloria Asami Lili Asako Berwert (2010). Tokyo Fragments ( Masters Thesis ) Videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THcKJpXwqVM&t=64s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hk4cwtQJmwU