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Rise And Shine WH My research question for this project was: Will our leavening agent cause our bread to rise...and by how much? My hypothesis for this project was: If we use carbon dioxide as a leavening agent, then the bread should rise up into a loaf. Need ingredients (name and quality) and procedures: Sourdough starter. 6.5 cups of white flour. 2.5 cups of water. A tablespoon of salt. Carbon dioxide. YEAST (Control) Yeast Procedure: Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds. Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap. Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days. When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit. Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log. Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer. If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf rests. When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a


cut about 1/2" deep. Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on the rack beneath. Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes. Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2)

1. First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of water. 2. When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more flour, salt, and water. 3. Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl. 4. Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl. 5. Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl. 6. Mix well. 7. Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes. 8. Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt. 9. Knead well for 10-15 minutes. 10. Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test. 11. Make the dough into a loaf. 12. Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour. 13. Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees. 14. Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked. BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Baking Soda Procedure:

1. Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit. 2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together. 3. Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky. 4. When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet.


5. Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees. COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3, My Groups’ Bread) Commercial Sourdough Procedure: 1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough. 2. Knead the dough until it passes the “windowpane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through. 3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours. 4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade. 5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing. DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4) Dennis’ Sourdough Procedure: 1. Make sure your sourdough culture is active 2. Make the leaven (overnight) 3. Test that the leaven is ready 4. Dissolve the salt 5. Mix the leaven and water 6. Add the flour 7. Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours) 8. Mix in the salt 9. Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours) 10. Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes) 11. Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls 12. Shape the loaves 13. Transfer to the proofing baskets 14. Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge) 15. Heat the oven to 500°F 16. Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens 17. Score the top of the loaf


18. Bake the loaves for 20 minutes 19. Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes 20. Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes 21. Bake another 15 to 25 minutes 22. Cool the loaves completely 3. Variables:​ Read each recipe and write down any variables that are different, aside from the leavening agent. Variable

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Flour type

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

All-purpose

Dough rise time

60+ minutes

none

15-60 minutes

4-24 hours

30-60 minutes

Oven temp. (all in degrees F)

450

450-400

400

400

500-450

Bake time

25-35 minutes

15 minutes, then 20-30 (35-45 minutes total)

1-3 hours

30-60 minutes

50-70 minutes

Dough amount

⅓ of the original dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

All of the dough.

Other

Uses yeast in tablespoons, not sure how that works.

Uses buttermilk.

Uses lots of flour (10 cups).

(no difference, this is my bread)

Uses more water than the others.

6. Observations​: After baking, measure the height of each loaf. Then taste each one


and record your observations. Observation

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Height

2.5”

3.5”

3”

Taste

Tastes the most like bread out of all of them, a little like Panera Bread bread.

Brittle crust, Floury, kind with the of sour, not bread itself very good. being kinda crunchy, which wasn’t really good.

Appearance (holes, airiness)

Airy, but in Dry, and a good crumbly. way.

Texture

Like, well, bread. Nice and soft. Crust was a bit hard though.

Airy, a bit bubbly.

Dry texture, Grainy not a whole texture, a bit lot of taste to dry. it.

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

1”

3.5”

Tastes similar to bread, but it too floury and a bit too dry, in my opinion.

Tough crust, hard to get through. Bread tastes kinda sour. Not a good type of sour, either.

Like a badly-made croissant.

No real holes, not very airy.

Squishy texture, chewy.

A bit mushy, soft.


Graph:

(2018.WH.Bread Graph) Analysis/Conclusion: This experiment was performed to find out if a leavening agent causes a loaf of bread to rise, and if carbon dioxide is a valid leavening agent when compared to yeast and baking soda. It’s also comparing a biological leavening agent and a chemical leavening agent. The experiment, however, did not test the pH of the bread to see how acidic or basic it is. We can draw from this experiment that each of the breads was similar in size and content, with one or two differences between the breads, such as height or one ingredient standing out from the others. The hypothesis for this experiment was: If we use carbon dioxide as a leavening agent, then the bread should rise up into a loaf. The result was...a little lackluster, for the test that my group did. The loaf actually shrank in total size, and the bread seemed to have flattened out while it was rising. It was more of a flatbread than a true loaf of bread. Our loaf of bread did not have a bad taste or texture to it, but it was not good either, when compared to the quality of some of the other loaves that were baked. The hypothesis was not really supported by these results. This is because the bead did not rise at all when it was baked, unlike the other loaves.


In conclusion, this experiment was not that successful in its original goal of getting the bread to rise with carbon dioxide as a leavening agent. The bread didn’t rise very much, if at all. Nutrition Calculations: Calories: Flour = 100 cal per ¼ of a cup, so it’s 900 calories (2.5 cups) Salt = o calories Starter = 19 cal per 5.4 grams, so it’s 152 calories (2 cups) TOTAL = around 952 calories total. Carbohydrates: Flour = 22 g per ¼ cup, so 198 grams (22 times 9) Salt = 0g Starter = 4g, so 8 grams TOTAL = 206 grams. Fat: Flour = 0g Salt = 0g Starter = 0g TOTAL = Either 0 or less than 1 gram(s) of fat. Protein: Flour = 3g per ¼ cup, so it’s 7.5 grams (3 grams x 2.5 cups) Salt = 0g Starter = 0g TOTAL = Around 7.5 grams of protein. (All of the breads, in order of their procedures.)


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Wh bread project (1)  
Wh bread project (1)  
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