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Š2016

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©2016 Overall an analysis of “This conversation” authenticates the children of immigrants’ story...

William Anderson Gittens Author, CEO, Dip. Com. B.A. Media Arts, Cultural Practitioner and Publisher,

First Edition © 2016 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of William Anderson Gittens the copyright owner. Typesetting, Layout Design, Illustrations, and Photography: Edited by Magnola Gittens and William Anderson Gittens Email address devgro@ hotmail.com Website devgro.net Twitter account William Gittens @lisalaron https://www.facebook.com/wgittens2

https://www.linkedin.com/in/william-anderson-gittens-author-media-arts-specialist-b1886b26 Printed by Massy Technologies InfoCom (Barbados) Ltd. Tel: (246) 240 4174 Published by William Anderson Gittens A WilMag Creation©2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

Foreword .............................................................................................................................. 5 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. 7 Summary of Barbados in Review Vol.1 .............................................................................. 8 Overview ........................................................................................................................... 14 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 1............................................................................................................................ 44 Chapter 2 Sir Winston Churchill ....................................................................................... 46 Chapter 3 Tribute To The late Winston Anthony Lloyd "Tony" Cozier........................... 54 Chapter 4 Rafael Edward “Ted” Cruise ............................................................................ 61 Chapter 5 Eric Himpton Holder Junior ............................................................................. 75 Chapter 6 Sir William Arthur Lewis. ................................................................................ 83 Chapter 7 General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.................................... 97 Chapter 8 Marco Rubio ................................................................................................... 109 Page 3 of 280 DMS


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Chapter 9 Bernard “Bernie” Sanders. .............................................................................. 130 Chapter 10 The Honourable David Thompson. .............................................................. 150 Chapter 11 Walter Daniel John Tull Junior. ................................................................... 157 Chapter 12 Donald Trump. .............................................................................................. 169 Chapter 13 Derek Walcott.. ............................................................................................. 182 Chapter 14 Comparative Features. .................................................................................. 201 Chapter 15 Personal Reflections ..................................................................................... 205 Chapter 16 Conclusions Reflections ............................................................................... 208 Chapter 17 Conclusions . ................................................................................................. 212 Chapter 18 Activities. ...................................................................................................... 214 About the Author.. ........................................................................................................... 220 Works Cited. .................................................................................................................... 225

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FOREWORD

Arguably there are multiple conversations that shaped the contours concerning the children of immigrants. This is a character study of human behavior that is fueled by the fulfilling innate of human needs that work together with the factors of economics, environmental, political, and social synergies. In light of the aforementioned admission the facts unearthed confirms that emigration1/immigration2 has become a very explicable narrative. The magnitude of this conversation draws enormous attention to three legitimate immigration questions3how many, from where, and what status newcomers should arrive as it continues carving out its niche in the global space.

1

Emigration is the act of leaving one's resident country with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Both are acts of migration across national boundaries. 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImmigrationWikipedia Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. 3 http://www.hoover.org/research/making-and-remaking-america-immigration-united-states

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Overall the testimonies of the children of immigrants’ are authenticated in this conversation. William Anderson Gittens Author, CEO Dip. Com. B.A. Media Arts; Media Arts Specialist, and Publisher

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Honouring all persons who are considered the children of immigrants. Special thanks to the Creator for his guidance and choosing me as a conduit to express the creative gifts he has given me and my late parents Charles and Ira Gittens. Thanks to those who assisted me along this journey namely my Beloved wife Magnola Gittens, my Brothers- Shurland, Charles, Ricardo, Arnott, Stephen, Sisters- Emerald, Marcella, Cheryl, Cousins-Joy Mayers, Kevin and Ernest Mayers, Donna Archer, Avis Dyer, Jackie Clarke, Uncles- Clifford, Leonard Mayers, David Bruce. My children Laron and Lisa Well-wishers-Mr.and Mrs. Andrew Platizky, Mr.Matthew Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. David Lavine, Dr.Nicholas Gordon, the late Dr.Joseph Drew, Merline Mayers, Mr. and Mrs. Trevor Millington, Rev.& Mrs Donavon Shoemaker, Ms.Geraldine Davis, Rev.Carl and Rev Angie Dixon, Mr.and Mrs. Collin Rock, Rev.Pauline Harewood, Mr. and Mrs. Stewart Russell, Mr. and Mrs. Laurie King, Mrs. Shirley Smith, Mr.Ricardo Jordan, Mr. and Mrs. Felton Ince, Mr. and Mrs David Brathwaite, Mr.and Mrs. Ryan Miller Mr.and Mrs. Neilo Mascoll. Rev.and Mrs. Clayton Springer The aforementioned contributed to my developmental journey.

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SUMMARY OF BARBADOS IN REVIEW VOL.1 ORAL C. RICARDO ‘RICKY’ JORDAN Coastline Communication (CC)

WE TEND TOO OFTEN to limit culture to the arts and entertainment, and were in fact so overawed at one stage of our national existence by the carnivals and creativity of other countries that some used to say, without reservation, that Barbados had no culture. But it’s clear to see, from William Gittens’ Barbados In Review Volume 1, that the author has never confused the two or limited himself to any of the two: arts as an expression of culture, and culture as a way of life. In fact, long before Gittens judged Crop Over masquerade Page 8 of 280 DMS


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costumes, he seemed to have instinctively known that the arts were only part of the manifestation of “we culture”. Hence, his compilation of books reflecting the culture of Barbadians – the way we speak, the way we play, the way we eat, the way we worship, the way we live. Gabby perhaps captured it best in his 1985 song, Culture, but even today, Gittens has highlighted Gabby amid the featured people and things that make up Barbadian culture. It is also significant that Gittens has captured this in 365 pages. He has basically sought to frame 50-plus years of Barbadian culture in a year of pages which tell the stories of Independence, heroes and habits of the past, and indeed a vision for the future of this young, developing nation which he loves.

His chapters are noteworthy in name and content. The first, entitled Images of Yesteryear in Barbados, recalls the nostalgic images of our grandparents, parents, and indeed some of us, carrying buckets of water from the

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ubiquitous standpipe, and others walking for miles and amazingly balancing trays of food items and mauby containers on their heads. The childhood skills in hopscotch, marble cricket and making flysticks are matched in this book with the adult skill of sticklicking, while chattel houses and the old clothes iron come alive off the pages to inform younger readers and strangers to our customs.

For us more mature readers, Gittens calls to mind the unheralded skills of those who designed the donkey cart which has virtually disappeared, while reinforcing the presence of the indigenous tuk band and Mother Sally, and recalling vestiges of our colonial past through the windmills, including the still functioning one at Morgan Lewis.

With his penchant for detail, Gittens points to the controversial Nelson statue as a “landmark�, while giving exhaustive information on the tripartite agreement between labour, Government and the private sector called the

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Social Partnership, and showing the importance of the dissemination of information and record-keeping by featuring media houses past and present.

I admire Gittens’ work not just for its nostalgia and sentimentality, but he has not omitted salient facts, such as the harsh reality of Barbados being a small and open economy, which is vulnerable to the shocks of external economies, particularly those of our main trading partners in North America and the United Kingdom.

On the lighter side –but still educational – there is a section with activities for children, followed several pages later by Gittens’ recollection of Wesley Hall Primary School’s historic cricket championship victories and the related importance of pursuing excellence, hard work, friendship and communication.

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This work was obviously painstaking, bringing to light Barbadian sights, sounds and issues which might generally go unnoticed but which, in the eye of this photographer, artist and author, William Anderson Gittens, are rich in value to anyone who loves this country or is even visiting it for the first time.

It is ironic and iconic that Gittens has labelled our National Heroes, the last of whom was born in the 1930s, as the Builders Of Our Future. If most of them could today see the Barbados which they built, they would, like many of us, be proud of our achievements but ashamed of some of the practices which we have, due to our own cultural insecurity, borrowed from other cultures. However, we are a developing nation, so there is still much work to be done by the upcoming national heroes who will build the Barbados of tomorrow.

Continue to do your part, William, by placing your observations on history’s page and, more importantly, holding onto your faith in God and in

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country, for as you have stated in this your 16th publication in 16 years, “what is very undeniable (is that) Barbadians have the capacity to adapt (their) script to a way of life that embraces the philosophy ‘Ask not what Barbados can do for you, but ask what you can do for Barbados’.”…

Oral 'Ricky' Jordan Coastline Communication (CC) March 5 2016

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Overview “Children

of

Immigrants”

have

become

an

intellectualized

conversation that examines human behavior. Clifford4 Geertz’s5 thick description theory validates this conversation in context with the possible interpretations and meanings within the global space. It also created an evaluation that supports the analytical theoretical framework thorough the examination of the parts and the whole caricature of “the children of immigrants” as a conversation that becomes this thick description. All things being equal there is the positive and there is the negative that impacts immigration. Immigration6 can be beneficial for migrants, but the same can only be executed if their rights are protected properly.

4

Clifford James Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) was an American anthropologist who is remembered mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology, and who was considered "for three decades...the single most influential cultural anthropologist in the United States."[1] He served until his death as professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. 5 Clifford James Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) was an American anthropologist who is remembered mostly for his strong support for and influence on the practice of symbolic anthropology, and who was considered "for three decades...the single most influential cultural anthropologist in the United States."[1] He served until his death as professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Geertz 6 https://www.embraceni.org/migration/the-pros-and-cons-of-migration/

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Further, just let me underscore the fact by suggesting that in this setting this social construct is economically beneficial for both countries of origin and by extension the host countries; however, a word of caution with regard to the present economic climate the rich and powerful countries benefit most because of trading structures. Migration brings social and cultural pressures into focus. Case in point planning for future services has the potential for bringing the populous together culturally. Although such reasoning seems logical we must be cognizant of the fact that since human beings are very complex hence there will be some friction especially if efforts are not made to dispel the myths held by local people. It is also essential to note that it provides good information about the local way of life to newcomers and ensure opportunities for people to mix and integrate.

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Therefore ,where the economic preconditions exist, migration is inevitable. The period 1838 to 19177 supports this fact. It was during this period that over half a million Indians from the former British Raj or British India, were taken to thirteen mainland and island nations in the Caribbean as indentured workers to address the demand for sugar cane plantation labour following the abolition of slavery. Attempts at importing Portuguese, Chinese and others as indentured labourers had failed. We are also careful to point out that operating in this environment it is evident that every action created a reaction especially the people who have tried to prevent immigration hence forced it underground. N. Samuel Murrell made the telling point that people migrate 8 for many socio-economic reasons.

7 8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Caribbean http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html

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Migration is encouraged by economic hardship caused by failing economies based upon plantation agriculture, lack of economic diversity, and scarcity of professional and skilled jobs.

Invariably this nuance also forms part of the post-colonial postmodern discourse. It also behaves somewhat like music because it is everywhere operating within the global village.

Immigration has been a constant source of economic vitality and demographic dynamism throughout the global diaspora’s history. The stark reality is Emigrants and Immigrants are taxpayers, entrepreneurs, job creators, and consumers. We have noticed that there was a paradigm shift from the perspective that the greatest motivation for the old immigrants9 was the search for new land.

9

http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm

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Some of them were also seeking religious freedom as opposed to the new immigrants who were in search for better economic opportunities. It is for the aforementioned reasons that(a) the children of immigrants have become a very explicable narrative (b) have carved out its niche within the global diasporic space and (c) that such a nuance will be blamed for developing world "brain drain." In my view analysis of this data suggest that there is nothing new under the sun especially in the context of migration . A Case in point according to Genesis 3:23-2410God ordered Adam and Eve to flee the Garden of Eden or face certain death . In my view an analysis of this excerpt certainly implies

forced

migration and therefore Adam and Eve’s children Abel, Cain and Seth were born

10

http://www.biblestudytools.com/passage/?q=genesis+3:23-24

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after their parents migrated. Consequently this action decision certainly qualifies their children namely Abel, Cain and Seth as children of immigrants.

In general the children of immigrants can only be debated from a personal experience. This conversation can only be managed through a global lens since it is a very explicable narrative that has carved out its niche within the global cultural diasporic space.

The magnitude of this conversation certainly draws enormous attention to three legitimate questions as it relates to emigration/immigration 11 (a) how many, (b) from where, and (c) what status newcomers should arrive.

11

http://www.hoover.org/research/making-and-remaking-america-immigration-united-states

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Such

an

admission

confirms

the

undeniable

fact

that

emigration/immigration is fueled by the fulfilling innate of human needs that work together with the factors of

economics, environmental, political, and social

synergies.

When we examine all of the notions, philosophies and theories documented within this text as well as the scanned reports from the annals of history there is evidence that suggest that some international icons can be considered as children of immigrants: The late Sir. Winston Churchill, Eric Holder Junior, Colin Powell, The late Walter Daniel John Tull Junior, The late the Honourable David Thompson,

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The late Sir Arthur Lewis,12 Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz, Marco Rubio, Bernard "Bernie" Sanders, Donald Trump, and Derek Walcott

12

"LEWIS, W. Arthur" (PDF). Retrieved 17 July 2015. "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979", Nobel in Economics, 1979. Accessed 5 January 2011. Tignor, Robert L. (2006). W. Arthur Lewis and the Birth of Development Economics. Princeton University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-691-12141-9. Tignor, pp. 11–13.

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Introduction The online dictionary defines Emigrate13, to leave one country or region to settle in another; migrate. However we must be cognizant of the fact that the only difference between Emigration and Immigration14 is that Immigration takes place because of the same reasons of immigration. Conversely the same includes economic, political, religious and social persecutions. Immigration is Latin immigrare that means ‘to go into’.

Emigration comes from Latin emigrare, which means ‘to move’. Immigration and emigration15 have the same meaning ‘moving into’ but are opposed to each other in direction.

13

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/emigrate http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-immigration-and-emigration/ 15 Difference Between Immigration and Emigration | Difference Between | Immigration http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-immigration-and-emigration/#ixzz3KwArRPLe 14

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vs

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Though there are specific laws for immigration and emigration, the former is very strictly controlled by the host nations, emigration and immigration is the central theme of today’s narrative is still resonating across the global village.

It is reported in an article titled Difference Between Old and New Immigrants that the immigrants16 who reached the U.S. during the early 1800s were known as old immigrants, and those who immigrated during the late 1800s were known as new immigrants. The old immigrants generally came from Northern and Central Europe especially England and its territories. That highlighted , it should be noted that apart from these people, there were also slaves who were immigrating in search of work in the plantations.

16

http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-old-and-new-immigrants/

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The new immigrants included people from Eastern and Southern Europe especially Italy, Poland, Greece, and Russia. People from China and Japan also immigrated to the U.S. at this time. Arguably, the greatest motivation for the old immigrants17 was the search for new land. Some of them were also seeking religious freedom. Conversely the new immigrants were in search for better economic opportunities.

Moreover, Ashley Kannan18, a Middle School Teacher (Level 3) Distinguished Educator corroborates this point. She has further stated that it “seems to me that the basic elements of push and pull factors that drive immigration are still present. People leave one nation in search of a better life in another�.

17 18

http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm http://www.enotes.com/homework-help/how-new-old-immigrants-alike-different-158077

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Old Immigrants versus New Immigrants. Theodore Roosevelt19 was the 26th American President who served in office from September 14, 1901 to March 4, 1909. One of the important events during his presidency was the Immigration Act of 190720 which established the Dillingham Commission Report which raised the issue of Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants.

The Immigration Act of 1907 created the Dillingham Commission to review U.S. immigration policy. In 1911 the Dillingham Commission21 produced a report that highlighted the differences between Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants and the effect on the social, cultural, physical, economic, and moral welfare of the nation. The Dillingham Commission Report favored the "old immigrant" who had come from North Western areas of Europe and opposed to the "new

19

http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm 21 http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm 20

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immigrant" who came from South Eastern areas of Europe and other parts of the world. The argument of Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants concluded that immigration from southern and Eastern Europe posed a serious threat to American society and should therefore be greatly reduced.

There is the notion of Old Immigrants versus New Immigrants22 for kids: The "Old immigrant" was defined as follows: They were from Anglo-Saxon or Nordic races. They came from the West Northern areas of Europe such as Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Holland, Germany, France and Scandinavia.

They shared similar ethnic and cultural backgrounds and it was these people who initially populated America. The very foundation of America was built upon the ideas, skills and culture they brought with them. 22

http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm

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Importantly, you cannot have a conversation concerning immigration and do not include identities because People are the conduits whereby this social construct is manifested. Therefore the children of immigrant’s conversation is impacted by identities such as race, hegemonic23 culture, gender, class and ethnicity. The "New immigrant24"

also included Asian, Slovak and Jewish

races. Ellis Cashmore25 defines “race as a group of people who are socially defined in a given society as belonging together because of physical markers such as skin pigmentation, hair texture, facial features, and stature.”26 And the children of immigrants will always be impacted by such physical markers.

23

The processes by which dominant culture maintains its dominant position www.cla.purdue.edu/.../hegem http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm 25 Ellis Cashmore is Professor of Culture, Media and Sport at Staffordshire University 26 Ellis Cashmore;Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations 4th Edition, 1999.p.296. 24

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Cultural theorist Stuart Hall made the point that Hegemonic culture is intertwined with race. Stuart further stated that the hegemonic culture is generally accepted by the masses because it co-opts certain elements of their cultures and thus appears as if it embraces all; the masses also tend to accept the hegemonic culture27 because they must work and live in and through organizations that are controlled by elite.

The reality is it appears that what Stuart is seemingly implying that children of immigrants are also influenced by this culture.

People came from all countries28 namely Asia and South eastern European countries such as such as China, Japan, Korea, Slovakia, Hungary, Russia, Poland, Croatia, Italy, Greece, Lithuania, Serbia and Russia.

27 28

www.sagepub.com/.../13286_Chapter_2_Web_Byte http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm

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They had no connections to America or existing Americans but it must be noted that many of them had totally different physical characteristics and were easily identifiable as "New immigrants".

What was very clear many had non-Christian religions and adhered to different beliefs and had experienced totally alien environments. What was also remarkably interesting they29 wore completely different clothes, had different hair styles, spoke strange languages, had different tastes in music and art and ate different food. In my view these attributes were consistent with their culture and by extension their diaspora. Through the lenses of a Media Arts Specialist it appears discrimination is a behavior found in all human beings.

29

http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm

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The same was also in operation at the time because it was also reported that criminals, contract workers, the mentally ill, anarchists, and alcoholics were among groups to be gradually barred from entry by Congress.

At a glance as a human being it is very easy to disapprove of another human being for their actions or decisions. However, in such an environment it would be prudent to await reason or reasons provided before such decisions are made. Importantly, in 1917, Congress required the passing of a literacy test to gain admission. To my mind this was a controlling mechanism. Finally, in 1924, the door was shut to millions by placing an absolute cap on new immigrants based on ethnicity.

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That cap was based on the United States population of 1890 and was therefore designed to favor the previous immigrant30 groups. But millions had already come.

During the age when the Statue of Liberty beckoned the world's "huddled masses yearning to breathe free," American diversity mushroomed. Each brought pieces of an old culture and made contributions to a new one. Although many former Europeans swore to their deaths to maintain their old ways of life, their children did not agree. Most enjoyed a higher standard of living than their parents, learned English easily, and sought American lifestyles. At least to that extent, America was perceived as a Melting pot.

30

http://www.ushistory.org/us/38c.asp

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Patterns of emigration31 have been shaped by numerous economic, social, and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty, violence, and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.

Some countries restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate to other countries. After 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, a barrier beyond which the Chinese were prohibited from encroaching on Manchu and Mongol lands.32 Emigration happens because of the push and pulls factors33.

31

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emigration Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." Journal of Asian Studies 59, no. 3 (2000): 603-46. 33 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emigration 32

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Perhaps there is a school of thought that suggests that Presidential Republican Candidate Donald Trump may have been feeling concern when he stated that as far as Immigration is concern “We are a country of laws34. We need borders. We will have a wall especially on the Mexican border. The wall will be built.�

Importantly, Chris Peterson of China Daily made the point in his article By Bungling of refugee crisis gives Europe a major headache. Most of the migrants35, interviewed on television, said their stated aim is a new life in Germany.

It gives the impression that such a desire was prompted in part by conversations they had had with relatives who are already living, studying or working there.

34 35

http://www.ontheissues.org/2016/Donald_Trump_Immigration.htm http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2015-09/19/content_21923014.htm Chris Peterson

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Germany's birth rate is dropping, and to boost its already robust economy, it needs fresh migrants, which is probably what prompted Chancellor Angela Merkel to say that her country would welcome refugees from Syria and Iraq36.

Conversely, Anthony Faiola of the Washington Post has reported that in Berlin37 a contentious deal was struck between the European Union and Turkey aims to finally halt the historic wave of irregular migration to Europe from the Middle East and beyond. But Germany’s, ground zero of the refugee crisis, faces a separate problem — what to do about all those who are already here.

Elizabeth Thomas-hope adds value to this conversation38 because she makes the claim that the Caribbean’s trends and patterns of migration to and from Caribbean countries for whether ‘free’ movement or refugee; there is a selective

36

http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2015-09/19/content_21923014.htm Chris Peterson http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/germany-learns-how-to-send-back-migrants-%e2%80%94-pay-them/arBBqG1WS?li=BBnb7Kz&ocid=SKY2DHP 38 Dr. Elizabeth Thomas-Hope, The James Seivright Moss-Solomon (Snr) Professor of Environmental Management, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. <ethope@uwimona.edu.jm> 37

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process that operates at the interface of the needs of the immigration country on the one hand and the potential for migration39 in the emigration country on the other.

Ben Hall40, of the Centre for European reform makes the charge that the Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history has been shaped by migration. For centuries, merchants, craftsmen and intellectuals crossed the continent to practice their trades or start new lives. Albeit, millions emigrated from Europe, first to the colonies and later to the Americas and the Antipodes. Europe also has a long history of forced migration: from the expulsion of the Jews from Spain to the population shifts in southeast Europe caused by the many wars between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.

39

http://search.tb.ask.com/search/GGmain.jhtml?searchfor=CARICOM+Countries+perspective+on+immigration&ts=1417840811531&p2=%5E BDG%5Exdm097%5EYYA%5Ebb&n=780CE777&ss=sub&st=hp&ptb=BF18BCF6-9FAE-4CA7-8551-BC5FF0E7D618&si=unzipit&tpr=sbt 40

http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf Immigration in the European Union: problem or solution? The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable? BEN HALL, CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN REFORM, LONDON See more at: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf

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Hall seems to be suggesting that the in-flows of migrants41 during the 1980s and 1990s – the second great migration of the 20th century – has literally changed the face of America. At the time of this research it is recorded that in 1970 the United States of America’s population was 5% Hispanic, 1% Asian and 12% black. A recent projection indicates that by 2050, it will be 26% Hispanic, 8% Asian and 14% black. These distinguish factors regarding demographers are seemingly at the origin of immigration are namely push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in42.

41

http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf Immigration in the European Union: problem or solution? The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EU’s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable? BEN HALL, CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN REFORM, LONDON See more at: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf 42

Zeev Ben-Sira (1997). Immigration, Stress, and Readjustment. Greenwood. pp. 7–10.

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An Oxford Economics research study published by the Department of Employment and Learning43 (DEL) concluded that migrant workers had helped maintain an adequate labour supply to fuel the 2004â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2008 economic boom.

The availability of migrant labour seems to have made the difference between some businesses surviving, or in the case of food processing, not needing to relocate production abroad. (The authors quote a survey of 600 businesses where 31% said that migrants were important in the survival of their organization and this rose to 50% in health and social care and agriculture.)

In addition at the time when this text was constructed the study indicated that migrants have facilitated growth in the economy; brought benefits to the tourism industry through the development of new air routes; had a positive influence on the productivity or efficiency of local workers; contributed new ideas

43

https://www.embraceni.org/migration/the-pros-and-cons-of-migration/

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and a fresh approach to firms; and greater cultural links with developing nations that will prove useful in growing international trade.

All things being equal it is also natural and logical to assume that this income is usually sent home to family members in the form of remittances and has become an economic staple in a number of developing countries44.

In this context this social construct creates a two way impact. Further, it must be underscored that operating within the Caribbean space from the 1620s, many of the Irish Catholic merchant class in this period migrated voluntarily to the West Indies45 to avail of the business opportunities there occasioned by the trade in sugar, tobacco and cotton.

44 45

Jason de Parle, “A Good Provider is One Who Leaves” New York Times, April 22, 2007. Jason de Parle, “A Good Provider is One Who Leaves” New York Times, April 22, 2007.

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They were followed by landless Irish indentured labourers, who were recruited to serve a landowner for a specified time before receiving freedom and land. The descendants of some Irish immigrants are known today in the West Indies as red legs. Most descendants of these Irishmen moved off the islands as African slavery was implemented and blacks began to replace whites. Many Barbadianborn Irishmen helped establish the Carolina colony in the United States46.

When the researched information was analyzed there is evidence that suggested that globalization47 increased the demand for workers from other countries so as to sustain national economies. That highlighted, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;economic migrants,â&#x20AC;? from impoverished developing countries would obviously migrate to obtain sufficient income for survival.48 46

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_diaspora is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. www.globalization101.org/what-is-globalization/ 47

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In my view Emigration/Immigration can only be executed by humankind since they are perceived as the conduits whereby the same can be executed. And in the event for whatever reason life is suspended then Emigration/Immigration will stop indefinitely because human beings are the agents for the same to be expressed. Therefore to get a better understanding of this social issue I have inserted Abraham Harold Maslow American psychologist hierarchy theory of needs in this conversation. In such a setting Maslowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s49theory of psychological health is predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in selfactualization. Further, it is also logical to assume therefore that in a real world people reside and they have needs50 regardless of their status.

48

http://www.unfpa.org/migration "Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old. 49

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In this context as globalization increases the demand for workers from other countries also increased so as to sustain national economies. Invariably, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;economic migrants,â&#x20AC;? from impoverished developing countries would obviously migrate to obtain sufficient income for survival.51

According to Maslow52 the third level of human needs is interpersonal and therefore involves feelings of belongingness.

All of the highlighted data corroborates plausible reasons and theories why humankind emigrates and immigrates. As a consequence the issue of Immigration/Emigration is nothing new under the sun because Adam and Eve were to migrate and their children Abel, Cain and Seth can be considered as children of immigrants.

50

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs http://www.unfpa.org/migration 52 "Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old. 51

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Therefore regardless of the motives such as economic, social, political and environmental they seemingly influenced humankind to migrate.

These social constructs

could very well include incentives that

attracted people away, such as pull factors, or circumstances encouraging a person to leave includes:-Favourable letters prepared on behalf of relatives or informants who have already moved; chain migration, Better opportunities for acquiring farms for self and children, Cheap purchase of farmland, Quick wealth (as in a gold rush),

More job opportunities, Promise of higher pay, Prepaid travel (as from relatives),Better welfare programmes, Better schools, Join relatives who have already moved; chain migration, Build a new nation (historically),Build specific cultural or religious communities, Political freedom, Cultural opportunities.

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That said, it is reported in Wikipedia that a majority of the AfricanCaribbean population53 in the United Kingdom is of Jamaican origin; other notable representation is from Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Anguilla, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana (which although located on the South American mainland is culturally similar to the Caribbean and was historically considered to be part of the British West Indies), and Belize (Assessment for AfroCaribbean people in the United Kingdom Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project. University of Maryland. 2004. Accessed 6 October 2006).

Let us apply the tenets of the emigration/immigration in relation to the Children

of

Immigrants

so

as to determine

its

relevance

emigration/immigration shaped the lives of people namely â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The late Sir. Winston Churchill, Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz, Former Attorney General Eric Holder Junior, 53

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_African-Caribbean_people

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The late Sir William Arthur Lewis, General Colin Powell, Marco Rubio, Bernard "Bernie" Sanders, The late The Hon. David Thompson, The late Walter Daniel John Tull Junior, Donald Trump, Derek Walcott, The aforementioned is just a fraction of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population randomly selected that can be considered children of immigrants.

Chapter 1 Plausible Reasons for Emigration/Immigration Let us go behind the scenes and examine the chronicles of history, some of the many philosophies, the reports and theories from the annals of history that frames the conversation concerning the children of immigrantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Page 44 of 280 DMS


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Some of these children includes namelyThe late Sir. Winston Churchill, Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz, Former Attorney General Eric Holder Junior, The late Sir William Arthur Lewis,54 General Colin Powell, Marco Rubio, Bernard "Bernie" Sanders, The late The Hon. David Thompson, The late Walter Daniel John Tull Junior, Donald Trump, Derek Walcott,

54

"LEWIS, W. Arthur" (PDF). Retrieved 17 July 2015. "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979", Nobel in Economics, 1979. Accessed 5 January 2011. Tignor, Robert L. (2006). W. Arthur Lewis and the Birth of Development Economics. Princeton University Press. pp. 7â&#x20AC;&#x201C;8. ISBN 0-691-12141-9. Tignor, pp. 11â&#x20AC;&#x201C;13.

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Chapter 2 Sir Winston Churchill55 KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 24 January 1965) Sir Winston Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, and Oxfordshire.56 From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy and employed Churchill's father as his private secretary. 55 56

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill http://www.worldlibrary.org/articles/winston_churchill

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Sir Winston Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother Jennie Jerome an American, heiress was born in New York in 1854. She met Lord Randolph Churchill, then 23, the second surviving son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough fell instantly in love and three days later agreed to marry him and subsequently immigrated to England.

Interesting enough Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family. Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill57, like his father, used the surname "Churchill" in public life. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to SpencerChurchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

57

http://www.worldlibrary.org/articles/winston_churchill

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Churchill's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician; and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome. Churchill's brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland. It was alleged that the young Churchill first developed his fascination with military matters from watching the many parades pass by the Vice Regal Lodge (now Ă ras a UachtarĂĄin, the official residence of the President of Ireland).

Churchill's earliest exposure to education occurred in Dublin, where a governess tried teaching him reading, writing, and arithmetic (his first reading book was called 'Reading without Tears').

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With limited contact with his parents, Churchill became very close to his nanny, 'Mrs.' Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he called 'Old Woom'. She served as his confidante, nurse, and mother substitute. The two spent many happy hours playing in Phoenix Park.

It is reported that he was an independent and rebellious by nature, Churchill generally had a poor academic record in school, for which he was punished. He was educated at three independent schools: St. George's School, Ascot, Berkshire; Brunswick School in Hove, near Brighton (the school has since been renamed Stoke Brunswick School and relocated to Ashurst Wood in West Sussex); and at Harrow School from 17 April 1888. Within weeks of his arrival at Harrow, Churchill had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps.

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It is reported that Churchill was rarely visited by his mother, and wrote letters begging her either to come to the school or to allow him to come home. His relationship with his father was distant; he once remarked that they barely spoke to one another. His father died on 24 January 1895, aged 45, leaving Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young and so should be quick about making his mark on the world. Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Legacy Winston Churchill entered the Royal Military College of Sandhurst, and graduated with honors in December of 18941. He later saw action in Cuba, India, Egypt, Sudan, and the front lines of World War I, and even took part in one of the last British cavalry charges2. At twenty-five, Churchill was elected to Parliament, and began his career as a statesman in the House of Commons.

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He served as First Lord of the Admiralty, Minister of Munitions, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Prime Minster. He was an officer in the British Army, an avid reader and scholar, painter, renowned writer, journalist, and war correspondent. He was considered the greatest statesman of the 20th century.â&#x20AC;? 1953, He is the only British Prime Minister to have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, He was the first person to be made an honorary citizen of the United States.58 He became famous because of his leadership during World War II Winston Churchill59regarded as one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century, He was known for his great leadership during World War II, statesman and an orator.

58 59

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill http://www.buzzle.com/articles/great-leaders-in-history.html

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His speeches were a great inspiration to the British people despite his "speech impediment" which he worked to overcome.60 He was also the first person to speak of the Iron Curtain, referring to the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc during a trip to the U.S.A. Part of aristocratic family, Just as Churchill was devoted his life to public service, serving in the army, and then as a statesman. He boasted the morale of this nation when it seemed on the brink of losing the war. He believed61 that Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened.

What was significant about the date of Winston Churchillâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s death his father died January 24, but in 1895 the same date he died in January 24, 1965,

60 61

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill#Family_and_early_life http://www.powerfulwords.info/churchill_winston/1.htm

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Queen Elizabeth II honored his memory with a state funeral which saw statesman come from all over the world.

Overall when we examine the aforementioned information and the tenets of immigration evidently Sir Winston Churchill is qualified to be part of this children of emigrant/immigrant conversation because (a) his mother Jennie62 Jerome an American63, heiress was born in New York in 1854 and (b) she immigrated to England.

62 63

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/non_fictionreviews/3670257/Winston-Churchills-American-mother.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Relationship

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Chapter 3 A Tribute To The late Winston Anthony Lloyd "Tony" Cozier10 July 1940 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 11 May 2016 The late Jimmy Cozier was a Barbadian journalist, father of the late Winston Anthony Lloyd Cozier.

64

Tony Cozier ESPN Cricinfo

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who was the


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Tony was born in Bridgetown, Barbados65, was born on 10 July 1940 and died 11 May 2016. It appears that Tony emulated his dad because he too became a media practitioner like his father Jimmy who was the managing editor for the St Lucia Voice and founder of the Barbados Daily News.66. It is reported that Cozier's family descended from Scottish labourers who had emigrated in the 18th century to Barbados. 67 Cozier studied journalism at Carleton University, Ottawa,68

and

began his reporting career in 1958.69 On the said year 1958 the author of this text was born in Bridgetown Barbados. Cozier played hockey as a goalkeeper for Barbados and cricket as a batsman and wicket-keeper for local cricket clubs Wanderers and Carlton.70

65

Tony Cozier: West Indian commentator dies aged 75". BBC Sport. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Tony Cozier: A Voice And Vision Caribbean Beat, May 2003 67 Tony Cozier, cricket commentator â&#x20AC;&#x201C; obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 68 Tony Cozier BBC Sport, 30 December 2002 69 Tony Cozier: West Indian commentator dies aged 75". BBC Sport. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 70 Tony Cozier, cricket commentator â&#x20AC;&#x201C; obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 7.^ Jump up to: a b Tony Cozier BBC Sport, 30 December 2002 66

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Winston Anthony Lloyd "Tony" Cozier71 (10 July 1940 – 11 May 2016) was a cricket journalist and writer and a radio commentator on West Indian cricket for over fifty years72 Cozier was described as having an "encyclopaedic" knowledge of cricket73. He became the editor of the Barbados Daily News in 1961, where he worked with retired cricketer Sir Everton Weekes,74 and covered the West Indies tour to England in 1963.75 He was subsequently the cricket correspondent of the Barbados Advocate, and in 1973 he helped to set up The Daily Nation newspaper. He also wrote for the British newspaper The Independent.76 His first Test Match commentary on radio was on West Indies v Australia in 1965.77

71

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Cozier Tony Cozier, voice of West Indies cricket, dies at 75". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 73 Nice Cozier chat Mail Online, 28 April 1999 74 Sandford, Keith (1998). Cricket Nurseries of Colonial Barbados: The Elite Schools, 1865–1966. Press University of the West Indies. p. 62. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 9.Jump up ^ Moss, Stephen (October 2006). Wisden Anthology 1978–2006: Cricket's Age of Revolution. A & C Black. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 75 "Tony Cozier, cricket commentator – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 76 "Tony Cozier, cricket commentator – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 72

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He was a member of the BBC's Test Match Special commentary team from 1966,78 and also commentated on television for Channel Nine in Australia79 and Sky Sports.80 During his commentating career, Cozier covered every Wisden Trophy series except one81.

Cozier was known for his knowledge of statistics; during a Marylebone Cricket Club tour in 1967, Brian Johnston played a practical joke on him by asking him to recite the exact bowling figures and birthdays of the entire West Indies team, which he was naturally unable to do.82 Cozier was specifically requested by Kerry Packer to be one of the commentators for the World Series Cricket; Cozier believed that the general public

77

"Tony Cozier, cricket commentator â&#x20AC;&#x201C; obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Tony Cozier ESPN Cricinfo 78 Tony Cozier: A Voice And Vision Caribbean Beat, May 2003 "Tony Cozier dies". Saint Lucia Times. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 79 Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 80 Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 81 The Shorter Wisden 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2015. Bloomsbury Publishing. August 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 82 Johnston, Barry (May 2010). The Wit of Cricket. Hachette UK. Retrieved 11 May 2016.

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supported the series, and during a commentary stint in the series, he sang "Blue Moon".83 In 1994, Cozier wrote of Brian Lara's record-breaking innings that "there was no real surprise among his countrymen, simply the feeling that his inevitable date with destiny had arrived rather more suddenly than expected."84 Possibly his most famous line was in 1999, after West Indies were bowled out for 51 by Australia at the Queen's Park Oval, he remarked "Where does West Indies cricket go from ‘ere?".85 In 2007, Cozier used a lunch break in a Test match at the Riverside Ground to read a spoof email asking about cricket in Mexico; fellow commentator Jonathan Agnew had to explain the joke to him.86 Despite health problems, Cozier commentated on the 2014/15 England tour of the West Indies.87

83

Marks, Vic (12 May 2016). "Tony Cozier obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 15.^ Jump up to: a b Sundaresan, Bharat (12 May 2016). "Tony Cozier (1940–2016): West Indies cricket loses its voice and sanity". The Indian Express. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 16.Jump up ^ Haigh, Gideon (2008). The Cricket War. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 88. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 84 Atherton, Michael (May 2011). Glorious Summers and Discontents: Looking back on the ups and downs from a dramatic decade. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 85 Sundaresan, Bharat (12 May 2016). "Tony Cozier (1940–2016): West Indies cricket loses its voice and sanity". The Indian Express. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 86 Tony Cozier, cricket commentator – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.

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He once remarked: "The Queen's Park Oval, exactly as its name suggestsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;absolutely round."88 Cozier wrote the definitive The West Indies: 50 Years of Test Cricket, with a foreword by Garfield Sobers (1978).89 He was editor of The West Indies Cricket Annual for all its 22 editions.90 He edited the Wisden History of the World Cup and collaborated with Clive Lloyd and Michael Holding on their respective autobiographies, Living for Cricket and Whispering Death: The Life and Times of Michael Holding.91 As a tribute to his contributions to cricket, the press box at the Kensington Oval was named after him.92 Test Match Special producer Peter Baxter joked with Cozier that the press box was actually named after another Cozier, since both his father and son were journalists.93 87

"Legendary cricket commentator Tony Cozier passes away". Starbroek News. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. Tibballs, Geoff (2007). The Bowler's Holding, the Batsman's Willey. Random House. p. 39. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 90 Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 91 List of books by Tony Cozier Retrieved 12 May 2016. 92 "Bajan days and nights". Cricinfo. ESPN. 13 April 2012. 88 89

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In December 2011, he was awarded honorary life membership of the MCC for his contribution to cricket.94 Cozier died on 11 May 2016 after a short illness. Fellow cricket correspondent Jonathan Agnew said: "Tony was the master of going between TV and radio ball-by-ball commentary. He was the master of both".95 The West Indies Cricket Board said: "He represented West Indies wherever he went. He educated people around the world about our cricket, our people, our culture and who we are. His voice was strong and echoed around the cricket world."96 He was survived by his wife of more than fifty years, Jillian, and their son and daughter.9798

93

Baxter, Peter (2012). Can Anyone Hear Me?. Icon Books. Retrieved 13 May 2016. Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 "Tony Cozier: West Indian commentator dies aged 75". BBC Sport. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 96 "Tony Cozier, voice of cricket in the West Indies, dies at 75". The Australian. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 97 "Tony Cozier, cricket commentator â&#x20AC;&#x201C; obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. 98 Berry, Scyld (11 May 2016). "Tony Cozier". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 94 95

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Chapter 4 Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz Eleanor Elizabeth (Darragh) Wilson and Rafael Bienvenido Cruz99 gave birth to their son Ted Cruz. He was born on December 22, 1970100, at Foothills Provincial General Hospital101 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

99

Ferguson, John Wayne (August 13, 2012). "Texplainer: Could Canadian-Born Ted Cruz Be President?". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Bottom line: Despite being born in Canada, Cruz can be considered a U.S. citizen because his mother was a U.S. citizen who lived in the United States long enough, according to constitutional experts.

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At the time of his birth, Cruz's parents had lived in Calgary for three years and were working in the oil business as owners of aseismic-data processing firm for oil drilling102.

It is reported that Cruz has stated that “I’m the son of two mathematicians/computer programmers.”103

Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz". National Review. Retrieved August 28, 2013. Born in Matanzas, Cuba, he grew up in the Cuban middle class in the 1950s, as the son of an RCA salesman and an elementary-school teacher. As a teenager, he grew to detest the regime ofFulgencio Batista. He and some of his schoolmates frequently clashed with Batista’s officials. Eventually, he linked up with Castro’s guerrilla groups and supported their attempts to overthrow Batista. It’s a decision he still regrets. His move toward Castro, he explains, was mostly due to his anger with Batista’s government, which at one point imprisoned him and tortured him for his work with the revolutionaries. He says he never shared Castro’s Communism, Fbut, at the time, it was the best way to fight Batista’s oppression. By age 18, in 1957, he knew he needed to get out, and a friend essentially bribed an official to secure him an exit permit. Gillman, Todd J. (August 18, 2013). "Canada-born Ted Cruz became a citizen of that country as well as U.S.". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 19, 2013. 100

"CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013.U.S. Senator Ted Cruz, Austin American-Statesman 101

Jump up to:a b c Abel, Allen; Markusoff, Jason (January 13, 2016). "Ted Cruz: Made in Canada". Maclean's Magazine. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2016. Panetta, Alexander (May 9, 2015). "Birthplace of President Ted Cruz? Calgary homeowner hopes it never happens".Calgary Herald. Canadian Press. Retrieved January 15, 2015.Steward is pretty sure the American conservative began life at the Foothills Medical Centre — a government-run, Canadian socialist hospital. Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz". National Review. Retrieved August 28, 2013. Born in Matanzas, Cuba, he grew up in the Cuban middle class in the 1950s, as the son of an RCA salesman and an elementary-school teacher. As a teenager, he grew to detest the regime ofFulgencio Batista. He and some of his schoolmates frequently clashed with Batista’s officials. Eventually, he linked up with Castro’s guerrilla groups and supported their attempts to overthrow Batista. It’s a decision he still regrets. His move toward Castro, he explains, was mostly due to his anger with Batista’s government, which at one point imprisoned him and tortured him for his work with the revolutionaries. He says he never shared Castro’s Communism, Fbut, at the time, it was the best way to fight Batista’s oppression. By age 18, in 1957, he knew he needed to get out, and a friend essentially bribed an official to secure him an exit permit. Gillman, Todd J. (August 18, 2013). "Canada-born Ted Cruz became a citizen of that country as well as U.S.". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 19, 2013. "Ted Cruz's Father Talks About Latinos, Conservatives and the American Dream". FOX News Latino. April 8, 2012. RetrievedOctober 6, 2013. Cruz, the father, and his wife, Eleanor Darragh, left the United States for a few years, living in Canada to take advantage of the oil boom. Zernike, Kate (November 18, 2011). "A Test for the Tea Party in Texas Senate Race". The New York Times. RetrievedNovember 18, 2011.Jeffrey, Terence (2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Creators Syndicate. Retrieved August 17,2013. Jump up to:a b Garrett, Robert T. (April 28, 2013). "Senate candidate Ted Cruz aims to pick up mantle of Reagan". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 103

From a bully pulpit, Ted Cruz offers his take on climate change, By Jeffrey Mervis, ScienceInsider, December 9, 2015

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In 1974, his father departed the family and moved to Texas.104 Later that said year, his parents reconciled and relocated to Houston105. It must be noted that Cruz's father was born in Cuba, and his grandfather was from the Canary Islands in Spain. His mother was born in Wilmington, Delaware, and is three quarters Irish and one quarter Italian106. Cruzâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s father departed Cuba in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin. Of note he obtained political asylum in the United States after his fouryear student visa expired107. Rafael Cruz earned Canadian citizenship in 1973108 and ultimately became a naturalized United States of America citizen in 2005.109110

104

Larson, Leslie. "Ted Cruz plans to renounce Canadian citizenship", Daily News|location=New York (December 30, 2013).

105

Abel, Allen; Markusoff, Jason (January 13, 2016). "Ted Cruz: Made in Canada". Maclean's Magazine. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2016.

106

https://infotomb.com/4ffm4.pdf"Google".

107

Welna, David (June 20, 2013). "How Ted Cruz's Father Shaped His Views On Immigration". NPR. RetrievedDecember 14, 2015. Abel, Allen; Markusoff, Jason (January 13, 2016). "Ted Cruz: Made in Canada". Maclean's Magazine. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2016.

108

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His mother earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s.111 Eleanor and Rafael Cruz divorced in 1997.112 Cruz had two older half-sisters from his father's previous marriage, Miriam Ceferina Cruz and Roxana Lourdes Cruz. Miriam died in 2011.113

Rafael Edward114 "Ted" Cruz was born December 22, 1970. He is an American politician and the junior U.S. Senator from Texas.

109

Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz". National Review. Retrieved August 28, 2013. Born in Matanzas, Cuba, he grew up in the Cuban middle class in the 1950s, as the son of an RCA salesman and an elementary-school teacher. As a teenager, he grew to detest the regime ofFulgencio Batista. He and some of his schoolmates frequently clashed with Batista’s officials. Eventually, he linked up with Castro’s guerrilla groups and supported their attempts to overthrow Batista. It’s a decision he still regrets. His move toward Castro, he explains, was mostly due to his anger with Batista’s government, which at one point imprisoned him and tortured him for his work with the revolutionaries. He says he never shared Castro’s Communism, Fbut, at the time, it was the best way to fight Batista’s oppression. By age 18, in 1957, he knew he needed to get out, and a friend essentially bribed an official to secure him an exit permit.

110

Olsen, Lise (October 13, 2012). "Cruz's life defies simplification". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2013.The ex-revolutionary pastor regularly stumps for his son, whom he's compared to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah – a relentless advocate with "fire in his bones." Ted, he says, is "not going to Washington to compromise." Swartz, Mimi (March 31, 2015). "Ted Cruz and the New Politics of Texas". The New York Times (New York). RetrievedApril 17, 2015. "Google". 111

Eckholm, Erik (August 1, 2012). "A Republican Voice With Tea Party Mantle and Intellectual Heft". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 112 Recio, Maria (April 1, 2015). "Ted Cruz’s family story: Poignant but incomplete". McClatchy. Retrieved December 14,2015. 113 Recio, Maria (April 1, 2015). "Ted Cruz’s family story: Poignant but incomplete". McClatchy. Retrieved December 14,2015. Ted Cruz’s Secret Weapon to Win the Right, National Journal, Andy Kroll, June 25, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015. Cruz, Ted (2015). A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America. Broadside. pp. 28–44, 101–103. 114

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Cruz

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He is a Republican candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 presidential election. Cruz attended elementary and high school in and around Houston, graduated from Princeton University in 1992, and then from Harvard Law School in 1995. Between 1999 and 2003, Cruz was the director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, an associate deputy attorney general at the United States Department of Justice, and domestic policy advisor to President George W. Bush on the 2000 George W. Bush presidential campaign.

He served as Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to 2008, appointed by Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott. He was the first Hispanic, and the longest-serving solicitor general in Texas history.

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Cruz was also an adjunct professor of law from 2004 to 2009 at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, where he taught U.S. Supreme Court litigation. Cruz ran for the Senate seat vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison, and in July 2012 defeated Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst during the Republican primary runoff, 57%â&#x20AC;&#x201C;43%. Cruz then defeated former state Representative Paul Sadler in the November 2012 general election, winning 56%â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 41%. He is one of three Senators of Cuban descent. Cruz chairs the United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Oversight, Federal Rights and Agency Activities, and is also the chairman of the United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Space, Science and Competitiveness.

In November 2012, he was appointed vice-chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee.

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Cruz began campaigning for the Republican presidential nomination in March 2015. During the primary campaign, his base of support has been mainly among social conservatives, though he has had crossover appeal to other factions within his party115. Cruz attended two private high schools: Faith West Academy in Katy, Texas and Second Baptist High School in Houston, from which he graduated as valedictorian in 1988.116 During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group known at the time as the Free Market Education Foundation, a program that taught high 115

Zitner, Aaron. "Poll Points to Upside for Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio in GOP Race", Wall Street Journal (January 4, 2016).

116

Olsen, Lise (October 13, 2012). "Cruz's life defies simplification". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2013.The ex-revolutionary pastor regularly stumps for his son, whom he's compared to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah – a relentless advocate with "fire in his bones." Ted, he says, is "not going to Washington to compromise." "Distinguished Alumni". Second Baptits School. RetrievedApril 22, 2015. Mackey, Maureen (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz: 20 Things You Didn’t Know About Him". Fiscal Times. Retrieved April 23,2015. 7: He graduated from Houston’s Second Baptist High School in 1988 and was valedictorian of his class. Dunham, Richard (October 15, 2012). "Profile: A man of many contrasts, Ted Cruz defies easy stereotypes". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Cruz was one of only two Hispanics when he transferred to Houston’s Second Baptist School his junior year. He graduated valedictorian in 1988. Miller, Jake (March 19, 2015). "Will grassroots support be enough for Sen. Ted Cruz in 2016?". CBS News. RetrievedApril 23, 2015. He graduated valedictorian of his high school in 1988, attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies, and received his law degree from Harvard University. Barbash, Fred (March 23, 2015). "Why Liberty University in Lynchburg, Va., is the perfect launchpad for Ted Cruz". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2015. The last time he spoke there, Cruz made no mention of his Ivy League degrees but recalled fondly his memories of Second Baptist High School in Houston, where he was valedictorian, and how his wife was the daughter and granddaughter of missionaries. "Ted Cruz". Biography.com. 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2015.The valedictorian of his class at Houston's Second Baptist High School, Cruz went on to Princeton University.

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school

students

the

philosophies

of

economists

such

as Milton

Friedman and Frédéric Bastiat.117 118 Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy119from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1992.120 121

While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic

Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U.S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship.122 In 1992, he was named U.S. National Speaker of the Year, and with his debate partner David Panton won Team of the Year.123

117

Lizza, Ryan (November 19, 2012). "The Party Next Time".The New Yorker: 50–57. Retrieved July 20, 2013.

118

Garrett, Robert T. (April 28, 2013). "Senate candidate Ted Cruz aims to pick up mantle of Reagan". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 119

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (January 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz 92 Sworn-in as U.S. Senator from Texas". Princeton University Bulletin (Princeton, New Jersey). 120 "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 121

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (January 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz 92 Sworn-in as U.S. Senator from Texas". Princeton University Bulletin. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 122 Princeton Debate Panel. "Hall of Fame". Princeton University Debate Panel. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 123 Princeton Debate Panel. "Hall of Fame". Princeton University Debate Panel. Retrieved October 2, 2013.

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Cruz and Panton would later represent Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, losing in the semi-finals to a team from Australia.124 Princeton's debate team named their annual novice championship after Cruz.125 Cruz's senior thesis at Princeton investigated the separation of powers; its title, Clipping the Wings of Angels, draws its inspiration from a passage attributed to US President James Madison: "If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect the rights of their constituents, and that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state.126 127 After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor degree.128 129 124

"Australians Win Debate At Princeton A Singapore Woman Won The Award For Best Speaker. English Is Not Her Native Language". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Horowitz, Jason (April 22, 2015). "Ted Cruz Showed Eloquence, and Limits, as Debater at Princeton". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015. By the time he was a senior at Princeton University in 1992, Ted Cruz had developed an arsenal of rhetorical skills and theatrical gestures that made him one of the most polished performers on the college debate circuit. Princeton Debate Panel. "Cruz Novice Championship". Retrieved January 11, 2014. 125

Princeton Debate Panel. "Cruz Novice Championship". Retrieved January 11, 2014.

126

Google".

127

Princeton Debate Panel. "Cruz Novice Championship". Retrieved January 11, 2014.

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In the said year 1995 the author of this text graduated with a Bachelors of Arts Degree from Jersey City State Collage now New Jersey City University. During his tenure at Harvard Law, he was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, and executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, and a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review.130 Referring to Cruz's time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, "Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant".131 At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Law and Economics. 132 Cruz currently serves on the Board of Advisors of the Texas Review of Law and Politics.133

128

Begala, Paul (August 1, 2012). "Ted Cruz and Texas’s Tea Party Revolution". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17,2013. "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 130 Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (January 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz 92 Sworn-in as U.S. Senator from Texas". Princeton University Bulletin. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 131 Cruz, Ted (April 2, 1992). "Ted Cruz's 1992 "Clipping the Wings of Angels"". Princeton University. RetrievedFebruary 28, 2013. Begala, Paul (August 1, 2012). "Ted Cruz and Texas’s Tea Party Revolution". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17,2013. Jump up to:a b c d e f Weiner, Rachel (August 1, 2012). "Who is Ted Cruz?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013. McManus, Doyle (August 12, 2013). "Ted Cruz, wacko like a fox". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Clarida, Matthew Q.; Lucky, Jared T. (May 30, 2013)."Defusing the H-Bomb: In politics, Harvard alums frame diplomas strategically". The Harvard Crimson. RetrievedAugust 17, 2013. Editors (July 30, 2012). "Yes, Ted Cruz for Texas". National Review. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 132 "R. (Ted) Edward Cruz, Attorney Biography".Wayback Machine. Houston, Texas: Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013. R. (Ted) Edward Cruz is a partner in Morgan Lewis's Litigation Practice and leads the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and Appellate Litigation Practice. 133 "Board of Advisors". Texas Review of Law and Politics. Retrieved August 20, 2013. 129

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Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995134135 and William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States in 1996.136 Cruz was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.137 Private practice After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, LLC, from 1997 to 1998. 138

Rifle

While with the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National

Association,

and

helped

prepare

testimony

for

the impeachment

proceedings against President Clinton. 139

134

"R. (Ted) Edward Cruz, Attorney Biography".Wayback Machine. Houston, Texas: Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013. R. (Ted) Edward Cruz is a partner in Morgan Lewis's Litigation Practice and leads the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and Appellate Litigation Practice. 135 Russ, Hilary (April 5, 2010). "Rising Star: Morgan Lewis' R. Ted Cruz" (PDF). Law360. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 136 "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 137 Jeffery, Terry (May 25, 2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Townhall.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 138 Tribpedia. "Ted Cruz". Texas Tribune. RetrievedAugust 21, 2013. 139 Toobin, Jeffrey (June 30, 2014). "Ted Cruz, The Absolutist". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 25, 2014.

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It is important to note that Cruz also served as private counsel for Congressman John Boehner during Boehner's lawsuit against Congressman Jim McDermott for releasing a tape recording of a Boehner telephone conversation.140 Bush administration Cruz joined the George W. Bush presidential campaign in 1999 as a domestic policy adviser, advising then-Governor George W. Bush on a wide range of policy and legal matters, including civil justice, criminal justice, constitutional law, immigration, and government reform.141 Cruz assisted in assembling the Bush legal team, devising strategy, and drafting pleadings for filing with the Supreme Court of Florida and U.S. Supreme Court, in the case Bush v. Gore, during the 2000 Florida presidential recounts, leading to two wins for the Bush team.142143

140

Grimaldi, James V. (June 2, 1998). "Campaign Money to Fight McDermott". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Tribpedia. "Ted Cruz". Texas Tribune. RetrievedAugust 21, 2013. "R. (Ted) Edward Cruz, Attorney Biography".Wayback Machine. Houston, Texas: Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013. R. (Ted) Edward Cruz is a partner in Morgan Lewis's Litigation Practice and leads the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and Appellate Litigation Practice. 143 Cottle, Michelle (March 12, 2013). "The Reinvention of Ted Cruz". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 141 142

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Cruz recruited future Chief Justice John Roberts and noted attorney Mike Carvin to the Bush legal team144.

After President Bush took office, Cruz served as an associate deputy attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department145

146

planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.147 148

and as the director of policy 149

Cruz has said, "I'm Cuban, Irish, and Italian, and yet somehow I ended up Southern Baptist."150 March 21, 2016 senior editor Dylan Stableford reported that Texas Senator Ted Cruz slammed President Obama’s historic trip151 to Cuba on Sunday, arguing that the United States is sending a dangerous message to “political prisoners languishing in dungeons across the island.”

144

Toobin, Jeffrey (June 30, 2014). "Ted Cruz, The Absolutist". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 25, 2014. "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 146 Cottle, Michelle (March 12, 2013). "The Reinvention of Ted Cruz". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 147 "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 148 Weiner, Rachel (August 1, 2012). "Who is Ted Cruz?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 149 Cottle, Michelle (March 12, 2013). "The Reinvention of Ted Cruz". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 150 Ted Cruz: ISIS is the Face of Evil". Breitbart.com. August 9, 2014. 151 https://www.yahoo.com/politics/ted-cruz-obama-cuba-trip-135251553.html 145

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“Nobody has your back,” Cruz wrote in an op-ed published by Politico. “The world has forgotten about you.

“They will not be on TV, rubbing elbows with the Obamas,” Cruz continued. “There will be no mojitos at the U.S. Embassy for them. Raúl Castro denies their very existence.”

Importantly, it is reported that the Republican presidential hopeful is the son of a Cuban immigrant “who was beaten and tortured” during former Cuban president-turned-dictator Fulgencio Batista’s regime before fleeing to the U.S.

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Chapter 5 Eric Himpton Holder Junior Of note in retrospect during the 1950152s two inflationary conditions pervaded the world.

152

http://homepages.gac.edu/~jcullip/workexamples/mea.html

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The first followed the end of World War II and the second at the onset of the Korean War in 1950 and the "baby boomers" were growing up. Eric Himpton Holder Junior

153

is part of the Barbadian Diaspora.

Former Attorney General Eric Holder was born to Barbadian parents in the Bronx, New York. Mr. Holder's father, Eric Himpton Holder, Sr. (1905â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1970) was born in Saint Joseph, Barbados and arrived in the United States at the age of 11.

He later became a real estate broker. His mother, Miriam, was born in New Jersey, while his maternal grandparents were immigrants from Saint Philip, Barbados. In light of this conversation Eric Himpton Holder Junior is part of the Barbadian Diaspora. It is also important to note that Holder Junior was born January 21, 1951. 153

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Holder

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Moreover, uncalculatedly the same year in 1951 the Rt. Excellent Errol Walton Barrow was elected to the Barbados Parliament as a member of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP).

The parents of General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff and Eric Himpton Holder immigrated and therefore they can be categorized as children of immigrants. At this juncture I wish to state for the record that humankind normally celebrate achievements. In this context, it is only logical to assume therefore that from a parents perspective the parents of General Colin Powell and Eric Himpton Holder must have been very elated at their childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance and success. That highlighted above letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s examine some of the achievements and events as they unfolded on his journey.

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Mr.Holder served as a judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and a United States Attorney Deputy Attorney General of the United States senior legal advisor to Senator Barack Obama during Obama's presidential campaign and one of three members of Obama's vice-presidential selection committee. Holder, Junior received his Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School, graduating in 1976. He joined the Department of Justice straight out of law school, working his way through the ranks until becoming an Associate Judge on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia in 1988. In 1993 Holder stepped down from the bench to accept an appointment as United States Attorney for the District of Columbia from President Bill Clinton. In 2007 he became a co-chair of Barack Obama's presidential campaign.

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Obama won the presidency in November 2008, and nominated Holder to become Attorney General; Holder was confirmed by the Senate on 2 February 2009. Holder, Junior

154

is the veteran lawyer who became U.S. Attorney

General under President Barack Obama in 2009. In 2009 Holder, Junior155 became the first African American to hold the position of 82nd Attorney General of the United States of America.

Holder served through all of Obama's first term and the first half of his second; he announced on 25 September 2014 that he would step down from the post, although he said he would remain on the job until a replacement was found. On November 8, 2014, President Barack Obama nominated Loretta Elizabeth Lynch156 (born May 21, 1959) as the 83rd Attorney General of the United States, to succeed Eric Holder as Attorney General.

154

http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/ericholder.html Information PleaseŽ Database, Š 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 155 156

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Holder https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loretta_Lynch

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On February 26, 2015, the Judiciary Committee of the United States Senate confirmed her appointment by a 12â&#x20AC;&#x201C;8 vote, with all Democrats of the committee and three Republicans in favor.

On April 23, 2015, Lynch was confirmed by the Senate by a 56â&#x20AC;&#x201C;43 vote, making her the first African-American woman and the second woman to be confirmed for the position. She was sworn in as Attorney General on April 27, 2015, by Vice President Joe Biden.

Holder is the first African-American to serve as Attorney General... His wife, Dr. Sharon Malone, is an obstetrician. She graduated from Harvard (1981) and Columbia Medical School. They have three children: Maya, Brooke and Eric.

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Eric Holder, the former United States of America attorney general, will return as a partner at the law firm he had exited more than five years ago to join the Obama administration, according to a statement from the firm. Holder, who ran the Justice Department from 2009 to 2015, will return to Covington & Burling157. He was previously a partner there from 2001 to 2009, according to the firm. He will "focus on complex investigations and litigation matters, including matters that are international in scope and raise significant regulatory enforcement issues and substantial reputational concerns," the firm said in the statement. Overall, Eric Himpton Holder was born to Barbadian parents in the Bronx, New York. Mr. Holder's father, Eric Himpton Holder, Sr. (1905â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1970) was born in Saint Joseph, Barbados and arrived in the United States at the age of 11.

157

http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/eric-holder-former-attorney-general-returning-covington-burling-law-firm-n387331 by DANIEL ARKIN

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His mother, Miriam, was born in New Jersey, while his maternal grandparents were immigrants from Saint Philip, Barbados.

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Chapter 6 Sir William Arthur Lewis Sir Arthur Lewis158 was a CARICOM national. He was born in St. Lucia on January 23, 1915.

158

http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/sir-arthur-lewis-298.php

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Lewis159 was born in Castries, Saint Lucia and the fourth of five children. What was very remarkable his parents George Ferdinand Lewis and Ida Lewis were both school teachers. Unfortunately for Lewis, his father died when Arthur was just seven, as a consequence his mother Ida Lewis160 raised his siblings without his father George Ferdinand. In light of this fact his parents, had migrated to St. Lucia from Antigua, therefore it is only reasonable to accept the fact that Sir Arthur Lewis can categorized as a child of an immigrant. It is reported that He161 was always an exceptional student and, following tuition from his father, was promoted two classes ahead of his age completing his primary schooling at the age of 14.

159

http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/subjects/economics/about-us/history-and-background/arthur-lewis/ http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/subjects/economics/about-us/history-and-background/arthur-lewis/ 161 http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/subjects/economics/about-us/history-and-background/arthur-lewis/ 160

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One of the functions that Lewis performed during his employee years was a clerk in the civil service until was old enough to apply for a Government Scholarship to attend a British University. His road to success began when he successfully achieved in 1932 when he attended the London School of Economics to read for the Bachelor of Commerce degree. It was reported that his undergraduate training was very helpful in the various administrative jobs he later undertook. In this setting it was observed that although his career required mathematics yet he graduated in 1937, with a first class honours degree. In addition, LSE awarded him a scholarship to undertake a PhD in Industrial Economics, which he completed in 1940. Lewis worked as a member of the academic staff at the LSE until 1948.

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Sir Arthur Lewis’ father162 died when he was seven years old leaving behind his wife and five sons. Arthur’s mother was very hardworking and highly disciplined and she raised all her sons to become successful in life.

Sir William Arthur Lewis163 was born Jan. 23, 1915, Castries, Saint Lucia, British West Indies—died June 15, 1991, Bridgetown, Barbados, Saint Lucian economist who shared with Theodore W. Schultz, an American the 1979Nobel Prize for Economics for his studies of economic development and his construction of an innovative model relating the terms of trade between less developed and more developed nations to their respective levels of labour productivity in agriculture. Lewis attended the London School of Economics after winning a government scholarship.

162 163

http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/subjects/economics/about-us/history-and-background/arthur-lewis/ http://www.britannica.com/biography/Arthur-Lewis

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He graduated in 1937 and received a Ph.D. in economics there in 1940. He was a lecturer at the school from 1938 to 1947, professor of economics at the University of Manchester from 1947 to 1958, principal of University College of the West Indies in 1959â&#x20AC;&#x201C;62, and professor at Princeton University from 1963 to 1983. Lewis served as an adviser on economic development to many international commissions and to several African, Asian, and Caribbean governments he helped establish. In 1970â&#x20AC;&#x201C;73 Lewis headed the Caribbean Development Bank. In 1963Lewis was knighted. Sir Arthur Lewis164 was a Saint Lucian economist who was well known for his contributions in the field of economic development. When blacks were normally barred from that academic profession, Sir Arthur Lewis broke one barrier after another as a result of his brilliance.

164

http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/sir-arthur-lewis-298.php

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He was a scholar and served as an economic advisor to many international commissions and to several African, Asian and Caribbean governments. He was also the first Black professor in Britainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s university system and also at Princeton University in the United States later on. Arthur Lewis was the first person of African origin to receive a Nobel Prize in a field other than peace. He contributed significantly to the British government policy in his early years, and later in his life applied his economic development ideas as a consultant to various African governments. Sir Arthur had an illustrious carrier not only in academics. He spent the same number of years in administration too. Sir Arthur Lewisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Childhood and Early Life Sir Arthur Lewis was born in St. Lucia on January 23, 1915. He was the fourth son of George Ferdinand and Ida Lewis.

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His parents, who were both school teachers, had migrated to that island country from Antigua, about a little more than a decade back. His family therefore had some slight characteristics of immigrant minorities. Sir Arthur Lewis’ father died when he was seven years old leaving behind his wife and five sons. Arthur’s mother was very hardworking and highly disciplined and she raised all her sons to become successful in life.

Education Arthur Lewis’ progressed through the public schools very rapidly. When he was seven he had to stay at home for several weeks because of an ailment. At this time his father chose to teach him so that he would not fall behind.

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It happened that, he taught Arthur in three months as much as the school would teach in two years. Therefore, he was shifted from grade 4 to grade 6 when he returned back to school. The rest of his school life and early working life up to the age of 18 were spent with students or workers two or three years older than him. After completing his primary schooling at the age of 14, Arthur went to work as a clerk in the civil service because he was too young to apply for a scholarship to attend a British university. His experiences at work during those times would serve him in good stead as he learned to be orderly. In 1932, when he was of the required age, he applied for the scholarship and won it. He was still unsure as to what to do with his life as the British government imposed color bar on its colonies and young blacks could only chose from a few professions.

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Lewis did not want to become a doctor or a lawyer, two professions which were allowed for the blacks. He wanted to become an engineer but this seemed pointless as the government or plantations wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t employ a black engineer. Lewis eventually decided to study business administration and went to the London School of Economics for a Bachelor of Commerce degree. After he graduated in 1937, with a first class honors degree, LSE gave a scholarship to do a PhD in Industrial Economics, which he completed in 1940. Professional Life In 1938, Sir Arthur Lewis was given a one-year teaching appointment at LSE and the next year it was extended into a four-year contract as an Assistant Lecturer. By1948, he had become a full time professor at the University of Manchester and that too when he was only 33 years old. He spent a decade in the University of Manchester as a Stanley Jevons professor of political economy.

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Here he distinguished himself in academic scholarship and professional achievement earning the title â&#x20AC;&#x153;Consultant Physician of the Ailing Economicsâ&#x20AC;?. Sir Arthur Lewis served as a consultant to a number of organizations like the Caribbean Commission. He was also a member of the Colonial Advisory Economic Council (from 1951 to 1953), Committee for National Fuel in Britain, United Nations Group of Experts and Board of Governors of Queen Elizabeth House in Oxford. He also served as a consultant to a number of African and Caribbean governments like Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, Nigeria, Barbados and Ghana. Sir Arthur Lewis was also the managing director of the United Nations Special Fund in 1950. In 1959, Arthur Lewis accepted the post of Head of the Department of Economics at the University of the West Indies (U.W.I).

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He also became the first West Indian born to head the University, serving as Principal and then as Vice Chancellor. As head of the University, he was responsible for expanding it to a full-fledged independent institution, with enrollment increasing from 690 to over 2000. He also established the School of Engineering at the University, solely because of his ability to attract funds from the Ford Foundation and the United Nations. He served at the University until 1963 and the same year he was knighted by Her Majesty the Queen. From 1966-1973 he served as Chancellor of the University of Guyana.

In 1963, Sir Arthur accepted the post as Professor of Public and International Affairs at the Princeton University. Later he was given the prestigious position as James Madison Professor of Political Economics.

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In 1971, Sir Arthur returned to the Caribbean to set up the Caribbean Development Bank where he served as its first President until 1973 and then returned to Princeton.

Sir Arthur Lewis entered the history book of Saint Lucia and the Caribbean when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1979. He received the prize after 25 years of contribution in the field of Economics. The Prize was awarded for his research into the economic problems of developing countries. Key Areas of Research The researches of Sir Arthur Lewis mainly dealt with two models which depicted and clarified various problems faced by developing countries. The Trade Model Terms

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This model followed the dual sector model, which laid down the terms and conditions of determining commercial activities between developed and developing countries across the globe. Works Sir Arthur was one of the most prolific writers in Economics. He published 81 professional articles over the period 1941 to 1988, and wrote ten books. His 81 essays and collected in a three volume compilation edited by Dr. Patrick Emmanuel of the University of the West Indies, Institute of Social and Economic Research, and published in 1995. Some of his most important published works are: Economic Survey (1918-1939) Principle of Economic Planning, (1949) Theory of Economic Growth, (1955) Development Planning, (1966) Page 95 of 280 DMS


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The Agony of the Eight, (1965) Personal Life Sir Arthur Lewis married in 1947. His wife Gladys was born in Grenada. Her father was Antiguan and he was acquainted with Sir Arthur Lewisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents all his life. Gladys went to England in 1937 and trained as a teacher. They had two daughters, Elizabeth and Barbara. Death Sir Arthur died on Saturday, June 15, 1991, in Bridgetown Barbados, and was buried on the grounds of Saint Arthur Lewis Community College in St Lucia. The Cabinet of Ministers of St. Lucia took a decision in 1985 to name the newly integrated Morne Educational Complex, the Sir Arthur Lewis Community College, in commemoration of Sir Arthur Lewis. Overall Sir Arthur Lewis was born in Castries, Saint Lucia on January 23, 1915 to George Ferdinand Lewis and Ida Lewis were both school teachers. His

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parents, had migrated to St. Lucia from Antigua, therefore it is only reasonable to accept the fact that Sir Arthur Lewis can categorized as a child of an immigrant.

Chapter 7 General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

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N. Samuel Murrell has reported that165 the United States imported Jamaicans166to work on various projects in the 1800s and early twentieth century. Murrell made the salient point that Jamaicans migrated167 to the United States for many socio-economic reasons. In this context it is highly probable that many socio-economic reasons may have been one of the reasons that General Colin Powell, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parents migrated to the USA during the 1930â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. General Colin Luther Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, New York. The son of Jamaican immigrants Luther and Maud Powell, Colin was raised in the South Bronx. Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, and graduated from Morris High School in 1954 without any definite plans for where he wanted to go in life.

165

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html 167 http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html 166

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It is a fact that Colin Powell’s parents Maud Arial (née McKoy) and Luther Theophilus Powell168 immigrated to the United States of America. As a child of an immigrant he was subjected to segregation. Colin Powell stated for the record that “As a soldier, when I was not on a military base, yes. For the first several years I was in the army, we still had segregation169 in the country. Even though I was an officer serving in the army, there were restaurants I couldn't go into and motels I couldn't stay at, simply because I was black. I'm also sure there were people in the army who didn't like me because I was black. But the army had been integrated, we had our orders, and they were not allowed to show their racism or their feelings towards me.

168 169

http://www.biography.com/people/colin-powell-9445708 http://teacher.scholastic.com/barrier/powellchat/transcript.htm

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All I could do was my very, very best and show them that I was equal to them, and that they had no reason to discriminate against me because of my color.â&#x20AC;? Colin Powellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lived experienced of segregation was not isolated because it was a parallelism. For instance, just as Colin Powell had experienced this social ill likewise migrants from the Caribbean were experiencing the same. A case in point far from welcoming the migrants, British society revealed itself to be racist and hypocritical. West Indians found themselves discriminated against in employment, housing, leisure, education and in church. They were attacked by gangs of teddy boys170 and found a police force indifferent to their safety. When we examined the attitude meted out to the children of immigrants it is clear that the same is a characteristic consistent of human behavior. 170

Teddy Boy (also known as Ted) is a British subculture typified by young men wearing clothes that were partly inspired by the styles worn by dandies in the Edwardian period, which Savile Row tailors had attempted to re-introduce in Britain after World War II.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teddy_Boy

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The Law of Natural Segregation171 is an idea that has circulated among people of all races and backgrounds for years. Those who dare defend the nature of it are ridiculed and labeled as racist or intolerant however the law itself has nothing to do with neither race nor prejudice it is merely an observation that has proven to be part of instinctive human behavior. Further to add to this point as was highlighted by Arnold M. Rose that the ecological process which creates segregation172 on the basis of language culture, and race brings about segregation. â&#x20AC;&#x153; base upon vocational interest, upon intelligence and personal ambitions within racial group (21,p.170;9). As a result of this explanation we have some idea as to what the children of immigrants would have felt when segregation was meted out to them. Despite Colin Powellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lived experiences highlighted above yet he was still successful.

171

https://www.stormfront.org/forum/t637651/ Human Behavior and Social Processes: An Interactionist https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1136275940 Arnold M. Rose - 2013 SOCIAL SCIENCE

172

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Look what happened because of Colin’s parents’ decision. (a)He became a chief military strategist (b)He was able to develop what became known as the "Powell Doctrine," an approach to military conflicts that advocates using overwhelming force to maximize success and minimize casualties. (c)He continued as chairman of the Joint Chiefs in the first few months of the Clinton administration. (d) He publicly disagreed with the president on the issue of admitting gays into the military, although he eventually agreed to the "don't ask, don't tell" compromise. Military official/diplomat. Born Colin Luther Powell173 educated in the New York City public schools, and graduated from Morris High School in 1954 without any definite plans for where he wanted to go in life.

It was at City College of New York, where Powell studied geology, that he found his calling—in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). 173

http://www.biography.com/people/colin-powell-9445708

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He soon became commander of his unit. In the said year 1958 the year that the author of this text was born, Powell was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army. While stationed at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, Colin Powell met Alma Vivian Johnson of Birmingham, Alabama, and they married in 1962. In 1963, Powell was wounded by a punji-stick booby trap while patrolling the Vietnamese-Laotian border. During this first tour of duty, he was awarded a Purple Heart and, a year later, a Bronze Star. While on his second Vietnam tour of duty from 1968 to 1969, the 31year-old Army major was given the assignment of investigating the My Lai massacre. Reagan and Bush Administrations Powell earned an MBA at George Washington University, in Washington, D.C., and won a White House fellowship in 1972.

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He was assigned to the Office of Management and Budget during the Nixon administration and made a lasting impression on Caspar Weinberger and Frank Carlucci. Both men would consult Powell for advice when they served as secretary of defense and national security adviser, respectively, in the Reagan administration. Colonel Colin Powell served a tour of duty in Korea in 1973 as a battalion commander and after that, he obtained a staff job at the Pentagon. After study at the Army War College, he was promoted to brigadier general and commanded a brigade of the 101st Airborne Division. In the Carter administration, he was an assistant to the deputy secretary of defense and the secretary of energy. Promoted to major general, he again assisted Frank Carlucci at the Department of Defense during the transition from the Carter to the Reagan administration.

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He then served as senior military aide to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, helping to coordinate the invasion of Granada and the bombing of Libya. 1982 Powell was asked to testify before Congress about the incident, but he was not implicated in any wrongdoing. In 1987, Powell became national security adviser, a post he held for the duration of the Reagan administration. In 1989, President George H. W. Bush appointed General Colin Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staffs. The post is the highest military position in the Department of Defense, and Powell was the first African-American officer to receive that distinction. General Powell became a national figure during Desert Shield and Desert Storm operations in Iraq.

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As chief military strategist, he developed what became known as the "Powell Doctrine," an approach to military conflicts that advocates using overwhelming force to maximize success and minimize casualties. Powell continued as chairman of the Joint Chiefs in the first few months of the Clinton administration. Iraq Controversy Colin Powell retired from the Army in 1993. In 1994, he joined Senator Sam Nunn and former President Jimmy Carter on a last-minute peacekeeping expedition to Haiti, which resulted in the end of military rule and a peaceful return to elected government in that country. In 1995, he published a best-selling autobiography, My American Journey, which chronicles his life and its influences, the ins and outs of military bureaucracy, and what he learned in his life about personal rules and character.

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From 1997 to 2000, he was chairman of America's Promise, a nonprofit organization dedicated to fostering character and competence in young people. Powell and his wife, Alma, now co-chair the organization, which has a presence in more than 500 communities in all 50 states.

In 2000, President George W. Bush appointed Colin Powell secretary of state, and Powell was unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate. At that time, this was the highest rank in civilian government ever held by an African-American. In 2004, after acknowledging it was unlikely that Iraq possessed stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction, Powell announced his resignation as secretary of state. National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice was his successor. Retirement

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Since his retirement, Powell has remained vocal on political topics, openly criticizing the Bush administration on a number of issues. In September 2006, Powell joined moderate Senate Republicans in supporting more rights and better treatment for detainees at the Guantanamo detention facility. In October 2008, Colin Powell made headlines again when he announced his endorsement of Barack Obama for president.

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Chapter 8

Marco Rubio174 It is reported that Marco Antonio Rubio175 was born in Miami, Florida May 28, 1971. The facts are Marco Rubio is the son of Cuban immigrants. He is one of four children born to Cuban immigrants. Both of his parents worked hard to support the family.

174 175

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm3811944/bio https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio

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His father spent many years as a bartender and his mother held a number of service industry and retail jobs. Rubio has spent part of his childhood in Las Vegas, Nevada. The family, however, returned to Florida in the 1980s. It is reported that he has informed the press, that "I gained an interest in politics and history from my uncle, who would read books and newspapers out loud to us."

A stellar athlete, Rubio was a top football player at South Miami High School. He graduated in 1989 and earned a football scholarship to Tarkio College in Missouri. Rubio left the school after a year and eventually enrolled at the University of Florida.

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He was elected in the Florida House of Representatives the following year.

In 2009, Rubio won his campaign for the U.S. Senate.

Further, it must be highlighted that Rubio was considered the junior United States Senator from the state of Florida, serving since January 2011, and is a candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 election. He previously served as Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives. Political Career Rubio began his life in public service in 1998 by winning a seat on the West Miami City Commission. Before long, he made his ascent into state politics. Rubio was victorious in his bid for the Florida House of Representatives in 1999.

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He quickly established himself as a political force with the legislature, becoming the majority leader in 2003 and then speaker of the House three years later.

As the speaker, Rubio launched an ambitious campaign to generate ways to improve and reform the state government. He held a series of meetings around the state to hear and collect ideas from Florida residents. Pulling from these suggestions, Rubio put together a proposal called "100 Innovative Ideas for Florida's Future." He presented the proposal to the legislature and more than half of these ideas became laws. One of these reforms, however, didn't survive the political process. The fiscally conservative Rubio had lobbied for property tax reforms and for instituting a sales tax increase.

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In 2009, Rubio surprised many in Florida politics by taking on former Florida governor and Republican Charlie Crist for the Senate seat vacated by Mel Martinez. Rubio was viewed as the underdog, and he trailed the better-known Crist in the polls at first. But the well-spoken young politician hammered at Crist for his ties to President Barack Obama, and emphasized the state's dire need for economic change. "I'm in this race to win. Many of the things that make America unique are threatened by politicians in Washington, D.C. We're going to make irreversible decisions over the next four to six years. I want to be a part of correcting the course," he said during his campaign.

Late in the campaign, Rubio found himself retracting some of his statements about his family background. He had initially stated that his parents fled Cuba during the revolution.

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However, they had actually departed before Fidel Castro took power. This information had a negligible impact on his campaign because the voters seemed more taken with his pledges to curb federal spending.

With the help of Tea Party supporters, the reform-minded Rubio managed to win an impressive victory in November 2010. He defeated both Crist, who ran as an independent and Democratic opponent Kendrick Meek. Since taking office in 2011, Rubio has become a member of several legislative committees, including the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation; and the Committee on Foreign Relations.

Less than a year after taking office, Rubio became the subject of intense political speculation. There is that old clichĂŠ that history repeats itself. Case in point just as there was some speculation that he would be a possible running mate for Mitt Romney in his 2012 bid for the presidency.

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This speculation turned out to be false because it was Wisconsinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Representation Paul Ryan. Similarly, Rubioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name was also bandied about to be he would be a possible running mate for Donald Trump in his 2016 bid for the presidency.

Though Rubio has denied that he had any interest in the vicepresidential nomination, political analysts and members of the Republican Party thought he would have a good choice for the vice-presidential spot due to his representation of an important state in the national election and likely support from the Latino community.

Instead of joining the Romney campaign, Rubio focused on his work in the Senate. He has worked on immigration reform, joining a bipartisan effort to introduce the Border Security, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013.

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Rubio has also been an outspoken pro-life advocate. He introduced legislation in January 2015 to allow states to "enforce their parental notification and consent laws" when a minor travels to another state for an abortion, according to Rubio's official website. Presidential Ambitions In April 2015, Rubio announced his plans to run for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination. In a speech delivered in Miami, he explained why he decided to seek the country's highest office. "We've reached a moment now, not just in my career, but the history of our country, where I believe that it needs a Republican Party that is new and vibrant, that understands the future, has an agenda for that future," Rubio said. "And I feel uniquely qualified to offer that."

In his bid for the Republican nomination, Rubio faces competition from fellow senators Ted Cruz and Rand Paul, both of whom have already announced their candidacies.

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He may also have battle his onetime mentor Jeb Bush. While he was brought into office with Tea Party support, he seems to have shifted to a more moderate conservative position. This may help Rubio attract more moderate Republicans to his campaign, but some wonder if it will cost him his original voter base. With a crowded field of contenders, Rubio was one of the ten top candidates who participated in a Fox News presidential debate in early August. Personal Life Rubio and his wife, Jeanette, live in West Miami with their four children: Amanda, Daniella, Anthony and Dominic. The couple has been married since 1998. Outside of politics, Rubio is known for his passion for football. He is a die-hard Miami Dolphins fan and his wife was once a cheerleader for the team. Marco Antonio Rubio176 (born May 28, 1971) is the junior United States Senator from the state of Florida, serving since January 2011, and is a

176

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio

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candidate for President of the United States in the 2016 election. He previously served as Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives.

Rubio is a Cuban American native of Miami. He graduated from the University of Florida and the University of Miami School of Law. In the late 1990s, he served as a City Commissioner for West Miami and was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 2000, representing the 111th House district. Later in 2000, Rubio was promoted to be one of two majority whips, and in 2002 was appointed House Majority Leader by Speaker Johnnie Byrd.

Rubio was elected Speaker of the Florida House in September 2005, and served as Speaker for two years. Upon leaving the Florida legislature in 2008, Rubio started a new law firm, and also began teaching at Florida International University, where he continues as an adjunct professor.

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Rubio ran for United States Senate in 2010, and won that election. In the U.S. Senate, he chairs the Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, as well as the Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy, Human Rights and Global Women's Issues. He is one of three Latino Americans serving in the Senate.

On April 13, 2015, Rubio announced that he would forgo seeking reelection to the Senate to run for President, he however sought the Republican nomination in the 2016 primaries but was unsuccessful.

Rubio was born in Miami, Florida177the second son and third child of Mario Rubio Reina178 and Oriales (nĂŠe Garcia) Rubio.

177 178

Linkins, Jason (October 20, 2011). "Marco Rubio, Bobby Jindal Become Focus Of Bipartisan Birthers". The Huffington Post. Manuel Roig-Franzia. The Rise of Marco Rubio. Simon & Schuster. p. 26. ISBN 978-1451675450.

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His parents were Cubans who immigrated to the United States in 1956, prior to the rise of Fidel Castro in January 1959179. His mother made at least four trips back after Castro’s victory, including for a month in 1961.180 Neither of his parents was a U.S. citizen at the time of Rubio’s birth,181 but

ultimately

his

parents

applied

for

U.S.

citizenship

and

were naturalized in 1975.182 Marco has three siblings: older brother Mario, older sister Barbara (married to Orlando Cicilia), and younger sister Veronica (formerly married to Carlos Ponce)183. It is reported that growing up, his family was Roman Catholic, though from age 8 to age 11 he and his family attended the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints while living in Las Vegas184.

179

Roig-Franzia, Manuel (October 21, 2011). "Marco Rubio's compelling family story embellishes facts, documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2011. See also Live Chat: Marco Rubio's embellished family story, The Washington Post (October 24, 2011). 180 Roig-Franzia, Manuel (October 21, 2011). "Marco Rubio's compelling family story embellishes facts, documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2011. See also Live Chat: Marco Rubio's embellished family story, The Washington Post (October 24, 2011). 181 "Marco Rubio Once Benefitted From Birthright Citizenship, Now He’s Open to Restricting It". National Journal. August 18, 2015. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 182 Roig-Franzia, Manuel (October 21, 2011). "Marco Rubio's compelling family story embellishes facts, documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2011. See also Live Chat: Marco Rubio's embellished family story, The Washington Post (October 24, 2011). 183 O'keefe, Ed. "Who’s in Marco Rubio’s inner circle?", Washington Post (April 13, 2015).

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What is also critical that during those years in Nevada, his father worked as a bartender at Sam's Town Hotel and his mother a housekeeper at the Imperial Palace Hotel and Casino.185 He received his first communion as a Catholic in 1984, before moving back to Miami with his family a year later. He was confirmed and married in the Catholic Church.186 Rubio attended South Miami Senior High School, graduating in 1989. He

then

attended Tarkio

College in

Missouri

for

one

year

on

a football scholarship from 1989 to 1990, before enrolling at Santa Fe Community College (now Santa Fe College) in Gainesville, Florida. He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the University

of

Florida in

1993,

and

his J.D. degree cum

laude from

the University of Miami School of Law in 1996.187

184

Burr, Thomas (June 18, 2012). "Marco Rubio's book explains why he left Mormonism". Salt Lake Tribune. "Marco Rubio About". Marco Rubio Senator. Retrieved November 19, 2014. Marrapodi, Erin (February 23, 2012). "Sen. Marco Rubio's religious journey: Catholic to Mormon to Catholic to Baptist and Catholic". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2012. "Representative Marco Rubio". Florida House of Representatives. 187 Bennett, George (October 2, 2010). "Republican candidate Marco Rubio casts U.S. Senate race as battle for America". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved February 19, 2014. "Marco Rubio â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Biography" (PDF). Republican Business Council. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 185 186

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Rubio has said that his education resulted in $100,000 of student loans, which he paid off in 2012188. Consequently, while studying law, Rubio interned for U.S. Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen.189 He also worked on Republican Senator Bob Dole's 1996 presidential campaign.190 In April 1998, two years out of law school and 26 years old, Rubio was elected to a seat as City Commissioner for West Miami before moving on to the Florida House of Representatives in early 2000191.

At this juncture in 1998 Rubio married his high school sweetheart, Jeanette Dousdebes, a former bank teller and Miami Dolphins

188

"Transcript: Marco Rubio's State of the Union Response". ABC News. February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013. Clark, Lesley (January 5, 2011). "Miami's Marco Rubio becomes new Florida senator". The Miami Herald. Retrieved August 24, 2011. 190 O'Keefe, Ed (April 10, 2014). "In South Florida, Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio are forcing locals to pick sides". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2014. Leary, Alex (October 9, 2010). "Marco Rubio's meteoric rise in Florida politics". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 191 Samuels, Robert. "The story behind Marco Rubioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frustrating first job as a politician", The Washington Post (July 30, 2015). Mishak, Michael. "What Kind of Leader Is Marco Rubio? An Investigation; A look at what happens when the Florida senator wields power", National Journal (November 5, 2015). 189

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cheerleader, in a Catholic ceremony at the Church of the Little Flower, and together they have four children.192 Rubio and his family live in West Miami, Florida.193 When he was 8 years old and living in Las Vegas, Rubio joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon), but he returned to Catholicism after receiving his first communion at 13 years old.194 Rubio

attends Christ

Fellowship,

a Southern

Baptist Church195

in West Kendall, Florida,196 as well as Catholic Mass at Church of the Little Flower in Coral Gables, Florida.197

In an interview in 2012, it is reported that Marco Rubio said: "I'm a Roman Catholic. I'm theologically in line with the Roman Catholic Church. I believe in the authority of the church, but I also have tremendous respect for my brothers and sisters in other Christian faiths. I recognize, as the Catholic Church 192

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1 "Representative Marco Rubio". Florida House of Representatives. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1 195 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1 196 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1 197 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1 193 194

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does, that there are excellent teachings of the Word throughout other denominations. The elements of salvation are found in these churches as well." 198 Mr.Rubio believes that â&#x20AC;&#x153;Americans chose a limited government that exists to protect our rights, not to grant them.â&#x20AC;?

In October 2011, newspapers reported that Rubio's previous statements that his parents were forced to leave Cuba in 1959, after Fidel Castro came to power, were incorrect.

His parents left Cuba in 1956, during the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. According to The Washington Post, Rubio's "embellishments" resonated with many voters in Florida, and the newspaper claimed they would be less

198

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio#cite_note-1

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impressed by his family being economic migrants instead of political refugees from a communist regime199. Rubio responded: "The real essence of my family's story is not about the date my parents first entered the United States. Or whether they travelled back and forth between the two nations. Or even the date they left Fidel Castro's Cuba forever and permanently settled here. The essence of my family story is why they came to America in the first place, and why they had to stay."200 In late 1999, a special election was called to fill the seat for the 111th House District in the Florida House of Representatives, representing Miami. Rubio served almost nine years in the Florida House of Representatives. At the time Rubio took his seat in the legislature in Tallahassee in January 2000.

200

Rubio, Marco (October 21, 2011). "My family's flight from Castro". Politico. Retrieved February 14, 2013.

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In December 2002, Rubio was appointed House Majority Leader by Speaker Johnnie Byrd.201 On September 13, 2005, at the age of 34,202 Rubio clinched the Speakership after State Representatives Dennis Baxley, Jeff Kottkamp, and Dennis A. Ross dropped out. He was actually sworn in over a year later, in November 2006. He became the first Cuban American to be speaker of the Florida House of Representatives, and would remain speaker until November 2008. 203 At the time Rubio took office as speaker, Jeb Bush was completing his term as governor, however Bush departed office in January 2007.

In 2006, Florida enacted into law limitations upon the authority of the state government to take private property, in response to the 2005 Supreme Court decision in Kelo v. City of New London which took a broad view of governmental power to take private property under eminent domain.

201

"Dade Hispanics Set to Get Top Posts in House". Nl.newsbank.com. December 10, 2002. Retrieved September 9, 2012. "Two S. Florida Democrats To Lead Senate Committees". Nl.newsbank.com. December 18, 2002. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 202 "The Speaker". National Journal. July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. 203 Fineout, Gary (November 15, 2003). "Baxley backs off House leader bid". Ocala.com. Retrieved September 2, 2012.

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This state legislation had been proposed by a special committee chaired by Rubio prior to his speakership204.

After leaving the Florida Legislature in 2008, Rubio started his own law firm.205 He began teaching in 2011 under a fellowship appointment at Florida International University (FIU) as an adjunct professor206 in the Department of Politics and International Relations, which is part of FIU's Steven J. Green School of International and Public Affairs. He has taught four undergraduate courses per year, on Florida politics, political parties, and legislative politics.207

On May 5, 2009, Rubio announced on his website that he planned to run for the United States Senate seat being vacated by Mel MartĂ­nez, who had announced that he would not seek reelection. 204

When Rubio Was the Man of Florida's House". National Review. April 13, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. Reinhard, Beth (May 22, 2010). "Rubio's income grew with his political clout, tax records show". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 206 Leary, Alex (April 20, 2012). "At Florida International University, GOP rising star Sen. Marco Rubio is professor Rubio". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved February 19, 2014. 207 Bennett, George. U.S. Sen. Marco Rubio's teaching post at FIU draws scrutiny, Palm Beach Post (June 13, 2011). Alex Leary, Sen. Marco Rubio returns to teaching at FIU, Tampa Bay Times (June 2, 2011). 205

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Martinez subsequently announced (in August 2009) that he would resign before completing his term, and upon his resignation was replaced by George LeMieux.

On November 2, 2010, Rubio won the general election. In 2013, Rubio was part of the bipartisan "Gang of Eight" Senators that crafted comprehensive immigration reform legislation.208

In the U.S. Senate, he chairs the Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, as well as the Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy, Human Rights and Global Women's Issues.209

208

Amy Sherman, Marco Rubio says he never supported the sequester, PolitiFact (November 26, 2013). Wagner, Dennis (February 26, 2015). "Veterans propose major changes in VA health care". USA Today (USA TODAY). Retrieved April 19, 2015. King Jr., Neil (March 13, 2015). "Lee-Rubio Plan Gives Life to 2016 Tax Debate". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 24, 2015. 209

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Rubio stated in April 2014 that he would not run for both the Senate and President in 2016, as Florida law prohibits a candidate from appearing twice on a ballot, but at that time he did not rule out running for either office.210 It was reported that President Obama and his family arrived in Cuba211 for the first presidential visit to the country in 88 years. Ahead of the visit, Senator Marco Rubio (R-FL), the son of Cuban immigrants, took to Facebook to explain why he feels as though the visit is "one of the most disgraceful trips ever taken by a U.S. president." Rubio makes fair points. Obama's itinerary for his Cuba trip is basically a kid's gloves, least controversy as possible type of visit. Everyday Cubans are still living under a dictatorship, and it's entirely possible that all the visit is going to do is stoke the egos of the people in power-not improve things for the little guy.

210

"Absentee ballot: Ted Cruz a no-show at most committee meetings, floor votes". Fox News Channel. April 23, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2015. "In February, an analysis carried out by Vocativ in partnership with GovTrack.us, showed that Rubio beats Cruz as the senator most absent from chambers, having missed 99, or 8.3 percent, of 1,198 total votes since taking office in January 2011 to February of this year." 211 townhall.com/tipsheet/christinerousselle/2016/03/20/marco-rubio-obamas-cuba-trip-is-a-disgrace-n2136923

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Chapter 9

Bernard "Bernie" Sanders Bernard "Bernie" Sanders212 was born September 8, 1941.

212

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernie_Sanders

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He

is

an

American politician and United

States

Senator from Vermont.

Mr. Sanders was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. His father, Eli Sanders, was born on September 19, 1904, in Słopnice, Poland, 213 to a Jewish family, and immigrated to the United States in 1921,214 at the age of seventeen.215

216

His mother, Dorothy Sanders (née Glassberg), was born in New York City

on

October

2,

1912,217to Jewish

immigrant

parents

from

Poland and Russia.218 Many of Eli's relatives who remained in Poland were killed in the Holocaust.219 220 221 222

213

Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015). Smith, Nicola (January 17, 2016). "Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton". Sunday Times (London). Retrieved January 22, 2016 214 "When Danny Lyon met Bernie Sanders". phaidon. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 215 Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015). 216 Kruse, Michael (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today". Politico. Retrieved July 18, 2015. After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Student Peace Union and the Young People's Socialist League. 217 Nichols, John (July 6, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Speaks". The Nation. Retrieved July 19, 2015. Jump up Tim Murphy (February 11, 2016). "Here’s What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 11, 2016. 218 Frizell, Sam (May 26, 2015). "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders". Time. Retrieved September 10, 2015. Jump up Perlstein, Rick (January 2015). "A political education". The University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 219 Chana, Jas (August 20, 2015). "Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story". Tablet (magazine). Retrieved January 20, 2016. Soltys told them that at the time the Nazis invaded Poland, Romek was the leader of Slopnice’s Jewish community. “Which of

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Sanders attended elementary school at P.S. 197 in Brooklyn, where he won a borough championship on the basketball team.223 He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons, and celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954. Sanders attended James Madison High School, also in Brooklyn, where he was captain of the track team and finished in third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race.224 It was reported that during his high school tenure, Sanders lost his first election, finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency.

Sanders's mother died in June 1959 at the age of 46, shortly after Sanders graduated from high school.225 Sanders's father later died on August 4, 1962, a month short of his 58th birthday.226

course,” Larry said, “meant he was one of the first to be killed.” 220 Kruse, Michael (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today". Politico. Retrieved July 18, 2015. After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Student Peace Union and the Young People's Socialist League. 221 Tim Murphy (February 11, 2016). "Here’s What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement". Mother Jones. Retrieved February 11, 2016. 222 Craven, Jasper (August 26, 2015). "Can Sanders’ civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. 223 Frizell, Sam. "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders", Time (May 26, 2015). Jump up Sanders, Bernie. "News August 25". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 224 Frizell, Sam. "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders", Time (May 26, 2015).

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He is a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

A Democrat as

of

2015227, Sanders

had

been

the

longest-

serving independent in U.S. congressional history, though his caucusing with the Democrats entitled him to committee assignments and at times gave Democrats a majority.228 Sanders has been the ranking minority member on the Senate Budget Committee since January 2015, and previously served for two years as chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee.229 Sanders

was

born

and

raised

in

the New

York

City borough of Brooklyn.

225

Craven, Jasper (August 26, 2015). "Can Sanders’ civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Tribune. ISSN 10856706. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. 226 Smith, Nicola (January 17, 2016). "Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton". Sunday Times (London). Retrieved January 22, 2016. 227 http://www.sanders.senate.gov/download/press-package? 228

Blomquist, Dan; Robert Way (November 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary". Boston Globe. "Sanders arrived at the State House... accompanied by Raymond Buckley, chairman of the New Hampshire Democratic Party, who was there to support Sanders' filing in case any challenges were made to his status as a member of the party. None occurred." 229 Horowitz, Jason (July 24, 2015). "Bernie Sanders’s ‘100% Brooklyn’ Roots Are as Unshakable as His Accent". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved February 18, 2016. "Bernie Sanders". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved February 18, 2016.

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While a student, he was an active civil rights protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.230

After settling in Vermont in 1968, Sanders ran unsuccessful thirdparty campaigns for governor and U.S. senator in the early to mid-1970s. As an independent, he was elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont's most populous city, in 1981, and was reelected three times.

In 1990, he was elected to represent Vermont's at-large congressional district in the United States of America House of Representatives. In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus. He served as a congressman for 16 years before being elected to the United States of America Senate in 2006. In 2012, he was reelected with 71% of the popular vote.

230

"Bernie Sanders Biography". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved February 18, 2016. "SANDERS, Bernard (1941 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives' Office of History and Preservation and the Office of the Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved February 18, 2016.

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Sanders

rose

to

national

prominence

following

his

2010 filibuster231 against the proposed extension of the Bush tax cuts. Mr. democratic parties countries,232

Sanders in

favors

Europe;

policies

similar

particularly those

to

those

instituted

of social

by the Nordic

and is a leading progressive voice on issues such as income

inequality,233 universal healthcare, parental leave, climate change,234 LGBT rights, and campaign finance reform.235

Sanders has long been critical of United States of America foreign policy and was an early and outspoken opponent of the Iraq War. He is also outspoken on civil rights and civil liberties, and has been particularly

critical

231

of racial

discrimination

in

the

criminal

justice

Rappeport, Alan (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 9.Jump up Hartmann, Margaret. "Independent Senator Bernie Sanders May Challenge Hillary in 2016". New York. Retrieved September 18, 2015. 232 Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2015. 233 "Bessie Glassberg (Goldberg)". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016. 234 "Benjamin Glassberg". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016. "Birthplace: Radzyn Podlaski, RadzyĹ&#x201E; Podlaski County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland" 235 "The 2016 Money Game". New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2016.

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system236 and mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act237 and the NSA surveillance programs.238

Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959â&#x20AC;&#x201C;60239 before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science in 1964.240

Sanders' older brother, Larry, has recalled that during Bernie's childhood, the family never lacked for food or clothing, but major purchases, "like curtains or a rug," were difficult to afford.241

It was reported that Sanders has said that he became interested in politics at an early age: "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932.

236

Healy, Patrick; Martin, Jonathan (June 24, 2015). "Bernie Sanders a Virtual Unknown Among Black Voters". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 237 "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534". Office of the clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved July 18, 2007. 238 "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614". US House of Representatives. Office of the clerk. Retrieved November 17, 2014. 239 Pengelly, Martin (May 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: 'Maybe I shouldn't say this: I like Hillary Clinton'". The Guardian. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 240 Pengelly, Martin (May 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: 'Maybe I shouldn't say this: I like Hillary Clinton'". The Guardian. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 241 Wilkie, Christina (July 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Hints At What A Sanders Administration Cabinet Could Look Like". The Huffington Post.

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He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important"242. Early political activism While at the University of Chicago, Sanders joined the Young People's Socialist League,243 the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America, and was active in the Civil Rights Movement as a student organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.244

Sanders attended the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King, Junior gave his "I Have a Dream" speech.245 246

242

Craven, Jasper (August 26, 2015). "Can Sandersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Frizell, Sam. "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders", Time (May 26, 2015). Sanders, Bernie. "News August 25". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 17, 2015. 243 Pierce, Charlie (December 18, 2015). "Why Did the DNC Let the Bernie-Hillary Tech Story Leak?". Esquire. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 244 "Bernie Sanders Candidate Summary, 2016 Cycle". Open Secrets. January 31, 2016. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. 7. Jump up to: a b Kelly, Erin (April 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: 'I am running in this election to win'". USA Today. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 245 "Bernie Sanders Candidate Summary, 2016 Cycle". Open Secrets. January 31, 2016. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016.

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That summer, he was convicted of resisting arrest during a demonstration against segregation in Chicago's public schools and was fined $25.247

In addition to his civil rights activism during the 1960s and 1970s, Sanders was active in several peace and antiwar movements. He was a member of the Student

Nonviolent

Coordinating

Committee and

the Student

Peace

Union while attending the University of Chicago.

Sanders applied for conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War; his application was eventually turned down, by which point he was too old to be drafted. Although he opposed the war, Sanders never placed any blame on those who fought and has been a strong supporter of veterans' benefits.248

246

Clinton hangs on in revised Iowa caucus results". TheHill. 41.Jump up "New Hampshire Primary Results" (2016-02-12). NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-20. 247 Patrick Healy and Jonathan Martin (February 10, 2016). "Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Win the New Hampshire Primaries". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2016. "...Mr. Sanders was the choice, nearly unanimously, among voters who said it was most important to have a candidate who is â&#x20AC;&#x153;honest and trustworthy.â&#x20AC;?" 248 "A Democratic Socialist Just Won The New Hampshire Primary". The Huffington Post. February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 44.Jump up "Bernie Sanders becomes first Jewish, non-Christian candidate to win U.S. primary". The Week. February 9, 2016. Retrieved

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In 1980, at the suggestion of his close friend and political confidante Richard Sugarman, a professor of religion at the University of Vermont, Sanders ran for mayor of Burlington, Vermont.

The 39-year-old Sanders ran against incumbent Democratic mayor Gordon "Gordie" Paquette, a 5-term mayor who had served as a member of the Burlington City Council for 13 years before that, building extensive community ties and a willingness to cooperate with Republican leaders in controlling appointments to various commissions.249

Indeed, the Republicans had found Paquette so unobjectionable that they had failed to even field a candidate in the March 1981 race against him, leaving Sanders as the principal opponent to the long-entrenched mayor.250

February 9, 2016. 249 Eric Lichtblau (August 25, 2015). "Bernie Sanders’s Success in Attracting Small Donors Tests Importance of ‘Super PACs’". The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, 2015. 250 Keith, Tamara (October 1, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Raises $26 Million In 3rd Quarter, Nearly As Much As Clinton". NPR. Retrieved October 3, 2015.

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Sanders' effort was further aided by the decision of the candidate of the Citizens Party, Greg Guma, to exit the race so as not to split the progressive vote in the mayoral race.251

Two other candidates in the race, independents Richard Bove and Joe McGrath, proved to be essentially non-factors in the campaign, with the battle coming down to a battle between Paquette and Sanders.252 Sanders castigated the pro-development incumbent as an ally of prominent shopping center developer Antonio Pomerleau, while Mayor Paquette promised ruin for Burlington if Sanders was elected.253 The Sanders campaign was bolstered by a wave of optimistic volunteers as well as by a series of endorsements from university professors, social welfare agencies, and the police union.254

251

Matea Gold (January 31, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Campaign brings in Jaw-Dropping $20 million in January". Washington Post. Retrieved February 11, 2016. 252 Tom LoBianco (February 10, 2016). "Sanders campaign raised $6.4 million after New Hampshire polls closed". CNN. Retrieved February 11, 2016. 253 100,000 people have come to recent Bernie Sanders rallies. How does he do it?". Washington Post. August 11, 2015. 254 Peter and Ballhaus, Rebecca (June 16, 2015). "Bernie Sandersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Long-Shot Campaign Is Picking Up Speed". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 22, 2015.

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The final result came as a shock to the local political establishment, with the maverick Sanders winning election by a final margin of just 10 votes.255

Sanders would ultimately be reelected three times, defeating both Democratic and Republican candidates. He received 53% of the vote in 1983 and 55% in 1985.256

In his final run for mayor in 1987, Sanders defeated Paul Lafayette, a Democrat endorsed by both major parties.257

During his years as mayor, Sanders called himself a socialist and was so described in the press.258

255

Tamara Keith (June 15, 2015). Bernie Sanders 'Stunned' By Large Crowds Showing Up For Him. NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015. We Are People for Bernie". People for Bernie Sanders. Archived from the original on December 29, 2015. Wagner, John (June 15, 2015). "Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015. 258 Wagner, John (June 15, 2015). "Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015. 256 257

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During the 1980s, Sanders was a staunch critic of U.S. foreign policy in Latin America.259

Sanders's administration balanced the city budget and drew a minor league baseball team, the Vermont Reds, then the Double-An affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds, to Burlington.260

Under Sanders's leadership, Burlington sued the local television cable franchise, winning reduced rates for customers.261

As mayor, Sanders led extensive downtown revitalization projects. One of his signature achievements was the improvement of Burlington's Lake Champlain waterfront.262

259

"Bernie Sanders Draws Crowd of 15,000 in Seattle Following Black Lives Matter Protest". Bloomberg. August 9, 2015. Gram, Dave (April 30, 2015). "Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders: 'I am running for president'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 261 Gram, Dave (April 30, 2015). "Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders: 'I am running for president'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 262 Gram, Dave (April 30, 2015). "Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders: 'I am running for president'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 260

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In 1981, Sanders campaigned against the unpopular plans by Burlington developer Tony Pomerleau to convert the then-industrial263 waterfront property owned by the Central Vermont Railway into expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices.264

Sanders ran under the slogan "Burlington is not for sale" and successfully supported a plan that redeveloped the waterfront area into a mixeduse district featuring housing, parks, and public space.265 Today, the waterfront area includes many parks and miles of public beach and bike paths, a boathouse, and a science center.266 In

1986,

Sanders

unsuccessfully

challenged

incumbent

Governor Madeleine Kunin (D) in her run for reelection.

263

"Meet the Press Transcript". NBC News. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016. Kaufman, Scott Eric (November 16, 2015). "Cornel West tears into hypocritical 'sister Clinton' while filling in for Bernie Sanders at an Iowa BBQ". Salon. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 265 Kaufman, Scott Eric (November 16, 2015). "Cornel West tears into hypocritical 'sister Clinton' while filling in for Bernie Sanders at an Iowa BBQ". Salon. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 266 Kaufman, Scott Eric (November 16, 2015). "Cornel West tears into hypocritical 'sister Clinton' while filling in for Bernie Sanders at an Iowa BBQ". Salon. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 264

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Running as an Independent, Sanders finished in 3rd place with 14.4% of the vote. Kunin won with 47%, followed by Lt. Governor Peter P. Smith (R) with 38%.

In 1987, U.S. News ranked Sanders as one of America's best mayors267 and Burlington is today regarded as one of the most livable cities in the nation.268

After serving four two-year terms, Sanders chose not to seek reelection

in

1989.

He

briefly

taught

political

science

at Harvard

University's Kennedy School of Government that year and at Hamilton College in 1991.269

267

"The Problem for Bernie Sanders: The Narrow Lane to Hillary Clintonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Left". The New York Times. May 1, 2015. DeCosta-Klipa, Nik (August 25, 2015). "Second straight poll shows Bernie Sanders leading in New Hampshire". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 72.Jump up Battenfeld, Joe (August 11, 2015). "Poll: Bernie Sanders surges ahead of Hillary Clinton in N.H., 44-37". Boston Herald. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 269 "New Hampshire 2016 Democratic Primary". RealClearPolitics. August 28, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015. 268

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Liberty Union campaigns Sanders began his political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party, which originated in the anti-war movement and the People's Party. He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate for U.S. senator in 1972 and 1974.270

In the 1974 Senatorial race, Sanders finished third (5,901 votes; 4.1%) behind

the

Leahy (D,

victor, VI;

33-year-old Chittenden

70,629

votes;

49.4%),

County State's and

two-term

Attorney Patrick incumbent

U.S.

Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66,223 votes; 46.3%).271

The 1976 campaign proved to be the zenith of Liberty Union's influence, with Sanders collecting 11,000 votes for Governor and the party forcing the races for Lieutenant Governor and Secretary of State to be decided by the state 270

Krieg, Gregory (February 10, 2016) [1st pub. February 5, 2016]. "Bernie Sanders is first Jewish candidate to win a primary. Does he care?". CNN. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016. 271 Bradner, Eric (April 30, 2015). "Sanders doesn't want billionaires' backing". CNN. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 47. Jump up to: a b Zaru, Deena (May 6, 2015). "Election 2016: Who are the richest candidates?". CNN.

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legislature

when

its

vote

total

prevented

either

the

Republican or Democratic candidates for those offices from garnering a majority of votes.272

The campaign drained the finances and energy of the Liberty Union, however, and in October 1977 — less than a year after the conclusion of the 1976 campaign — Sanders and the Liberty Union candidate for Attorney General, Nancy Kaufman, announced their retirement from the party.273

Following his resignation from Liberty Union, Sanders worked as a writer and the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society (APHS).274 Sanders' 1990 victory was heralded by the Washington Post and others as the "First Socialist Elected" to the United States House of Representatives in decades.275 272

Bernard Sanders (1979). Eugene V. Debs: Trade Unionist, Socialist, Revolutionary, 1855–1926 – Introduction on YouTube. Retrieved July 13, 2015. 273 Guma, The People's Republic, pp. 31, 36. 274 Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 33

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Sanders served in the House from 1991 until he became a senator in 2007. Elections In 1988, incumbent Republican Congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the United States of America Senate, vacating the House seat representing Vermont's at-large congressional district. Former Lieutenant Governor Peter P. Smith (R) won the House election with a plurality, securing 41% of the vote. Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democratic State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19% of the vote.276

Tenure During his first year in the House, Sanders often alienated allies and colleagues with his criticism of both political parties as working primarily on behalf of the wealthy. 275

"WSJ Sanders Profile". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 75.Jump up Daly, Christopher B. (November 11, 1990). "For Vermont's Sanders, Victory Followed Long Path; First Socialist Elected to House in Decades Gets Attention With Frank Talk of Class Conflict". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2016. (subscription required (help)). 276 Pertman, Adam (November 11, 1990). "'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist". Boston Globe.

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In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, a group of mostly liberal Democrats that Sanders chaired for its first eight years277.

Religion Sanders had a Jewish upbringing, attended Hebrew school, and had a bar mitzvah ceremony278. In

1963,

in

cooperation

with

the Labor

Zionist youth

movement Hashomer Hatzair, he and his first wife volunteered at Shaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ar HaAmakim, a kibbutz in northern Israel.279

Sanders have described himself as a secular Jew.280

Bernie Sanders said:

281

I am who I am, and what I believe in and what my

spirituality is about is that weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re all in this together. That I think it is not a good 277

"Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. August 20, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. Tumulty, Karen (September 24, 2015). "Hey Bernie Sanders, are you a feminist?". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2016. Lavender, Paige (July 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: GOP Efforts To Defund Planned Parenthood 'An Attack On Women's Health'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2015. Thomas, Ken (August 16, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Vows To Better Address Racism". The Huffington Post. Issues: Racial Justice. BernieSanders.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 280 Bernie Sanders declares war on the prison-industrial complex with major new bill. Salon. September 17, 2015. Bernie Sanders (September 22, 2015). We Must End For-Profit Prisons. The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2015. Bernie Sanders Wants to Abolish the Death Penalty. Vice. October 30, 2015. 278 279

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thing to believe as human beings we can turn our backs on the suffering of other people ... and this is not Judaism; this is what Pope Francis is talking about, that we canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just worship billionaires and the making of more and more money. Life is more than that. In 2016 he stated he had "very strong religious and spiritual feelings" and explained, "My spirituality is that we are all in this together and that when children go hungry, when veterans sleep out on the street, it impacts me".282

Sanders's wife is Roman Catholic, and he has frequently expressed admiration for Pope Francis, saying that "the leader of the Catholic Church is raising profound issues. It is important that we listen to what he has said."

It was reported that Sanders said he feels "very close" to Francis's economic teachings, describing him as "incredibly smart and brave"283284. Overall Sanders seems to be a nurturer of the grassroots. He hits the campaign trail with a 281

Bernie Sanders at People's Climate March: To Stop Global Warming, Get Dirty Money Out of Politics. Democracy now! September 22, 2014. Greenhouse, Emily (May 12, 2015). "Getting to Know Jane Sanders, Wife of Bernie". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 283 "Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. August 20, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015. 284 Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders Is 'Fun Grandpa': 5 Things We Learned at His Home : People.com". PEOPLE.com. 282

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fervor that most candidates reserve for fundraising. He literally immerses himself into the crowds and delivers passionate speeches that resonate with voters. Not to mention the fact that his campaign team makes appearances real political events where like-minded voters and activists come together to fight for a cause.

Chapter 10 The Honourable David John Howard Thompson Page 150 of 280 DMS


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Scores and scores of people arrived at a time when Britain285 itself was engaged in post-war reconstruction of its housing, industrial and transport infra-structure and building up the National Health Service.

Britain needed labour. Reluctant at first to encourage labour from the Commonwealth, Britain finally conceded and from the 1950s promoted herself as a source of employment, actively recruiting in certain key industries.

The Barbados government also actively encouraged and facilitated its population to secure training and employment in Britain. The annals of history has recorded that Barbadosâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; former prime minister the late the Honourable David John Howard Thompson was born in London.286

285

Teddy Boy (also known as Ted) is a British subculture typified by young men wearing clothes that were partly inspired by the styles worn by dandies in the Edwardian period, which Savile Row tailors had attempted to re-introduce in Britain after World War II.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teddy_Boy

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Likewise, the late Thompson and the late Walter Tull Junior

287

have somethings in common. They were born in England and their parents emigrated from Barbados to England. It is recorded that Daniel Tull, Walter’s father resided at My Lord’s Hill, St. Michael Barbados. He functioned as an apprentice carpenter. However, Daniel288 immigrated to St. Lucia first and subsequently England in the 1860s. The facts are Daniel was looking for a better life since the life in Barbados was certainly not what he anticipated. Likewise Mr. Thompson’s parents emigrated from Barbados to England. His parents namely Charles Thompson, an Afro-Barbadian porter and painter,289 his mother Margaret Knight,290 a white Barbadian author, secretary

286 b c

"Thompson: 'much at stake for Barbados'", BBC Caribbean, 16 January 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Tull 288 http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 287

289 bc 290

N.B./B.W. (24 October 2010). "Little brother’s death ‘tough’". Nation Newspaper. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Site admin (2008). "David John Howard Thompson – A Man Whose Time has Come". DLP. Retrieved 17 September 2010. J. R. T. (18 January 2010). "Seven Barbadians honoured by DLP". Barbados Advocate. Retrieved 17 September 2010.

Site admin. "Mum’s hope". Nation Newspaper. Retrieved 17 September 2010.

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and nurse291by profession. Born in Barbados in 1931, Margaret Knight was educated in Barbados and England.

After studying nursing in London, she trained as a secretary and joined the Barbados Rediffusion Service292 Charles and Margaret used their professions to support their family. It was reported that Mr. Thompson attended primary school at St Gabrielâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Junior School and secondary school at Combermere School.293 He earned a Legal Education Certificate from Hugh Wooding Law School. 294 Thompson graduated with honors from the University of the West Indies law school in 1984.295 He was admitted to the Barbados bar in 1984 and taught as a part-time tutor in law at the University of the West Indies from 1986 to 1988.296 291

Site admin (2008). "David John Howard Thompson â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A Man Whose Time has Come". DLP. Retrieved 17 September 2010. https://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/MargaretKnight 293 Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 294 Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 295 Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 292

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His law firm was Thompson & Associates.297 Thompson was married to Mara Thompson (nĂŠe Giraudy),298 who was born in Saint Lucia.299 The couple had three daughters - Misha, Oya and Osa-Marie.300 Thompson came to politics in a by-election after the death of the Prime Minister Errol Walton Barrow during Erskine Sandiford's term as Prime Minister; Thompson served as Minister of Community Development and Culture from 1991 to 1993 among other areas.

Thompson became leader of the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) when Sandiford resigned after losing a parliamentary no confidence motion. Thompson unsuccessfully led the Democratic Labour Party in elections in 1994 and 1999.

296

Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. Mara steps out front". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 7 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 298 Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 299 Singh, Rickey (23 October 2010). "Death of third Barbados PM in 25 years". Trinidad Express. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 300 Bio on late PM David Thompson". The Daily Nation (Barbados). 23 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010. 297

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The Democratic Labour Party won the general election held on 15 January 2008 with 20 seats against 10 for the Barbados Labour Party, which was led by former Prime Minister Owen Arthur. Thompson was sworn in as Prime Minister on 16 January301, becoming Barbados' sixth prime minister and the third to serve under the DLP. Thompson was also re-elected to his own seat from St. John constituency with 84% of the vote.302 David John Howard Thompson QC MP (25 December 1961â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 23 October 2010) became Barbadosâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sixth Prime Minister from January 2008 until his death from pancreatic cancer on 23 October 2010.303 The late Prime Minister the Honourable Thompson was President of the Democratic Labour Party, the General Secretary of the Democratic Labour Party He was a trained Lawyer who practiced criminal and corporate law.

301

Thompson sworn in as Barbados PM", Xinhua, 17 January 2008. Election result page for St. John in the 2008 election. 303 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Thompson_(Barbadian_politician) 302

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He was a Queen's Counsel, represented the constituents and the constituencies that former prime minister represented sworn in as Prime Minister U.S President George Bush304 welcomed Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham of the Bahamas, Prime Minister David Thompson of Barbados, and Prime Minister Dean Barrow of Belize to the White House on Thursday, March 20, 2008. In April 2009 U.S President Barack Hussein Obama II met with Barbadosâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Prime Minister Rt. Hon. David Thompson at the G20305 Summit of the Americas meeting in London after Barbados was placed on the OECDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s white list of jurisdictions.

305

http://cititrust.biz/main/corporate-taxations-in-barbados-further-considerations-v1/

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Chapter 11 Walter Daniel John Tull Junior Through the lenses of a Media Arts Specialist I concur with Maslowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s306theory because it advocates that the psychological health is predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

306

"Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old.

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It is also logical to assume therefore that in a real world people have needs307 regardless of their status. As globalization increases the demand for workers from other countries increased so as to sustain national economies. Invariably, the “economic migrants,” from impoverished developing countries would obviously migrate to obtain sufficient income for survival.308 It is recorded that Daniel Tull was an apprentice carpenter and a resident of My Lord’s Hill, St. Michael, Barbados. However, Daniel309 immigrated to St. Lucia first and subsequently England in the 1860s. The facts are Daniel was looking for a better life. According to excerpts from Daniel’s four-page diary310 it revealed that the life in Barbados was certainly not what he had anticipated and therefore since he was not being paid as an apprentice so he decided to immigrate to St Lucia.

307

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs http://www.unfpa.org/migration 309 http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 310 http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 308

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Let us review the facts surrounding Daniel Tull journey to ascertain whether Maslow’s theory has relevance. The facts as reported that Daniel Tull was the father of Walter Tull. He was a citizen of Barbados and resident of My Lord’s Hill, St. Michael. Daniel311 immigrated to Saint Lucia first and subsequently England in the 1860s. Walter Daniel John Tull was born 28 April 1888 and died 25 March 1918. The chronicles of history have documented Daniel Tull as Walter Tull’s father. During the dispensation of 1888 it is reported that the Scott’s Act (1888) was a United States law that prohibited Chinese laborers abroad 312 or who planned future travels from returning.

311 312

http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Act_(1888)

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Its main author was William Lawrence Scott of Pennsylvania, and it was signed into law by United States President Grover Cleveland on October 1, 1888. Of note it was introduced to expand upon the Chinese Exclusion Act passed in 1882 and left an estimated 20,000-30,000 Chinese outside the United States at the time stranded313. It is reported in an article titled Difference between Old and New Immigrants that those who immigrated314 during the late 1800s were known as new immigrants. Therefore given the dynamics of this nuance as it relates to Daniel Tull, he can be categorized as a new immigrant. The components of mixed race certainly did not escape Walter because he became the first black/mixed-race player to win a medal in English senior football.

313 314

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Act_(1888) http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-old-and-new-immigrants/

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He also became the first black/mixed-race combat officer namely 2nd Lieutenant in the British Army.

According to the online newspaper Barbados Today highlighted by Barbadosâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; High Commissioner to London Guy Hewitt entitled Walter Tull; son of a Barbadian emigrant, memorialized by Leroy Adolphus in London has been an inspiration to Barbadians and the general West Indian. Excerpts from Danielâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s four-page diary315 revealed that he was not being paid as an apprentice in St Michael was cited as one of the reasons why he decided to immigrate to St Lucia. As life continued to unfold for Tull it was also reported from his notes that while in Saint Lucia, the senior Tull got a job as a carpenter on a ship and he ended up in Folkstone, a port town located on the English Channel in Kent, southeast England316.

315 316

http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014

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It was during this transition that he became affiliated with the Methodist Church and attended service at a local church. While there he fell in love with an English woman name Alice Palmer who was from an agricultural labouring family. It was the tradition and custom at that time to write your fiancé parents for their hand in marriage according the Barbados Today317. It is reported that Author Phill Vasili told the online newspaper Barbados TODAY that there was letter from Alice’s mother to Daniel just before they were about to get married. She Tull318 was born in Folkestone, Kent the son of Barbadian carpenter Daniel Tull and Kent-born Alice Elizabeth Palmer. His grandmother was a slave in Barbados.

319

According to Barbados Today “Of mixed heritage, he, Walter Daniel John Tull was referred to as "black". He began his education in what is now Mundella Primary School.

320

In 1895, when Walter Tull was seven, his mother died of cancer. 317 318 319 320

http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Tull Dan Lyndon, Walter Tull: Footballer, Soldier, Hero, London: Collins Educational, 2011. "The Extraordinary Life of Walter Tull". BBC. Retrieved 13 June 2008.

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According to Barbados Today the reality is a year later Walter Tull’s father married Alice Elizabeth Palmer. She gave birth to a daughter Miriam, on 11th September 1897. Three months later Daniel died from heart disease. The stepmother was unable to cope with so many children321. The resident minister of Grace Hill Wesleyan Chapel recommended that the two boys of school-age, Walter and Edward, should be sent to the National Children's Home orphanage in Bethnal Green. 322 Edward was adopted by the Warnock family of Glasgow, and qualified as a dentist, the first black/mixed heritage person to practice this profession in the United Kingdom.323 The facts are in as much as Walter Tull’s father immigrated to Saint Lucia and subsequently settled in London. He too can be categorized as part of children of immigrants’ conversation. 321

http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 Biography of Walter Tull 323 Phil Vasili (September 2004). "Tull, Walter Daniel John (1888–1918)" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/62348. 322

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In summary let us examine in context the achievements of his life as listed below:His football career started at Clapton F.C. where he played alongside Clyde Honeysett Purnell and Charlie Rance in the team that won the London Senior Cup and FA Amateur Cup in 1908-09 and, in doing so, became the first black/mixed-race player to win a medal in English senior football. At the age of 21, Tull signed for Tottenham Hotspur in 1909, after a close-season tour of Argentina and Uruguay, making him the first black/mixed race professional footballer to play in Latin America. Tull made his debut for Tottenham in September 1909 at inside forward against Sunderland, making him the second mixed-heritage player to play in the top division (after goalkeeper Arthur Wharton of Darlington), but only made 10 first-team appearances, scoring twice, before he was dropped to the reserves. 324 This may have been due to the racial abuse he received

324

Sapsted, David (13 June 2008). "Call to honour black Army hero". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 April 2007.

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from opposing fans, particularly at Bristol City, whose supporters used language "lower than Billingsgate", according to a report at the time in the Football Star newspaper. 325 Further appearances in the first team (20 in total with four goals) were recorded before Tull was bought by Herbert Chapman's Northampton Town on 17 October 1911 for a "substantial fee" plus Charlie Brittain joining Tottenham Hotspur in return.326 Tull made his debut four days later against Watford wearing the number 9 shirt, and made in all 111 first-team appearances and nine goals for the club. He lived in Rushden and at one time at 26 Queen Street. When war broke out Tull enlisted in the army, in December 1914, the first Northampton Town player to do so.

325 326

Sapsted, David (13 June 2008). "Call to honour black Army hero". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 April 2007. Garland, Jon. "Racism and Anti-Racism in Football". Palgrave Macmillan. p. 32. Retrieved 10 May 2001.

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It was reported in the Glasgow Evening Times in 1940, in an article about Tull being the first black infantry officer in the British Army that he had signed to play for Rangers once the war was over. During the First World War Tull served in both Footballers' Battalions of the Middlesex Regiment, 17th and 23rd, and also in the 5th battalion, rising to the rank of sergeant and fighting in the Battle of the Somme in 1916. When Tull was commissioned as Second Lieutenant on 30 May 1917 (still in the Middlesex Regiment),327 he became the first black/mixed-race combat officer in the British Army, despite the 1914 Manual of Military Law specifically excluding Negroes/Mulattos from exercising actual command as officers. However, Nathaniel Wells, the son of a white plantation owner and a black slave, received a Yeomanry commission in 1818.328

327 328

The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30134. p. 5970. 15 June 1917. Retrieved 28 November 2008. W. H. Wyndham-Quin (2005) [1898]. The Yeomanry Cavalry of Gloucestershire and Monmouth. Golden Valley. ISBN 0-9542578-5-5.

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Tull's superior officers recommended him for a commission regardless. Tull fought in Italy in 1917/18 and was cited for his "gallantry and coolness" by Major General Sydney Lawford, commander of the 41st division, having led his company of 26 men on a night raiding party, crossing the fastflowing rapids of the River Piave into enemy territory and returning them unharmed. Soon after he was recommended for a Military Cross. He returned to northern France in 1918, and was killed in action on 25 March during the Spring Offensive, near the village of Favreuil in the Pas-deCalais.

On 8 January 2009, plans were announced in the media to construct a statue in Tull's memory outside the proposed new Tottenham Hotspur ground. Early backers of an online petition included Lynne Featherstone, MP for Hornsey and Wood Green.

329

329

"Support for statue of Spurs war hero at new stadium". MailOnline. 8 January 2009.

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As of 29 June 2010, plans to erect a bronze memorial statue of Tull in the Geraldine Mary Harmsworth Park, which lies within the grounds of the Imperial War Museum, had reached the stage of formal consultation with local residents. Permission for the statue was later refused by Southwark council.330

Importantly, Walter Daniel John Tull Junior the child of an immigrant became Britainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s First Black Army Officer to be Honoured on a Commemorative Coin331

330 331

Details of planning application â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10/AP/1361". London Borough of Southwark. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010. https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/tull-coin.html

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Chapter 12

Donald John Trump332 Donald

John

Trump

was

born

on

June

14,

1946333, in

the borough of Queens in New York City.334

332

http://www.biography.com/people/donald-trump-9511238#synopsis Deferments Helped Trump Dodge Vietnam. "Thesmokinggun.com." Retrieved July 18, 2015. 334 Whitlock, Craig (July 21, 2015). "Questions linger about Trump's draft deferments during Vietnam War". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 8, 2015. Max Ehrenfreund (July 22, 2015). "A secret to Donald Trumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s success that you simply canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t replicate". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. "In Step With: Donald Trump". Parade. November 14, 2004. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. 333

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He is the fourth of five children to Mary Anne (née MacLeod; 1912– 2000), a homemaker and philanthropist335 and Fred Trump (1905–1999), who worked as a real estate developer.

His mother was born at Tong on the Scottish island of Lewis.336 It must be noted that annals of history has recorded that Donald was an energetic, assertive child, and his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy at age 13, hoping the discipline of the school would channel his energy in a positive manner.

In 1930, at aged 18, she visited the United States and met Fred Trump. They married in 1936 and settled in Jamaica Estates, and Fred Trump went on to become one of the city's biggest real estate developers.337

335

Trump: the art of the deal, Paperback, ISBN 978-0-446-35325-0, page 46 "He called his company Elizabeth Trump & Son..." Donald Trump's Bond Hill connection". The Enquirer. August 12, 2015. 337 Trump: the art of the deal, Paperback, ISBN 978-0-446-35325-0, page 46 "He called his company Elizabeth Trump & Son..." "21 Unusual Facts About Billionaire Politician Donald Trump". Inc. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 336

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Trump

has

one

brother,

Robert

(born

1948),

and

two

sisters: Maryanne (born 1937) and Elizabeth (born 1942). Maryanne is a United States federal judge on senior status for the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.338 Another brother, Fred Jr. (1938â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1981), died of complications from alcoholism.339

Trump's

father

was

born

in Woodhaven,

Queens,

to German immigrant parents,340 Elizabeth (Christ) and Frederick Trump,341 who was a successful Klondike Gold Rush restaurateur from Kallstadt, Palatinate. Frederick emigrated to the United States in 1885.342

338

Korte, Gregory. "Complex was troubled from beginning". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved March 6, 2011. Korte, Gregory. "What happened at Huntington Meadows". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved October 29, 2015. 340 "Donald (John) Trump biography". biography.com. Retrieved December 18, 2015. 341 David W. Dunlap â&#x20AC;&#x201C; "Meet Donald Trump", Times Insider, July 30, 2015.. Retrieved August 10, 2015 342 Trump, Donald; Bill Zanker (2007). Think Big and Kick Ass in Business and in Life. HarperCollins. pp. 79, 123, 211. ISBN 9780061547836. Retrieved July 15, 2012. David Margolick (December 3, 2000). "The House that Fred Built". The New York Times. Retrieved July 6, 2008. "Entity Information". Appext9.dos.ny.gov. April 23, 1981. Retrieved June 18, 2012. 339

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The Trumps were previously Drumpf but they changed the title in the 17th century Germany. In the 1880s, Trumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grandfather emigrated from Germany to the United States of America343. In Trump's 1987 book, The Art of the Deal, he incorrectly states that Frederick Trump was of Swedish origin,344 an assertion that Fred Trump had made for many years.345

Trump later acknowledged his German ancestry. He also served as grand marshal of the 1999 German-American Steuben Parade in New York City.346

The family had a two-story mock Tudor home on Wareham Place in Jamaica Estates,347 where Trump lived while attending the private Kew-Forest School. At Kew-Forest, Fred Trump was a member of the Board of Trustees. 343

http://www.mapsofworld.com/around-the-world/facts-about-donald-trump-you-should-know.html "Faster and cheaper, Trump finishes N.Y.C. ice rink". The Philadelphia Inquirer. November 1, 1986. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Cuff, Daniel (December 18, 1988). "Seven Acquisitive Executives Who Made Business News in 1988: Donald Trump â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Trump Organization; The Artist of the Deal Turns Sour into Sweet". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011. 345 "Trump Trips Up". Time. May 6, 1991. Retrieved May 22, 2008. 346 "21 Unusual Facts About Billionaire Politician Donald Trump". Inc. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 344

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In 1983, Fred told an interviewer that Donald "was a pretty rough fellow when he was small", prompting him to enroll Donald in the New York Military Academy (NYMA). Trump finished eighth grade and high school at NYMA.348

During his senior year, Trump participated in marching drills and wore a uniform, attaining the highest rank of Cadet First Captain.349

Trump attended Fordham University for two years. He entered the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania, as Wharton then offered one of the few real estate studies departments in U.S. academia.350

He graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in economics.351

347

"Taj Mahal is out of Bankruptcy". The New York Times. October 5, 1991. Retrieved May 22, 2008. Schneider, Karen S. (May 19, 1997). "The Donald Ducks Out". People. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 349 "Trump World Tower". Emporis. Retrieved May 22, 2008. 350 Hiaasen, Carl (July 11, 2015). "Carl Hiaasen: There will never be a President Trump". The Miami Herald. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 348

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Trump was eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War.

In a 2011 interview on WNYW,352 he stated, "I actually got lucky because I had a very high draft number."353

Selective Service records retrieved by The Smoking Gun website from the National Archives show that, although Trump did eventually receive a high selective service lottery number in 1969, he was not drafted earlier because of four student deferments (2-S) while attending college, and after receiving a medical deferment (1-Y, later converted to 4-F) obtained in 1968 after his college graduation, prior to the lottery being initiated.354

351

"Turkish partner condemns Donald Trump's anti-Muslim remarks, reviews ties". Reuters. December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015. "Donald Trump". Forbes. Retrieved September 30, 2014. 352 Udland, Myles (June 16, 2015). "Donald Trump's self-described net worth is $8.7 billion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; here's the breakdown". Business Insider. 353 Bernstein, Fred A. (March 16, 2010). "Der Scutt, Modernist Architect, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, 2015 354 Gray, Christopher (October 3, 2014). "The Store That Slipped Through the Cracks". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2015.

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Trump was deemed fit for service after a military medical examination in 1966 and was briefly classified as 1-A by a local draft board shortly before his 1968 medical disqualification.355

Trump is a native of New York City and a son of Fred Trump, who inspired him to enter real estate development.356

After two years at

Fordham University and while studying

at University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Trump worked for his father's firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son.

Upon graduating in 1968 he joined the company,357 and in 1971 was given control, renaming the company "The Trump Organization".

355

Leccese, Michael (July 1, 1980). "New York City Trumped: Developer Smashes Panels". Preservation News. Retrieved August 22, 2015. "Donald Trumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It". The New York Times. September 22, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 357 "Trump's Childhood Neighbors, Friends Recall Quiet Queens Upbringing". Time Warner Cable News NY. September 9, 2015. 356

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Since then he has built hotels, golf courses, and other properties, many of which bear his name, in Manhattan and other locales. He is a major figure in the American business scene and has received prominent media exposure.358

In 2004 Trump began starring in the hit NBC reality series The Apprentice, which also became an offshoot for The Celebrity Apprentice.359.

Importantly, June 16, 2015Trump announced his candidacy for president of the United States and shortly after the first Republican debate became the party's front-runner On, Trump announced his candidacy for president in the 2016 election, seeking the nomination of the Republican Party.360

358

"Donald Trump Proves He Was Born In Queens". Fox News Channel. March 28, 2011. "Mary MacLeod Trump Philanthropist, 88". The New York Times. August 9, 2000. Scottish Genealogy, Scottish Ancestry â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Donald Trump Scottishroots.com. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Frates, Chris (August 24, 2015). "Donald Trump's immigrant wives". CNN. Retrieved September 3, 2015. 359 Horowitz, Jason (August 18, 2015). "Familiar Talk on Women, From an Unfamiliar Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2015. 360 "Donald Trump Opens Up About His Brother's Death from Alcoholism: It Had a 'Profound Impact on My Life'". People. October 8, 2015. "Person Details for Friedrich Trump, "Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898" â&#x20AC;&#x201D; FamilySearch.org". FamilySearch.org. Retrieved January 4, 2016.

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Free media coverage and campaign self-financing has allowed him to eschew the super PAC model. Since July 2015 he has consistently been the front-runner in public opinion polls for the Republican Party nomination, and frequently touts his high poll numbers.361 According

to

the National

Review,

Trump

runs

on

a

highly populist platform that appeals to the concerns of working-class voters who feel displaced by job losses and changes to America's ethnic and religious demographics.362 He has made his opposition to political correctness and willingness to "tell it like it is" a stylistic theme in his campaign.363

361

"How the Trumps struck Klondike gold: Donald's grandfather gave birth to family's glittering empire with seedy restaurant catering to loosemoralled men and women seeking their fortune". Daily Mail (UK). September 8, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2015. Crolly, Hannelore (August 24, 2015). "Donald Trump, King of Kallstadt". Die Welt online (in German). Retrieved November 21, 2015. Blair, Gwenda (2000). The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire. Simon & Schuster. p. 32. ISBN 0-7432-1079-4. Blair, Gwenda (2000). The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire. Simon & Schuster. p. 26. ISBN 0-7432-1079-4. Kaczynski, Andrew (August 17, 2015). "Trump Mocks Warren's Native American Heritage Claim, But Falsely Claimed His Family Was Swedish". Buzzfeed.com. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 362 Brenner, Marie (September 1990). "After the Gold Rush". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 363 Rozhon, Tracy (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2015.

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Trump's anti-illegal-immigration politics have earned him support among working-class voters amid widespread opposition from Hispanics, business leaders, and other Republicans.364 He has also concentrated on terrorism and national security concerns, advocating a temporary ban on Muslims entering the United States who are not United States of America citizens, until better screening methods are devised.365 Trump had previously considered running for president; in 2000, he ran an exploratory campaign and won two Reform Party primaries.366 Tale of the tape: The 15 contenders Trump has knocked out Donald Trump clobbered367 his opponents in Indiana, knocking Texas Sen. Ted Cruz out and leaving Ohio Gov. John Kasich reeling. Cruz — whom Trump labelled "Lyin' Ted" — acknowledged Tuesday that he had no path left to the nomination and

364

Horowitz, Jason (September 22, 2015). "Donald Trump's Old Queens Neighborhood, Now a Melting Pot, Was Seen as a Cloister". The New York Times. Bender, Marylin (August 7, 1983). "The empire and ego of Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2008. "50 years later, disagreements over young Trump’s military academy record". Washington Post. January 9, 2016. Retrieved February 16, 2016. Barbaro, Michael (September 8, 2015). "Donald Trump Likens His Schooling to Military Service in Book". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 365 Gwenda Blair (2005). Donald Trump: Master Apprentice. Simon and Schuster. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-7432-7510-1. Max Ehrenfreund (September 3, 2015). "The real reason Donald Trump is so rich". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. Donald Trump Biography. Biography.com. Retrieved July 10, 2011. Strauss, Valerie (17 July 2015). "Yes, Donald Trump really went to an Ivy League school". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 366 The Donald and the Draft. "National review online" Retrieved July 18, 2016 Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show. "cbsnews.com." Retrieved July 17, 2015. 367 http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/tale-of-the-tape-the-15-contenders-trump-has-knocked-out/arBBsDaWe?li=BBnbcA1&ocid=SKY2DHP

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suspended his campaign. While Kasich has yet to throw in the towel, even RNC Chairman Reince Preibus has called the fight for Trump, declaring the billionaire the presumptive nominee. Here’s how Trump has dispatched the other contenders who stepped into the ring with him during this year’s presidential contest368369:

368

http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/tale-of-the-tape-the-15-contenders-trump-has-knocked-out/ Rick Perry: Sept. 11, 2015 The former Texas governor never broke 10% in the polls and was relegated to the undercard stage in the first Republican debate. Perry was among the first to directly attack Trump, saying in July that what the real estate mogul was offering was "not conservatism, it is Trump-ism – a toxic mix of demagoguery and nonsense." Trump unleashed a flurry of attacks on Perry, making fun of his glasses, saying he “did a horrible job” securing the border and should “be forced to take an IQ test” before being allowed to debate. When Perry gave up his bid this time, he decried “nativist appeals” and said, "Demeaning people of Hispanic heritage is not just ignorant, it betrays the example of Christ." 369

Scott Walker: Sept. 21, 2015 The Wisconsin governor burst onto the scene in early 2015 with a convincing lead in the important state of Iowa, as well as executive experience as a governor. Walker had some stumbles — memorably saying he would consider the idea of building a wall along the Canadian border. And Trump steamrolled right over him in the tell-it-like-it-is lane among the crowded field. When he dropped out, Walker lamented the personal attacks (though he did not mention Trump by name) and urged other Republican candidates to get out of the race so voters could coalesce around “a positive conservative alternative to the current front-runner."

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Bobby Jindal: Nov. 17, 2015 The former Louisiana governor entered the race in June 2015 pledging to rock the boat in Washington. Jindal, known as a policy wonk, cast himself as an outsider running “without permission” from the Republican establishment. But he got little traction. In September, he tried a direct hit on Trump, calling him a "substance-free narcissist” who looks “like he’s got a squirrel sitting on his head.” Trump responded in kind, saying Jindal is a “lightweight governor” with less than 1% in polls. Jindal said on the way out that “it’s not my time.” Lindsey Graham: Dec. 21, 2015 369 The South Carolina senator had spent seven months in the race pushing hard for a more hawkish foreign policy, but he never polled above single digits. He tangled with Trump early and often. Graham called him “the world’s biggest jackass” after Trump said in July that Sen. John McCain wasn’t a war hero because he was captured. Trump fired back by giving out Graham’s cellphone number at a South Carolina town hall and urging his constituents to call it. ("Your local politician, you know? He won't fix anything but at least he'll talk to you.”) Graham destroyed the phone in a video the next day. Trump said in November that he wanted Graham to stay in the race because he was “so easy to beat!” But alas, Graham ended his bid a month later — on the last day he could and have his name removed from the ballot in South Carolina. George Pataki: Dec. 29, 2015369The former New York governor called the Republican race a “reality gong show” in November, and the gong sounded on him several weeks later. The three-term governor couldn't even reach the 1% threshold in national polls to make the undercard debate stage in November. He was among those Trump didn’t want to drop out because they were beatable. When he did, Pataki said the country needed the unity it had on 9/11. “"On that day and the days that followed, we weren't black or white, rich or poor, Republican or Democrat, we were just Americans. We need to recapture that spirit." Mike Huckabee: Feb. 1, 2016369The former Arkansas governor had won the Iowa caucuses the last time he ran, in 2008, but he barely made a showing this time around and dropped out on the night of the caucuses because, he joked, “voters are sick of me.” He said in January that he found the race “bewildering … because it’s almost as if the more experience, the more preparation one has had for this job, it’s almost like it’s a detriment.” A few days before quitting the race, Huckabee lamented media coverage of Trump, saying it was drowning out his message. Rand Paul: Feb. 3, 2016369The Kentucky senator also dropped out after a poor showing in the Iowa caucuses. He had hoped Libertarian support would help propel him toward the nomination, but he never built the kind of following he needed. Paul issued a three-page statement in August accusing Trump of being a “fake conservative,” and the billionaire quickly hit back calling Paul “truly weird” and likening him to a “spoiled brat without a properly functioning brain." Notably, Paul is one of the few candidates who has said he will support Trump if he’s the nominee. Rick Santorum: Feb. 3, 2016369In 2012, the former Pennsylvania senator ran as a crusader for Christian values in 2012, scored an upset victory in the Iowa caucuses and was the last major candidate standing between Mitt Romney and the nomination. In 2016, Santorum could not catch fire a second time. He never got high enough in the polls to stand on the same debate stage as Trump, though he and Huckabee weirdly showed up at a Jan. 28 veterans fundraiser Trump organized as part of a boycott of a Fox News debate. Santorum took only 1% in the Iowa caucuses Feb. 1 and quit the race a few days later. Santorum promptly went on MSNBC to endorse Marco Rubio, only to admit that he could not name anything Rubio had accomplished. Chris Christie: Feb. 10, 2016369 Chris Christie's 2016 presidential campaign was marked by two polar opposite roles: attack dog and lap dog. As attack dog, Christie destroyed Marco Rubio's campaign during a New Hampshire presidential debate, accusing the Florida senator of being robotic, with nothing to offer but a "memorized 25-second speech." Christie dropped out of the race after a disappointing finish in the New Hampshire primary, and then became Trump's lap dog, endorsing the billionaire who he had previously said was running for "entertainer-inchief." Christie stood stone-faced behind Trump during a lengthy Super Tuesday victory press conference, leading some on social media to wonder whether the New Jersey governor had been taken hostage. Jim Gilmore: Feb. 12, 2016369 The former Virginia governor sort of ran for president, and he attacked Trump in December for "talking like a fascist." But Gilmore barely registered in the polls, hardly campaigned, and collected only 12 votes in the Iowa caucus and 133 votes in the New Hampshire primary before dropping out. Jeb Bush: Feb. 20, 2016369A year ago, Jeb Bush was at the forefront of an historic fundraising juggernaut, with a super PAC that raised more than $100 million by June. But Bush could never generate the passion and enthusiasm of Trump. The billionaire branded Bush a "low energy" candidate and proceeded to tie George W. Bush's invasion of Iraq around Jeb Bush's neck like a lead weight. During a February debate in South Carolina, Trump said President Bush had lied about the pretext for the Iraq War. Jeb rose to his brother's defense. "While Donald Trump was building a reality TV show, my brother was building a security apparatus to keep us safe and I’m proud of what he did," he said. But Trump fired back: "The World Trade Center came down during your brother's reign, remember that. That's not keeping us safe." A week later Trump won the winner-take-all Palmetto State primary and Bush dropped out of the race. Ben Carson: March 4, 2016 You would be forgiven for forgetting that at one point last fall, Dr. Ben Carson was tied with Trump for first place in national Republican presidential preference polls. They were two different versions of the "outsider" candidate — Trump, the brash billionaire and reality TV star; and Carson the quiet doctor propelled by faith. In November, Trump went on the attack. He turned to Carson's own autobiography for ammunition, noting with skepticism Carson's story of how his religious conversion began when he attempted to stab a friend only to have the knife blade break on the friend's belt buckle. "How stupid are the people of Iowa?" Trump asked. "How stupid are the people of the country to believe this crap?" At the time it seemed a direct challenge to evangelicals that could only hurt Trump, but it was Carson who began to slip in the polls. The doctor did poorly in the early primaries and dropped out after Super Tuesday. A week later he endorsed Trump, saying the two had "buried the hatchet" and that he believed there are "two Donald Trumps" — the bombastic public figure and the private man who is "cerebral" and willing to consider other views.

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Marco Rubio: March 15, 2016Rubio's political epitaph may simply read "small hands." Already damaged by his confrontations with Christie and Trump's derisive moniker "Little Marco," at the end of February the Florida senator turned to personal attacks on Trump. At a rally in Salem, Va., he said Trump has little hands. "You know what they say about men with small hands," Rubio said, "You can't trust 'em." This line of attack led to the campaign's weirdest moment, in a March 3 presidential debate. "Look at those hands," Trump said holding his paws aloft. "Are they small hands? He referred to my hands, if they are small, something else must be small. I guarantee you there is no problem. I guarantee." The dive into gutter politics did Rubio no good; Trump crushed him by nearly 20 points in the March 15 Florida primary, and Rubio dropped out of the race. Ted Cruz: May 3, 2016369Cruz was the first candidate in the Republican presidential campaign, kicking off his bid at Liberty University in March 2015. And early in the campaign, Cruz was perhaps Trump's biggest ally. In September, they appeared together at a rally in Washington to blast the Iran nuclear deal. But after Cruz won in Iowa and other candidates dropped out, Trump turned his venom on Cruz, calling him "Lyin' Ted." Cruz responded in kind, calling Trump "a pathological liar." It all culminated on Tuesday when Trump was asked to respond to remarks by the Texas senator's father, Rafael Cruz, suggesting Trump's election â&#x20AC;&#x153;could be the destruction of America.â&#x20AC;? Trump responded by falsely insinuating that the elder Cruz may have played some role in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Sen. Cruz went on a tirade, calling Trump a "serial philanderer" and a "narcissist." But by Tuesday evening, he gave up. "We gave it everything we've got, but the voters chose another path," Cruz said.

John Kasich4 May 2016 John Kasich369, last Republican Trump rival, quits race Ohio Governor John Kasich has dropped out of the presidential race after struggling to gain traction against Republican front-runner Donald Trump. "As I suspend my campaign today I have renewed faith, deeper faith that the Lord will show me the way forward," he told supporters in Columbus. Carly Fiorina: Feb. 10, 2016Donald Trump provided Carly Fiorina her best moment of the presidential race, but she couldn't make it last. In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine, Trump appeared to criticize Fiorina's appearance, saying "Look at that face! Would anyone vote for that?" At a September debate, Fiorina turned the insult into an advantage. "I think women all over this country heard very clearly what Mr. Trump said," she said to thunderous applause. Trump lamely responded "I think she's got a beautiful face, and I think she's a beautiful woman." Fiorina jumped to second place in New Hampshire polls, but she quickly faded, and dropped out of the race after taking less than 5% in the New Hampshire primary.

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Chapter 13 Derek Walcott Research has uncovered that Walcott370 at the age of 18, he made his debut with 25 Poems, but his breakthrough came with the collection of poems, In a Green Night (1962).

Derek Walcott - 1992 Described as the "Caribbean Community's greatest poet, playwright and theatrical director,"

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http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1992/walcott-bio.html

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Dr. Derek Walcott of Saint Lucia parents were immigrants from Barbados who received the OCC during the first conferment in 1992. A literary laureate of high acclaim, Dr. Walcott received the coveted Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992 generating much pride among his fellow Caribbean citizens. His contribution to the cultural development of Caribbean society, and the creation of a unique Caribbean identity, emerged from his involvement in the theatre and literary movements. He founded the Trinidad Theatre Workshop and created a unique reputation as a distinguished internationally acclaimed Caribbean poet and playwright. His literary works are well known and read internationally. He was conferred several awards for Poetry and Literature, including the Guinness Award for Poetry, the Royal Society of Literature Award and Britain's W. H. Smith Literary Prize.

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After graduation, Walcott moved to Trinidad in 1953, where he became a critic, teacher and journalist.371 Walcott founded the Trinidad Theatre Workshop in 1959 and remains active with its Board of Directors.372 Exploring the Caribbean and its history in a colonialist and postcolonialist context, his collection In a Green Night: Poems 1948â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1960 (1962) attracted international attention.373 His play Dream on Monkey Mountain (1970) was produced on NBCTV in the United States the year it was published. In 1971 it was produced by the Negro Ensemble Company offBroadway in New York City; it won an Obie Award that year for "Best Foreign Play".374

371

British Council. "Derek Walcott â&#x20AC;&#x201C; British Council Literature". contemporarywriters.com. Derek Walcott", Academy of American poets 373 "Derek Walcott", Poetry Foundation 374 Obie Award Listing: Dream on Monkey Mountain, 372

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The following year, 1972 Walcott won an OBE from the British government for his work.375 He was hired as a teacher by Boston University in the United States, where he founded the Boston Playwrights' Theatre in 1981. The said year 1981 he also received a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in the United States. Walcott taught literature and writing at Boston University for more than two decades, publishing new books of poetry and plays on a regular basis and retiring in 2007. He became friends with other poets, namely the Russian Joseph Brodsky. Brodsky lived and worked in the United States of America after being exiled in the 1970s, and the Irish Seamus Heaney, who also taught in Boston.

375

Oxford University

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His epic poem, Omeros (1990), which loosely echoes and refers to characters from The Iliad, has been critically praised "as Walcott's major achievement."376 The book received praise from publications such as The Washington Post and The New York Times Book Review, which chose the book as one of its "Best Books of 1990".377 Walcott was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1992, the second Caribbean writer to receive the honor after Saint-John Perse, who was born in Guadeloupe, received the award in 1960. The Nobel committee described Walcott's work as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.â&#x20AC;? 378 He won an Anisfield-Wolf Book Award379 for Lifetime Achievement in 2004.

376

"Derek Walcott". poetryfoundation.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derek_Walcott 378 "Derek Walcott", Poetry Foundation. 377

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His later poetry collections include Tiepolo’s Hound (2000), illustrated with copies of his watercolors;380 The Prodigal (2004), and White Egrets (2010), which received the T.S. Eliot Prize.381

382

In 2009, Walcott began a three-year distinguished scholar-inresidence position at the University of Alberta. In 2010, he became Professor of Poetry at the University of Essex.383 As a part of St Lucia's Independence Day celebrations, in February 2016, he became one of the first knights of the Order of Saint Lucia, granting him the title of 'Sir'.384 The scanned above-mentioned information has revealed that as a result of the parents of the icons migrated and their children were born in a different country obviously the children are considered children of immigrants.

379

"Derek Walcott, 2004 – Lifetime Achievement", Winners – Anisfield-Wolf Book Award. "Derek Walcott's Tiepolo’s Hound", essay, Academy of American Poets "Derek Walcott", Poetry Foundation. 382 British Council. "Derek Walcott – British Council Literature". contemporarywriters.com. 383 "Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott is new Professor of Poetry". University of Essex. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 384 "List of awards to be given on Independence Day". St Lucia News Online. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 380 381

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The genesis of this conversation was therefore centered on an analysis of the push and pulled factors that influenced the children of immigrants in this global village. According to N. Samuel Murrell Jamaicans migrate385 to the United States for many socio-economic reasons. As you are aware Migration386is encouraged by economic hardship caused by a failing economy based upon plantation agriculture, lack of economic diversity, and scarcity of professional and skilled jobs.

It is reported by Wikipedia that the majority of the African-Caribbean population387 in the UK is of Jamaican origin; other notable representation is from Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Anguilla, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana (which although located on the South American mainland is culturally similar to the Caribbean and was historically considered to be part of the

385

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html 387 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_African-Caribbean_people 386

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British West Indies), and Belize (Assessment for Afro-Caribbean people in the United Kingdom Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project. University of Maryland. 2004. Accessed 6 October 2006).

Ben Hall388 of the Centre for European reform believes that the Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history has been shaped by migration. For it should be noted that for centuries, merchants, craftsmen and intellectuals crossed the continent to practice their trades or start new lives. Therefore Immigration/Emigration was nothing new under the sun because according to Genesis 3:23-24 God ordered Adam and Eve to flee the Garden of Eden or face certain death. This action in my view can be interpreted as forced migration. In light of the aforementioned data it is reasonable to assume therefore that from time in memorial Adam and Eve were the first migrants and their

388

http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf Immigration in the European Union: problem or solution? The number of asylum seekers is rising sharply across the European Union. Given the EUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ageing population, is a return to selective immigration inevitable? BEN HALL, CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN REFORM, LONDON See more at: http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/archivestory.php/aid/337/Immigration_in_the_European_Union:_problem_or_solution_.html#sthash.9LveHk 3L.dpuf

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children Abel, Caine and Seth were the first children of immigrants; however, this can be debated.

Further it should be noted that Teรณfilo Altamirano389 estimated that today, 200 million people no longer live in their countries of origin and are considered international migrants.

Not to mention the fact that International migration390 as a structural part of the global economy is undergoing change; particularly in employment, wages and specifically in the remittances migrants make to their countries of origin. Consequently it was virtually impossible to provide an accurate forecast of how it will go on affecting international migration in (a) volume, (b) trends, (c) orientation, (d) regularity and (e) in migration policy in both countries of origin and destination.

389 390

https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/migrationbook.pdf https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/migrationbook.pdf

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What we can see already are the protection measures and the destination countries are taking particularly against illegal migrants who can be considered as puzzling, even though they help strengthen the destination countries’ economies and that of the countries of origin, as has often been shown391.

Peter J. Duignan392 has argued that Immigration and integration are contentious issues at the beginning of the twenty-first century, in which the debate risks being dominated by the extremes of “no immigrants” and “no borders.”

Barbara Lüthi explained in her text entitled A Terminological Approach Migration393 has been a constant feature of human history – "homo migrans" has existed ever since "homo sapiens". 394

391

https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/migrationbook.pdf http://www.hoover.org/research/making-and-remaking-america-immigration-united-states 393 http://docupedia.de/zg/Migration_and_Migration_History 394 Klaus Bade, Europa in Bewegung: Migration vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, München 2000, p. 11. 392

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According to the Wall Street, Journal High levels of immigration mean more consumers, more workers, and a larger economy with “new blood.” Other organizations favor more immigration from a particular place, such as the Organization of Chinese Americans and the Emerald Isle Immigration Center, which favor the immigration of Chinese and Irish immigrants395 respectively. Groups such as the Catholic Church believe that borders artificially divide humanity, and others support high levels of immigration because they view immigration as a defining part of the American experience. When we examined all the aforementioned data it is only logical that it appears that the there are three fundamental immigration questions that must be answered — (a) how many, (b) from where, and

395

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html

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(c) in what status newcomers should arrive obviously raises difficult considerations with no easy answers. And it is for this reason that the stark reality is that there are more foreigners want to immigrate to the United States than Americans seem willing to accept. However, currently the U.S. policy prioritizes the allocation of immigration visas to the relatives of United States citizens and immigrants already here, which means that the United States is in effect favoring chain migration based on family ties. Because of this priority in immigration policy, there is a perception that the United States seems willing to tolerate higher levels of illegal immigration, since it is often said that many of the unauthorized foreigners are simply waiting for their immigration visas.396 N. Samuel Murrell further suggested that many experts would like to give less emphasis to family unification and instead select foreigners on the basis 396

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of personal characteristics that are likely to make them economically successful, as is the policy in Canada and Australia.397 In this context we see that every action creates a reaction and hence I agree with Murrellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position that Revising the immigration policy raises fundamental economic, social, and political issues, and therefore it is contentious in part because resolving them requires Americans to make difficult trade-offs between competing goals.398 According to the author of MIGRATION IN THE CARIBBEAN â&#x20AC;&#x201C; WHAT DO WE KNOW? Historically the nature, direction and magnitude of migration399 in the Caribbean have always been influenced by trends in global and regional socio-economic development. The slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries caused the first major immigration waves into the region.

397

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html 399 http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/IttMigLAC/P09_ECLAC(Port%20of%20Spain).pdf 398

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After Emancipation in the nineteenth century, workers began moving within the region in search of employment or better working conditions. In the twentieth century, the movement of labor to destinations within the region continued. The oil-boom in the 1970s attracted many migrants from the smaller and less developed islands to work in the oil refineries in the dependencies of the Netherlands and the United States, particularly the United States Virgin Islands, Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles. Also the booming energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago was a magnet for many in search of employment. With the global crisis in the energy sector in the 1980s the demand for labor declined and new employment opportunities were needed. The growing tourism sector in the Caribbean in the 1990s increased the demand for workers in the service sector which, in many instances, could not be supplied by the domestic labor force in some of the smaller Caribbean islands.

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As a consequence, workers from other islands and neighboring countries in Latin America, particularly Columbia and Venezuela, came to fill in the gaps. Sandra Lilleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s argues that since she has indicated that, a recent Study conducted: First generation immigrant children400 do better in school than USborn kids Immigrant children who came to the U.S. before they were teens do better in academic achievement and school engagement than native-born children, according to a new study by Johns Hopkins University, and the advantages extend to adulthood. The study also found that Hispanic immigrant children do as well as Asian children, provided that they have similar socio-economic and family backgrounds. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Some people are pessimistic about the fact that almost a quarter of our school children are children of immigrants, but I think it is actually pretty good, since they are doing better,â&#x20AC;? says Dr. Lingxin Hao, a professor of sociology

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at Johns Hopkins University, the study’s lead author. “The findings could give us a more realistic and precise prediction for the future labor force,” Dr. Hao adds. The study was just published in the September/October 2012 issue of the journal Child Development.401 Lilley also highlighted the fact that the study looked at over 10,700 children ages 13 to 17 and followed their outcomes until they were between 25 and 32, using a wide variety of data available from government sources. Dr. Hao found that “1.5 generation” children, those born outside the U.S. and then brought here before their teens, did better than “second generation” children, which are children who are born in the U.S. to either one or both foreignborn parents, and “third generation” children, who are native-born children to native-born parents. The 1.5 generation immigrants did better on educational, social and behavioral outcomes. One important finding is that foreign-born immigrant

401

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children do better in STEM fields like math and science, an important finding as one looks at future workforce projections.

Michael D.Shear and Robert Pearon added to the conversation when they highlighted the fact that on November. 19, 2014 in an article titled Obama’s Immigration Plan Could Shield Five Million has indicated that WASHINGTON402 Up to four million undocumented immigrants who have lived in the United States for at least five years can apply for a program that protects them from deportation and allows those with no criminal record to work legally in the country, President Obama is to announce on Thursday, according to people briefed on his plans.

He further reported that an additional one million people will get protection from deportation through other parts of the president’s plan to overhaul the nation’s immigration enforcement system, including the expansion of an existing program for “Dreamers,” young immigrants who came to the United 402

Obama’s Immigration Plan Could Shield Five MillionBy MICHAEL D. SHEAR and ROBERT PEARNOV. 19, 2014

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States as children. There will no longer be a limit on the age of the people who qualify.403

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Obamaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Immigration Plan Could Shield Five MillionBy MICHAEL D. SHEAR and ROBERT PEARNOV. 19, 2014

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Further Michael also stated that “but farm workers will not receive specific protection from deportation, nor will the Dreamers’ parents. And none of the five million immigrants over all who will be given new legal protections will get government subsidies for health care under the Affordable Care Act.

It should be noted that these new details about the broad reach of Mr. Obama’s planned executive action on immigration emerged as he prepared to speak to the nation in a prime-time address on the said Thursday night.

He concluded by informing that hence on the Friday, the president was scheduled to travel to Las Vegas to rally public support for his plan in a state where Hispanics are growing and politically powerful constituency.404

404

Obama’s Immigration Plan Could Shield Five MillionBy MICHAEL D. SHEAR and ROBERT PEARNOV. 19, 2014

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Chapter 14 COMPARATIVE FEATURES Cruz, Rubio, Sanders and Trump pursued the candicy for President of the United States of America in 2016 presidential election. Cruz's father was born in Cuba, and his grandfather was from the Canary Islands in Spain. His mother was born in Wilmington, Delaware, and is three quarters Irish and one quarter Italian405. Sanders was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. His father, Eli Sanders, was born on September 19, 1904, in SĹ&#x201A;opnice, Poland,

406

to a

Jewish family, and emigrated to the United States in 1921,407 at the age of seventeen.408

405

409

https://infotomb.com/4ffm4.pdf"Google".

406

Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015). Smith, Nicola (January 17, 2016). "Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton". Sunday Times (London). Retrieved January 22, 2016 407 "When Danny Lyon met Bernie Sanders". phaidon. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 408 Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015). 409 Kruse, Michael (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today". Politico. Retrieved July 18, 2015. After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Student Peace Union and the Young People's Socialist League.

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Marco Antonio Rubio410 was born May 28, 1971, in Miami, Florida. He is one of four children born to Cuban immigrants. Both of his parents worked hard to support the family. His father spent many years as a bartender and his mother held a number of service industry and retail jobs. Colin Luther Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, New York. Powell’s parents Maud Arial (née McKoy) and Luther Theophilus Powell411 emigrating to the United States of America.

Eric Himpton Holder Junior412 was born to Barbadian parents in the Bronx, New York. Eric Himpton Holder, Senior (1905–1970) was born in Saint Joseph, Barbados and arrived in the United States at the age of 11. His mother, Miriam, was born in New Jersey, while his maternal grandparents were immigrants from Saint Philip, Barbados.

410

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Rubio http://www.biography.com/people/colin-powell-9445708 412 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Holder 411

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The Honourable David Thompson’s parents emigrated from Barbados to England. Walter Daniel John Tull Junior’s father Daniel Tull was an apprentice carpenter and a resident of My Lord’s Hill, St. Michael, Barbados. Daniel413 immigrated to Saint Lucia first and subsequently England in the 1860s.

Sir Winston Churchill’s mother Jennie Jerome an American, heiress was born in New York in 1854. She immigrated to England

414

after she got

married to the 7th Duke of Marlborough Lord Randolph Churchill.

Sir Arthur Lewis415 parents migrated to Saint Lucia from Antigua and he was born in Saint Lucia.

413

http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/Launch.aspx?PBID=87ad6005-1972-4d63-92b0-8927eda53c7a Wednesday December 3, 2014 http://www.worldlibrary.org/articles/winston_churchill 415 http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/sir-arthur-lewis-298.php 414

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Donald Trumpâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother was born at Tong on the Scottish island of Lewis. In 1930, aged 18, Donaldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother visited the United States and met Fred Trump. They married in 1936 and settled in Jamaica Estates, and Fred Trump went on to become one of the city's biggest real estate developers. Dr. Derek Walcott of Saint Lucia parents were immigrants from Barbados. Walter Tull Junior became the first black/mixed-race player to win a medal in English senior football and the first black/mixed-race combat officer namely 2nd Lieutenant in the British Army. In 1989, General Colin Powell was the first African-American officer appointed Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staffs. Ted Cruz was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.416

416

Jeffery, Terry (May 25, 2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Townhall.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.

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Chapter 15 PERSONAL REFLECTIONS I would like to bring this chapter to a close with this quote from Daniel Alarcon who states that “How emigration is actually lived - well, this depends on many factors: education, economic station, language, where one lands, and what support network is in place at the site of arrival.”417

This quotation certainly summarizes this text “The Conversation”; focuses on the children of immigrants- is global, is cultural, is diasporic, is a way of life and it is a narrative.

Arguments from N. Samuel Murrell and Abraham Harold Maslow were inserted as some of the reasons advanced for emigration/immigration.

417

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/emigration.html

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Murrell made the telling point that economic hardship, lack of economic diversity and scarcity of professional and skilled jobs are some of reasons for immigration/emigration418 .

Abraham Harold Maslow’s theory419 underscores the fact that “the hierarchy of needs such as the psychological health is predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization420 and that the same was very relevant through this conversation.

Murrell’s and Maslow’s perspective combined seemingly implies that without human’s participation there will be no emigration/immigration. This statement advances the pertinent question why? That produces the answer, People are the conduits and they usually bring their ideas, skills and

418

http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html "Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old. 420 "Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old. 419

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culture421 with them as they play that critical role in all of the economic development.

421

http://www.regentsprep.org/regents/ushisgov/themes/immigration/old_immigration.htm

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Chapter 16 Conclusions and Reflections In closing every society has and will continue to have a bitter sweet relationship with immigration because (a) It is a challenged and (b) It benefits tremendously from the contributions made by the children of emigrants because they are taxpayers, entrepreneurs, job creators, and consumers operating within the global village diaspora.

In this postmodern era they422have been a constant source of economic buoyance within the global village.

The children of immigrants are measured by their identities such as race423, culture, gender, class, ethnicity is a fair criticism.

422 423

gress.org/issues/immigration/report/2014/10/23/59040/the-facts-on-immigration-today-3/ Ellis Cashmore is Professor of Culture, Media and Sport at Staffordshire University

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They also demonstrated exceptional skills.

The children of immigrants are not a new phenomenon but it will continue carving out its niche in this global cultural diaspora.

Ideally, Clifford Geertz’s “Thick description theory” 424 provided the framework to unravel, to record and to analyze data which led to this revelation.

It also enabled me to explore all the possible interpretations and meanings.

This approach certainly appraised the theoretical framework analysis for the constructed statement “Children of Immigrants”.

I support Raj S. Bhopal’s point that migration425 is a fundamental human behavior that is instrumental to the success of the human species. 424

Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, Basic Books,1973(2000 edition). p.9,10.

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As a consequence the intermingling of migrants426 and settled populations creates new societies that provide innumerable opportunities for learning and advancement. In this context an immigrant is one who migrates to a nation whereas emigrant is one who migrates away from their home country. As you are aware immigration means movement of people to a country and emigration means movement of people from a country.

The reality is immigration can be called as moving into a country and emigration as moving out of a country. The global village has benefitted from migration in one way or another. On the subject of immigration, Amato said it isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a matter of welcoming newcomers to the nation in general, but a matter of whether they

425 426

http://blog.oup.com/2014/11/immigration-emigration-health/ http://blog.oup.com/2014/11/immigration-emigration-health/

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violated the law in getting here. “We wouldn’t be a country without immigrants,” he said. “It’s a question of whether they are legal.”

Immigration law probably should be reformed, Amato427 said, questioning why President Barack Obama has not accomplished such change.

Overall the testimonies of the children of immigrants’ are authenticated in this conversation.

427

GUY KOVNER THE PRESS DEMOCRAT Sonoma County Catholics open to Pope Francis' views on climate change, immigration http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/4521520-181/north-coast-catholics-open-to?page=3 September 23, 2015, 3:27 PM

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Chapter 17 Conclusion Finally, the children of immigrants came about as a result of the economic, the social, the political and the environmental issues. This narrative will continue carving out its niche in this global space. Clifford Geertzâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thick description theory enabled me to explore all the possible interpretations/meanings regarding Children of Immigrants.

Raj S. Bhopal belief that migration428 is a fundamental human behavior that is instrumental to the success of the human species is very evident in this context. As a consequence the intermingling of migrants429 and settled populations creates new societies that provide innumerable opportunities for learning and advancement.

428 429

http://blog.oup.com/2014/11/immigration-emigration-health/ http://blog.oup.com/2014/11/immigration-emigration-health/

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Therefore, although this nuance is a powerful phenomenon which has brought together people of different ancestry, ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds among other things. It must be noted that immigration430

has its Advantages &

Disadvantages namely:Business Expansion Employment Employee Resistance Language Barriers Reduced Labor Costs Workforce Diversity Of note “this conversation” authenticates the children of immigrants’ story.

430

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-immigration-employment-2920.html

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Chapter 18 Colour the Images

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Identify and Write 11 Paragraphs on the Children of Immigrants …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Identify the Country Where the Children of Immigrants Parents Migrated From On the World Map

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Draw Images of 11 the Children of Immigrants identified in this text

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Compare and Contrast the Children of Immigrants …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR WILLIAM ANDERSON GITTENS

IDEAOLOGOY Developing and growing in the context of excellence, professionalism and quality in Multimedia Services is what we do best. Marital Status Married Children Lisa Gittens and Laron Gittens 2015 CEO/Managing Director Consultant Devgro Media Arts Services EDUCATION: 2004-2006 Pursued studies in Post Masters Works in Cultural Studies at the University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus Page 220 of 280 DMS


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2002 Management Course BIMAP 1995 Bachelors of Arts in Media Arts Jersey City State University-special concentration pre and postproduction 1992 General Education Diploma (U.S.A.) 1992 Pursued the Diploma Video Production at the Barbados Community College. 1991 Diploma in Communication Arts at the University of the West Indies the course concentrated primarily upon public speaking; Journalism techniques, Writing and speaking; Audio and video production, and the legal aspect of journalism. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2015 CEO, Managing Director, Consultant, isobl member 12th January 2015, Devgro Media Arts Services was registered in the Register of Business Names under No. 54463 and a Member of Small Business Association # 20912 Devgro Media Arts Services we will develop and grow in what we do best in this Global Space in the context of Excellence, Professionalism and Quality in the production of Multimedia Trailer Presentations for Anniversaries, Birthdays, Conference Planning, Consultancy Services, Documentaries, Funerals, Graduations, Publishing and Weddings, July 4-8 2011 Coordinator 47th Caribbean Food Crops Society Conference

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Managing a budget of BDS. $200.000.00 dollars as well as managing the logistical aspect of the conference, networking information to international delegates, soliciting sponsorship, coordination 12 subcommittees, drafting the presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speech, Liaising with the following; the Chief Immigration Officer requesting the waiving of visas for international delegates from Haiti, Chief Protocol Officer Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade regarding seating of diplomats and specially invited guests. Ministry of Health, requesting information of the countries that will require vaccinations to facilitate their at Conference; CEO at Grantley Adams International Airport Incorporated requesting passes for Liaison Officers and Transportation Officers in facilitating delegates. The Commissioner of Police requesting Police Officers to provide security and to serve on the Protocol Committee for the conference. Managed a budget of BDS$110,489.91the 21st Conference of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Regional Commission for the Americas held in Barbados November 26-29, 2012 at two hundred and forty-three thousand six hundred dollars (BDS$110,489.91) Barbados dollars; AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER: October 2000 Author and Publisher of 10 Educational/Historical Children Books 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Page 222 of 280 DMS

Images of Yesteryear in Barbados volume 1 , Images of Yesteryear in Barbados volume 2, Building for the Future Vol1, Colour Me Vol1, Mise en scene Vol1, Land Marks Vol1, Technique Demonstration Vol1, Established in Barbados Vol 1 Established in Barbados Vol 2 Monuments Vol1 Focus Vol1 People Vol 1 People Vol2


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14. People of Conversation Vol.1 15. Barbados in Review Vol.1 16. Have You Considered This Approach? Vol.1 17. The Children of Immigrants Vol.1 Editor In Chief 1992-1994 -Duties included setting up meetings to discuss tender proposals. With prospective tenders of publishing firms and - photography firms for selection. Managed a staff of ten students; managed a budget of $35,000.00 to $50,000.00 in U.S. currency pages, laying out pages press ready. Taking photographs of students and activities on campus 1992- 1994 -Member of the Judicial Committee Jersey City State University Duties included listening to student's complaints that contravened the institutions 'regulations. 1990 ~ 1991 Seconded to the Faculty of Education, University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus. Duties included preparing workshops for CARNEID and UNESCO. Teaching graphic arts, video and still photography to teachers in the Dip Ed Programme and Masters programme Graphic Artist1990 -1991 Technical AssistantAudio Visual Aids Department Duties-processing black and white, colour film and Transparencies slide, graphic arts and illustrations. 1983-1988 1 Official Composite Artists of the Royal Barbados Police Force Duties included -sketching composites of suspects, stolen items jewelry from written information, Intelligence unit, Crime prevention Unit and Special branch 1989 â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2005 Freelance Photojournalist â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation Page 223 of 280 DMS


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Duties - field assignments, live broadcast, and shell umbra cup football Jazz festival, Arial photography Calligraphy Justices of the Peace Certificates for the Government of Barbados Cabinet Office 1978-1979 Supervisor at Barbados Knitting and Spinning 1972-2015 Member of the Barbados Regiment and the Barbados Boys Scouts Association HONORS AND AWARDS ➢

Inducted in the Hall of Professionals of St.Giles Primary

Recipient of the 12th International Prestigious Scout Award Arco Italy

➢ Presented to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of England for outstanding contributions in the field of art. ➢

Presented to His Excellency Governor General Sir Hugh Springer

➢ for outstanding contributions in the field of art and Scouting in Barbados. ➢

Received Special accreditation from Hackney England International

Art Exhibition.

➢ Designer of postage stamps commemorating 60 years of scouting in Barbados ➢ 2016- Received Participation Certificate The 50th Anniversary of Independence of Barbados National Monument Committee

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Works Cited

America's Climate Choices. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. 2011. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-30914585-5. "The average temperature of the Earth’s surface increased by about 1.4 °F (0.8 °C) over the past 100 years, with about 1.0 °F (0.6 °C) of this warming occurring over just the past three decades Beale, Jason. Language and culture: a response to Stuart Hall http://www.jasonbeale.com/essaypages/stuart_hall.html> October 11, 2005. Cashmore, Ellis. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations 4 th Edition, 1999. Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books,Inc.1973 Hall, Stuart. and Paul du Gay Questions of Cultural Identity Sage: Publications London, 1996. Hall, Stuart.(ed) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London:Sage,1997). Hall, Stuart. Cultural Identity andDiaspora”<http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/literary_Criticism/postcolonism/Hall.html.>September9th,2005. Lewis, Linden. The Culture of Gender and Sexuality in the Caribbean University Press of Florida, 2003. Meeks,Brian. and Folke Lindah(ed) New Caribbean Thought: A Reader (Mona:The Press,2001). Mills, Charles W. The Racial Contract, Cornell University Press: Ithaca and London, 1997. Nettleford, Rex. Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of Jamaica." An Essay in Cultural Dynamics. Kingston: Ian Randle, 2003. Storey, John. Cultural Studies and the Study of Popular Culture: Theories and Methods. Edinburgh University Press, 1996. Brookfield, Stephen D., (1989) Developing Critical Thinkers - Challenging Adults to Explore Alternative Ways of Thinking and Acting, Jossey Bass Publishers, San Francisco The Center For Critical Thinking Richard Paul, Ph.D., Linda Elder, Ph.D.(1995) http://www.sonoma.edu/cthinkingg Kuhn, Thomas, (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Second Edition, Enlarged. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago Paul, Richard, (1993) Critical Thinking - What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World (Third Edition), edited by Jane Willsen and A.J.A. Binker, Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa Rosa, CA. Rubinstein, Moshe F. and Firstenberg, Iris R.,(1987) "Tools for thinking, Developing Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Abilities," J.E. Stice (ed.), New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 30, Summer, Jossey Bass San Francisco Donaldson, John K. The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization American Studies International, Oct2003, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p109-110, 2p; De Bono, Edward, (1976) Teaching Thinking, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Ellington,Henry.Fred Percival, and Phil Race. Handbook of Educational Technology, Third Ed.Nichols Publishing, 1984. Ellis Cashmore,.ed. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations . (London: Routledge, 1994). Ennis, Robert H., (1987) " A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities," in Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York The Four Seasons http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/season.html Glaser, Edward M., (1941) An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. AMS Press, New York, (reprint of 1941 edition.) Gray, Ann. Research Practice for Cultural Studies (London:Sage 2003) Glasersfeld, E. Von. (1989). Constructivist checklist http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle4.html February 7,2006 Foundations of Critical Thinking A Critical Thinking Darwin in his classic study The Origin of Species . 3. (1984). www.viterbo.edu/personalpages/faculty/RRuppel/CritThink.html Haan, Richard. The Problem of Iroquois Neutrality Suggestions for Revision Ethnohistory;Fall 80, Vol.27, Issue4, p317, 14p Haan, Richard. Hartwick College, Ethnohistory;Fall 80,Vol.27, Issue4, p317,14p Haralambos, Michael. and Robin Heald Sociology Themes and Perspectives University Tutorial Press Limited Hall, Stuart. Introduction: Who Needs Identity Questions of Cultural Identity? Stuart Hall and Paul duGay,ed., (London: Sage Publications,1996) Hamilton,Mona. “Dynamic Presentation with Cameras and Scanners” Media and Methods November/December 1996, Volume 33. No. 32 page 10.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Haralambos, Michael. and Robin Heald Sociology Themes and Perspectives Great Britain: University Tutorial Press Limited.1980. Hawk, Teresa. Look Who’s Shooting: Tony Hawk, Popular Photography and Image, Volume 68, No. 9, September 2004 pages 15. Heimich, Robert. Michael Molenda, James D.Russell, and Sharon E.Smaldino. Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Published by Macmillan Publishing Company.1993. Herschel, Sir John. The Online Etymology Dictionary 2005-02-11. www.etymonline.com/index.php? Term=photograph Roundtree,. Derek. Educational Technology Curriculum Development .(London:Harper and Row, Publishers, 1974). Rob,Thompson. “Culture and Travel” Interview with Photographer Donald Nausbaum 15 February 2005 . http://www.jahworks.org/travel/nausbaum.html Silverberg, Robert. Home Of The Red Man : Indian North America Before Columbus (New York:Washington Square Press, 1971). Storey, John. Culture Studies and Study of Popular tool: Theories and Methods. Edinburgh University Press. 1996. Thomas G. Hand, S.J Contemplative Dialogue www.bedegriffiths.com/dialogue/dialogue.htm 13 March 2006. Web definitions for Hierarchy wells.entirety.ca/glossary.htm October 9th, 2005 Wordnet defines Ownershipwordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn. October 9th, 2005. Gould, Peter (8 April 2005). "Largest Assemblage of Statesmen at funeral since Churchill". BBC News. Lundy, Darryl. "Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill". The Peerage. Wellington, New Zealand: Darryl Lundy. Person Page - 10620. Retrieved 20 December 2007.[unreliable source] Jenkins, pp. 1–20 Jenkins, p. 7 Johnson, Paul (2010). Churchill. New York, NY: Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 0-14-311799-8. "Introduction to Civil Defence in Ireland – Background". Civil Defence College (Ireland). Retrieved 28 October 2011. O'Farrell, Padraic (2000). Down Ratra Road: Fifty Years of Civil Defence in Ireland. Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-7076-6506-1. Jenkins, p. 10 Jordan, Anthony (1995). Churchill: A Founder of Modern Ireland. Dublin: Westport Books. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9780-9524447-0-1. Prendeville, Tom (19 January 2012). "Secret history of the Phoenix Park". Irish Independent. "Sir Winston Churchill Biography". Encyclopædia Britannica. Lt Churchill: 4th Queen's Own Hussars, The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009. Jenkins, pp. 10–11 Haffner, p. 32 "Winston Churchill, Stutterer". Mather, John (5 September 2009). "Churchill's speech impediment was stuttering". The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, London. Retrieved 27 December 2012.. "Reports of Churchill by his family and cousins do not mention stuttering. Later on Churchill dictated to many 'secretaries' and none mention any hesitation (possible stuttering) in his speech but rather a charming lisp. All secretaries that took dictation, but one, agree that any hesitation was a 'searching' for the right words." "Churchill's teeth sell for almost $24,000". Oliver, Robert Tarbell (October 1987). Public speaking in the reshaping of .... Associated University Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-315-8. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Soames, Mary: Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill. p. 1 Soames, p. 6 Soames, pp. 14–15 Soames, p. 17 Edwards, 1987, p. 12 Soames, pp. 18, 22, 25

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Soames, pp. 40, 44 Soames, p. 105 Soames, p. 217 Soames, pp. 239, 241 Soames, p. 262 Crowhurst, Richard (2006). "Chartwell: Churchill's House of Refuge". Moira Allen. Retrieved 9 January 2008. Jenkins, pp. 20–21 Bank of England inflation calculator Jenkins, pp. 21–45 Lewis, G.K. "On the character and achievement of Sir Winston Churchill". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol 23, No. 2 May 1957 (May 1957): 173–194. Johnson, Paul (2009). Churchill. Viking. ISBN 978-1-101-14929-4. Churchill, Winston S. 1951 The Second World War, Volume 5: Closing the Ring. Houghton Miffin Edition. Bantam Books, New York No ISBN or other number provided. p. 606. "Prime Minister to Foreign Secretary 5. Feb (19)44. Your minute about raising certain legations to the status of embassy. I must say that Cuba has as good a claim as some other places–'la perla de Las Antillas'. Great offence will be given if all the others have it and this large, rich, beautiful island, the home of the cigar, is denied. Surely Cuba has much more claim than Venezuela. You will make a bitter enemy if you leave them out, and after a bit you will be forced to give them what you have given to the others." Jenkins, p. 29 T. E. C. Jr. M.D. (5 November 1977). "Winston Churchill's Poignant Description of the Death of his Nanny". PEDIATRICS Vol. 60 No.: 752. Jones, R. V. (1966). "Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill 1874-1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 12: 34–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1966.0003. edit Churchill, Sir Winston S. "The Story Of The Malakand Field Force – An Episode of Frontier War". arthursclassicnovels.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007. "Two opposition views of Afghanistan: British activist and Dutch MP want to know why their countries are participating in a dangerous adventure". Spectrazine. 20 March 2006. Churchill, Winston (October 2002). My Early Life. Eland Publishing Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 0-907871-62-3. "Churchill On The Frontier – Mamund Valley III". UK Commentators. 11 December 2004. Jenkins, pp. 29–31 "Youth: 1874–1900". Sir Winston Churchill. Autumn, 4Th Quarter 1897. Retrieved 2 August 2012. Jenkins, p. 40 Brighton, Terry, The Last Charge: the 21st Lancers and the Battle of Omdurman. Marlborough: Crowood, 1998. ISBN 1-86126-189-6 Jenkins, pp. 55–62 Jenkins, pp. 61–62 Jenkins, pp. 62–64 "Finest Hour" (PDF). Journal of the Churchill Centre and Societies, Summer 2005. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Jenkins, pp. 45–50 Gilbert, Martin (2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness (one volume edition). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-71266725-8.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Jenkins, p. 69 "Churchill's Commissions and Military Attachments, The Churchill Centre". Winstonchurchill.org. Retrieved 12 April 2010. Beresiner, Yasha (October 2002). "Brother Winston: Churchill as a Freemason". Masonic Quarterly Magazine (London: Grand Lodge Publications Limited for the United Grand Lodge of England) (3). Retrieved 29 July 2012. Morris, Robert (January–February 2005) [First published May 2003]. "Brother Winston S. Churchill". Scottishrite.org. Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Council, 33°. Retrieved 29 July 2012. "Sir Winston Churchill: Biography: Chronological Summary, Churchill College". Chu.cam.ac.uk. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009. "Naval innovation: From coal to oil". Epmag.com. 4 July 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2013. "Winston Churchill". Historylearningsite.co.uk. 30 March 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2013. Jenkins, pp. 301–02 Benn, T; et al. (2001). "Churchill Remembered: Recollections by Tony Benn MP, Lord Carrington, Lord Deedes and Mary Soames". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (11): 393–414 [404]. doi:10.1017/S0080440101000202. JSTOR 3679430. James, Robert Rhodes (1993). "Churchill the Parliamentarian, Orator, and Statesman". In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 513, 515–517. ISBN 0-19-820626-7. The London Gazette: no. 27244. p. 6772. 6 November 1900. Retrieved 31 May 2012. UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth. Jenkins, p. 101 Jenkins, pp. 74–76 Hall, Douglas J. "Churchill's Elections". The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009. Toye, Richard (2007). Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-40504896-5. Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications: pp. 287–89 Jenkins, pp. 150–51 Jenkins, p. 152 Gilbert, Martin (31 May 2009). "Churchill and Eugenics". Retrieved 8 January 2014. Jenkins, pp. 157–66 Jenkins, p. 161 Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications pp. 359–65 Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications: p. 395 Jenkins, p. 194 Campbell, Duncan (9 August 2011). "What next to tackle the riots? Curfew? Water cannon? The army?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 28 October 2011. Jenkins, p. 186 Churchill took flying lessons, 1911, The Aerodrome.com Naval innovation: from coal to oil, Erik J. Dahl, Joint Force Quarterly, 2000 The World Crisis (new edition), Odhams 1938, p. 323 James, Robert Rhodes (1973). Churchill: A Study in Failure. Pelican. p. 80. "The First World War, The development of the Tank, sponsored by Winston Churchill". Retrieved 16 December 2007. Callwell, C.E. (2005). Dardanelles, a study of the strategical and certain tactical aspects of the Dardanelles campaign. London: Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84574-273-7. Jenkins, pp. 282–88 Jenkins, p. 287 The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29520. p. 3260. 24 March 1916. Retrieved 11 January 2014. Jenkins, p. 301 "20th and early 21st Century – British Army Website". Army.mod.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2011.[dead link] Jenkins, p. 309

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill", Kevin Myers, Independent.ie Ferris, John. Treasury Control, the Ten Year Rule and British Service Policies, 1919–1924. The Historical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (December 1987), pp. 859–83 Wallin, Jeffrey; Williams, Juan (4 September 2001). "Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness". Churchill Centre. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 26 February 2007. Jordan, Anthony J. (April 1995). Churchill, a founder of modern Ireland. Westport Books. pp. 70–75. ISBN 978-09524447-0-1. Retrieved 21 September 2011. Jenkins, pp. 361–65 Douglas, R. M., 'Did Britain Use Chemical Weapons in Mandatory Iraq?', The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 81, No. 4 (December 2009), pp. 859–887 "The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill – Kevin Myers, Columnists". The Irish Independent. 3 September 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2011. By-Elections in British Politics, Cook and Ramsden, p53-61 Chris Cook, Sources in British Political History, 1900-1951 (Volume 1); Macmillan Press, 1975 p73 British parliamentary election results 1918-1949, Craig, F.W.S. "Winston Churchill and Parliamentary Democracy". Churchill Society for the Advancement of Parliamentary Democracy. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2014. "Budget Blunders: Mr Churchill and the Gold Standard (1925)". BBC News. 9 March 1999. Retrieved 2 December 2007. James, p. 207 James, p. 206 "Speeches – Gold Standard Bill". The Churchill Centre. 4 May 1925. Retrieved 28 August 2009. Jenkins, p. 405 Picknett, Lynn, Prince, Clive, Prior, Stephen and Brydon, Robert (2002). War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, p. 78. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-631-3. Henderson, H. The Interwar Years and other papers. Clarendon Press James, p 22 212 Gilbert, Martin (2004). Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-418-2. Books Written by Winston Churchill (see Amid these Storms), The Churchill Centre, 2007 247 House of Commons Debates 5s col 755 "Churchill took hardline on Gandhi". BBC News. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2010. Myers, Kevin (6 August 2010). "Seventy years on and the soundtrack to the summer of 1940 is filling Britain's airwaves". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 7 November 2010. James, p. 260 Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Prophet of Truth: 1922–1939. (c) 1976 by C&T Publications, Ltd: p. 618 Guha, Ramachandra (19 June 2005). "Churchill and Gandhi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). speech on 18 March 1931 quoted in James, p. 254 James, p. 262 James, pp. 269–72 James, p. 258 See Dyson and Maharatna (1991) for a review of the data and the various estimates made. JSTOR profile Mukerjee, Madhusree. "History News Network | Because the Past is the Present, and the Future too". Hnn.us. Retrieved 29 July 2011. Gordon, American Historical Review, p. 1051 "The Bengali Famine". Winstonchurchill.org. Retrieved 10 August 2009. Exit Wounds, by Pankaj Mishra, The New Yorker, 13 August 2007. James, pp. 285–86 Picknett, et al., p. 75 Lord Lloyd and the decline of the British Empire J Charmley pp. 1, 2, 213ff Muller, James W. (1999). Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech Fifty Years Later. p. 101. Julius, Anthony, "The Trials of the Diaspora, A History of Anti-Semitism in England, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 408, Churchill was an admirer of conspiracy theory writer, Nesta H. Webster; "Churchill cited her with approval in his 1920 newspaper article " Zionism versus Bolshevism" "

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Baker, Nicolson, "Human Smoke: The Beginnings of WWII, The End of Civilization," Simon & Schuster, 2008, Chapter 1 James, p. 329 quoting Churchill's speech in the Commons James, p. 408 Taylor, A.J.P. Beaverbrook Hamish Hamilton 1972 p. 375 Holmes, Richard (2005). In the footsteps of Churchill. Basic Books. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-465-03082-8. Churchill, Winston. Great Contemporaries. (c) 1937 GP Putnam Sons, Inc. New York, NY: p. 225 for a history of The Focus see E Spier Focus Wolff 1963 Harold Nicholson's letter to his wife on 13 March summed up the situation: "If we send an ultimatum to Germany she ought in all reason to climb down. But then she will not climb down and we shall have war ... The people of this country absolutely refuse to have a war. We would be faced with a general strike if we suggested such a thing. We shall therefore have to climb down ignominiously", Diaries and Letters 1930–1939 p. 249 James, pp. 333–37 The Origins of the Second World War p. 153 The Gathering Storm p. 276 "The Locust Speech". Churchill Society. Retrieved 28 August 2013. James, p. 343 Smith, Frederick, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead (1969). Walter Monckton. Weidenfield and Nicholson. p. 129. Middlemas, K.R.; Barnes, J. (1969). Stanley Baldwin. Weidenfield and Nicholson. p. 999. The Gathering Storm pp. 170–71. Others including Citrine who chaired the meeting wrote that Churchill did not make such a speech. Citrine Men and Work Hutchinson 1964 p. 357 James, pp. 349–51 where the text of the statement is given Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by Taylor, A.J.P. (1966). The Abdication of King Edward VIII. London: Hamish Hamilton. Cook; Alistair 'Edward VIII' in Six Men Bodley Head 1977 Macmillan, H. The Blast of War Macmillan 1970 The Gathering Storm p. 171 Taylor A.J.P. English History (1914–1945) Hamilton, Hamish 1961 p. 404 James, p. 353 These factions were headed by Anthony Eden and Leo Amery James, p. 428 Blake, Robert (1993). "How Churchill Became Prime MInister". In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 264, 270–271. ISBN 0-19-820626-7. James, p. 302 James, pp. 316–18 Picknett, et al., pp. 149–50 Current Biography 1942, p. 155 Churchill, Winston: "The Second World War" (abridged edition), p. 163. Pimlico, 2002. ISBN 0-7126-6702-4 Brendon, Piers. "The Churchill Papers: Biographical History". Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge. Retrieved 26 February 2007. Self, Robert (2006). Neville Chamberlain: A Biography, p. 431. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-5615-9. Knickerbocker, H.R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. pp. 140, 150, 178–179. Reynolds, David (1993). "Churchill in 1940: The Worst and Finest Hour". In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 249, 252, 254–255. ISBN 0-19-820626-7. Ingersoll, Ralph (1940). Report on England, November 1940. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 127. Bungay, 2000, p. 11 Jenkins, pp. 616–46 Jenkins, p. 621 Allen, Hubert Raymond. Who Won the Battle of Britain? London: Arthur Barker, 1974. ISBN 0-213-16489-2. "We Shall Fight on the Beaches, 4 June 1940". Churchill Centre. Retrieved 20 December 2007. "Their Finest Hour, 18 June 1940". Churchill Centre. Retrieved 20 December 2007. Speech to the House of Commons on 20 August 1940 "Famous Quotations and Stories". Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009. Menzies, Robert. "Menzies; 1941 War Diary – Churchill and the War Cabinet". Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 23 December 2007.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Denson, John (1997). The Costs of War: America's Pyrrhic Victories. New York: Prentice Hall. p. 259. ISBN 156000-319-7. Charles McMoran Wilson (Lord Moran) (1966). "Winston Churchill: The Struggle for Survival, 1940–1965 : Taken from the Diaries of Lord Moran". Constable.[dead link] Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Lord (2001). Danchev, Alex; Todman, Daniel, eds. War Diaries 1939–1945. Phoenix Press. p. 590. ISBN 1-84212-526-5. Gunther, John (1950). Roosevelt in Retrospect. Harper & Brothers. pp. 15–16. Lukacs, John (Spring–Summer 2008). Churchill Offers Toil and Tears to FDR. American Heritage. Retrieved 2 August 2012. Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. p. 171. ISBN 0-688-03587-6. Prime Minister Winston Churchill's Address to the Congress of the United States 1941, IBiblio.org Pawle, Gerald (1963). "Flight to Cairo". The War and Colonel Warden. George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. ISBN 085617-637-0. "Colonel Warden was his favourite pseudonym" Michael R. Beschloss, (2002) The Conquerors: p. 131 Jenkins, p. 849 "The Churchill Papers: Biography". Chu.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2009. Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. p. 159. ISBN 0-688-03587-6. Chen, Peter C. "Casablanca Conference, 14 Jan. 1943". Retrieved 27 August 2012. Middleton, Drew (24 January 1943). "On This Day, "Roosevelt, Churchill Map 1943 War Strategy"". New York Times. Murphy, Clare (2 August 2004). "WWII expulsions spectre lives on". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2014. De Zayas, Alfred M. (1979) Nemesis at Potsdam: The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans, Routledge ISBN 0-7100-0458-3. Chapter I, p. 1 citing Churchill, Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, vol. 406, col. 1484 Jenkins, pp. 759–63 Churchill, Winston (1989). The Second World War. London: Penguin. p. 852. ISBN 0-14-012836-0. Resis, Albert. The Churchill-Stalin Secret "Percentages" Agreement on the Balkans, Moscow, October 1944. The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 2. (April 1978), pp. 368–87 in JSTOR A Footnote to Yalta by Jeremy Murray-Brown, Documentary at Boston University Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. The Gulag Archipelago, vol. 1. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney. New York: Harper and Row, 1974, p. 85 Hornberger, Jacob (1995). "Repatriation—The Dark Side of World War II". The Future of Freedom Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Taylor, Frederick; Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, New York:HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-000676-5, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-7078-7. pp. 262–64. After the devastation of Dresden by aerial bombing, and the resulting fire storm (February 1945); quoted in Where the Right Went Wrong (2004) by Patrick J. Buchanan, p. 119 Longmate, Norman (1983). "The Bombers", Hutchins & Co. p. 346. Harris quote as source: Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352 *Taylor, Frederick (2004). Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-7078-7; pp. 432–33 Harding, Luke (21 October 2003). "German historian provokes row over war photos". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 January 2013. Grayling, A.C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. New York: Walker Publishing Company Inc. ISBN 0-8027-1471-4. pp. 237–38 Hawley, Charles. "Dresden Bombing Is To Be Regretted Enormously", Der Spiegel online, 11 February 2005 Coming Home BBC Four, 9 am to 9.45 am, 9–13 May 2005. On this day 8 May 1945 BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2007. The UK was on double summer time which was 1 hour in front of 2301 hours CET that the surrender document specified (RAF Site Diary 7/8 May at the Wayback Machine (archived July 28, 2012)). The secret strategy to launch attack on Red Army at the Wayback Machine (archived May 28, 2008). Bob Fenton. Telegraph, Issue 1124. 1 October 1998.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services British War Cabinet, Joint Planning Staff. Public Record Office, CAB 120/691/109040 / 002 (11 August 1945). "Operation Unthinkable: 'Russia: Threat to Western Civilization'" (online photocopy). Department of History, Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2008. Picknett, et al., p. 190 Jenkins, pp. 789–94 "WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West . Biographies . Anthony Eden". PBS. Retrieved 9 August 2011. Churchill On Vacation, 1946/01/21 (1946). Universal Newsreel. 1946. Retrieved 22 February 2012. Interview: Clark Clifford at the Wayback Machine (archived October 25, 2007). Retrieved 23 March 2009. Churchill, Winston. "Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain)". Churchill Centre. Retrieved 26 February 2007. Jenkins, p. 810 and pp. 819–14 "Remembrance Day 2003". Churchill Society London. Retrieved 25 April 2007. Poverty, inequality and health in Britain, 1800–2000: a reader edited by George Davey Smith, Daniel Dorling, Mary Shaw, P.LXXIX Pugh, Martin (24 March 2010). Speak for Britain!: A New History of the Labour Party. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-40705155-0. Retrieved 7 May 2012. "OCR A Level History B: The End of Consensus: Britain 1945–90". Pearson Education (Heinemann). 27 February 2009. ISBN 978-0-435-31237-4. Retrieved 7 May 2012. Griffin, John P. (15 October 2009). The Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-4443-1756-5. Retrieved 7 May 2012. Jenkins, pp. 843–61 Harper, T.N. (2001). The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00465-7. Stubbs, Richard (2001). Hearts and Minds in Guerilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency 1948–1960. New York: Eastern University. ISBN 981-210-352-X. Ferguson, Niall (2000). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-014-100754-0. Blake, Robert; Louis, William Roger (1993). Blake, Robert; Louis, William Roger, eds. Churchill. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-393-03409-7. Jenkins, p. 847 Jenkins, pp. 868–71 Rasor, p. 205 Lovell, Mary S (7 April 2011). The Churchills. Little, Brown Book Group. pp. 486–. ISBN 978-0-7481-1711-6. "Winston Churchill". Pub.L. 86-6. U.S. Senate. 9 April 1963. Retrieved 17 March 2011. Jenkins, p. 911 Ramsden, John (2002). Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and His Legend Since 1945. Columbia University Press. pp. 16–17, 113. ISBN 978-0-231-13106-3. Picknett, et al., p. 252 Remembering Winston Churchill: The State Funeral of Sir Winston Churchill, part 2, BBC Archive. Retrieved 5 March 2011 "Winston Churchill (1874–1965)". PortCities London. Retrieved 12 January 2008. Winston Churchill's funeral van project Swanage Railway News 2006 Winston Churchill's funeral van denied Lottery funding Swanage Railway News 2008 "History - Sir Winston Churchill". The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Retrieved 11 January 2014. Jenkins, p. 279 ReesMogg, William (22 May 2007). "Portrait of the artist with his black dog". The Times (London). Retrieved 6 March 2008. "Paul Maze Biography". Albanyfineart.co.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2010. Lady Soames. "Winston Churchill the Painter". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Churchill, Winston S., "The Hinge of Fate". New York: Houghton Mifflin Company 1950 p. 622 "Churchill and Reves". Winstonchurchill.org. Retrieved 7 November 2010. "25th Anniversary of Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art". Dallas Art News. Retrieved 7 November 2010. Mohr, Philip. "Reves Collection Inventory". The Emery and Wendy Reves Memorial Collection, Winston Churchill Memorial and Library in the United States, Westminster College. Retrieved 28 October 2011.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "FAQ about Parliament". Parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2014. "Official Nobel Page". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009. Jenkins, pp. 819–23 and pp. 525–26 Wainwright, Martin (19 August 2010). "Winston Churchill's butterfly house brought back to life – Environment". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 14 July 2013. Radio Times, 12 March 2011, pp. 130–131 "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace, 1901–1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 8 June 2010. "Poll of the 100 Greatest Britons". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2007. "The Most Influential People of the 20th Century". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007. Russell, Douglas (2002). The Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sir Winston Churchill. Churchill Centre. 88th Congress (1963) (April 9, 1963). "H.R. 4374 (88th)". Legislation. GovTrack.us. Retrieved January 27, 2014. "An Act to proclaim Sir Winston Churchill an honorary citizen of the United States of America." "The Birth Throes of a Sublime Resolve". The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 9 August 2009. "Leiden University Honorary Doctrates". About.leiden.edu. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2013. IMDb.com Primary sources Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis. Six vols. (1923–31); one-vol. ed. (2005). On the First World War. Churchill, Winston. The Second World War. Six vols. (1948–53) Coombs, David, ed., with Minnie Churchill. Sir Winston Churchill: His Life through His Paintings. Fwd. by Mary Soames. Pegasus, 2003. ISBN 0-7624-2731-0. Other editions entitled Sir Winston Churchill's Life and His Paintings and Sir Winston Churchill: His Life and His Paintings. Includes illustrations of approx. 500–534 paintings by Churchill. Edwards, Ron. Eastcote: From Village to Suburb (1987). Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon. ISBN 0907869-09-2. Gilbert, Martin. In Search of Churchill: A Historian's Journey (1994). Memoir about editing the following multivolume work. Gilbert, Martin, ed. Winston S. Churchill. An eight-volume biography begun by Randolph Churchill, supported by 15 companion vols. of official and unofficial documents relating to Churchill. 1966– Youth, 1874–1900 (2 vols., 1966); Young Statesman, 1901–1914 (3 vols., 1967); The Challenge of War, 1914–1916 (3 vols., 1973). ISBN 0-395-16974-7 (10) and ISBN 978-0-395-16974-2 (13); The Stricken World, 1916–1922 (2 vols., 1975); The Prophet of Truth, 1923–1939 (3 vols., 1977); Finest Hour, 1939–1941: The Churchill War Papers (2 vols., 1983); Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (4 vols., 1986); Never Despair, 1945–1965 (3 vols., 1988). James, Robert Rhodes, ed. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897–1963. Eight vols. London: Chelsea, 1974. Knowles, Elizabeth. The Oxford Dictionary of Twentieth Century Quotations. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-860103-4. ISBN 978-0-19-860103-6. ISBN 0-19-866250-5. ISBN 978-0-19-866250-1. Loewenheim, Francis L. and Harold D. Langley, eds (1975). Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence. Secondary sources Beschloss, Michael R. (2002). The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941– 1945. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81027-0. OCLC 50315054. Best, Geoffrey (2003) [First published 2001]. Churchill: A Study in Greatness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-253-5. OCLC 50339762. Blake, Robert (1997). Winston Churchill. Pocket Biographies. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-1507-6. OCLC 59586004. Blake, Robert; Louis, William Roger, eds. (1992). Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-282317-5. OCLC 30029512. Browne, Anthony Montague (1995). Long sunset : memoirs of Winston Churchill's last private secretary. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-34478-9. OCLC 32547047.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Charmley, John (1993). Churchill, The End of Glory: A Political Biography. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-15-117881-0. OCLC 440131865. Charmley, John (1996). Churchill's Grand Alliance: The Anglo-American Special Relationship 1940–57. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-59760-6. OCLC 247165348. Davis, Richard Harding. Real Soldiers of Fortune (1906). Early biography. Project Gutenberg etext, wikisource here "Real Soldiers of Fortune/Chapter 3". En.wikisource.org. 20 October 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2009. D'Este, Carlo (2008). Warlord: a life of Winston Churchill at war, 1874–1945 (1st ed.). New York: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-057573-1. Retrieved 26 November 2008. Gilbert, Martin. Churchill: A Life (1992); ISBN 0-8050-2396-8 One-volume version of 8-volume biography] Haffner, Sebastian. Winston Churchill (1967) Hastings, Max. Finest Years: Churchill as Warlord, 1940–45. London: HarperPress, 2009; ISBN 978-0-00-7263677 Hennessy, P. Prime minister: the office and its holders since 1945 (2001). Hitchens, Christopher. "The Medals of His Defeats", The Atlantic Monthly (April 2002) James, Robert Rhodes. Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900–1939 (1970) Jenkins, Roy. Churchill: A Biography (2001); ISBN 978-0-374-12354-3/ISBN 978-0-452-28352-7 Jordan, Anthony J. Churchill: A Founder of Modern Ireland. Westport Books (1995); ISBN 978-0-9524447-0-1 Julius, Anthony, The Trials of the Diaspora, A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-929705-4 Kersaudy, François. Churchill and De Gaulle (1981); ISBN 0-00-216328-4 Krockow, Christian. Churchill: Man of the Century. [1900–1999]; ISBN 1-902809-43-2 Lukacs, John. Churchill: Visionary, Statesman, Historian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002 Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (1988); ISBN 0-316-54512-0 Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Defender of the Realm, 1940–1965 (2010) Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory, 1874–1932 (1983); ISBN 0-31654503-1 Massie, Robert. Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War; ISBN 1-84413-528-4 [chapters 40–41 concern Churchill at Admiralty.] Pelling, Henry. Winston Churchill (1974); ISBN 1-84022-218-2. [Comprehensive biography] Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874–1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 2000; ISBN 0-313-30546-3 [Entries include several thousand books and scholarly articles] Soames, Mary (ed.) Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill (1998) Stansky, Peter, ed. Churchill: A Profile (1973) [Perspectives on Churchill by leading scholars] Storr, Anthony. Churchill's Black Dog and Other Phenomena of the Human Mind. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. New Edition ed. (1997); ISBN 978-0-00-637566-1 Toye, Richard. Churchill's Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made. Macmillan. 2010; ISBN 978-0-230-70384-1 Trukhanovskiĭ, Vladimir Grigor'evich. Winston Churchill. Moscow: Progress Publishers (1978; revised edition) Olivier Weber, War Correspondent, Preface of The Malakand War, Belles Lettres (2012) Selected bibliography Capitalism and Slavery, 1944. Documents of West Indian History: 1492-1655 from the Spanish discovery to the British conquest of Jamaica, Volume 1, 1963. History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago, 1964. British Historians and the West Indies, 1964. The Negro In The Caribbean, 1970. Inward Hunger: The Education of a Prime Minister, 1971. From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean 1492-1969, 1971. Forged from the Love of Liberty: Selected Speeches of Dr. Eric Williams, 1981. The Leathersellers' Company Court Minutes, 1 July 1936, ref. GOV/1/25, pp. 136-37. Raymond Ramcharitar, "Inward Hunger: The Movie", Guardian Media, 5 October 2011. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (November 2009)

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Theodossiou, Eleni; Hipple, Steven F. (2011). "Unemployment Remains High in 2010". Monthly Labor Review (Bureau of Labor Statistics) 134 (3): 3–22. Archived from the original on May 8, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011. Eddlemon, John P. (2011). "Payroll Employment Turns the Corner in 2010". Monthly Labor Review (Bureau of Labor Statistics) 134 (3): 23–32. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011. "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Unemployment Rate". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved May 3, 2013. a b "Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Quarterly)". National Income and Product Accounts Table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011. Harding, Robin (July 28, 2010). "Beige Book survey reports signs of slowdown". Financial Times. Archived from the original on July 29, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010. "Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Annual)". National Income and Product Accounts Table. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011. "Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved February 21, 2012. Calmes, Jackie; Cooper, Michael (November 20, 2009). "New Consensus Sees Stimulus Package as Worthy Step". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010. "CBO: Stimulus created as many as 2.1 million jobs". February 23, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010. Krugman, Paul (November 2, 2009). "Too Little of a Good Thing". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010. Isidore, Chris (January 29, 2010). "Best economic growth in six years". CNN. Retrieved April 18, 2010. "New NABE Survey Shows Business Recovery Gaining Momentum, with More Jobs Ahead". Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010. Hulse, Carl; Robert Pear (November 7, 2009). "Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 9, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2009. Herszenhorn, David M.; Jackie Calmes (December 7, 2009). "Abortion Was at Heart of Wrangling". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 11, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009. Hensley, Scott (December 24, 2009). "Senate Says Yes To Landmark Health Bill". NPR. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved December 24, 2009. "Health Care Reform, at Last". The New York Times. March 21, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2010. "Policies to Improve Affordability and Accountability". The White House. Retrieved January 6, 2013. Grier, Peter. "Health Care Reform Bill 101". The Christian Science Monitor. Elmendorf, Douglas W. "An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" (PDF). Retrieved April 9, 2012. Peter Grier, Health care reform bill 101: Who will pay for reform?, Christian Science Monitor (March 21, 2010). Grier, Peter (March 19, 2010). "Health care reform bill 101: Who must buy insurance?". The Christian Science Monitor (Washington, D.C.). Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2010. Elmendorf, Douglas W. "H.R. 4872, Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Final Health Care Legislation)". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved January 6, 2013. Paul Harris in Oakland and Ewen MacAskill in Washington (November 3, 2010). "US midterm election results herald new political era as Republicans take House". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010. Colvin, Ross; Barkin, Noah (February 7, 2009). "Biden vows break with Bush era foreign policy". Canada.com (Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Postmedia Network). Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2013. Ghattas, Kim (March 8, 2009). "Clinton's gaffes and gains on tour". BBC News Online. Retrieved June 15, 2009. Williams, R. (1958). Culture and society: 1780 - 1950. New York: Columbia University Preferred pronunciation rhymes with "bowel", not "bowl" (as inCharles Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater) – see Alexander Chancellor, "You Say Tomato," New Yorker. August 9, 1993, p. 27. The first African American secretary of state, Colin Powell, The African American Registry. Biographies – Colin Powell: United States Secretary of State, African American History Month, US Department of Defense. - Colin Powell, Britannica Online Encyclopedia. - Profile: Colin Powell, BBC News. - Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Colin Powell". wargs.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008. - Branigan, Tania (May 12, 2004). "Colin Powell claims Scottish coat of arms". The Guardian (London).

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services - "Colin Powell's Scottish Ancestry". Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter 9 (20). May 17, 2004. - Daly, Michael (August 2, 2000). "Powell's Old Nabe Boss a Big Backer". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 19, 2008.Powell explained that he had joined ROTC. He became an officer after graduation, leaving Sickser's with a smattering of Yiddish... - "Former Secretary of State Gen. Colin Powell and Mario Cuomo, former governor of New York State, each a former Shabbos goy, both share fond recollections of their youth, when they were uniquely qualified to lend a Jewish neighbor a hand." Fertig, Avi. "Glatt Kosher Adventure To The Land Down Under", The Jewish Press, November 21, 2007. - "Major Player: Gen. Colin L. Powell (Ret.)". Washington Post. July 28, 2000. Retrieved April 30, 2010. "Colin (Luther) Powell Biography (1937 – )". The Biography Channel. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved May 31, 2007. - Biography and Video Interview of Colin Powell at Academy of Achievement. - "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell (biography)". The White House. April 29, 2003. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - to:a b c "Colin Powell". CNN. 1996. Retrieved 7 December2012. - Kearny, Cresson H. (1996). Jungle Snafus...And Remedies. Cave Junction, OR: Oregon Institute of Science & Medicine. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-884067-10-5. OCLC 41447083. - Finlayson, Reggie (2003). Colin Powell. Biography (A & E). Twenty-First Century Books. p. 55. ISBN 9780822549666. Retrieved 7 December 2012. - "Interview on CNN's Larry King Live". New York, New York: U.S. Department of State. May 4, 2004. Archived from the original on January 10, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - "Online NewsHour: Colin Powell". Pbs.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - "The 14 Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Joint History Office, U.S. Department of Defense. American Forces Press Service. August 10, 1999. Retrieved April 24, 2008. - O'Sullivan, Christopher (2010). Colin Powell: A Political Biography. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7425-5187-9. - "Reluctant warrior", The Observer, September 30, 2001. - Company, Johnson Publishing (March 1991). "U.S. Sen. Kasten Pushing Effort To Award Powell With Historic Fifth Star". Jet 79 (23). ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 21,2011. ...there is a movement afoot in the U.S. Senate to award an historic fifth star to the nation's first Black Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Gen. Colin L. Powell for his military proficiency. - Italia, Bob (1991). Armed Forces: War in the Gulf. Abdo & Daughters. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-1-56239-026-6. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Others want to make him a five-star general. [...] Congress is talking about giving him a fifth silver star, which is very rare. - Stephanopoulos, George (1999). All Too Human: A Political Education. Thorndike Press. pp. 330–331. ISBN 9780-7862-2016-8. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Mack asked me to secretly research the procedure for awarding a fifth star to a general. [...] If Powell did challenge Clinton, the fifth star would forestall criticism of the general's military record. - Hamilton, Nigel (2007). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. PublicAffairs. pp. 190, 399. ISBN 978-1-58648516-0. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Moreover, for the very reason he admired Colin Powell as the most distinguished living black American, Clinton also feared the general as a potential rival. [...] Bill Clinton had denied Powell his rightful fifth star... - Halberstam, David (2001). War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 9780-7432-0212-1. Retrieved February 22, 2011. They checked it out and found that the last general to get a fifth star was Omar Bradley forty-three years earlier. Powell, they decided, was not Bradley. Besides, as George Stephanopoulos noted, if they gave him one more star, it might help him one day politically. - "Remarks With Bulgarian President Georgi Purvanov At Award Ceremony for the Stara Planina First Order Medal". Presidential Palace, Coat of Arms Hall, Sofia, Bulgaria: U.S. Department of State. December 7, 2004. - "Parvanov-Powell". President of the Republic of Bulgaria. December 7, 2004. President Georgi Parvanov awarded US Secretary of State Colin Powell with the highest Bulgarian order "Stara Planina" for his extraordinary services to the advancement of Bulgarian-American relations and in connection with the 100th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and the United States. - Powell, Colin (2012). It Worked for Me. HarperCollins. pp. 3–4.ISBN 978-0-06-213512-4. - McClimon, Tim (27 August 2012). "Colin Powell's 13 Rules of Leadership". American Express. Retrieved 12 April 2013. - "Can we apply Colin Powell’s 13 rules?" (PDF). Texas Child Care Quartery. Summer 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services - Schram, Martin (January 21, 1995). "Don't Count Out Colin Powell". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 24, 2008. - Van Dyk, Ted (September 6, 1990). "Will Powell Run With Bush in '92?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 24,2008. - Lusane C. Colin Powell and Condoleezza Rice: Foreign Policy, Race and the New American Century. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98309-9, p. 46. - Apple, R. W. (October 28, 1995). "Life in Iowa May Not Have Changed, But the Political Turf Is Another Story". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2008. - Berke, Richard L. (October 19, 1995). "New Hampshire Poll Finds Powell With an Edge". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008. - Clines, Francis X. (November 9, 1995). "The Powell Decision: The Announcement". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008. - Plissner, Martin (February 7, 2007). "Ready for Obama Already". The New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2008. - "NH US Vice President â&#x20AC;&#x201C; R Primary Race â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Feb 20, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - "Colin L. Powell Center for Public Policy". Retrieved16 February 2013. - http://www.newsweek.com/how-mccain-does-it-156687?tid=relatedcl - Kessler, Glenn (July 14, 2004). "Powell Flies in the Face of Tradition; The Secretary of State Is Least Traveled in 30 Years". Washington Post. p. A01. - Warrick, Joby (April 12, 2006). "Lacking Biolabs, Trailers Carried Case for War; Administration Pushed Notion of Banned Iraqi Weapons Despite Evidence to Contrary". Washington Post. p. A01. - Powell, Secretary Colin L. (February 5, 2003). "Remarks to the United Nations Security Council". New York City: U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - Lawless, Jill (February 7, 2003). "U.S. Scholar Uncredited in Iraq Report". Associated Press. Retrieved June 26, 2009. - "UK accused of lifting dossier text". CNN. February 7, 2003. - Charlie Rose. charlierose.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. - Miller, Greg (July 15, 2004). "Flaws Cited in Powell's U.N. Speech on Iraq". Los Angeles Times (reprinted by CommonDreams.org). Retrieved February 3, 2007. - to:a b DeYoung, Karen (October 1, 2006). "Falling on His Sword: Colin Powell's most significant moment turned out to be his lowest". Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - "Colin Powell on Iraq, Race, and Hurricane Relief". 20/20(ABC News). September 8, 2005. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - Brancaccio, David (February 3, 2006). "Iraq Pre-War Intelligence". NOW (PBS). Retrieved February 3, 2007. - Pincus, Walter (February 14, 2004). "Support for Intelligence Plan". Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - "Remarks at the 2003 Groundhog Job Shadow Day Program, Secretary Colin L. Powell, Remarks and question and answer session with students, Washington, DC, January 31, 2003, excerpt on 1973 Chile coup, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - "Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, Interview On Black Entertainment Television's Youth Town Hall, February 20, 2003, excerpt on 1973 U.S. covert action in Chile, Federation of American Scientists". Fas.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - Sciolino, Elaine (November 18, 2004). "Exiles Add to Claims on Iran Nuclear Arms". New York Times. Retrieved February 8,2007. - Anderson, Cooper (December 31, 2004). "Transcripts: New Year's Eve Special". CNN. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - VandeHei, Jim and Robin Wright (April 22, 2005). "Powell Playing Quiet Role in Bolton Battle". Washington Post. - Borger, Julian (April 23, 2005). "Powell's remarks harm Bolton's chances of UN job". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 3, 2007. - Blumenthal, Sidney (April 28, 2005). "The good soldier's revenge". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 3, 2007. - "Powell criticises storm response". BBC News. September 9, 2005. - "Senators defy Bush on tribunals". BBC News. September 15, 2006. Retrieved February 3, 2007. - Wilken, Dennis (September 7, 2008). "Down the Rabbit Hole". American Satellite Magazine. Retrieved October 10,2008. - "Board of Directors". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved December 6, 2007.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services - "islanderspointblank.com". islanderspointblank.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - "nhl.com". nhl.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - Powell, General Colin L, USA (Ret.) (July 8, 2008). "Keynote Address — A New Vision for America's Future: Young Leaders Shaping an International Agenda". CSIS Launch of Next America. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008. - "Who Mentored Colin Powell?". President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2008. - "Al Gore, Colin Powell, Caroline Kennedy in Obama's Administration? – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. November 11, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010. - "Powell advised against Afghan surge," Politico (September 27, 2009).http://www.politico.com/blogs/laurarozen/0909/Powell_advised_against_Afghan_surge.html - http://techcrunch.com/2014/03/14/general-colin-powell-joins-salesforce-board-of-directors-as-crm-giant-zeros-inon-govt-deals/ - to:a b c Colin Powell's biography from 'On The Issues'. - DeYoung, Karen (February 3, 2010). "Colin Powell shifts stance on 'don't ask, don't tell' policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2010. - Blumenthal, Sidney (November 18, 2004). "Colin and the crazies". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 3, 2007. "Sen. McCain Releases Letter from Gen. Colin Powell," Washington Post (September 14, 2006).http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/graphic/2006/09/14/GR2006091400728.html "Colin Powell: Republican Party Needs Me More Than The Democratic Party Needs Me". The Lonely Conservative. February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014. See Official website: Aspen Ideas Festival "Conversation with Colin Powell" (PDF). Aspen Ideas Festival. July 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2008. to:a b "Powell: Support for Obama doesn't mean Iraq war wrong," CNN (October 19, 2008).http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/19/powell.transcript/ James M. Klatell, "Powell: We Are Losing In Iraq," CBS (December 17, 2006).http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/12/17/ftn/main2274583.shtml "Powell says Iraq surge should have come earlier," Seattle Times (July 5, 2009).http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/politics/2009420450_apuspowell.html Henry, Ed (August 9, 2007). "Powell donates to McCain". CNN. Retrieved August 9, 2007. Holland, Steve (March 5, 2008). "McCain now has to pick a vice presidential nominee". Boston Globe. Reuters. RetrievedApril 14, 2008. "Powell endorses Obama for president; Republican ex-Secretary of State calls Democrat 'transformational figure'".Meet the Press (MSNBC and NBC News). October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008. to:a b "Meet the Press' transcript for October 19, 2008". MSNBC. October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Ohlemacher, Stephen (October 20, 2008). "Colin Powell endorses Barack Obama for president". USA Today. Retrieved August 29, 2010. "Powell on Rush Limbaugh". CNN. July 16, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010. "Powell airs doubts on Obama agenda". The Washington Times. July 3, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2010. Carrie Budoff Brown, "Colin Powell critical of President Obama," Politico (September 19, 2010).http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0910/42381.html "CNN.com Video". CNN.retrieved October 25, 2012. "ABC News". Retrieved 2013-01-22. Gen. Powell Supports Legalized Marriage Equality retrieved May 24, 2012. Powell, Colin (October 17, 2005). Interview transcript. Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN. RetrievedJune 14, 2009. Powell, Colin (August 2, 2004). A Conversation with Colin Powell. Interview with P. J. O'Rourke. Washington, D.C. The Atlantic. Retrieved June 14, 2009. Colin Powell insists ‘there was no affair then and there is not one now’ with diplomat. NY Daily News. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. National Winners | public service awards. Jefferson Awards.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-17. NAACP Spingarn Medal "Colin L. Powell". The Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans. n.d. Retrieved February 3, 2007. "The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library. Powell, Colin (July 4, 2002). "2002 Liberty Medal Acceptance Speech". Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: National Constitution Center.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Gen. Colin Powell". 1-33rdar.org. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8. According to the Fort Bliss Bugle, as of 10/24/2013, nine schools have been named for Colin Powell. ":.: The Official Wings Of Hope Homepage :.:". Wings-of-hope.org. Retrieved August 29, 2010. efworld "Powell: Friendship with Israel means friendship with Arabs"(PDF). afhu.org. McDonald, Terrence T. (February 8, 2013). "Gov. Christie visits Union City school opening, hears Democratic mayor praise him". NJ.com. Wenik, Ian (June 9, 2013). "Saluting the general". The Union City Reporter. pp. 1 The terms ‘West Indies’ or ‘West Indian’ refer generally to the pre-independence colonies and colonials. The terms ‘Caribbean’ and ‘Caribbeans’ or ‘Afro-Caribbean’ reflect more contemporary usage. The latter is now used as a UK census category. National Archives (UK): CO 298/47 Byron, M. and Stephanie Condon, S.: ‘A Comparative Study of Caribbean Return Migration from Britain and France: Towards a Context Dependent Explanation’, (Transaction, Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996) Ceri Peach, C.: The Caribbean in Europe: Contrasting Patterns of Migration and Settlement in Britain, France and the Netherlands (Research Papers in Ethnic Relations No. 15, Coventry: Centre for Research in Race Relations, University of Warwick, 1991) Chamberlain, M. (ed.): Caribbean Migration: Globalised Identities (London: Routledge 1997) Chamberlain, M.: Narratives of Exile and Return, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004 (1997); Chamberlain, M.: Family Love in the Caribbean. Migration and the Anglo-Caribbean Experience (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers/Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers, 2006) Conway, D. and Potter, R. B.: Caribbean transnational return migrants as agents of change (Geography Compass, 1, 25-45, 2007) Goulbourne, H. and Chamberlain, M. (eds.): Caribbean Families in Britain and the Trans-Atlantic World (London and Oxford: Macmillan, 2001) Thomas Hope, Elizabeth Explanation in Caribbean Migration (London: Macmillan 1992) Goulbourne, H. and Chamberlain, M.: Living arrangements, family structure and social change of Caribbeans in Britain (Final Report, ESRC 1998) Nurse, K.: Remittances and Beyond: Diaspora and Development in the Caribbean, 2008 Kasinitz, P.:Caribbean New York: Black Immigrants and the Politics of Race (Ithica: Cornell University Press, 1992) Newton, V.: The Silver Men. West Indian Labour Migration to Panama 1850-1914 (Kingston, University of the West Indies, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1987) Alleyne, Mervyn C. Roots of Jamaican Culture. London: Pluto Press, 1988. Barrett, Leonard E. The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997. Campbell, Marvis C. The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration and Betrayal. Massachusetts: Bergin & Publishers Inc., 1988. Carty, Hilary S. Folk Dances of Jamaica: An Insight. London: Dance Books, 1988. Kessner, Thomas, and Betty Boyd Caroli. Today's Immigrants: Their Stories; A New Look at the Newest Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. Luntta, Karl. Jamaica Handbook. California: Moon Publications, 1991. Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jamaican-Americans.html#ixzz3hBiLy5J1 Horne, Gerald ―Mau Mau/Communists: Kenya, Hawaii and the Making of a U.S. President- Lecture at Rutgers University, 9 April 2009 Bellows, John The Many Contributions of Immigrants to the American Economy, 5/25/2011 "The Buried History of America's Largest Slave Rebellion and the Man Who Led It" New York Times Böcker, Anita (1998), Regulation of Migration: International Experiences, Het Spinhuis, ISBN 90-5589-095-2 Dale, Gareth (2005), Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945-1989: Judgements on the Street, Routledge, ISBN 07146-5408-6 Dowty, Alan (1989), Closed Borders: The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-04498-4 Harrison, Hope Millard (2003), Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-09678-3 Krasnov, Vladislav (1985), Soviet Defectors: The KGB Wanted List, Hoover Press, ISBN 0-8179-8231-0

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Mynz, Rainer (1995), Where Did They All Come From? Typology and Geography of European Mass Migration In the Twentieth Century; EUROPEAN POPULATION CONFERENCE CONGRESS EUROPEAN DE DEMOGRAPHE, United Nations Population Division Pearson, Raymond (1998), The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-17407-1 Thackeray, Frank W. (2004), Events that changed Germany, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32814-5 Jennissen, R. 2007. “Causality Chains in the International Migration Systems Approach.” Population Research and Policy Review 26(4). 411 – 36 "Dr. Abraham Maslow, Founder Of Humanistic Psychology, Dies". New York Times. June 10, 1970. Retrieved 2010-09-26. Dr. Abraham Maslow, professor of psychology at Brandeis University in Waltham, Mass., and founder of what has come to be known as humanistic psychology, died of a heart attack. He was 62 years old. Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139 http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-old-and-new-immigrants/ http://www.american-historama.org/1881-1913-maturation-era/old-immigrants-vs-new-immigrants.htm Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis. Six vols. (1923–31); one-vol. ed. (2005). On World War I. Churchill, Winston. The Second World War. Six vols. (1948–53) Coombs, David, ed., with Minnie Churchill. Sir Winston Churchill: His Life through His Paintings. Fwd. by Mary Soames. Pegasus, 2003. . Other editions entitled Sir Winston Churchill's Life and His Paintings and Sir Winston Churchill: His Life and His Paintings. Includes illustrations of approx. 500–534 paintings by Churchill. Edwards, Ron. Eastcote: From Village to Suburb (1987). Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon. . Gilbert, Martin. In Search of Churchill: A Historian's Journey (1994). Memoir about editing the following multivolume work. Gilbert, Martin, ed. Winston S. Churchill. An eight volume biography begun by Randolph Churchill, supported by 15 companion vols. of official and unofficial documents relating to Churchill. 1966– I. Youth, 1874–1900 (2 vols., 1966); II. Young Statesman, 1901–1914 (3 vols., 1967); III. The Challenge of War, 1914–1916 (3 vols., 1973). (10) and (13); IV. The Stricken World, 1916–1922 (2 vols., 1975); V. The Prophet of Truth, 1923–1939 (3 vols., 1977); VI. Finest Hour, 1939–1941: The Churchill War Papers (2 vols., 1983); VII. Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (4 vols., 1986); VIII. Never Despair, 1945–1965 (3 vols., 1988). James, Robert Rhodes, ed. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897–1963. Eight vols. London: Chelsea, 1974. Knowles, Elizabeth. The Oxford Dictionary of Twentieth Century Quotations. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1999. . . . . Loewenheim, Francis L. and Harold D. Langley, eds (1975). Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence. Gilbert, Martin. Churchill: A Life (1992). . [One-volume version of 8-volume biography.] Haffner, Sebastian. Winston Churchill (1967). Hastings, Max. Finest Years: Churchill as Warlord, 1940–45. London: HarperPress, 2009. . Hennessy, P. Prime minister: the office and its holders since 1945 (2001). Hitchens, Christopher. "The Medals of His Defeats", The Atlantic Monthly (April 2002). James, Robert Rhodes. Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900–1939 (1970). Jenkins, Roy. Churchill: A Biography (2001). Jordan, Anthony J. Churchill: A Founder of Modern Ireland. Westport Books 1995. . Julius, Anthony, The Trials of the Diaspora, A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Oxford University Press, 2010. Kersaudy, François. Churchill and De Gaulle (1981). . Krockow, Christian. Churchill: Man of the Century. [1900–1999]. . Lukacs, John. Churchill: Visionary, Statesman, Historian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (1988). . Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Defender of the Realm, 1940-1965 (2010). Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory, 1874–1932 (1983). . Massie, Robert. Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War. . [Chapters 40–41 concern Churchill at Admiralty.]

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Pelling, Henry. Winston Churchill (1974). . [Comprehensive biography.] Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874–1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 2000. [Entries include several thousand books and scholarly articles.] Soames, Mary, ed. Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill (1998). Stansky, Peter, ed. Churchill: A Profile (1973) [Perspectives on Churchill by leading scholars] Storr, Anthony. Churchill's Black Dog and Other Phenomena of the Human Mind. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. New Edition ed., 1997. Toye, Richard. Churchill's Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made. Macmillan. 2010. Trukhanovskiĭ, Vladimir G. Winston Churchill. Moscow: Progress Publishers (1978 revised ed.). Maraniss, David (24 August 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved 24 February 2011. Hoover, Will (9 November 2008). "Obama's Hawaii boyhood homes drawing gawkers". The Honolulu Advertiser. p. A1. Retrieved 21 January 2011. Ripley, Amanda (9 April 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2008. (online) Ripley, Amanda (21 April 2008). "A mother's story". Time 171 (16): 36–40, 42. ("Raising Obama" cover story) (print) Salsberg, Bob (29 April 2011). "Files suggest elder Obama forced to leave Harvard". The Arizona Republic (Associated Press). Retrieved 1 May 2011. President Barack Obama's father was forced to leave Harvard University before completing his Ph.D. in economics because the school was concerned about his personal life and finances, according to newly public immigration records. Livingston, Abby; Svitek, Patrick (March 22, 2015). "Ted Cruz Will Seek the Presidency". Texas Tribune (Austin, Texas). Retrieved February 1, 2016. Zitner, Aaron. "Poll Points to Upside for Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio in GOP Race", Wall Street Journal (January 4, 2016). "CRUZ, Rafael Edward (Ted) – Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved April 27, 2013. U.S. Senator Ted Cruz, Austin American-Statesman Abel, Allen; Markusoff, Jason (January 13, 2016). "Ted Cruz: Made in Canada". Maclean's Magazine. RetrievedJanuary 15, 2016. Panetta, Alexander (May 9, 2015). "Birthplace of President Ted Cruz? Calgary homeowner hopes it never happens".Calgary Herald. Canadian Press. Retrieved January 15, 2015.Steward is pretty sure the American conservative began life at the Foothills Medical Centre — a government-run, Canadian socialist hospital. Ferguson, John Wayne (August 13, 2012). "Texplainer: Could Canadian-Born Ted Cruz Be President?". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Bottom line: Despite being born in Canada, Cruz can be considered a U.S. citizen because his mother was a U.S. citizen who lived in the United States long enough, according to constitutional experts. Costa, Robert (August 28, 2013). "The Rise of Rafael Cruz". National Review. Retrieved August 28, 2013. Born in Matanzas, Cuba, he grew up in the Cuban middle class in the 1950s, as the son of an RCA salesman and an elementary-school teacher. As a teenager, he grew to detest the regime ofFulgencio Batista. He and some of his schoolmates frequently clashed with Batista’s officials. Eventually, he linked up with Castro’s guerrilla groups and supported their attempts to overthrow Batista. It’s a decision he still regrets. His move toward Castro, he explains, was mostly due to his anger with Batista’s government, which at one point imprisoned him and tortured him for his work with the revolutionaries. He says he never shared Castro’s Communism, Fbut, at the time, it was the best way to fight Batista’s oppression. By age 18, in 1957, he knew he needed to get out, and a friend essentially bribed an official to secure him an exit permit. Gillman, Todd J. (August 18, 2013). "Canada-born Ted Cruz became a citizen of that country as well as U.S.". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 19, 2013. "Ted Cruz's Father Talks About Latinos, Conservatives and the American Dream". FOX News Latino. April 8, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2013. Cruz, the father, and his wife, Eleanor Darragh, left the United States for a few years, living in Canada to take advantage of the oil boom. Zernike, Kate (November 18, 2011). "A Test for the Tea Party in Texas Senate Race". The New York Times. RetrievedNovember 18, 2011. Jeffrey, Terence (2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Creators Syndicate. Retrieved August 17,2013. Garrett, Robert T. (April 28, 2013). "Senate candidate Ted Cruz aims to pick up mantle of Reagan". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved August 22, 2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services From a bully pulpit, Ted Cruz offers his take on climate change, By Jeffrey Mervis, ScienceInsider, December 9, 2015 Larson, Leslie. "Ted Cruz plans to renounce Canadian citizenship", Daily News|location=New York (December 30, 2013). https://infotomb.com/4ffm4.pdf "Google". Welna, David (June 20, 2013). "How Ted Cruz's Father Shaped His Views On Immigration". NPR. RetrievedDecember 14, 2015. Olsen, Lise (October 13, 2012). "Cruz's life defies simplification". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 28, 2013.The ex-revolutionary pastor regularly stumps for his son, whom he's compared to the Old Testament prophet Jeremiah – a relentless advocate with "fire in his bones." Ted, he says, is "not going to Washington to compromise." Swartz, Mimi (March 31, 2015). "Ted Cruz and the New Politics of Texas". The New York Times (New York). RetrievedApril 17, 2015. "Google". Eckholm, Erik (August 1, 2012). "A Republican Voice With Tea Party Mantle and Intellectual Heft". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2013. Recio, Maria (April 1, 2015). "Ted Cruz’s family story: Poignant but incomplete". McClatchy. Retrieved December 14,2015. Ted Cruz’s Secret Weapon to Win the Right, National Journal, Andy Kroll, June 25, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015. Cruz, Ted (2015). A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America. Broadside. pp. 28–44, 101–103. Eriksen, Helen (August 11, 2005). "Solicitor general carries "supreme" weight with Katy roots". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 2, 2013. "Distinguished Alumni". Second Baptits School. Retrieved April 22, 2015. Mackey, Maureen (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz: 20 Things You Didn’t Know About Him". Fiscal Times. Retrieved April 23,2015. 7: He graduated from Houston’s Second Baptist High School in 1988 and was valedictorian of his class. Dunham, Richard (October 15, 2012). "Profile: A man of many contrasts, Ted Cruz defies easy stereotypes". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Cruz was one of only two Hispanics when he transferred to Houston’s Second Baptist School his junior year. He graduated valedictorian in 1988. Miller, Jake (March 19, 2015). "Will grassroots support be enough for Sen. Ted Cruz in 2016?". CBS News. Retrieved April 23, 2015. He graduated valedictorian of his high school in 1988, attended Princeton University for his undergraduate studies, and received his law degree from Harvard University. Barbash, Fred (March 23, 2015). "Why Liberty University in Lynchburg, Va., is the perfect launchpad for Ted Cruz". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2015. The last time he spoke there, Cruz made no mention of his Ivy League degrees but recalled fondly his memories of Second Baptist High School in Houston, where he was valedictorian, and how his wife was the daughter and granddaughter of missionaries. "Ted Cruz". Biography.com. 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2015.The valedictorian of his class at Houston's Second Baptist High School, Cruz went on to Princeton University. Lizza, Ryan (November 19, 2012). "The Party Next Time".The New Yorker: 50–57. Retrieved July 20, 2013. "Project Vote Smart – The Voter's Self Defense System".Project Vote Smart. Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (January 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz 92 Sworn-in as U.S. Senator from Texas". Princeton University Bulletin. Retrieved April 14, 2014. Princeton Debate Panel. "Hall of Fame". Princeton University Debate Panel. Retrieved October 2, 2013. "Australians Win Debate At Princeton A Singapore Woman Won The Award For Best Speaker. English Is Not Her Native Language". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Horowitz, Jason (April 22, 2015). "Ted Cruz Showed Eloquence, and Limits, as Debater at Princeton". The New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2015. By the time he was a senior at Princeton University in 1992, Ted Cruz had developed an arsenal of rhetorical skills and theatrical gestures that made him one of the most polished performers on the college debate circuit. Princeton Debate Panel. "Cruz Novice Championship". Retrieved January 11, 2014. Cruz, Ted (April 2, 1992). "Ted Cruz's 1992 "Clipping the Wings of Angels"". Princeton University. Retrieved February 28, 2013. Begala, Paul (August 1, 2012). "Ted Cruz and Texas’s Tea Party Revolution". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17,2013. Weiner, Rachel (August 1, 2012). "Who is Ted Cruz?". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services McManus, Doyle (August 12, 2013). "Ted Cruz, wacko like a fox". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Clarida, Matthew Q.; Lucky, Jared T. (May 30, 2013)."Defusing the H-Bomb: In politics, Harvard alums frame diplomas strategically". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Editors (July 30, 2012). "Yes, Ted Cruz for Texas". National Review. Retrieved August 17, 2013. "R. (Ted) Edward Cruz, Attorney Biography".Wayback Machine. Houston, Texas: Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP. March 29, 2011. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013. R. (Ted) Edward Cruz is a partner in Morgan Lewis's Litigation Practice and leads the firm's U.S. Supreme Court and Appellate Litigation Practice. "Board of Advisors". Texas Review of Law and Politics. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Russ, Hilary (April 5, 2010). "Rising Star: Morgan Lewis' R. Ted Cruz" (PDF). Law360. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Jeffery, Terry (May 25, 2011). "Ted Cruz: New Voice for the American Dream". Townhall.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Tribpedia. "Ted Cruz". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Toobin, Jeffrey (June 30, 2014). "Ted Cruz, The Absolutist". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 25, 2014. Grimaldi, James V. (June 2, 1998). "Campaign Money to Fight McDermott". The Seattle Times. p. B1. Cottle, Michelle (March 12, 2013). "The Reinvention of Ted Cruz". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Office of Attorney General Greg Abbott (April 9, 2008)."Attorney General Abbott Appoints New Solicitor General: Longtime Solicitor General R. Ted Cruz returns to private practice; Deputy Solicitor General Sean Jordan to serve on leadership team". State of Texas. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Wilson, David McKay (Fall 2012). "Carrying the Tea Party Banner: U.S. Senate candidate Ted Cruz calls for a 'return to the framers’ vision of a constitutionally limited government.'". Harvard Law School Bulletin. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Batheja, Aman (July 23, 2012). "For Cruz, Supreme Court Work at Heart of Campaign". Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2013. We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights. Przybyl, Heidi (April 29, 2015). "Ted Cruz: Anti-Gay Marriage Crusader? Not Always". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved May 1,2015. Block, Melissa (March 14, 2008). "D.C. Gun Ban Critic: Court Must Clarify Constitution". NPR. Cruz, Ted (March 14, 2007). "Second Amendment Showdown". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 17,2013. ELK GROVE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT AND DAVID W. GORDON, SUPERINTENDENT vs. MICHAEL A. NEWDOW, ET AL., No. 02-1624, AMICI CURIAE Brief (Supreme Court of the United States December 2003) (“Because of Their "History and Ubiquity," Acknowledgments of Religion in Patriotic or Historical Contexts Are Entirely Consistent with the Establishment Clause.”). Reinert, Patty (June 28, 2006). "Most of Texas' redistricting map upheld". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 15, 2013. Medellín v. Texas, 552 U.S. 491 (2008) (No. 06-984). Mears, Bill (January 19, 2009). "U.N. court rules U.S. execution violated treaty". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2015. "The Young Litigators Fab Fifty". American Lawyer Media. January 1, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2013. "The 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America". The National Law Journal. American Lawyer Media. May 26, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Ambrogi, Robert J. (May 27, 2008). "Legal Blog Watch".American Lawyer Media (Law.com). Retrieved August 17, 2013. "The 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter-Century". American Lawyer Media. June 28, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Tex Parte Blog, American Lawyer Media (October 6, 2010)."Luncheon Honors 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter-Century". Texas Lawyer. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Passarella, Gina (May 6, 2008). "Morgan Lewis Adds Texas Solicitor General". Law.com. Retrieved June 2, 2011. "Ted Cruz has always had a master plan. Now it could win him the White House.". Yahoo!. Retrieved January 1, 2016. Corn, David (April 9, 2015). "As a private lawyer, Ted Cruz defended companies found guilty of wrongdoing". Mother Jones (San Francisco). Retrieved January 27, 2016. Lindell, Chuck (August 27, 2010). "Court gets OK for Toyota contempt hearing". Austin American-Statesman (Austin, Texas). Retrieved January 27, 2016. Under Texas law, the trial court lost all jurisdiction in the case 30 days

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services after Green's lawsuit was dismissed, Toyota's appellate lawyer, Ted Cruz of Houston, told the Supreme Court in briefs. "Court of Appeals November 6, 2011 Opinion". Texas Judicial Branch. State of Texas. pp. 72–77. Corn, David (February 11, 2015). "As a Lawyer, Ted Cruz Defended Huge Jury Awards. As a Politician, He Opposed Them.". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 22, 2016. Williamson, Elizabeth (January 20, 2016). "Two Sides of Ted Cruz: Tort Reformer and Personal Injury Lawyer". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2016. Sullivan, Sean (November 28, 2012). "The biggest upset of 2012". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013. "Ted Cruz Makes it a New Game for U.S. Senate in Texas".RedState. January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2015. Edwards-Levy, Ann (May 10, 2012). "Sarah Palin Endorses Ted Cruz For U.S. Senate In Texas". Yahoo!. Retrieved August 4, 2013. Toeplitz, Shira (June 2, 2011). "Club for Growth Picks Texas Senate Favorite". Roll Call. Erickson, Erick (June 2, 2011). "Ted Cruz for Senate".RedState. Geraghty, Jim (June 2, 2011). "FreedomWorks PAC Likes Ted Cruz". National Review. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Levin, Mark (June 4, 2011). "Mark Levin endorses Ted Cruz for US Senate in Texas". The Right Scoop. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Shapiro, Michael W. (January 25, 2012). "Tea Party Express endorses Ted Cruz for Senate in Waco". Waco Tribune-Herald. Retrieved February 18, 2013. Scharrer, Gary (January 5, 2012). "Young conservatives choose Cruz". San Antonio Express-News. RetrievedFebruary 18, 2013. Klukowski, Ken (May 25, 2012). "Tea Party Wave Could Carry Texas Senate Seat for Ted Cruz". Breitbart. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Sullivan, Sean (November 28, 2011). "For DeMint, A Few Well-Timed Endorsements". National Journal. Retrieved March 30, 2012. Catanese, David (March 7, 2011). "Sen. Lee backs Ted Cruz in Texas". Politico. Retrieved March 30, 2012. Gravois, John (July 26, 2011). "Tea Party stalwart Rand Paul backs Cruz over Dewhurst in Texas' U.S. Senate race". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Retrieved February 18, 2013. McKinley, Kathleen (August 1, 2011). "Sen. Pat Toomey Endorses Ted Cruz for The Texas Senate Race". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Whittington, Mark (May 7, 2012). "Ron, Rand Paul Endorse Ted Cruz for Texas Senate Seat". Yahoo!. Retrieved August 4,2013. Weissert, Will (May 24, 2012). "Santorum endorses Ted Cruz in Texas Senate race". Associated Press. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Weissert, Will (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Defeats David Dewhurst In Texas Senate Runoff". Associated Press. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Hartfield, Elizabeth (July 31, 2012). "Ted Cruz Wins In Texas GOP Senate Runoff". ABC News. Retrieved March 25,2015. Dewhurst enjoyed a huge financial advantage over Cruz. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Dewhurst poured $11 million of his own personal fortune—he founded a successful energy company called Falcon Seaboard—into his campaign, spending a total of $19 million, as compared to Cruz’s $7 million spent. Alexandra Duszak. "Texas Senate race attracts $13 million in super PAC spending". Center for Public Integrity. State of Texas (July 31, 2012). "Election Results".Office of the Secretary of State. Retrieved August 17, 2013. "Ted Cruz and the Hispanic Vote". Retrieved April 15, 2014. Drucker, David M. Ted Cruz poll: Dems have edge over GOP among Hispanics in Texas, Washington Examiner, July 25, 2013. Calabresi, Massimo (October 18, 2013). "Ted Cruz Failed To Disclose Ties To Caribbean Holding Company". Time. Retrieved October 30, 2013. McIntire, Mike (January 13, 2016). "Cruz Didn’t Disclose Loan From Goldman Sachs for His First Senate Campaign".The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2016. Mullins, Brody. "Ted Cruz Didn’t Adequately Disclose 2012 Loans for Senate Campaign", Wall Street Journal (January 14, 2016). "Senator Cruz's Legislation". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 26, 2014. "S. 2195 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved April 11, 2014.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Marcos, Cristina (April 10, 2014). "Congress approves bill banning Iran diplomat". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2014. Neuman, Scott (April 2, 2014). "U.S. Troubled By Iran's Choice Of 1979 Hostage-Taker For U.N. Post". NPR. Retrieved November 11, 2014. Mackey, Robert (April 4, 2014). "Iran's Reformers Include More Than One Former Hostage-Taker". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2014. "A bipartisan message to Iran". Politico Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Ted Cruz thanks Obama for denying visas to terrorists". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Ted Cruz Writes Thank You Letter To Obama In Politico". Fox News Channel. Retrieved April 20, 2014. Wright, Austin. "Ted Cruz the senator: Heard but not seen". Politico Magazine. Archived from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2015. Jesse Weiner, Ted Cruz: Confused About Cicero: What the Texas Republican misrepresents about treason and politics in the Roman Republic, The Atlantic (November 21, 2014). Eliza Collins, Cruz stands by calling Obama a sponsor of terrorism, Politico (July 29, 2015). David Jackson, Romney hits Cruz over Obama/terrorism claim, USA Today (July 30, 2015). Alex Griswold, Mitt Romney: Ted Cruz 'Way Over the Line' Calling Obama Terror Sponsor, Mediaite (July 30, 2015). Rachel Weiner, Ted Cruz shies away from some harsh rhetoric, The Washington Post (July 31, 2013). Arit John, All of Ted Cruz's Republican Critics, The Atlantic (September 26, 2013). David Morgan & Richard Cowan, Republican White House hopeful Cruz calls McConnell a liar, Reuters (July 24, 2015). Manu Raju, Cruz accuses Mitch McConnell of telling a 'flat-out lie', Politico (July 24, 2015). Ted Barrett, Republicans rebuke Cruz over his charge McConnell lied, CNN (July 27, 2015). Rogers, Alex. "Cruz: McConnell Told ‘Flat-Out Lie’ to Conservatives", National Journal (July 24, 2015). DeBonis, Mike. "Ted Cruz to GOP leader: You lied", The Washington Post (July 24, 2015). Jonathan Capehart, How Mitch McConnell went gangsta on Ted Cruz and Mike Lee, The Washington Post (July 29, 2015). Manu Raju & Burgess Everett, Senate smackdown: Cruz, Lee efforts squelched: The rift between Mitch McConnell and Ted Cruz widens, Politico (July 27, 2015). Todd J. Gillman, Cruz says he's vilified for fighting the 'Washington cartel', Dallas Morning News (June 24, 2015). Zurcher, Anthony (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner resigns and Ted Cruz gloats". BBC. Retrieved October 17,2015. Arkin, James. "House Passes Budget, Debt Ceiling Agreement", Real Clear Politics (October 29, 2015). Cillizza, Chris (September 13, 2013). "Rand Paul, 2016 Republican front-runner". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 28, 2013. Bump, Philip (September 25, 2013). "Ted Cruz's First 2016 Campaign Ad Is Over 21 Hours Long". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved September 28, 2013. Metzler, Rebekah (September 27, 2013). "Poll: Ted Cruz Leads 2016 GOP Field". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 28, 2013. =Romano, Lois (March 14, 2013). "CPAC 2013: Marco Rubio, Rand Paul fight for the future of the GOP". Politico. Retrieved March 14, 2013. Montanaro, Domenico (March 16, 2013). "Rand Paul wins CPAC straw poll; Rubio close second". NBC News. Retrieved July 21, 2013. Rayman, Noah (October 13, 2013). "Ted Cruz Dominates Republican Straw Poll". TIME. Retrieved January 23, 2014. Finnegan, Conor (May 31, 2014). "Ted Cruz wins presidential straw poll at Republican Leadership Conference". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2014. Jeffers, Gromer (June 7, 2014). "Ted Cruz wins Texas GOP’s presidential straw poll, Rick Perry finishes distant fourth".Dallas Morning News. Retrieved July 1, 2014. Ashley Killough (July 21, 2013). "Cruz tries to sidestep 2016 question". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2013. "Ted Cruz and Rand Paul are the big draws at the Freedom Summit". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 16, 2014. Fuller, Jaime (April 12, 2014). "Freedom Summit draws GOP hopefuls to N.H.". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 16,2014. "Ted Cruz Announces Presidential Bid". NBC News. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Schleifer, Theodore (March 21, 2015). "Ted Cruz to announce presidential bid Monday". Houston Chronicle (Houston, Texas). Retrieved March 22, 2015. Cruz will launch a presidential bid outright rather than form an exploratory committee, said senior advisers with direct knowledge of his plans, who spoke on condition of anonymity because an official announcement had not been made yet. They say he is done exploring and is now ready to become the first Republican presidential candidate. Corasaniti, Nick; Healy, Patrick (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz Becomes First Major Candidate to Announce Presidential Bid for 2016". The New York Times (New York, New York). Retrieved March 23, 2015. "A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America: Ted Cruz: 9780062365613: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Dylan Byers (July 13, 2015). "Amazon: 'No evidence' of bulk sales for Cruz book". POLITICO. Titus, Elizabeth (July 13, 2015). "NYT Defends Exclusion of Ted Cruz's Book: 'We Are Confident'".Bloomberg.com/politics. Gillman, Todd (June 10, 2014). "No, Canada: Sen. Ted Cruz has formally shed his dual citizenship". Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo). Retrieved June 10, 2014.Alberta-born Sen. Ted Cruz has given up his Canadian dual citizenship. The renunciation became official on May 14, roughly 9 months after he learned he wasn’t only an American. Gillman, Todd (December 28, 2013). "Ted Cruz says he’s hired lawyers to renounce Canadian citizenship". Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo). Retrieved December 30, 2013. But the strong legal consensus is that with even one American parent—a circumstance shared by Obama and Cruz—a child born anywhere qualifies as a "natural born American," entitled to citizenship at birth and therefore eligible to serve as president. Michelle Ye Hee, Lee (January 10, 2015). "Cruz says it’s ‘clear and straightforward’ that he’s a natural-born U.S. citizen". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 10, 2016. Blake, Aaron (August 19, 2013). "Cruz Will Renounce Canadian Citizenship". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Calkins, Laurel Brubaker; Cirilli, Kevin (January 14, 2016)."Cruz’s ‘Natural-Born Citizen’ Status Tested in Birther Suit".Bloomberg Business (New York). Retrieved January 15, 2016. Barnhart, Melissa (June 27, 2013). "Pro-Life Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas to Speak at National Right to Life Convention in Dallas".The Christian Post (Washington, D.C.). Retrieved August 5,2015. Peggy Fikac (March 4, 2012). "Senate hopeful Cruz casts himself as conservative warrior". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 9, 2013. "Ted Cruz: Not a Fan of Pride Parades". Human Rights Campaign. Miller, Jake. November 9, 2013. Ted Cruz talks guns, same-sex marriage, Obamacare with Jay Leno. CBS News. Retrieved December 11, 2013. "Senator Ted Cruz on Same Sex Marriage". The Tonight Show. NBC. Retrieved December 9, 2013. Eitan Arom, Voter Views on USA Freedom Act Bode Well for Graham and Rubio, Not Cruz and Paul, Morning Consult (June 10, 2015). Ashley Killough, Ted Cruz knocks Rand Paul on NSA vote, CNN (April 2, 2015). http://www.politico.com/story/2015/04/ted-cruz-2016-second-amendment-gun-rights-117133.html, Keli (January 30, 2015)."The Issue Bringing Ted Cruz and Black Democrats Together".The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 23, 2015. Weigel, David, What Ted Cruz Talks About When He Talks About Common Core, Bloomberg. (March 19, 2015). "Ted Cruz: My GOP Senate colleagues yelled at me for wanting to filibuster gun control". Hot Air. April 29, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013. Benjy Sarlin, Ted Cruz's hard-line stance renders border crisis key 2016 issue, MSNBC (August 5, 2014). Patrick Thibodeau (May 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz, the presidential candidate who wants to increase the H-1B cap by 500%".Computerworld. Retrieved November 10, 2015. Sullum, Jacob. March 5, 2015. Ted Cruz's Cannabis Conversion Reflects The Political Prudence Of Marijuana Federalism. Forbes. Retrieved March 22, 2015. Sankin, Aaron (May 16, 2014). "The conservative case against net neutrality". The Daily Dot. Retrieved November 13, 2014. Aman Bathe, Senate Candidate and Supreme Court Have a History, Texas Tribune (July 22, 2012). "Overwhelming majority of violent criminals are Democrats". Politico. Retrieved December 1, 2015. Matt Levin, Ted Cruz blames Obama for death of Harris County sheriff's deputy, Houston Chronicle (August 31, 2015). "Free Trade, Free Markets: Rating the Congress". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 7, 2015. Janet Hook, Ted Cruz Flips on Trade Bill on Eve of Key Senate Vote, The Wall Street Journal (June 23, 2015). Weiner, Rachel (June 3, 2013). "Ted Cruz: 'Abolish the IRS'". The Washington Post.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services J.D. Harrison, What a Ted Cruz White House could mean for businesses, The Washington Post (March 23, 2015). Susan Cornwell, U.S. Senator Cruz urges broad Republican focus on energy, Reuters (February 10, 2014). Marianna Sotomayor & Alison Thoet, Whip List: How senators will vote on Keystone XL pipeline, The Hill (January 29, 2015). Josh Hicks, Climate-change skeptics Cruz and Rubio now help oversee nation’s climate science, Washington Post (January 21, 2015). Sabrina Siddiqui, Ted Cruz embodies Republican climate change dilemma, Guardian (March 27, 2015) Cruz, Ted (December 11, 2015). Scientific Evidence Doesn't Support Global Warming, Sen. Ted Cruz Says. Interview with Steve Inskeep. Morning Edition. NPR, Inc..Washington, DC. Retrieved January 27, 2016. The scientific evidence doesn't support global warming. For the last 18 years, the satellite data - we have satellites that monitor the atmosphere. The satellites that actually measure the temperature showed no significant warming whatsoever. Philip Bump, Ted Cruz compares climate change activists to ‘flat-Earthers.’ Where to begin?, The Washington Post (March 23, 2015) Sabrina Siddiqui, Ted Cruz embodies Republican climate change dilemma, The Guardian (March 27, 2015) Alexander, Ryan (May 21, 2014). "Infrastructure Bills to Nowhere". U.S. News & World Report (Washington, D.C.). Retrieved April 1, 2015. "Ted Cruz on Environment". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved July 17, 2015. "Cornyn, Cruz Vote to Fix Water Resource and Development Act". cruz.senate.gov (Washington, D.C.). May 15, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2015. Julian Hattem & Kristina Wong, Trump, Cruz to hold joint anti-Iran rally on Capitol Hill, The Hill (August 27, 2015). Ryan Grim & Jessica Schulberg, Ted Cruz On Iran Nuclear Negotiations: 'This Deal Makes War a Certainty', The Huffington Post (May 5, 2015). Brendan Bordelon, Ted Cruz: Cuba Relations Thaw 'a Tragic Mistake', National Review (December 14, 2015). "America and Syria: To bomb, or not to bomb?". The Economist. September 7, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2014. "Ted Cruz: ISIS is the Face of Evil". Breitbart.com. August 9, 2014. "Ted Cruz Fast Facts". CNN. March 26, 2015. "Ted Cruz’s daughter, 2: ‘I want to work with daddy’". The Washington Times. "Board Member Bios: Heidi Cruz". Greater Houston Partnership. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Moore, Michael J (March 23, 2015). "Cruz’s Wife Heidi to Take Unpaid Leave From Goldman". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 23, 2015. "Editorial: Texan of the Year finalist Ted Cruz". The Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo). December 20, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2014. Manning, Rick (December 27, 2013). "Ted Cruz: 2013 Person of the Year". The Hill (Washington, DC: Capitol Hill Publishing Corp). Retrieved December 28, 2013. No politician had a greater impact on the past year than freshman U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas). Cruz came from the Lone Star State not owing the D.C. political establishment anything, after he beat the chosen replacement for Kay Bailey Hutchison in an underfunded, grassroots driven Republican primary election. Mantyla, Kyle (December 11, 2014). "Glenn Beck Declares Ted Cruz 'Blaze Man Of The Year'". Right Wing Watch(Washington, D.C.: People for the American Way). Retrieved April 21, 2013. Greenfield, Daniel (December 30, 2013). "Front page’s 2013 Man of the Year: Ted Cruz". FrontPage Magazine (Sherman Oaks, California: David Horowitz Freedom Center). Retrieved April 21, 2014. Lord, Jeffery (December 19, 2013). "Ted Cruz: Man of the Year". The American Spectator (Arlington, Virginia: The American Spectator Foundation). Retrieved April 21, 2014. Hawkins, John (December 31, 2014). "Top 10 Conservatives of 2013". Townhall.com. Retrieved April 21, 2014. Leary, Alex (January 7, 2014). "Sarasota GOP to honor Ted Cruz to be honored as 'Statesman of the Year'". Tampa Bay Times (Tampa Bay Metro Area). Retrieved April 21, 2014. Ammann, Phil (January 7, 2014). "Sarasota GOP to honor Sen. Ted Cruz as its ‘Statesman of the Year’". saintpetersblog.com. Retrieved February 20, 2014. "TEXAN OF THE YEAR 2013: TODAY’S FINALIST: TED CRUZ". The Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas: A. H. Belo). December 27, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2014. Edelman, Adam (December 9, 2013). "TIME magazine releases finalists for 2013 ‘Person of the Year’ award". Daily News (New York). Retrieved April 21, 2014. Linkins, Jason (October 20, 2011). "Marco Rubio, Bobby Jindal Become Focus Of Bipartisan Birthers". The Huffington Post.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Manuel Roig-Franzia. The Rise of Marco Rubio. Simon & Schuster. p. 26. ISBN 978-1451675450. Roig-Franzia, Manuel (October 21, 2011). "Marco Rubio's compelling family story embellishes facts, documents show". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2011.See also Live Chat: Marco Rubio's embellished family story,The Washington Post (October 24, 2011). "Marco Rubio Once Benefitted From Birthright Citizenship, Now He’s Open to Restricting It". National Journal. August 18, 2015. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015. O'keefe, Ed. "Who’s in Marco Rubio’s inner circle?",Washington Post (April 13, 2015). Burr, Thomas (June 18, 2012). "Marco Rubio's book explains why he left Mormonism". Salt Lake Tribune. "Marco Rubio About". Marco Rubio Senator. RetrievedNovember 19, 2014. Marrapodi, Erin (February 23, 2012). "Sen. Marco Rubio's religious journey: Catholic to Mormon to Catholic to Baptist and Catholic". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2012. "Representative Marco Rubio". Florida House of Representatives. Bennett, George (October 2, 2010). "Republican candidate Marco Rubio casts U.S. Senate race as battle for America".The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved February 19, 2014. "Marco Rubio – Biography" (PDF). Republican Business Council. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2012. "Transcript: Marco Rubio's State of the Union Response". ABC News. February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013. Clark, Lesley (January 5, 2011). "Miami's Marco Rubio becomes new Florida senator". The Miami Herald. Retrieved August 24,2011.http://wayback.archive.org/web/20151119231310/http://www.miamiherald.com/2011/01/05/2001675/miam is-marco-rubio-becomes-new.html O'Keefe, Ed (April 10, 2014). "In South Florida, Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio are forcing locals to pick sides". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2014. Leary, Alex (October 9, 2010). "Marco Rubio's meteoric rise in Florida politics". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 12, 2014. Samuels, Robert. "The story behind Marco Rubio’s frustrating first job as a politician", The Washington Post (July 30, 2015). Mishak, Michael. "What Kind of Leader Is Marco Rubio? An Investigation; A look at what happens when the Florida senator wields power", National Journal (November 5, 2015). Rubio, Marco (October 21, 2011). "My family's flight from Castro". Politico. Retrieved February 14, 2013. CM-Azares, David (December 15, 1999). "Diaz De La Portilla Wins State Senate Seat". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 14, 2013. "December 14, 1999 Special Primary Senate 34 and House 111 & 115". Florida Department of State Division of Elections. Retrieved February 14, 2013. Elfrink, Tim (July 22, 2010). "Marco Rubio, Tea Party pretty boy". Miami New Times. Retrieved February 14, 2013. "Legislator says he got calls demanding he end sit-in Series: AROUND THE STATE: [SOUTH PINELLAS Edition]". St. Petersburg Times. January 26, 2000. Retrieved February 14,2013. "FL State House 111 Race – Nov 07, 2000". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 2, 2012. "FL State House 111 Race – Nov 05, 2002". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 2, 2012. "FL State House 111 Race – Nov 02, 2004". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 2, 2012. "FL State House 111 Race – Nov 07, 2006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 2, 2012. Hamburger, Tom; Sullivan, Sean (June 29, 2015). "How Marco Rubio turned political star power into a soaring personal income". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2015. "Dade Hispanics Set to Get Top Posts in House". Nl.newsbank.com. December 10, 2002. Retrieved September 9,2012. "Two S. Florida Democrats To Lead Senate Committees". Nl.newsbank.com. December 18, 2002. Retrieved September 9,2012. Sharockman, Aaron. "Marco Rubio wasn't always against earmarks, Florida Democrat claims", PolitiFact (November 16, 2010). Roig-Franzia, Manuel. The Rise of Marco Rubio, pp. 106-107(Simon & Schuster 2012). Caputo, Marc. "Rubio's campaign image belies history of $250 million in pork requests", The Miami Herald (March 9, 2010). Kennedy, John. "Governor could ax these turkeys",Orlando Sentinel (May 23, 2007). "The Speaker". National Journal. July 11, 2015. RetrievedJuly 23, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Fineout, Gary (November 15, 2003). "Baxley backs off House leader bid". Ocala.com. Retrieved September 2, 2012. Rubio, Marco. 100 Innovative Ideas for Florida's Future(Regnery 2006). "Rubio claims 57 of his 100 ideas were made law by the Florida Legislature". Politifact. Retrieved May 24, 2012. "When Rubio Was the Man of Florida's House". National Review. April 13, 2015. Retrieved July 23, 2015. Deb, Sopan. Marco Rubio: Young, but a longtime fighter,CBS News (November 3, 2015). Perry Bacon Jr., In Florida House, Rubio Led a Conservative Revolt Against Fellow Republicans, NBC News,Meet the Press (April 14, 2015). Dunkelberger, Lloyd. "Rubio: Crist's Plan Won't Work", The Ledger (July 26, 2007). Klas, Mary Ellen. "Rubio clashes with Crist over climate change standards", The Miami Herald (July 25, 2007). Rubio, Marco. "Use common sense on energy policies", The Miami Herald (July 25, 2007) via carboncapture.us. Retrieved November 27, 2015. "Marco Rubio's U.S. Senate campaign grew out of his 2007 antitax roots". Tampa Bay Times. July 12, 2010. RetrievedMay 24, 2012. Bousquet, Steve (June 16, 2007). "Confused now? It will get worse". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 8, 2015. Roig-Franzia, Manuel. The Rise of Marco Rubio, p. 110 (Simon & Schuster, 2015). Chris Adams, Moderate Marco? Not quite, but Rubio has history of bipartisanship, McClatchy Washington Bureau (July 16, 2015). Bender, Michael C. (June 17, 2010). "Rubio faces foreclosure on Tally home; his campaign says it's resolved". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved May 5, 2011. Marc Caputo, Marco Rubio sells his house of horrors,Politico (June 3, 2015). Associated Press, Rubio sells troubled house in Florida for $117Khttp://wrapper.seattletimes.com/nationworld/nation-politics/rubio-sells-troubled-house-in-florida-for-117k/ (June 3, 2015). Kleindeinst, Linda. "Lawmakers consider apology for slavery", Orlando Sentinel (April 18, 2007). Colavecchio-Van Sickler, Shannon. "Florida mulls slavery apology", Tampa Bay Times (March 5, 2008). Colavecchio-Van Sickler, Shannon. "Florida apologizes for role in slavery", Tampa Bay Times (March 26, 2008). Leary, Alex. "Perspective: Rubio seeks the sweet spot",Tampa Bay Times (August 1, 2014). Hollis, Mark and Lewis, Gregory. "Funding plan seeks to boost mentoring", Sun-Sentinel (April 23, 2008). Figueroa, Laura. "Rubio's farewell : 'I leave here today with full peace in my heart'", The Miami Herald (May 2, 2008). "Florida Council on the Social Status of Black Men and Boys", home page. Retrieved November 27, 2015. "Marco Rubio Made Personal Charges on GOP Credit Card". HuffPost Politics. April 27, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2014. Condon, Stephanie (April 21, 2010). "Marco Rubio, Florida GOP Under Federal Investigation, Report Says". CBS News. Retrieved July 15, 2014. Rubio releases more credit card statements, team says 'nothing to hide', Fox News (November 8, 2015). Patricia Mazzei & Alex Leary, Marco Rubio campaign releases previously undisclosed GOP credit card statements,Tampa Bay Times (November 7, 2015). "GOP Credit Scandal Threatens to Halt Rubio's Momentum in Primary". Fox News Channel. April 22, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2014. Aaron Sharockman, Rubio says GOP credit card paid with 'my money', PolitiFact (March 11, 2010). Leary, Alex. Ethics panel dismisses 2010 claim about Rubio,Tampa Bay Times (July 27, 2012). Drew Griffin, Scott Zamost & Tal Kopan, Marco Rubio's Florida spending caused alarm for colleague, CNN (November 6, 2015). Eric Bradner, Marco Rubio releases Florida GOP charge card statements, CNN Politics (November 7, 2015) Reinhard, Beth (May 22, 2010). "Rubio's income grew with his political clout, tax records show". Tampa BayTimes. Retrieved February 14, 2013. Leary, Alex (April 20, 2012). "At Florida International University, GOP rising star Sen. Marco Rubio is professor Rubio". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved February 19, 2014. Terris, Ben. What it's like to take a political science class with professor Marco Rubio, The Washington Post (February 10, 2015). Adjunct Professors, Department of Politics and International Relations, Florida International University. Retrieved November 9, 2015. Bennett, George. U.S. Sen. Marco Rubio's teaching post at FIU draws scrutiny, Palm Beach Post (June 13, 2011). Alex Leary, Sen. Marco Rubio returns to teaching at FIU,Tampa Bay Times (June 2, 2011).

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Caputo, Marc. Professor Rubio: Inside the classroom, the Florida Republican gives clues about his political future,Politico (February 9, 2015). Alex Leary & Beth Reinhard, Senate run puts Rubio's ties to FIU under fiscal scrutiny, Tampa Bay Times/Miami Herald Tallahassee Bureau (December 12, 2009). Barbaro, Michael and Eder, Steve. Billionaire Lifts Marco Rubio, Politically and Personally, The New York Times (May 9, 2015). Reinhard, Beth (March 5, 2009). "Marco Rubio quietly registers to run for U.S. Senate". The Miami Herald.http://wayback.archive.org/web/20151117033152/http://www.miamiherald.com/news/florida/story/933424.h tml "Rubio Edges Crist In Florida Gop Senate Race, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; President Obama Under Water As Voters Disapprove". Quinnipiac University. January 26, 2010. "Election 2010: Florida Republican Primary for Senate". Rasmussen Reports. February 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2012. Leibovich, Mark (January 6, 2010). "The First Senator From the Tea Party?". The New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2015. "Charlie Crist will run for Senate with no party affiliation".Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved December 16, 2015. Schwandt, Kimberly (April 28, 2010). "Crist to Run as Independent in FL Sen Race". Fox News Channel. Retrieved July 10, 2010.http://www.foxnews.com/on-air/special-report/2010/04/29/all-star-panel-gop-gov-crist-runningindependent-floridas-senate-race Romm, Tony (April 18, 2010). "McConnell: Crist would lose all GOP support if he ran as independent". The Hill. RetrievedJuly 10, 2010. Martin, Jonathan; Catanese, David (April 17, 2010). "Top Charlie Crist supporters torn over indy bid". Politico. Retrieved April 17, 2010. Farrington, Brendan; Kay, Jennifer (August 24, 2010). "Marco Rubio Wins Florida GOP Senate Primary". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 3, 2010. "Florida Senate Election Results". NBC News. November 8, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2013. Knickerbocker, Brad (November 6, 2010). "President Obama, Marco Rubio face off on tax cuts". The Christian Science Monitor. Goodman, Lee-Anne (November 5, 2010). "Florida's new senator seen as 'Great Right Hope'". Toronto Star. "Explaining the Senate's growing conservative Latino caucus". WBEZ91.5. Retrieved April 14, 2014. Michael O'Brien, Rubio rejects running as Republicans' VP nominee, The Hill (January 10, 2011). Philip Rucker, Romney: Marco Rubio is being seriously vetted as possible vice presidential pick, The Washington Post(June 19, 2012). Alex Isenstadt, Romney alum rebuts Bush whispers: Rubio passed our vetting, Politico (October 29, 2015). Hayes, Stephen (January 28, 2011). "Marco Rubio Picks a Chief of Staff: Cesar Conda". The Weekly Standard. "Rubio taps Cheney aide for chief of staff". Politico. January 26, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Sen. Marco Rubio hires Cesar Conda to be chief of staff".Tampa Bay Times. January 28, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2014. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Keefe, Ed and Costa, Robert. "Marco Rubio announces staff changes sure to fuel 2016 talk", The Washington Post (April 11, 2014). Michael McAuliff & Erin Mershon, Mandatory Budget Cuts From Sequestration Slammed By Republicans As 'Dumb,' 'Terrible', The Huffington Post (August 2, 2012). Amy Sherman, Marco Rubio says he never supported the sequester, PolitiFact (November 26, 2013). Ashley Lopez (October 12, 2011). "Rubio cosponsors bill that would eliminate one out of every ten federal jobs". The Florida Independent. Retrieved September 14, 2013. Laura Green (November 16, 2011). "Sen. Marco Rubio says bipartisan jobs bill built on common ground". The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved August 18, 2013. "White House Attacks Marco Rubio's Contraception Bill". The Huffington Post. Associated Press. February 13, 2012. Reinhard, Beth (January 3, 2013). "Paul Ryan vs. Marco Rubio: The Politics of the Cliff Vote". National Journal.http://www.nationaljournal.com/politics/paul-ryan-vs-marco-rubio-the-politics-of-the-cliff-vote20130103?page=2 "Sen. Marco Rubio (R)". National Journal Almanac. Retrieved August 16, 2014. Reiff, Laura Foote; Nataliya Binshteyn (January 28, 2013)."President Obama to Outline Plan for Comprehensive Immigration Reform on Tuesday". The National Law Review. Greenberg Traurig, LLP. "Full text: Marco Rubio's Republican response". CNN. February 12, 2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Wolf, Z. Byron (February 6, 2013). "State of the Union: Marco Rubio to Deliver Republican Response". ABC News. Retrieved February 19, 2013. "Has U.S. GOP Lost Its Standing as The Strong-on-Defense Party?". Defense News. Retrieved December 16, 2015. Zach Carter, Marco Rubio: Background Checks In Gun Compromise Won't Capture 'Criminals', The Huffington Post(April 14, 2013). "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress – 1st Session".United States Senate. Retrieved July 30, 2013. J.D. Harrison (April 14, 2015). "What a Marco Rubio White House could mean for businesses". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 15, 2015. "Senators Rubio and Cardin introduce bipartisan bill to increase transparency of foreign aid". Gretawire. July 10, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013. FRENCH, LAUREN; MIN KIM, SEUNG (December 17, 2014)."Marco Rubio calls out pope on Cuba". politico.com. Retrieved December 17, 2014. Wagner, Dennis (February 26, 2015). "Veterans propose major changes in VA health care". USA Today (USA TODAY). Retrieved April 19, 2015. King Jr., Neil (March 13, 2015). "Lee-Rubio Plan Gives Life to 2016 Tax Debate". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 24, 2015. "Absentee ballot: Ted Cruz a no-show at most committee meetings, floor votes". Fox News Channel. April 23, 2015. Retrieved April 23, 2015. In February, an analysis carried out by Vocativ in partnership with GovTrack.us, showed that Rubio beats Cruz as the senator most absent from chambers, having missed 99, or 8.3 percent, of 1,198 total votes since taking office in January 2011 to February of this year. "Marco Rubio, Senator for Florida". GovTrack. Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved October 29, 2015. Rugaber, Christopher S. (October 28, 2015). "AP FACT CHECK: The Republican debaters and the facts". Associated Press. Retrieved October 29, 2015. Bump, Philip. "The problem with Marco Rubio’s defense of his missed votes", The Washington Post (October 30, 2015). "Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation". U.S. Senate. "Committee on Foreign Relations". U.S. Senate. Berman, Matt (April 2, 2014). "Marco Rubio Won't Run for Senate in 2016 if He Runs for President". National Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2014. Camia, Catalina. "Marco Rubio: No Plan B to pivot back to Florida Senate race", USA Today (April 14, 2015). "Marco Rubio announces staff changes sure to fuel 2016 talk". The Washington Post. April 11, 2014. Retrieved April 20,2014. "Marco Rubio Shakes Up Staff And Stirs 2016 Presidential Rumors". Fox News Latino. April 14, 2014. Retrieved April 20,2014. "Paul, Rubio lead potential Republican 2016 contenders in spending". Chicago Tribune. April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 20,2014. "Marco Rubio's long, hard fall in New Hampshire". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved April 20, 2014. "Latest Zogby Poll Declares Rubio a Real 'Player'". Sunshine State News. January 26, 2015. Retrieved February 3,2015.http://www.sunshinestatenews.com/story/latest-zogby-poll-declares-rubio-real-player "Marco Rubio leaps to second place in Zogby poll (tied with Jeb and just behind Mitt) – but he’s first among women". Daily Mail. January 23, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2015. "Rubio signs on top fundraiser, lines up donors in move toward 2016 bid". Fox News Channel. Murray, Mark (January 23, 2015). "Marco Rubio Takes Steps Towards 2016 Run". NBC News. Retrieved January 24, 2015. Caputo, Marc (January 23, 2015). "Sen. Marco Rubio to aides: 'Prepare for a presidential campaign'". The Miami Herald. Retrieved January 24, 2015. Parker, Ashley. "Marco Rubio Announces 2016 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2015. "Marco Rubio tells donors he's running for president in 2016". CBS News. April 13, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015. Steve Benen (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio rolls the dice". MSNBC. Retrieved April 13, 2015. David M. Drucker (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio jumps in, will leave Senate". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved April 13,2015. Siddiqui, Sabrina. “'The future is now': can Marco Rubio broaden Republican appeal and win?”, The Guardian (July 12, 2015). Downie, James. "Marco Rubio is in real trouble", The Washington Post (July 30, 2015). "Marco Rubio proposes tax break for employers who give paid family leave". The Guardian. September 25, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Sen. Marco Rubio sees opportunity for redemption on the right". McClatchyDC. February 26, 2015. "Club for Growth zaps votes by Illinois members of Congress". Crain's Chicago Business. March 10, 2015. "Rating GOP's pro-growth contenders: Club for Growth".USA Today. August 5, 2015. "Club for Growth: Ted Cruz was perfect in 2013". The Washington Post. February 24, 2014. Factbox: Republican 2016 presidential field swells to 14 with Christie, Reuters (June 30, 2015): "He was swept into the Senate in the Tea Party wave of 2010 but has fought to strengthen ties with conservatives after he helped lead a failed push for comprehensive immigration reform in 2013." Tim Mak, Tea Partiers Rage Against Rubio 2016, Daily Beast (April 13, 2015). Budget Brawl Gives Ted Cruz, Rand Paul a Chance to Break Out, Bloomberg News (June 22, 2015): "The budget and spending fight highlights widening divisions in the Republican Party between conservatives like Florida's Marco Rubio, concerned about shoring up the military, and Tea Party-aligned Republicans, like Cruz and Paul, more committed to limiting the size of government." Caputo, Marc (May 15, 2014). "Marco Rubio explains his climate-change skepticism". The Miami Herald. Retrieved September 18, 2014. 'I’ve never denied that there is a climate change,' Rubio said. 'The question is: Is man-made activity causing the changes in the climate?' Rubio, however, won’t answer that with a yes or no. Bennett, Brian (May 11, 2014). "Marco Rubio says human activity isn't causing climate change". Los Angeles Times. I do not believe that human activity is causing these dramatic changes to our climate the way these scientists are portraying it Kliegman, Julie (May 14, 2014). "Has Marco Rubio backtracked on climate change?". PolitiFact. Pope’s Views on Climate Change Add Pressure to Catholic Candidates in the New York Times Marco Rubio: 'No problem' with Catholic Church on climate change but economy more important in Miami Herald Rubio, Marco (September 1, 2015). "Securing America's Energy Future". National Review. Retrieved October 1, 2015. Rebecca Leber, Marco Rubio Is (Now) the Most Dangerous GOP Candidate on Climate, New Republic (October 7, 2015). National Environmental Scorecard - Senator Marco Rubio (R), League of Conservation Voters (access November 9, 2015). Lemire, Jonathan (October 6, 2015). "Rubio criticizes government regulation of on-demand economy". Business Insider. Retrieved November 9, 2015. Rubio, Marco (March 17, 2015). "Government is Crashing the Internet Party". Politico. Retrieved November 9, 2015. Roy, Avik. April 14, 2015. Marco Rubio Pledges To Repeal And Replace Obamacare -- But With What? Forbes. Retrieved September 26, 2015. Sen. Marco Rubio (August 17, 2015). My Plan to Fix Health Care. Politico. Retrieved October 1, 2015. "Rubio budget win is dealing heavy blow to ObamaCare". The Hill. November 24, 2015. Abby Jackson (July 7, 2015). Marco Rubio has a wild plan to have investors pay for college and make money off students' future earnings. Business Insider. Retrieved October 2, 2015. "Has Marco Rubio Really Learned His Lesson on Immigration?". National Review. Retrieved November 4, 2015. Guray, Geoffrey (April 13, 2015). "What does Marco Rubio believe? Where the candidate stands on 10 issues".PBS News Hour. Retrieved October 6, 2015. "Florida Candidate Veers From Tea Party’s Script". The New York Times. August 23, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2015. "Marco Rubio Won't Even Consider Path to Citizenship During His Presidency". New York. Retrieved November 4, 2015. "Marco Rubio Attempts to Win Back Conservatives on Immigration". The Huffington Post. February 27, 2015. Times, The New York (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio on the Issues". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2015. "Marco Rubio". On The Issues. Leary, Alex (September 4, 2013). "Rubio votes against Syria strikes". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved September 17, 2014. Memoli, Michael A. (July 7, 2014). "Republican divide over strategy for Middle East, Iraq is growing". stripes.com. Retrieved July 8, 2014. Good, Chris (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio Would Reopen Gitmo, Reverse Obama Foreign Policy". ABC News. Retrieved November 16, 2015. Kim, Seung Min (February 12, 2013). "Marco Rubio opposes Violence Against Women Act". Politico. Retrieved February 25,2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Hirschhorn, Dan. "Rubio, other GOP White House hopefuls oppose Violence Against Women Act", Daily News|location=New York (February 13, 2013). Mascaro, Lisa (August 7, 2015). "Marco Rubio takes tough stand against abortion, with no exceptions for rape or incest".Los Angeles Times. Laura Bassett, Marco Rubio: Roe v. Wade Was 'Egregiously Flawed Decision', The Huffington Post (July 10, 2015). Evan Puschak, Rubio trashes Roe v. Wade as 'blatant' judicial activism, MSNBC (January 22, 2013). "At CPAC, Marco Rubio ducks a challenge". BBC News. March 14, 2013. "GOP Rob Portman Announces Support for Same Sex Marriage". NBC Politics. March 15, 2013. "Commentary: 6 reasons Ted Cruz is in trouble". Chicago Tribune. November 19, 2015. "Opposing the philosophy of Sonia Sotomayor isn't anti-Hispanic". Politico. Alex Leary, Rubio comes out in limited support of medical marijuana, Tampa Bay Times (July 30, 2014). Mollie Reilly, Marco Rubio Claims There's 'No Responsible Way To Recreationally Use Marijuana', The Huffington Post(May 19, 2014). Sullivan, Sean. How Rubioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stance on drug laws stands out in GOP presidential field, The Washington Post (April 28, 2015). National Taxpayers Union - Marco Rubio, National Taxpayers Union, retrieved September 3, 2015 Rubio, Marco (January 8, 2014). "Rubio Delivers Address on 50th Anniversary of the 'War on Poverty'". senate.gov. Retrieved January 18, 2014. Adams, Chris (October 16, 2015). "GOP tax plans aim to boost economy, but will nation's debt pay a price?". "Presidential Hopeful Marco Rubio Already has a Tax Plan". Tax Foundation. April 14, 2015. "Fact Check: Study Says Rubio's Tax Plan Helps Rich More Than Middle Class, Less Than Poorest". Bloomberg. October 29, 2015. "A Pro-Growth, Pro-Family Tax Plan for the New American Century". Marco Rubio. Retrieved 2016-01-24. Jared Bernstein, Marco Rubio's tax plan gives a huge gift to the top 0.0003 percent, The Washington Post (November 11, 2015). Parker, Ashley (April 17, 2015). "Marco Rubio Swings Through New Hampshire". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2015. "Marco Rubio On Education: 5 Things The Presidential Candidate Wants You To Know". Forbes. Retrieved November 24, 2015. "The Evolution of Marco Rubio's Education Policy and Common Core". Bloomberg.com/politics. Retrieved November 24, 2015. "Rubio comes out against Common Core, putting him at odds with Jeb Bush". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved November 24,2015. Rettig, Jessica (May 4, 2010). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Marco Rubio". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved February 14, 2013. "The women behind the men who would be Florida's senator". Tampa Bay Times. July 31, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2013. Schneider, Elena (September 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio's Mormon play: The Florida senator is subtly leveraging his LDS background to build support in Nevada, where the Mormon community is small, but influential in GOP politics.". Politico(Washington, DC: Politico, LLC). Retrieved September 13, 2015. "Southern Baptist Convention". sbc.net. Gibson, David (November 15, 2010). "Is Marco Rubio Catholic or Baptist? Or Is the Reformation Over?". Politics Daily. Retrieved February 14,2013.http://www.politicsdaily.com/2010/11/15/is-marco-rubio-catholic-or-baptist-oris-the-reformation-over/print/ Oppenheimer, Mark (November 26, 2010). "Marco Rubio: Catholic or Protestant?". The New York Times. Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (June 19, 2012). "Q & A: Marco Rubio on His Faith of Many Colors". Christianity Today. Retrieved February 14, 2013. Justin Elliott. "Donald Trump's racial discrimination problem". Retrieved June 16, 2015. Henriques, Diana (March 27, 1990). "Analyst Who Criticized Trump Casino Is Ousted". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011. Hylton, Richard (November 17, 1990). "Trump, $47 million Short, Gives Investors 50% of His Prize Casino". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27,2011. "Analyst Settles Trump Lawsuit". The New York Times. Reuters. June 11, 1991. Retrieved May 27,2011. "Analyst Gets Last Laugh on Trump". philly-archives. Retrieved June 16, 2015. "SEC Brings First Pro Forma Financial Reporting Case". SEC. January 16, 2002. Retrieved April 10,2011. Floyd Morris (December 4, 2008). "Trump Sees Act of God in Recession". The New York Times.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Donald Trump, Deutsche Bank reach truce over Chicago skyscraper's finances". Chicago Tribune. March 4, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Kim, Victoria (December 20, 2008). "Trump sues city for $100 million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Pamer, Melissa (January 11, 2011). "Trump loses round in a local lawsuit". Pasadena Star-News. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Mooradian, Nicole (September 12, 2012). "RPV, Trump Settle $100M Lawsuit". Palos Verdes Patch. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Gross, Benjamin (January 15, 2015). "Donald Trump Will Not Build Luxury Houses on His Rancho Palos Verdes Driving Range". Curbed L.A. Retrieved August 28, 2015. "Trump Baja venture leaves buyers high and dry". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Barbaro, Michael (May 12, 2011). "Buying a Trump Property, or So They Thought". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Weisberg, Lori; Dibble, Sandra (October 22, 2006). "Trump puts "brand" on Baja with condo-hotel". U-T San Diego. Retrieved September 13,2015. Pierceall, Kimberly. "LAW: Firm defends cities from telecom company claims". The Press-Enterprise. Retrieved September 13, 2015. "Donald Trump settles lawsuit over Baja condo resort that went bust". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Goodman, Peter S. (July 15, 2009). "Trump Suit Claiming Defamation Is Dismissed". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Cohan, William D. (March 20, 2013). "The Lawsuits of Donald Trump". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Gardner, Eriq (September 8, 2011). "Donald Trump Loses Libel Suit Over Being Called A 'Millionaire'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Allen, Michael E. (February 6, 2013). "Donald Trump Sues Bill Maher for Calling Him the Son of an Orangutan". Forbes. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Lee, Kristen A. (November 1, 2012). "Trump puts kibosh on $5M offer to Obama". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 19, 2015. Feldman, Josh (February 9, 2013). "Bill Maher Nukes Trump Over Lawsuit: The Law Is Not A 'Toy For Rich Idiots To Play With'". Mediaite. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Ax, Joseph (April 3, 2013). "Trump withdraws 'orangutan' lawsuit against comic Bill Maher". Reuters. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Trump wins partial victory against AG in real estate school suit. New York Real Estate News, February 1, 2014. "Lawsuit Alleges Trump Defrauded 'Students' In Seminars Meant To Teach Investing Wisdom".Forbes. "Donald Trump accused of stalling on $40M fraud case against Trump University". Daily News (New York). "NY AG's 'Trump U' Fraud Claims Left Intact By NYC Judge". Retrieved June 16, 2015. Karen Freifeld (October 16, 2014). "New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school". Reuters. Retrieved February 20, 2015. Blauvelt, Christian (May 21, 2011). "Trump Debunked: We fact-check The Donald's outrageous claims". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2015. Cohan, William D. (January 2014). "Big Hair on Campus". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Fire Ant. "Donald Trump to Face Fraud, Racketeering Claims in California Class Actions. New York Fraud Case Continues". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Virtanen, Michael (August 31, 2015). "NY ethics board drops Trump's complaint about attorney general during university investigation". Associated Press. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Kearn, Rebekah (April 30, 2015). "$798,000 Award Against Trump University". Courthouse News Services. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Zadrozny, Brandy; Mak, Tim (July 31, 2015)."Trump Lawyer Bragged: I 'Destroyed' a Beauty Queen's Life". Daily Beast. Retrieved August 2,2015. Finn, Natalie (July 5, 2013). "Sheena Monnin Loses Donald Trump Appeal: Ex-Miss Pennsylvania Says She's Glad Truth is Out, Solicits Donations for Legal Fees". E!. Retrieved August 2, 2015. "Sheena Monnin Must Pay Donald Trump $5 Million, Judge Rules". Inquisitr. July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015. "Model sues Donald Trump's agency, saying she was cheated out of $75G salary". Daily News(New York). October 17, 2014.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Trump agency stiffed Jamaican model out of $200K: suit". New York Post. Retrieved June 16,2015. Matt Sedensky (January 13, 2015). "Trump sues for $100M, says air traffic targets him". USA Today. Retrieved February 23, 2015. Heil, Emily (July 31, 2015). "Trump sues José Andrés for $10M for backing out of restaurant deal". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1,2015. Bennett, Kate; Strauss, Daniel (July 31, 2015)."Donald Trump delivers on promise to sue chef José Andrés". Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Sidman, Jessica (August 5, 2015). "Trump Sues Celebrity Chef Geoffrey Zakarian For Backing Out of Hotel Restaurant Deal". Washington City Paper. Retrieved August 26, 2015. Johnston, David Cay (July 10, 2015). "21 Questions For Donald Trump". The National Memo. Retrieved August 5, 2015. Frates, Chris (July 31, 2015). "Donald Trump and the mob". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2015. O'Harrow, Jr., Robert (October 16, 2015)."Trump swam in mob-infested waters in early years as an NYC developer". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2015. Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Trump picked stock fraud felon as senior adviser". Associated Press. Retrieved December 4, 2015. Sweeney, John (July 8, 2013). "Donald Trump walks out over questions about his mafia connections during BBC Panorama interview".The Independent. Retrieved August 5, 2015. Bagli, Charles V. (December 17, 2007)."Real Estate Executive With Hand in Trump Projects Rose From Tangled Past". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2015. John Sweeney Interviews Donald Trump- Unaired Footage 2013. YouTube. July 8, 2013. Schram, Jamie (April 1, 2013). "Suit hits rip-off snitches". New York Post. Retrieved December 5,2015. Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Q&A on Trump real estate adviser accused of a $40M stock fraud scheme and ties to the mob". Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2015. Sallah, Michael (August 3, 2012). "High court reveals secret deal of Trump developer's crimes". Retrieved December 5, 2015. Lovelace, Ryan (August 4, 2015). "Will Donald Trump's ties to a criminal hurt his campaign?".Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 5,2015. "The Gaming Hall of Fame". University of Nevada Las Vegas. Retrieved August 30, 2009. Donald Trump Honored In Gray Line New York's Ride Of Fame Campaign Forbes. June 8, 2010. Pauline Smith and Andrew Youngson. (September 16, 2010). Donald Trump Honoured by Robert Gordon University. Robert Gordon University. Kate Holton (December 9, 2015). "More than 250,000 Britons petition to ban Trump from UK". Reuters. Mitzi Bible (September 24, 2012).Donald Trump addresses largest Convocation crowd, praises Liberty's growth. Liberty University News Service, September . Liberty University News Service. Svitek, Patrick (July 9, 2012). "Donald Trump To Be Named 'Statesman of the Year' By GOP Group Before Convention". The Huffington Post (New York). Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Wallace, Jeremy (May 5, 2015). "Trump to get local GOP's "Statesman" award again". The Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, FL). Archived from the original on August 14, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Algemeiner Honors Joan Rivers, Donald Trump, Yuli Edelstein at Second Annual 'Jewish 100' Gala". Algemeiner Journal. February 5, 2015. Donald Trump Pledges Loyalty to Israel Jewish Voice WEDNESDAY, July 1, 2015, BY JACOB KAMARAS Madan, Monique (March 4, 2015). "Donald Trump gets his key to Doral". The Miami Herald (Miami). Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Hidalgo, Daniel (August 5, 2015). "Doral lets Donald Trump keep key to city; also gives initial OK to four new developments". The Miami Herald(Miami). Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "MC-LEF Events". Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation. April 22, 2015. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. A great time was had by all who attended the 20th Annual Semper Fidelis Gala held Wednesday, April 22, 2015 at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel! Colonel G.F. Robert Hanke, USMCR (Ret.) received our Semper Fidelis Award and Donald Trump received our Commandant's Leadership Award. Over 700 people gathered to support the foundation. "2015 New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame Inductees". "Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders' 1960s love life revealed". Mail Online. July 9, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Blomquist, Dan; Robert Way (November 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary". Boston Globe. Sanders arrived at the State House... accompanied by Raymond Buckley, chairman of the New Hampshire Democratic Party, who was there to support Sanders' filing in case any challenges were made to his status as a member of the party. None occurred. Jones, Van and Conrad, Ariane. Rebuild the Dream, p. 27 (Nation Books 2012). "Bernie Sanders criticized for leadership in VA committee", CNN (October 15, 2015). Needham, Vicki (December 12, 2014). "Senate Democrats lock in key committee memberships". The Hill. Retrieved July 19, 2015. Kelly, Amita (April 29, 2015). "5 Things You Should Know About Bernie Sanders". NPR. Retrieved July 19, 2015. Nichols, John (July 6, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Speaks". The Nation. Retrieved July 19, 2015. "Senator Sanders Filibuster". C-SPAN. December 10, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2015. Memoli, Michael A. (December 10, 2010). "Sen. Bernie Sanders ends filibuster". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011. Sanders, Bernie (May 26, 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2013. Issenberg, Sasha (January 9, 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved August 24, 2013. You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs. McMurry, Evan (May 3, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: America Should Look More Like Scandinavia". Mediaite. Retrieved June 4, 2015. "Bernie Sanders confirms presidential run and damns America's inequities". The Guardian. Associated Press. April 30, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015. The self-described 'democratic socialist' enters the race as a robust liberal alternative... Totten, Shay (January 15, 2007). "Sanders to push global warming legislation in Senate". Vermont Guardian. Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-VT, said Monday he was making good on at least one of a handful of campaign promises – introducing a bill designed to cut U.S. contributions to global greenhouse gas emissions in the next decade. ... Sanders added that construction of new power plants is "extraordinarily expensive" and he would prefer to see federal funding support used to expand the development of sustainable energy, as well as biofuels. Sanders, Bernie (March 22, 2015). "If We Don't Overturn Citizens United, The Congress Will Become Paid Employees of the Billionaire Class". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Thomas, Ken (August 16, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Vows To Better Address Racism". The Huffington Post. Tau, Byron (May 7, 2015). "Rand Paul, Bernie Sanders Revel in NSA Ruling". The Guardian. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Statement on NSA Surveillance". Sen. Bernie Sanders. Retrieved October 13, 2015. "Bernie Sanders’ ancestral town in Poland kvells over his Iowa performance". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 2, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016. "Eli Sanders". Geni.com. Retrieved January 23, 2016. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957 immigration record: Eliasz Gitman, sailing from Antwerp, mother Jetti Gutman, citizenship in 1927 as Elias Sanders Chana, Jas (August 20, 2015). "Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story". Tablet (magazine). Retrieved January 20, 2016. Gaudiano, Nicole (April 28, 2015). "On Politics: 6 things to know about Bernie Sanders". USA Today. Retrieved July 19, 2015. Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2015. "Bessie Glassberg (Goldberg)". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016. "Benjamin Glassberg". Geni.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016. Birthplace: Radzyn Podlaski, Radzyń Podlaski County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland Stone, Kurt (2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. Scarecrow Press. p. 483. Bump, Philip (January 29, 2016). "The untold story of Bernie Sanders, high school track star". Washington Post. Retrieved January 29, 2016. Felsenthal, Carol (May 4, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Found Socialism at the University of Chicago". Chicago magazine. Retrieved July 18, 2015. He graduated from Brooklyn's P.S. 197 and James Madison High School where he was captain of his high school track team. "Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. August 20, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Smith, Nicola (January 17, 2016). "Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton". Sunday Times (London). Retrieved January 22, 2016. Sathish, Madhuri (August 28, 2015). "Bernie Sanders’ Quote About Hitler Winning An Election Is Powerful. It’s Also Misleading". Bustle. Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Feldmann, Linda (June 11, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: 'I’m Proud to be Jewish'". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 'I'm proud to be Jewish,' the Independent from Vermont – and candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination – responded Thursday at a press breakfast hosted by the Monitor. Though, he added, 'I'm not particularly religious.' As a child, Sanders said, being Jewish taught him 'in a very deep way what politics is about. A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932,' the senator said. 'He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important.' "Sanders Could Be The First Jewish President, But He Doesn't Like To Talk About It". NPR. November 2, 2015. Kruse, Michael (July 9, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today". Politico. Retrieved July 18, 2015. After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Student Peace Union and the Young People's Socialist League. Frizell, Sam (May 26, 2015). "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders". Time. Retrieved September 10, 2015. Perlstein, Rick (January 2015). "A political education". The University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved September 10, 2015. Craven, Jasper (August 26, 2015). "Can Sanders’ civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Tribune. ISSN 1085-6706. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Frizell, Sam. "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders", Time (May 26, 2015). Sanders, Bernie. "News August 25". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 17, 2015. Murphy, Tim (August 26, 2015). "Read 21-Year-Old Bernie Sanders' Manifesto on Sexual Freedom". Mother Jones. Retrieved September 10, 2015. Vogel, Steve (April 14, 2013). "Bernie Sanders on frontline for veterans". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Parks, Mary Alice (August 31, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Applied for 'Conscientious Objector' Status During Vietnam, Campaign Confirms". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.) RollCall.com. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Election Results Search: 1974 Election Results", sec.state.vt.us; further: pdf for "1974GEUSSen.xls". Citation for votes (total for Leahy and percentages calculated from spreadsheet). Retrieved May 2, 2015. Nelson, Garrison, "Jim Jeffords: Reluctant Rebel" Section: "1974: Changing the Congressional Guard", vtdigger.org, September 14, 2014. Citation for other candidate's full names and brief bios. Retrieved May 2, 2015. Greg Guma, The People's Republic: Vermont and the Sanders Revolution. Shelburne, VT: New England Press, 1989; pp. 18-19. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 19. Arena Profile: Sen. Bernie Sanders. Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Bernard Sanders (1979). Eugene V. Debs: Trade Unionist, Socialist, Revolutionary, 1855-1926 - Introduction on YouTube. Retrieved July 13, 2015. Guma, The People's Republic, pp. 31, 36. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 33. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 38. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 40. Guma, The People's Republic, pp. 40-41. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 41. Guma, The People's Republic, pg. 42. Hillinger, Charles (April 28, 1985). "Two Politicians Who Broke Mold in Vermont". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 2, 2015. "Re-election easy for Socialist mayor". Spokane Chronicle (Burlington, Vermont). March 4, 1987. p. A6. Banks, Russell (October 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders, the Socialist Mayor". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 21, 2016. "Self-Styled Socialist Takes Oath as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont". Boston Globe. Associated Press. April 7, 1981. "Senator Bernie Sanders". Vermont Progressive Party. Retrieved June 8, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Dreier, Peter; Clavel, Pierre (June 4, 2015). "Bernie's Burlington: What Kind of Mayor Was Bernie Sanders?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2015. Zaid Jilani (May 18, 2015). Bernie Sanders Has Been Against CIA's Role in Destroying Democracy Since His Early Days in Politics (Video). AlterNet. Retrieved August 29, 2015. Bethania Palma Markus (August 11, 2015). The Bernie effect: Noam Chomsky says Sanders will push the Democratic Party to the left. The Raw Story. Retrieved August 21, 2015. "Chomsky Speech at Burlington City Hall - 1985". YouTube. Retrieved August 21, 2015. Gram, Dave; Thomas, Ken (May 26, 2015). "Bernie Sanders kicks off 2016 bid from Clinton’s left". The Bellingham Herald. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015. Reynolds, David (1997). Democracy Unbound: Progressive Challenges to the Two Party System. South End Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780896085633. Real Change. November 1, 2015 – via YouTube. "10 Great Places to Live, 2013". kiplinger.com. Cillizza, Chris (August 20, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: The 'Uncola' of American politics". The Washington Post. "WSJ Sanders Profile". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 18, 2013. Daly, Christopher B. (November 11, 1990). "For Vermont's Sanders, Victory Followed Long Path; First Socialist Elected to House in Decades Gets Attention With Frank Talk of Class Conflict". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2016. (subscription required (help)). Pertman, Adam (November 11, 1990). "'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist". Boston Globe. "VT At-Large Race, November 8, 1988". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved February 17, 2013. Carle, Robin H., ed. (May 12, 1995). "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994". Archived from the original on November 14, 2015. Qiu, Linda (July 10, 2015). "Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved August 31, 2015. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614". US House of Representatives. Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved November 17, 2014. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved July 18, 2007. Bradner, Eric (July 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders wants to 'bring us to the middle' on guns". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2015. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved October 13, 2014. Johnsen, Gregory D. (January 16, 2014). "60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History". Buzzfeed. Retrieved October 13, 2014. Yost, Pete (April 7, 2006). "Libby: Bush, Cheney OK’d leak campaign". Bennington Banner. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 9, 2015. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 398". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved May 19, 2015. Hudson, David L., Jr. (May 25, 2004). "Patriot Act". Libraries and First Amendment. First Amendment Center. Retrieved May 19, 2015. Sanders, Bernie (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: It's Time To End Orwellian Surveillance of Every American". Time. Retrieved July 19, 2015. "Sanders' Freedom to Read Language Dropped from Spending Bill". American Library Association Washington Office Newsline 14 (107). November 4, 2005. Archived from the original on June 4, 2006. "Vermont Town Votes to Impeach President". Associated Press. March 8, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2015. Sanders said in a statement that although the Bush administration 'has been a disaster for our country, and a number of actions that he has taken may very well not have been legal,' given the reality that the Republicans control the House and the Senate, 'it would be impractical to talk about impeachment.' Office of Bernie Sanders (May 20, 2004). "Sanders Blasts Bush's Housing Secretary on Housing Cuts in Vermont". US House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010. Sanders, Bernie (June 24, 2005). "Have They No Shame?". TPMCafe.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010. "(VIDEO) Bernie Speaks Out Against The President's Attempt to Eliminate Critical Program Providing Food to Low-Income Seniors". Internet Archive: Wayback Machine. February 20, 2006. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Statement of Congressman Sanders on 7/16/2003 regarding: Congressman Sanders' Questioning of Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan". Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010 – via Web.archive.org. Bernie Sanders vs. Alan Greenspan (Best Video Quality). C-SPAN video on YouTube. Retrieved June 20, 2015. Edmund Andrews for the New York Times. October 23, 2008 Greenspan Concedes Error on Regulation Naylor, Brian (October 24, 2008). "Greenspan Admits Free Market Ideology Flawed". NPR. Retrieved January 18, 2016. "Who should pay?". Brattleboro Reformer. September 23, 2008. Archived from the original on May 29, 2015. "H.R.1606 - Online Freedom of Speech Act: Final Vote Results For Roll Call 559". Congress.gov. November 2, 2005. "Meet the Press: Transcript". MSNBC. May 22, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2011. Krieg, Gregory (July 9, 2015). "Watch Young Senator Barack Obama Campaign for Bernie Sanders in 2006". mic.com. Retrieved July 20, 2015. Back in March 2006, the future president traveled to Vermont to headline a rally and fundraiser for then-Rep. Bernie Sanders, an independent running for Senate, and Pete Welch, a Democrat seeking election to Sanders' House seat. Taylor, Jessica (June 24, 2015). "This Quirky New Hampshire Law Might Keep Bernie Sanders Off The Ballot". NPR. Retrieved July 20, 2015. He did appear on the Democratic primary ballot in Vermont for the Senate in both 2006 and 2012, winning their primary, but he declined the nomination both times so he could run as an independent. Nichols, John (May 26, 2015). "'Don't Underestimate Me': Bernie Sanders Knows a Thing or Two About Winning". The Nation. Retrieved July 20, 2015. When Vermont Senator Jim Jeffords, a Republican who turned independent in his last term, announced that he was stepping down in 2006, Sanders jumped into a race that a number of Democrats would have liked to run. He won the Democratic primary and then declined the nomination, mounting an audacious independent run that was not supposed to be easy. Ring, Wilson (November 7, 2006). "Sanders, Welch are winners in Vermont". Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved January 25, 2007. "Vermont Election Results". Decision 2012. NBC News. Retrieved April 21, 2013. Easley, Jason (August 2, 2011). "Americans Love Socialism: Bernie Sanders Is The 3rd Most Popular US Senator". Politics USA. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Ackerman, Seth (June 29, 2015). "Give the People What They Want: Bernie Sanders’ signature issues aren’t ‘white’ issues". Jacobin. ISSN 2158-2602. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. "Forward 50 2015". Forward.com. November 11, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015. Bernie Sanders Is America's Most Popular Senator, New Survey Says. Newsweek. November 24, 2015. "(Video) Bailout Petition Statement". Senate.gov. September 24, 2008. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010. "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records: Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010. Burleigh, Nina (October 25, 2011). "Bernie Sanders' war on the banks". Salon. Retrieved July 19, 2015. A long speech such as this is commonly known as a filibuster, but because it didn't block action, it was not technically a filibuster under Senate rules. Nichols, John (December 29, 2010). "That 'Sanders for President' Talk is Real Enough, But Bernie's Not Going There". The Nation. "Sen. Bernie Sanders' 8 1/2-hour Speech to be Sold in Book Form". Burlington Free Press. January 20, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Lawler, Joseph (December 26, 2014). "Sanders names 'deficit owl' his chief economist". Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Resnikoff, Ned (February 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders, mulling presidential run, adopts novel stance on deficit". Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 25, 2015. Kane, Paul; Rucker, Philip (April 30, 2015). "An unlikely contender, Sanders takes on 'billionaire class' in 2016 bid". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 30, 2015. Rappeport, Alan (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. Cogan, Marin (April 30, 2015). "Daily Intelligencer: Bernie Sanders Is Officially Running for President – That Doesn't Mean You Can Ask Him About Hillary Clinton". New York. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Pointdujour, Prisca (May 2, 2015). "Elizabeth Warren praises Bernie Sanders prez bid". Boston Herald. Retrieved May 3, 2015. Kamisar, Ben (June 19, 2015). "Ready for Warren Endorses Sanders". The Hill. Retrieved August 24, 2015. Bradner, Eric (April 30, 2015). "Sanders doesn't want billionaires' backing". CNN. Retrieved May 4, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Thomas, Ken (May 1, 2015). "Sanders raises $1.5M after announcing presidential bid". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 19, 2015. "Sanders raises $33M in final quarter, $73M total for 2015". Politico. January 2, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016. Bernie Sanders' Small Donor Fundraising Continues To Set Records. The Huffington Post. January 31, 2015. Corasaniti, Nick (May 18, 2015). "Seeking the Presidency, Bernie Sanders Becomes Facebook Royalty Through Quirky Sharing". The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2015. Lisa Lerer (July 30, 2015). More than 100,000 people participated in a mega-grassroots Bernie Sanders event. Business Insider. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders Social Media Movement". Growing Social Media. Retrieved November 5, 2015. Sofia Tesfaye (June 16, 2015). America is feeling the Bern: Bernie Sanders draws overflow crowds – and surges in the polls. Salon. Retrieved June 16, 2015. John Wagner (June 15, 2015). Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Tamara Keith (June 15, 2015). Bernie Sanders 'Stunned' By Large Crowds Showing Up For Him. NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Jacobs, Ben (June 25, 2015). "Bernie Sanders closes on Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire Democrats poll". The Guardian. Retrieved July 2, 2015. Seitz-Wald, Alex (July 1, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws biggest crowd of any 2016 candidate yet". MSNBC. Retrieved July 2, 2015. Reilly, Mollie. "Bernie Sanders Draws His Biggest Crowd Yet In Progressive Stronghold". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2015. Wagner, John (July 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws his biggest crowd yet – in Arizona of all places". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 21, 2015. Connelly, Joel (August 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders draws 15,000 people at UW, state's biggest political crowd since 2010 Obama visit". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved August 9, 2015. Chris Cillizza (August 10, 2015). This Bernie Sanders crowd shot should make Hillary Clinton a little jittery. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2015. "Bernie Sanders wins Time's Person of the Year readers' poll". Politico. December 7, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015. "Bernie Sanders Wins Readers’ Poll for TIME Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2015. "TIME Snubs Bernie Sanders for Person of the Year After He Crushes Readers' Poll". U.S.Uncut. Retrieved December 7, 2015. Merica, Dan (December 18, 2015). "Fired Sanders aide: I wasn't peeking at Clinton data files". CNN. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Treyz, Catherine (December 18, 2015). "Sanders campaign threatens legal action against DNC". CNN. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Kamisar, Ben (December 18, 2015). "Report: Sanders campaign told DNC of data issue months ago". The Hill. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Pierce, Charlie (December 18, 2015). "Why Did the DNC Let the Bernie-Hillary Tech Story Leak?". Esquire. Retrieved December 18, 2015. John Wagner, Abby Phillip and Rosalind S. Helderman (December 18, 2015). "Sanders sues the DNC over suspended access to critical voter list". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Yilek, Caitlin (December 18, 2015). "Ex-Obama adviser: DNC 'putting finger on scale' for Hillary". The Hill. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Seitz-Wald, Alex (December 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Campaign, DNC Reach Voter Data Deal". NBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders becomes first Jewish, non-Christian candidate to win U.S. primary". The Week. February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016. http://www.texomashomepage.com/news/sanders-could-earn-historic-first http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/04/politics/bernie-sanders-jewish-new-hampshire-primary/index.html "2016 National Democratic Primary". The Huffington Post. Budowsky, Brent (December 3, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is the Most Electable Candidate in Either Party". Observer. Preston, Mark (May 5, 2015). "First on CNN: Clinton, Democratic presidential opponents to debate six times". CNN. Mataconis, Doug (December 22, 2015). "How Saturday debates protect Hillary Clinton". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 23, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Cassidy, Chris (December 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: Dems tipping scales in Hillary Clinton's favor". Boston Herald. Retrieved December 23, 2015. "Hillary willing to do more debates". TheHill. Ronayne, Kathleen (November 5, 2015). "Sanders declares as Democrat in NH primary". Burlington Free Press. Sanders says he’ll run as a Democrat in future elections. He says, 'I am running as a Democrat obviously, I am a Democrat now.' Blomquist, Dan and Way, Robert. "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary", Boston Globe (November 5, 2015): "When a reporter asked Sanders his party allegiance after he filed, Sanders responded, 'I’m a Democrat.' He then called on Buckley, the Democratic chairman, who confirmed the senator’s party allegiance. Sanders added that he would run as a Democrat in any future elections." Seitz-Wald, Alex and Koenig, Kailani. "Sanders Files for New Hampshire State Ballot Without Incident", NBC News (November 5, 2015): "Sanders declared himself a Democrat Thursday, and said he will run as a Democrat in future elections, and that was good enough for Gardner." Bykowisz, Julie. "Sanders ad burst coincides with upward movement in polls", PBS (January 13, 2016): "Democratic presidential candidate and Sen. Bernie Sanders, D-Vt., speaks at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines, Iowa, on Aug. 15, 2015." Harder, Amy and Mayer, Kris. "Federal Lawmakers Ramp Up Response to Flint Water Crisis", Wall Street Journal (February 3, 2016): "The Democratic Party also said its two presidential hopefuls, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Sen. Bernie Sanders (D., Vt.), would hold a debate in Flint on March 6 as a way to draw attention to the contaminated-water issue." Perry, Tim. "Face in the News: Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders gain momentum heading into Iowa", CBS News (January 25, 2016): "Sen Bernie Sanders (D-VT) responded to criticisms that his campaign was too 'idealistic,' and showed optimism about his chances in South Carolina." See search results for "Sanders (I-VT)" at www.senate.gov. See all search results for "Sanders (D-VT)" at www.senate.gov. Also see search results for "Sanders (D-VT) and 2015". "Sanders Places Hold on FDA Nominee", www.sanders.senate.gov (January 26, 2016). "Sanders’ Legislation Expanding Social Security Would Extend Solvency 40 Years, According to New Analysis", www.sanders.senate.gov (February 4, 2016). Bump, Philip (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is an avowed socialist. 52 percent of Democrats are OK with that.". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2015. I am a socialist and everyone knows that Sanders, Bernie (April 22, 2009). "Sanders Socialist Successes". Retrieved December 6, 2015. Representative Spencer Bachus is one of the only people I know from Alabama. I bet I'm the only socialist he knows. Dreier, Peter (May 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Socialism Is as American as Apple Pie". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2015. ...because the 73‑year[‑]old U.S. senator from Vermont describes himself as a 'democratic socialist.' Lerer, Lisa (July 16, 2009). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". The Politico. Retrieved April 19, 2010. Only a handful of members, including self-described democratic socialist Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), criticized... Powell, Michael (November 6, 2006). "Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 26, 2012. He knows what the corporate media might do with his answer, but whatever... 'Yeah. I wouldn't deny it. Not for one second. I'm a democratic socialist.' Ben Schreckinger and Jonathan topaz (July 6, 2015). The socialist surge. Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Bernie Sanders is Ayn Rand's worst nightmare: He's changing how we view socialism – and exposing free market parasites. Salon October 8, 2015. Foran, Clare. "How Bernie Sanders Explains Democratic Socialism". The Atlantic. Senator Bernie Sanders on Democratic Socialism in the United States. BernieSanders.com, November 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders has had consistent message for 4 decades". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. May 11, 2015. ISSN 0745-9696. Archived from the original on November 11, 2015. Maddow, Rachel (August 13, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' track record distinguished by consistency". MSNBC. Retrieved October 13, 2015. Sanders, Bernie (May 21, 2015). "The TPP Must Be Defeated". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. "Bernie Sanders on Free Trade". On the Issues. Retrieved January 20, 2016. "On the Issues: Income and Wealth Inequality". BernieSanders.com. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Samantha Lachman (July 22, 2015). Bernie Sanders Introduces $15 Minimum Wage Bill As Federal Contract Workers Strike. The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Jaffe, Sarah (July 14, 2009). "Sanders Schools McCain on Public Healthcare". The Nation. Retrieved October 16, 2013. Senator Bernie Sanders is one of the Senate's fiercest advocates for real healthcare reform that puts Americans, not private insurance companies, first. Recently, Sanders told The Nation's Katrina vanden Heuvel, '[I]f you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer.' Dash, Stephen (April 22, 2015). "What Is Bernie Sanders' Endgame for College Affordability and Student Loans?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Resnikoff, Ned (May 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders unveils plan for tuition-free public colleges". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Sanders Files Bill to Strengthen, Expand Social Security. Senate.gov. March 12, 2015. Nicole Woo, Janelle Jones and John Schmitt (September 2011). Who's Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap? Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 7, 2015. "Family values agenda: paid family leave, paid sick leave, paid vacation" (PDF). Retrieved August 18, 2015. Bernie Sanders (December 1, 2014). An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward. The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 27, 2015. Ned Resnikoff (October 6, 2015). Bernie Sanders proposes sweeping labor law reforms. Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 6, 2015. "Legislation: Campaign Finance". Bernie Sanders: U.S. Senator for Vermont. Senate.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2013. Sanders, Bernie (March 22, 2015). "If We Don't Overturn Citizens United, The Congress Will Become Paid Employees of the Billionaire Class". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. "Text of Bernie Sandersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Wall Street and economy speech". MarketWatch. Retrieved January 6, 2016. Sanders, Bernie (May 7, 2015). "Break Up Big Banks". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Everett, Burgess. "Bernie Sanders backs big bank breakups, in contrast with Hillary Clinton". Politico. Politico. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Sanders, Bernie. "Bernie Sanders: To Rein In Wall Street, Fix the Fed". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2015. Pinsker, Joe. "Bernie Sanders's Highly Sensible Plan to Turn Post Offices Into Banks". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 6, 2016. Flashback: Rep. Bernie Sanders Opposes Iraq War Official Senate Site Krieg, Gregory (May 7, 2015). Bernie Sanders Rips NSA Spying and Pushes for End to Mass Surveillance. Mic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Lyons, Kim (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Views on Gay Marriage Show He's Been a Supporter for a Long Time". Retrieved August 19, 2015. Lavender, Paige (July 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: GOP Efforts To Defund Planned Parenthood 'An Attack On Women's Health'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2015. Issues: Racial Justice. BernieSanders.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Bernie Sanders declares war on the prison-industrial complex with major new bill. Salon. September 17, 2015. Bernie Sanders (September 22, 2015). We Must End For-Profit Prisons. The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 23, 2015. Bernie Sanders Wants to Abolish the Death Penalty. Vice. October 30, 2015. Bernie Sanders Supports Ending Federal Marijuana Ban. Rolling Stone. October 28, 2015. Tom LoBianco, CNN (November 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders on ISIS: U.S. needs to be "tough" not "stupid"". CNN. Bernie Sanders at People's Climate March: To Stop Global Warming, Get Dirty Money Out of Politics. Democracy now! September 22, 2014. Ashley Halsey III (January 27, 2015).Bernie Sanders wants to spend $1 trillion on infrastruture. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. "Sanders: Climate change still greatest threat to national security". The Hill. 2015. Aderet, Ofer (4 February 2016). "Mystery Solved? Haaretz Archive Reveals Which Kibbutz Bernie Sanders Volunteered On". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 February 2016. Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 26, 2015. Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015). Greenhouse, Emily (May 12, 2015). "Getting to Know Jane Sanders, Wife of Bernie". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders Fast Facts". CNN. May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Bernie Sanders Is 'Fun Grandpa': 5 Things We Learned at His Home : People.com". PEOPLE.com.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Behind The Music: Bernie Sanders". NPR. January 30, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016. Tessa Stuart (December 2, 2015). "The Untold Story of Bernie Sanders' 1987 Folk Album". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 4, 2016. Joe Blevis (February 5, 2016). "Bernie Sanders has appeared in not one, but two low-budget rom-coms". A.V. Club.com. Retrieved February 5, 2016. Meg Wagner (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders plays rabbi Manny Shevitz in 1999 romantic comedy, goes on long-winded Brooklyn Dodgers rant". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2016. "With A Little Help From Larry David, Bernie Sanders Does SNL". NPR.org. February 7, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016. "The Sanders brothers: A tale of two underdogs". BBC News. "Election results for East Oxford". Oxfordshire County Council. June 4, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2014. "Green County Councillor Retires". Oxfordshire Green Party. June 8, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Hansen, Lauren (May 8, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' brother lost his longshot bid for British Parliament". The Week. Retrieved May 8, 2015. Collinson, Stephen (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' brotherly love". CNN. Retrieved May 8, 2015. Sellers, Frances and Wagner, John. "Why Bernie Sanders doesn’t participate in organized religion", Washington Post (January 27, 2016). Zeveloff, Naomi (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Kibbutz Revealed at Last". Forward. Retrieved February 4, 2016. "Mystery solved: Sanders volunteered at Kibbutz Shaar HaEmekim". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 5, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016. Frances Stead Sellers (February 5, 2016). "The kibbutz Bernie Sanders stayed in may have been revealed". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2016. Bruinius, Harry. "Rise of Trump and Sanders: Does religion still matter in politics?", Christian Science Monitor (January 29, 2016). Henneberger, Melinda. "How the presidential campaign got religion", Bloomberg News (September 15, 2015). Krieg, Gregory. "Bernie Sanders could be the first Jewish president. Does he care?", CNN (February 5, 2016): "Sanders, a self-identified democratic socialist, has repeatedly described himself as a secular Jew...." Winston, Kimberly. "Bernie Sanders disappoints some atheists with ‘very strong religious’ feelings", Washington Post (February 4, 2016). "Press Package", www.sanders.senate.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2015. Friedman, Gabe. "WATCH: Bernie Sanders talks spirituality, Larry David and marijuana on 'Jimmy Kimmel'", Haaretz (October 24, 2015). "Sanders discusses faith, Clinton grapples with rabbinical question on humility". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 4, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016. Sanders, Bernie (February 15, 2015). "Pope Francis". Senate.gov. Retrieved June 13, 2015. Heilman, Uriel. "New Hampshire Jews all over the map ahead of presidential primary", The Times of Israel (February 2, 2016). Trump: The Art of the Deal (1987), ISBN 978-0-345-47917-4 Trump: Surviving at the Top (1990), ISBN 978-0-394-57597-1 Trump: The Art of Survival (1991), ISBN 978-0-446-36209-2 Trump: The Art of the Comeback (1997), co-written with Kate Bohner, ISBN 978-0-8129-2964-5 The America We Deserve (2000), with Dave Shiflett, ISBN 1-58063-131-2 Trump: How to Get Rich (2004), ISBN 978-0-345-48103-0 The Way to the Top: The Best Business Advice I Ever Received (2004), ISBN 978-1-4000-5016-1 Trump: Think Like a Billionaire: Everything You Need to Know About Success, Real Estate, and Life (2004), ISBN 978-0-345-48140-5 Trump: The Best Golf Advice I Ever Received (2005), ISBN 978-0-307-20999-3 Why We Want You to be Rich: Two Men – One Message (2006), co-written with Robert Kiyosaki, ISBN 978-1933914-02-2 Think Big and Kick Ass in Business and Life (2007), co-written with Bill Zanker, ISBN 978-0-06-154783-6 Trump: The Best Real Estate Advice I Ever Received: 100 Top Experts Share Their Strategies (2007), ISBN 978-14016-0255-0 Trump 101: The Way to Success (2007), ISBN 978-0-470-04710-1 Trump Never Give Up: How I Turned My Biggest Challenges into Success (2008), ISBN 978-0-470-19084-5 Think Like a Champion: An Informal Education in Business and Life (2009), ISBN 978-0-7624-3856-3

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Midas Touch: Why Some Entrepreneurs Get Rich—and Why Most Don't (2011), co-written with Robert T. Kiyosaki, ISBN 978-1-61268-095-8 Time to Get Tough: Making America No. 1 Again (2011), ISBN 978-1-59698-773-9 Crippled America: How to Make America Great Again (2015), ISBN 978-1-5011-3796-9 See also Book: Donald Trump Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 List of American restaurateurs References Horwtiz, Jeff (July 22, 2015). "Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators". Associated Press. Retrieved December 16, 2015. Donald Trump. Forbes. Retrieved October 21, 2015. Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade' | PolitiFact Florida. Politifact.com. Retrieved October 21, 2015. The man responsible for Donald Trump's never-ending presidential campaign – News Local Massachusetts. Boston.com (January 22, 2014). Retrieved October 21, 2015. Jeff Cox (August 11, 2011). "Trump Changes Gears, Now Buying Bluechip Stocks". CNBC. Retrieved July 9, 2013. "Donald (John) Trump biography". biography.com. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Max Ehrenfreund (September 3, 2015). "The real reason Donald Trump is so rich". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. "Donald Trump". Forbes. RetrievedDecember 17, 2015. Michal Addady (September 29, 2015). "Donald Trump furious at Forbes for 'embarrassing' net worth valuation". Fortune. Retrieved December 17,2015. Brownell, Claire (July 1, 2015). "How Donald Trump invented the TV celebrity businessman". Financial Post. Retrieved 17 January 2016. Miranda Marquit (August 2, 2013). "The Shocking Truth About Donald Trump's Rise To Success". Investing Answers. Retrieved 17 January 2016. "Melania Trump, the Silent Partner". The New York Times. October 1, 2015. Brian Stelter and Lee Alexander (August 23, 2015). "Just how much media coverage is Donald Trump getting?". CNN Money. John Sides (July 20, 2015). "Why is Trump surging? Blame the media.". Washington Post. Adam Sexton (January 5, 2016). "Donald Trump touts poll results to crowd in Claremont". WMUR. "Donald Trump blasts Barack Obama, touts poll numbers". Jennifer Agiesta, "CNN/ORC poll: Trump elbows his way to the top" CNN July 26, 2015 Brett LoGiurato – "Hillary Clinton Just Got More Awful Poll News – and There's Now an Opening for Joe Biden", Business Insider, August 20, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015 "RealClearPolitics - Election 2016 - 2016 Republican Presidential Nomination". Jonah Goldberg (August 19, 2015). "Donald Trump & Bernie Sanders -- America's Populist Backlash - National Review Online". National Review Online. "Donald Trump 2016: Tired of Political correctness - POLITICO". POLITICO. "For Republicans, Mounting Fears of Lasting Split". The New York Times. January 10, 2016. "How Trump Exposed the Tea Party". Politico. "Nativism And Economic Anxiety Fuel Trump's Populist Appeal". NPR. September 4, 2015. Lehmann, Chris (August 22, 2015). "Donald Trump and the Long Tradition of American Populism". Newsweek. Scott, Eugene. "Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban", CNN(December 13, 2015). "Voters Like Trump's Proposed Muslim Ban", Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved December 18, 2015. Barro, Josh. "How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask", The New York Times (December 15, 2015). Amanda Holpuch. "Trump re-ups controversial Muslim ban and Mexico wall in first campaign ad".the Guardian. Winger, Richard. "Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries", Ballot Access News (July 1, 2015). Trump, Donald. "What I Saw at the Revolution",The New York Times (February 19, 2000). "Donald Trump". TV Guide. Retrieved December 21, 2015. "Donald Trump’s Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It". The New York Times. September 22, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Erin Carlyle (June 16, 2015). "Trump Exaggerating His Net Worth (By 100%) In Presidential Bid". Forbes. Retrieved January 27,2016. MJ Lee (July 1, 2015). "First on CNN: Macy's dumps Donald Trump". CNN. Retrieved January 27, 2016. "Serta Mattress Maker Latest to Dump Trump". NBC. July 2, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2016. Haberman, Maggie. "Donald Trump: The $7 billion dollar man". Politico. Retrieved May 12, 2013. Trump, Donald J. (December 5, 2011). Time to Get Tough: Making America #1 Again. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59698-773-9. Melby, Caleb; Rubin, Richard (July 28, 2015)."Here's Our Tally of Donald Trump's Wealth".Bloomberg. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Overby, Peter; Montanaro, Domenico (June 17, 2015). "The Problem With Donald Trump's One-Page Summary on His Wealth". NPR. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Robert Costa and Maria Gold (June 15, 2015).Donald Trump will declare $9 billion in assets as he reveals 2016 plans Carlyle, Erin (June 16, 2015). "Trump Exaggerating His Net Worth (By 100%) In Presidential Bid". Forbes. Retrieved August 17,2015. "Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved August 9,2015. Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report (U.S. OGE Form 278e).Bloomberg Businessweek. July 15, 2015. "Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators". Yahoo News. Mullany, Gerry (July 15, 2015). "Donald Trump Claims His Wealth Exceeds 'TEN BILLION DOLLARS'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Lane, Randall (October 22, 2015). "What's Donald Trump really worth?". Forbes India. Retrieved December 4, 2015. Carlyle, Erin (July 15, 2015). "As Trump Files FEC Disclosure, He Raises Claimed Net Worth To $10 Billion; Forbes Disagrees". Forbes. Retrieved August 17, 2015. Johnson, Will; D'Antonio, Michael (January 11, 2016). "Trump's Campaign Is Damaging His Brand". Politico. Retrieved January 11, 2016. Hawkinvest (December 3, 2012). "Why I Would Buy One Of Donald Trump's Favorite Stocks And Sell The Other". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved July 9,2013. "Sports People; New Jersey Generalities". The New York Times. April 4, 1984. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Terris, Ben (October 19, 2015). "And then there was the time Donald Trump bought a football team". The Washington Post. Retrieved17 January 2016. Anderson, Dave (July 12, 1988). "Sports of The Times; Trump: Promoter Or Adviser?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2011. "Trump Gets Tyson Fight". The New York Times. February 25, 1988. Retrieved February 11,2011. "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016. Jonathan Capehart (June 17, 2015). "Donald Trump's 'Mexican rapists' rhetoric will keep the Republican Party out of the White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2015. Natalie Tadena (July 2, 2015).Donald Trump's Miss USA Pageant Lands on Reelz Cable Channel. The Wall Street Journal. "Trump: 'Last Thing Mexico Wants Is Donald Trump as President'". Breitbart. Retrieved July 30,2015. Corriston, Michele (September 11, 2015)."Donald Trump Says He Bought Out NBC, Now Owns All of Miss Universe Organization". People. Retrieved September 11, 2015. Koblin, John. "Donald Trump Says He Has Bought NBC's Miss Universe Stake". The New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2015. "Casting Notes: Donald Trump Cameos in Wall Street 2; Jeremy Piven and Kate Walsh go to Canada". Slashfilm.com. November 30, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Corey Deitz (April 29, 2004). "He's Hired: Trump Goes National With New Radio Feature". About.com. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Corey Deitz. ""Trumped!" â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Donald Trump on Radio". About.com. Retrieved November 19,2013. Simone Payment (October 13, 2008). Donald Trump: Profile of a Real Estate Tycoon: Easyread Super Large 20pt Edition. ISBN 9781427091703. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Stephen M. Silverman (April 29, 2004). "The Donald to Get New Wife, Radio Show". People. Retrieved November 19, 2013.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Donald Trump Biography". trump.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2009. "Donald Trump's forgotten but incredible TV and movie cameos from the '90s". businessinsider.com. Retrieved November 23, 2015. Handel, Jonathan (July 22, 2015). "How Did Donald Trump Get a $110K SAG Pension?". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 17, 2016. Christopher Palmeri (July 22, 2015). "Inside Donald Trump’s $110,000 Hollywood Pension Disclosure". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 17,2016. "Ivanka Trump and Donald Trump attend the COMEDY CENTRAL Roast of Donald Trump at the Hammerstein Ballroom on March 9, 2011 in New York City". Getty Images. March 9, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2015. "Obama mocks Trump at WH correspondents' dinner". CBS News. May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2011. "Trump: What's The Deal?: a distinctly 90s takedown". The Guardian. August 15, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015. Byers, Dylan (July 15, 2015). "Trump claims $213M payout for 'Apprentice'". Politico.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015. *Johnson, M. Alex (July 13, 2015). "'The Answer Is No': Bill Cosby's Hollywood Walk of Fame Star Is Staying Put". NBC News. Retrieved August 1,2015. Dent, Millie (July 10, 2015). "15 Facts You Didn't Know About Donald Trump". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved August 1, 2015. Andy Swift (February 16, 2015). "The Apprentice Renewed for Season 15". Retrieved July 28, 2015. Paul Feeley (February 27, 2015). "Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run". Retrieved July 28, 2015. Dylan Byers (March 18, 2015). "NBC still planning for 'Apprentice,' despite Donald Trump's presidential claims". Retrieved July 28, 2015. Jacob Siegel (June 29, 2015). "NBC Just Fired Presidential Hopeful Donald Trump from 'The Apprentice'". Retrieved July 28, 2015. "Donald Trump bio". WWE. Retrieved March 14, 2015. Powell, John. "WrestleMania XX bombs". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved March 14, 2015. Murphy, Ryan. "Donald Trump announced for WWE Hall of Fame". WWE. David A. Fahrenthold (August 17, 2015). "20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June". Washington Post. "'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops".the Hill. "The Donald Trump Rule: ‘Flip-Flopping’ to the Right Position Can Be a Very Good Thing".RedState. "Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?". POLITICO. "Why Donald Trump Didn't Run as a Democrat". Newkirk, Zachary (February 17, 2011). "Donald Trump's Donations to Democrats, Club for Growth's Busy Day and More in Capital Eye Opener". Center for Responsive Politics, OpenSecrets.org. Cabaniss, Will. "Donald Trump's campaign contributions to Democrats and Republicans",Politifact (July 9, 2015). Martosko, David (May 12, 2015).EXCLUSIVE: Trump trademarked slogan 'Make America Great Again' just DAYS after the 2012 election and says Ted Cruz has agreed not to use it again after Scott Walker booms it TWICE in speech. Daily Mail. Trump endorses Romney, cites tough China position and electability. Fox News Channel, February 2, 2012. Lerner, Adam. "Donald Trump names his favorite prez: Bill Clinton", Politico (June 17, 2015). "Trump weighs in on best president: Donald Trump weighs in on which recent U.S. president was the best", Morning Joe (June 17, 2015). Strauss, Daniel. "Clinton Foundation Hangs on to Donations from Donald Trump", Politico (July 8, 2015). Kreutz, Liz. "Hillary Clinton Said She Went to Trump's Wedding for 'Fun'", ABC News (August 10, 2015). Hagen, Lisa. "Trump once wrote Hillary Clinton would be 'great president'", The Hill (December 29, 2015). Smith, Kyle (May 30, 2015). "Stop pretending – Donald Trump is not running for president". New York Post. Retrieved June 7, 2015. Travis, Shannon (May 17, 2011). "Was he ever serious? How Trump strung the country along, again". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2015. Schultz, Marisa (November 9, 2015). "Was Donald Trump almost on the George H.W. Bush ticket?".New York Post. Retrieved December 28, 2015. Johnson, Glen. "Donald Trump eyeing a run at the White House". Standard-Speaker (Hazelton, Pennsylvania). "Ballot Access News – Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries". ballot-access.org. Retrieved July 1, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "CA Secretary of State – Primary 2000 – Statewide Totals". ca.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2015. Madison, Lucy (October 4, 2010) "Donald Trump for President in 2012?", CBS News. Retrieved October 4, 2010. Zwick, Jesse (October 4, 2010) "Donald Trump for President?", The Washington Independent. Retrieved October 4, 2010. King, Larry (May 17, 2005). "Interview with Donald, Melania Trump". CNN. Retrieved September 4, 2015. Haberman, Maggie (March 7, 2011).Trump tops Romney, Pawlenty. WNBC. Retrieved March 7, 2011. Schoen, Douglas (February 21, 2011). "Obama Hits 50 Percent Approval Rating, According to New Newsweek/Daily Beast Poll". Newsweek / Daily Beast Company LLC. Retrieved April 14, 2011. Shadid, Aliyah (April 15, 2011)."Donald Trump takes lead in GOP primary poll, beats Romney, Huckabee, Palin, Gingrich, Bachmann, Paul". Daily News (New York). Retrieved April 17, 2011. "Public Policy Polling" (PDF). Retrieved September 25, 2011. CNN Political Unit (May 16, 2011)."BREAKING: Trump not running for president". CNN. Retrieved May 16, 2011. "Donald Trump says he might run for president. Three reasons he won't.". The Christian Science Monitor. February 10, 2011. Retrieved April 21,2011. Linkins, Jason (February 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President' Act To CPAC". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2011. "Public Policy Polling – May 10, 2011". Publicpolicypolling.blogspot.com. May 10, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. "Donald Trump Places Sixth On Gallup's 'Most Admired' List". The Huffington Post, December 28, 2011. "Trump goes after Obama on US citizenship, says citizenship questions remain unanswered". The Washington Post. Associated Press. April 7, 2011. McGraw, Seamus (April 7, 2011). "Trump: I have 'real doubts' Obama was born in U.S.". Today. Retrieved September 13, 2015. "Donald, You're Fired! Trump repeats false claims about Obama's birthplace.". Factcheck.org. April 9, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Madison, Lisa (April 26, 2011).Trump: How did Obama get into the Ivy League?. CBS News. Elliott, Justin (April 8, 2011). "Did Trump really send investigators to Hawaii?". Salon. Retrieved September 13, 2015. "Trump claims Obama birth certificate 'missing'". CNN. April 25, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011. "Birtherism: Where It All Began". Politico. April 22, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Obama Birth Certificate Released By White House (PHOTO).The Huffington Post April 27, 2011. Retrieved May 8, 2011. Madison, Lucy (April 27, 2011). "Trump takes credit for Obama birth certificate release, but wonders 'is it real?'". CBS News. Retrieved May 9, 2011. Lee, MJ (July 9, 2015). "Trump says he still doesn't know where Obama was born". CNN. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Transcript, Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees (July 9, 2015). Gene J. Koprowski (December 10, 2008).Trump: Rescue Big 3, but Then Its Bankruptcy. News Max. Elspeth Reeve (February 23, 2012)."Most Americans Now Think Auto Bailout Was a Good Idea". Thewire.com. Novella, Steven. "Donald Trump – Anti-Vaccine Crank". Neurologica Blog. Retrieved July 7, 2015. Krieg, Gregory J. (August 23, 2012). "Donald Trump Plays Doctor on Twitter". ABC News. Retrieved February 25, 2014. Mooney, Chris. "Dear Donald Trump: Winter Does Not Disprove Global Warming". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2015. "Donald Trump to address CPAC". Yahoo! News. Retrieved March 6, 2013. "Trump Delivers CPAC Speech to Half-Empty Room". "Trump researching 2016 Run". New York Post. May 27, 2013. Spector, Joseph (October 14, 2013). "N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor". USA Today. Retrieved October 31,2013. Paul Feely (February 27, 2015). "Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run". New Hampshire Union Leader. Reid J. Epstein (June 16, 2015)."Donald Trump Enters 2016 Presidential Race". The Wall Street Journal. John Santucci and Veronica Stracqualursi (June 16, 2015). "Donald Trump Announces 2016 Presidential Campaign: 'We Are Going Make our Country Great Again'. ABC News. Full text: Donald Trump announces a presidential bid. The Washington Post, June 16, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services "Trump riffs on policy, slams Hillary Clinton in Iowa". Desmoinesregister.com. June 17, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015. "Is Donald Trump for real in his campaign for president? New Hampshire thinks so – Metro".Boston Globe. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 17,2015. Brandon Gunnoe (June 17, 2015). "Donald Trump kicks off campaign in New Hampshire – 7News Boston WHDHTV". Whdh.com. Retrieved July 17,2015. "Campaigning in Las Vegas, Trump doubles down on immigration stance – Las Vegas Sun News". Lasvegassun.com. Retrieved July 17, 2015. Los Angeles Times[dead link] Brandus, Paul (3 September 2015). "Sorry, Trump: Past businessmen did poorly as presidents". Marketwatch. Retrieved 17 January2016. Colin Campbell (July 9, 2015).Donald Trump has surged to the top of 2 new 2016 polls. Business Insider. "Inside the Beltway: Roger Ailes, Matt Drudge, Rush Limbaugh 'most influential' in political media - Washington Times". The Washingtion Times. "Jan Brewer: Donald Trump 'Telling It Like It Really, Truly Is'". CNS News. "Telling It Like It Is: With A Group of Donald Trump Supporters In Iowa". Breitbart. ColItkowitz (December 9, 2015). "Donald Trump says we’re all too politically correct. But is that also a way to limit speech?". Washington Post. "Trump to Megyn Kelly: I Don't Have Time For Political Correctness and Neither Does This Country". Eliana Johnson (October 19, 2015). "Donald Trump -- the Establishment Now Thinks He Could Win - National Review Online". National Review Online. "Anxiety, Nostalgia, and Mistrust: Findings from the 2015 American Values Survey". Public Religion Research Institute. November 17, 2015. "Pessimism of white evangelical Americans is boon for Donald Trump". Christian Today. December 4, 2015. Half of all Americans now believe the country's best days are behind it, and this belief is particularly strong among white, evangelical Christians. This is one of the beliefs that Republican frontrunner Trump is capitalising on in his campaign and helps explain why he is doing so well. The pessimism about the state of the country is reflected in raised levels of concern about crime, racial tensions and immigration, the survey reports. Galston, William A. (November 17, 2015). "Trump Rides a Blue-Collar Wave". Wall Street Journal Column. Hope Jamie A. (12 September 2015). "How Dr. Carson's Shrewdness Could Win Him the Nomination". American Thinker. Retrieved17 January 2016. "Jeb Bush calls out Donald Trump for ‘rhetoric of divisiveness’". OnPolitics. "John Kasich slams Donald Trump as divisive and insulting - POLITICO". POLITICO. "Jeb Bush: Donald Trump not a 'serious candidate' - POLITICO". POLITICO. Dana Milbank (September 15, 2015). "How to handle Donald Trump’s bullying". Washington Post. Callum Borchers (December 23, 2015). "Donald Trump is pushing journalists to their professional — and personal — limits". Washington Post. "Donald Trump Says John McCain Is No War Hero, Setting Off Another Storm". The New York Times. July 19, 2015. Michael Scherer. "Donald Trump Attacks Jeb Bush, Lindsey Graham, Hillary Clinton, Others".TIME.com. "Trump Goes On Twitter Rant In Response To Romney's Comments". TPM. Cameron Joseph (January 16, 2016). "Donald Trump goes on Twitter rant against Ted Cruz".Mashable. "Donald Trump Twitter Rant: ‘Megyn Kelly Bombed Tonight’ « CBS DC". "Introducing the Upshot's Encyclopedia of Donald Trump's Twitter Insults". January 29, 2016. "Donald Trump's new pitch: I'm so rich I can't be bought". POLITICO. "Donations to Donald Trump’s Campaign Outpace Self-Funding". The New York Times. October 15, 2015. "Donald Trump's free media bonanza".POLITICO. Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, August 19, 2015, retrievedSeptember 29, 2015 Hillyard, Vaughn. "Trump's plan for a Muslim database draws comparison to Nazi Germany". MSNBC. Retrieved November 23, 2015. "The Gospel According to Trump". The New York Times. January 18, 2016. "Trump lays out plan to reform Veterans Affairs".TheHill. "Trump's security speech light on military, veterans". MilitaryTimes. September 15, 2015. "Trump On Trade: "We Don't Have Our Best And Brightest Negotiating For Us... We're Getting Ripped Off Big League"".

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services MJ Lee, Tom LoBianco, Jeremy Diamond and Jake Tapper, CNN (January 19, 2016). "Sarah Palin endorses Donald Trump". CNN. "Trump campaign says Donald wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t participate in Fox News/Google debate". Fox News. 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2016-01-27. "Trump says he won't participate in GOP debate on Fox News". "Political Leaders: Donald Trump On the issues". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved July 6, 2015. "Trump: I would shut down government over Planned Parenthood". CNN. August 4, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015. Official website. Protecting our Second Amendment rights will make America great again. "There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended." Retrieved: October 21, 2015. "Trump Discloses Concealed Carry Permit in Defending Second Amendment". Newsmax. Retrieved October 11, 2015. Kertscher, Tom. "Donald Trump wants to replace Obamacare with a single-payer health care system, GOP congressman says". Politifact.com. Retrieved December 5, 2015. "Veterans Administration Reforms That Will Make America Great Again". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. October 31, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2015. February 27, 2015. (Excerpt from Donald Trump Remarks at CPAC). Donald Trump on Marijuana. C-Span. Retrieved October 21, 2015. "Immigration reform that will make America great again". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. July 6, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015. "Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional". Mother Jones. August 19, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015. Ehrenfreund, Max. July 22, 2015. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s what Donald Trump really believes. The Washington Post. Campbell, Colin (January 18, 2016). "TRUMP: I was joking when I said the Chinese 'created' the concept of climate change". Business Insider. Koronowski, Ryan. June 16, 2015. It Snowed Once And Other Things Donald Trump Thinks Prove Global Warming Is A Hoax. Think Progress. Retrieved August 22, 2015. "Donald Trump punching back". Media Buzz (Fox News Channel). July 5, 2015. Engel, Pamela (November 11, 2015). "Donald Trump said wages are 'too high' in his opening debate statement". Business Insider. Retrieved November 11, 2015. "Donald Trump on School Choice". American Principles in Action. Retrieved November 25, 2015. Trump sets record for longest 2016 GOP announcement speech. Fox News Channel, June 16, 2015 "Trump: Common Core 'Way of Taking Care of the People' Who Don't 'Give a Damn' About Ed".Breitbart. "The Religious Affiliation of U.S. Immigrants: Muslim Immigrants". Pew Research Center. May 17, 2013. "DONALD J. TRUMP STATEMENT ON PREVENTING MUSLIM IMMIGRATION" (Press Release). donaldjtrump.com. December 7, 2015. As quoted by "Donald Trump urges ban on Muslims entering U.S". Reuters. December 7, 2015. Did a CNN Commentator Provides Donald Trump with a Defense of his Proposed Muslim Ban?, Erik Wemple, Washington Post, August 12, 2015, [1]see also Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526, and 2527 "Donald Trump Speaks Out on Plan to Ban Muslims". Good Morning America. "Donald Trump Cites These FDR Policies to Defend Muslim Ban". ABC News. I mean, take a look at what FDR did many years ago and he's one of the most highly respected presidents. I mean respected by most people. They named highways after him. "ADL compares Trump's anti-Muslim proposal to persecution of Jews". Haaretz. December 7, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015. "Trump's plan would block all Muslims from entering the United States, with an exception for U.S. citizens who are Muslim, who would come and go as they wish... 'If a person is a Muslim, goes overseas and comes back, they can come back. They're a citizen. That's different,' Trump said.","Donald Trump Stands by Barring Muslims Despite Bipartisan Criticism", John Santucci, ABC News, December 8, 2015. "Poll: 6 in 10 GOP voters back Trump's Muslim ban". POLITICO. "David Cameron criticises Donald Trump 'Muslim ban' call". BBC News. Priebus, Ryan and McConnell Rip Trump Anti-Muslim Proposal, Deirdre Walsh, Jeremy Diamond and Ted Barrett, CNN, August 12, 2015, [2]

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Annie Gowen (December 8, 2015). "The world reacts to Trump's proposed ban on Muslims entering the U.S.". The Washington Post. "Canada foreign minister rebukes Trump over anti-Muslim comments". Yahoo News. December 8, 2015. Trump calls for 'shutdown' of Muslims entering US, Ben Kamisar, The Hill, July 12, 2015, [3] Crilly, Rob (December 11, 2015). "Donald Trump wins more support in US as petition to ban him from the UK passes half million signatures". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 16, 2015. "Trump's Muslim ban call 'endangers US security'". BBC. December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015. Holley, Peter (2016-01-02), "Donald Trump featured in new jihadist recruitment video",Washington Post, retrieved 2016-01-22 Donald Trump, Big In Israel, Endorses Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Maya Shwayder, January 15, 2013, International Business Times. ‫ פיקסל נגד טראמפ דונלד‬:‫ אישור ללא בשמי משתמשת סחר‬April 14, 2011, 16:21‫ במיילצמרת תגובה חלש‬,‫ פרנט‬Globes Allison Kaplan Sommer (January 16, 2013)."'You're not fired!' Donald Trump endorses Netanyahu". Haaretz. Retrieved February 7, 2013. Maya Shwayder (January 15, 2013). "January 15, 2013". IB Times. Retrieved August 9, 2013. LoBianco, Tom (December 10, 2015). "Trump 'postpones' Israel trip after Netanyahu criticism". CNN. Retrieved December 10, 2015. "Netanyahu 'rejects' Trump's Muslim remarks, will meet with him anyway". JTA. December 9, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015. "Trump postpones Israel trip 'until after he is elected'". BBC. December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015. "Brussels Hits Back At Trump For "Hellhole" Comments". www.msn.com. Retrieved2016-01-29. Bilefsky, Dan; Barthelemy, Claire (2016-01-27)."Donald Trump Finds New City to Insult: Brussels". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-29. Thomson, Jason. "Donald Trump didn't get banned from UK, but he was called a 'wazzock'".Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved January 19, 2016. "Donald Trump wins more support in US as petition to ban him from the UK passes half million signatures". The Daily Telegraph. December 11, 2015. "Trump UK ban petition passes 370,000 signatures". BBC News. December 10, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2016. "Trump called a racist and buffoon as Parliament debates banning him from Britain". latimes.com. Retrieved January 19, 2016. "Donald Trump debate: Ban risks making tycoon a 'martyr' - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 19, 2016. "British lawmakers debate banning Trump after Muslim comments". Reuters. January 19, 2016. Retrieved January 10, 2016. "After The Gold Rush". Vanity Fair. August 1990. Retrieved January 10, 2016. "They were married in New York during Easter of 1977. Mayor Beame attended the wedding at Marble Collegiate Church. Donald had already made his alliance with Roy Cohn, who would become his lawyer and mentor. "Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen". Associated Press. May 27, 1988. Retrieved August 21, 2015. Argetsinger, Amy (September 1, 2015). "Why does everyone call Donald Trump 'The Donald'? It's an interesting story." The Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2015. Fleischer, Matt (January 25, 1999). "Trump vs Trump in Battle of the Exes". The New York Observer. Retrieved April 5, 2015. Lavin, Cheryl (February 18, 1990). "With 'Dynasty' Dead, Just Tune to the Trumps". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2015. Hylton, Richard D. (March 21, 1991). "Trumps Settle; She Gets $14 Million Plus". The New York Times. Retrieved August 21, 2015. "The Donald Bids Hearts For Marla Trump Wedding Draws 1,100 Friends, But Not Many Stars". Daily News (New York). December 21, 1993. Retrieved August 21, 2015. Arena, Salvatore; Baker, K. C. (June 9, 1999)."Marla caves on prenup battle, takes $2 million in divorce". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 9, 2016. "Marla Maples Still Loves Donald Trump". August 2013. People. "Trump always says 'I do' to having a prenup". January 21, 2005. Chicago Tribune. Kaplan, Don (May 11, 2001). "Trump Goes Ballistic Over An Old Flame". New York Post. Retrieved August 25, 2015. Onyanga-Omara, Jane (August 16, 2015)."Report: Trump pursued Princess Diana". USA Today. Retrieved September 13, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Perry, Simon (August 17, 2015). "Donald Trump Hoped Princess Diana Would Be His 'Trophy Wife,' Says British TV Anchor". People. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Johnson, Richard (April 30, 2004). "How Trump Iced the Deal: $2-Mil Sparkler for his Yugo Girl".The New York Post. Retrieved August 21, 2015. Charles, Marissa (August 16, 2015). "Melania Trump would be a first lady for the ages". The New York Post. Retrieved August 21, 2015. "The Donald is getting married -- again". CNN. April 29, 2004. Retrieved January 10, 2016. Gillin, Joshua (July 21, 2015). "The Clintons really did attend Donald Trump's 2005 wedding".Politifact (Tampa Bay Times/Miami Herald). Retrieved August 21, 2015. Krueger, Alyson (June 27, 2011). "Top 12 May–December Romances: Donald Trump and Melania Trump & Ivana Trump and Rossano Rubicondi (24 years)". Time. Retrieved August 29, 2015. Brown, Tina (January 27, 2005). "Donald Trump, Settling Down". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2008. Choron, Harry; Choron, Sandy (2011). Money. Chronicle Books. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4521-0559-8. "Donald Trump Fast Facts". CNN. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2015. Katz, Celeste (September 3, 2015). "Trump still questioning Jeb Bush for using Spanish". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 4, 2015. Bashir, Martin (February 26, 2009). "Donald Trump's Business Obsession". ABC News. Retrieved August 23, 2015. Dagostino, Mark (May 13, 2007). "Kai Madison".People. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Dagostino, Mark (February 18, 2009). "Donald John Trump III". People. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Michaud, Sarah (October 3, 2011). "Donald Trump, Jr. Welcomes Son Tristan Milos". People. Retrieved October 5, 2011. "Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner welcome baby girl", Herald Sun, July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2011. "Ivanka Trump tweets birth announcement of 1st child, a daughter born in NYC", The Washington Post, July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2011. Mattera, Jason (March 14, 2011). "Trump Unplugged". Human Events. Retrieved March 16,2011. Jones, Lawrence (April 12, 2011). "Donald Trump: Christianity is a 'wonderful religion'". The Christian Post. Retrieved April 13, 2011. Haberman, Maggie (April 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Talks Religion: 'I Am a Christian'". Politico. Retrieved April 13, 2011. Shabad, Rebecca (August 29, 2015). "Church says Trump isn't an 'active member'". The Hill. Retrieved August 29, 2015. Weigel, David (August 11, 2015). "In Michigan, Trump attacks China, critiques auto bailout, and judges Bernie Sanders 'weak'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 22, 2015. Blinder, Alan (August 21, 2015). "Donald Trump Fails to Fill Alabama Stadium, but Fans' Zeal Is Undiminished". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2015. Eugene Scott, CNN (July 19, 2015). "Trump believes in God, but hasn't sought forgiveness".CNN. "I believe in the Bible': Trump courts Christian right," by Jill Colvin, Associated Press, September 25, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015. Salo, Jackie (October 27, 2017). "Who Is The Hedge Fund Priest? Meet Emmanuel Lemelson, The Reverend Of Wall Street". International Business Times. Retrieved 23 January 2016. Heilman, Uriel (August 7, 2015). "Trump Has Strongest Jewish Ties of all GOP Candidates". Forward. Retrieved 17 January 2016. Algemeiner Journal Jewish 100 Gala Honors Donald Trump, Joan Rivers and Yuli Edelstein The Jewish Voice, WEDNESDAY, 11 February 2015 07:13 BY TZVI ALLEN FISHMAN Handy, Bruce (March 31, 2011). "Shocking Truth Behind Donald Trump’s Hair Revealed?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 4, 2015. "Donald Trump insiders claim transplants give the Republican his bouffant hair". Mail Online. January 3, 2016. Hairdressers reveal the secrets of Donald Trump’s hair, New York Post, January 3, 2016. Walsh, Joan (July 28, 2015). "What I’m going to do to you is going to be f**king disgusting": This could be how Donald Trump ends (UPDATED)".Salon. Retrieved January 4, 2015. "Trump defends grooming ritual: ‘I wanna use hair spray!’ - New York Post". New York Post. December 31, 2015. Trump says famous hair will get new look in White House, Des Moines Register, June 28, 2015. Hood, Bryan (June 29, 2015). "4 Times Donald Trump’s Companies Declared Bankruptcy". Vanity Fair News. Retrieved January 17, 2016. Hao Li (April 12, 2011). "Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies". International Business Times. Retrieved February 19, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Clare O'Connor (April 29, 2011). "Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him". Forbes. Retrieved February 19,2015. James Hirby. "How is Donald Trump Able to File for Bankruptcy So Many Times?". The Law Dictionary. Retrieved February 19, 2015. Amy Bingham (April 21, 2011). "Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times". abc news. Retrieved February 20, 2015. Claire Suddath (April 29, 2011). "The Bankruptcies". Time. Retrieved February 19,2015. "The Donald's Trump Card". Bloomberg Business. March 22, 1992. Retrieved February 20,2015. "Trump Plaza Hotel Bankruptcy Plan Approvedâ&#x20AC;?. The New York Times. December 12, 1992. Retrieved May 22, 2008. "Donald Trump". Magazine USA. Retrieved May 22, 2008. O'Brien, Timothy L. (October 23, 2005). "What's He Really Worth". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2013. "Trump casinos file for bankruptcy". MSNBC. November 22, 2004. Retrieved May 22, 2008. "Company news: Trump delays emergence from bankruptcy by a week". The New York Times. May 5, 2005. Retrieved May 22, 2008. "Indiana Gaming Commission on Trump Resorts' Bankruptcy" (PDF). Indiana Gaming Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007. Hedegaard, Erik (May 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Lets His Hair Down". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 9, 2016. Peterson, Kyle (February 17, 2009). "Trump Entertainment files for bankruptcy". Reuters. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Parry, Wayne. "Trump: Plaza and Taj Mahal to shabby to bear his name anymore". Philadelphia Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 23,2014. "Trump Entertainment Resorts Files For Bankruptcy". The Huffington Post. Reuters. September 9, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2015. Isikoff, Michael (August 30, 2015). "How Trump could turn the presidency into a 'litigation circus'".Yahoo! Politics. Retrieved August 31, 2015. "Donald Trump Was Once Sued By Justice Department For Not Renting To Blacks". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Justin Elliott. "Donald Trump's racial discrimination problem". Retrieved June 16, 2015. Henriques, Diana (March 27, 1990). "Analyst Who Criticized Trump Casino Is Ousted". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011. Hylton, Richard (November 17, 1990). "Trump, $47 million Short, Gives Investors 50% of His Prize Casino". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27,2011. "Analyst Settles Trump Lawsuit". The New York Times. Reuters. June 11, 1991. Retrieved May 27,2011. "Analyst Gets Last Laugh on Trump". philly-archives. Retrieved June 16, 2015. "SEC Brings First Pro Forma Financial Reporting Case". SEC. January 16, 2002. Retrieved April 10,2011. Floyd Morris (December 4, 2008). "Trump Sees Act of God in Recession". The New York Times. "Donald Trump, Deutsche Bank reach truce over Chicago skyscraper's finances". Chicago Tribune. March 4, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2011. Kim, Victoria (December 20, 2008). "Trump sues city for $100 million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Pamer, Melissa (January 11, 2011). "Trump loses round in a local lawsuit". Pasadena Star-News. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Mooradian, Nicole (September 12, 2012). "RPV, Trump Settle $100M Lawsuit". Palos Verdes Patch. Retrieved August 28, 2015. Gross, Benjamin (January 15, 2015). "Donald Trump Will Not Build Luxury Houses on His Rancho Palos Verdes Driving Range". Curbed L.A. Retrieved August 28, 2015. "Trump Baja venture leaves buyers high and dry". Los Angeles Times. March 7, 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2015. Barbaro, Michael (May 12, 2011). "Buying a Trump Property, or So They Thought". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Weisberg, Lori; Dibble, Sandra (October 22, 2006). "Trump puts "brand" on Baja with condo-hotel". U-T San Diego. Retrieved September 13,2015. Pierceall, Kimberly. "LAW: Firm defends cities from telecom company claims". The Press-Enterprise. Retrieved September 13, 2015. "Donald Trump settles lawsuit over Baja condo resort that went bust". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 13, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Goodman, Peter S. (July 15, 2009). "Trump Suit Claiming Defamation Is Dismissed". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Cohan, William D. (March 20, 2013). "The Lawsuits of Donald Trump". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Gardner, Eriq (September 8, 2011). "Donald Trump Loses Libel Suit Over Being Called A 'Millionaire'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Allen, Michael E. (February 6, 2013). "Donald Trump Sues Bill Maher for Calling Him the Son of an Orangutan". Forbes. Retrieved August 18, 2015. Lee, Kristen A. (November 1, 2012). "Trump puts kibosh on $5M offer to Obama". Daily News (New York). Retrieved August 19, 2015. Feldman, Josh (February 9, 2013). "Bill Maher Nukes Trump Over Lawsuit: The Law Is Not A 'Toy For Rich Idiots To Play With'". Mediaite. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Ax, Joseph (April 3, 2013). "Trump withdraws 'orangutan' lawsuit against comic Bill Maher". Reuters. Retrieved August 4, 2015. Trump wins partial victory against AG in real estate school suit. New York Real Estate News, February 1, 2014. "Lawsuit Alleges Trump Defrauded 'Students' In Seminars Meant To Teach Investing Wisdom".Forbes. "Donald Trump accused of stalling on $40M fraud case against Trump University". Daily News (New York). "NY AG's 'Trump U' Fraud Claims Left Intact By NYC Judge". Retrieved June 16, 2015. Karen Freifeld (October 16, 2014). "New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school". Reuters. Retrieved February 20, 2015. Blauvelt, Christian (May 21, 2011). "Trump Debunked: We fact-check The Donald's outrageous claims". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2015. Cohan, William D. (January 2014). "Big Hair on Campus". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Fire Ant. "Donald Trump to Face Fraud, Racketeering Claims in California Class Actions. New York Fraud Case Continues". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Retrieved June 16, 2015. Virtanen, Michael (August 31, 2015). "NY ethics board drops Trump's complaint about attorney general during university investigation". Associated Press. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Kearn, Rebekah (April 30, 2015). "$798,000 Award Against Trump University". Courthouse News Services. Retrieved August 31, 2015. Zadrozny, Brandy; Mak, Tim (July 31, 2015)."Trump Lawyer Bragged: I 'Destroyed' a Beauty Queen's Life". Daily Beast. Retrieved August 2,2015. Finn, Natalie (July 5, 2013). "Sheena Monnin Loses Donald Trump Appeal: Ex-Miss Pennsylvania Says She's Glad Truth is Out, Solicits Donations for Legal Fees". E!. Retrieved August 2, 2015. "Sheena Monnin Must Pay Donald Trump $5 Million, Judge Rules". Inquisitr. July 5, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015. "Model sues Donald Trump's agency, saying she was cheated out of $75G salary". Daily News(New York). October 17, 2014. "Trump agency stiffed Jamaican model out of $200K: suit". New York Post. Retrieved June 16,2015. Matt Sedensky (January 13, 2015). "Trump sues for $100M, says air traffic targets him". USA Today. Retrieved February 23, 2015. Heil, Emily (July 31, 2015). "Trump sues José Andrés for $10M for backing out of restaurant deal". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1,2015. Bennett, Kate; Strauss, Daniel (July 31, 2015)."Donald Trump delivers on promise to sue chef José Andrés". Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Sidman, Jessica (August 5, 2015). "Trump Sues Celebrity Chef Geoffrey Zakarian For Backing Out of Hotel Restaurant Deal". Washington City Paper. Retrieved August 26, 2015. Johnston, David Cay (July 10, 2015). "21 Questions For Donald Trump". The National Memo. Retrieved August 5, 2015. Frates, Chris (July 31, 2015). "Donald Trump and the mob". CNN. Retrieved August 4, 2015. O'Harrow, Jr., Robert (October 16, 2015)."Trump swam in mob-infested waters in early years as an NYC developer". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2015. Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Trump picked stock fraud felon as senior adviser". Associated Press. Retrieved December 4, 2015. Sweeney, John (July 8, 2013). "Donald Trump walks out over questions about his mafia connections during BBC Panorama interview".The Independent. Retrieved August 5, 2015.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Bagli, Charles V. (December 17, 2007)."Real Estate Executive With Hand in Trump Projects Rose From Tangled Past". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2015. John Sweeney Interviews Donald Trump- Unaired Footage 2013. YouTube. July 8, 2013. Schram, Jamie (April 1, 2013). "Suit hits rip-off snitches". New York Post. Retrieved December 5,2015. Horwitz, Jeff (December 4, 2015). "Q&A on Trump real estate adviser accused of a $40M stock fraud scheme and ties to the mob". Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2015. Sallah, Michael (August 3, 2012). "High court reveals secret deal of Trump developer's crimes". Retrieved December 5, 2015. Lovelace, Ryan (August 4, 2015). "Will Donald Trump's ties to a criminal hurt his campaign?".Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 5,2015. "The Gaming Hall of Fame". University of Nevada Las Vegas. Retrieved August 30, 2009. Donald Trump Honored In Gray Line New York's Ride Of Fame Campaign Forbes. June 8, 2010. Pauline Smith and Andrew Youngson. (September 16, 2010). Donald Trump Honoured by Robert Gordon University. Robert Gordon University. Kate Holton (December 9, 2015). "More than 250,000 Britons petition to ban Trump from UK". Reuters. Mitzi Bible (September 24, 2012).Donald Trump addresses largest Convocation crowd, praises Liberty's growth. Liberty University News Service, September . Liberty University News Service. Svitek, Patrick (July 9, 2012). "Donald Trump To Be Named 'Statesman of the Year' By GOP Group Before Convention". The Huffington Post (New York). Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Wallace, Jeremy (May 5, 2015). "Trump to get local GOP's "Statesman" award again". The Sarasota Herald-Tribune (Sarasota, FL). Archived from the original on August 14, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "Algemeiner Honors Joan Rivers, Donald Trump, Yuli Edelstein at Second Annual 'Jewish 100' Gala". Algemeiner Journal. February 5, 2015. Donald Trump Pledges Loyalty to Israel Jewish Voice WEDNESDAY, July 1, 2015, BY JACOB KAMARAS Madan, Monique (March 4, 2015). "Donald Trump gets his key to Doral". The Miami Herald (Miami). Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. Hidalgo, Daniel (August 5, 2015). "Doral lets Donald Trump keep key to city; also gives initial OK to four new developments". The Miami Herald(Miami). Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. "MC-LEF Events". Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation. April 22, 2015. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2015. A great time was had by all who attended the 20th Annual Semper Fidelis Gala held Wednesday, April 22, 2015 at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel! Colonel G.F. Robert Hanke, USMCR (Ret.) received our Semper Fidelis Award and Donald Trump received our Commandant's Leadership Award. Over 700 people gathered to support the foundation. "Derek Walcott – Biographical". nobelprize.org. "Derek Walcott". poetryfoundation.org. "Derek Walcott", Poetry Foundation. "Derek Walcott wins OCM Bocas Prize", Trinidad Express Newspapers, 30 April 2011. Charlotte Higgins, "TS Eliot prize goes to Derek Walcott for 'moving and technically flawless' work", The Guardian, 24 January 2011. "Derek Walcott, The Art of Poetry No. 37", The Paris Review Winter 1986 "The Writer's Brush". CBS News. 16 December 2007. "The Writer's Brush; September 11th – October 27th, 2007". Anita Shapolsky Gallery NYC. "Derek Walcott", Academy of American poets British Council. "Derek Walcott – British Council Literature". contemporarywriters.com. Obie Award Listing: Dream on Monkey Mountain, Oxford University "Derek Walcott, 2004 – Lifetime Achievement", Winners – Anisfield-Wolf Book Award. "Derek Walcott's Tiepolo’s Hound", essay, Academy of American Poets "Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott is new Professor of Poetry". University of Essex. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010. "List of awards to be given on Independence Day". St Lucia News Online. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2016. Dziech, Billie Wright; Linda Weiner (1990). The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harassment on Campus (second ed.). Urbana. IL: University of Illinois Press. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0-252-06118-7.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services Jack Grimston and Sian Griffiths, "Sex Pest File Gives Oxford Poetry Race a Nasty Edge.", in The Sunday Times, 10 May 2009. Woods, Richard (24 May 2009). "Call for Oxford poet to resign after sex row". London: The Sunday Times. Retrieved 25 May 2009. "Poetic justice as Padel steps down". Channel 4 News. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2009. Khan, Urmee; Eden, Richard (24 May 2009). "Ruth Padel under pressure to resign Oxford post over emails about rival poet Derek Walcott". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 May 2009. Press Association (25 May 2009). "Oxford professor of poetry Ruth Padel resigns". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 20 September 2010. Lovell, Rebecca (26 May 2009). "Hay festival diary: Ruth Padel talks about the poetry professorship scandal". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 May 2009. Libby Purves, "A familiar reek of misogyny and mistrust", The Times, 18 May 2009. Alibhai Brown, Yasmin (25 May 2009). "A Male Poet Wouldn't Have Been Blamed for Rough Tactics". The Independent. Halford, Macy (7 January 2009). "The Book Bench: Oxford’s Gender Trouble". The New Yorker. Retrieved 20 September 2010. Gardner, Suzanne (26 May 2009). "Ruth Padel resigns, but the "gender war" rages on; Quillblog &#124". Quill and Quire. Retrieved 20 September 2010. Al Alvarez, Alan Brownjohn, Carmen Bugan, David Constantine, Elizabeth Cook, Robert Conquest, Jonty Driver, Seamus Heaney, Jenny Joseph, Grevel Lindop, Patrick McGuinness, Lucy Newlyn, Bernard O’Donoghue, Michael Schmidt, Jon Stallworthy, Michael Suarez, Don Thomas, Anthony Thwaite, "Oxford Professor of Poetry," Times Literary Supplement, 3 June 2009, p. 6. "Oxford Professor of Poetry", ENotes "Newsnight: From the web team". BBC. Retrieved 10 September 2010. Robert McCrum (31 May 2009). "Who dares to follow in Ruth Padel's footsteps?". London: The Observer. Retrieved 18 September 2010. Patrick Bixby, "Derek Walcott", essay: Spring 2000, Emory University, accessed 30 March 2012. Robert D. Hamner, "Introduction", Critical Perspectives on Derek Walcott (Three Continents, 1993), Lynne Rienner, 1997, p. 1. "Derek Walcott". poets.org. Logan, William. The Poet of Exile. New York Times. April 8, 2007 Kirsch, Adam. "Full Fathom Five", The New Yorker, 3 February 2014. "Tony Cozier, voice of West Indies cricket, dies at 75". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Nice Cozier chat Mail Online, 28 April 1999 "Tony Cozier: West Indian commentator dies aged 75". BBC Sport. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Tony Cozier ESPN Cricinfo Tony Cozier: A Voice And Vision Caribbean Beat, May 2003 "Tony Cozier, cricket commentator – obituary". Daily Telegraph. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Tony Cozier BBC Sport, 30 December 2002 Sandford, Keith (1998). Cricket Nurseries of Colonial Barbados: The Elite Schools, 1865–1966. Press University of the West Indies. p. 62. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Moss, Stephen (October 2006). Wisden Anthology 1978–2006: Cricket's Age of Revolution. A & C Black. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "Tony Cozier dies". Saint Lucia Times. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Cozier granted MCC life membership England and Wales Cricket Board, 15 December 2011 The Shorter Wisden 2011 – 2015. Bloomsbury Publishing. August 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Johnston, Barry (May 2010). The Wit of Cricket. Hachette UK. Retrieved 11 May 2016. Marks, Vic (12 May 2016). "Tony Cozier obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Sundaresan, Bharat (12 May 2016). "Tony Cozier (1940–2016): West Indies cricket loses its voice and sanity". The Indian Express. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Haigh, Gideon (2008). The Cricket War. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 88. Retrieved 13 May 2016. Atherton, Michael (May 2011). Glorious Summers and Discontents: Looking back on the ups and downs from a dramatic decade. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "Legendary cricket commentator Tony Cozier passes away". Starbroek News. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. Tibballs, Geoff (2007). The Bowler's Holding, the Batsman's Willey. Random House. p. 39. Retrieved 11 May 2016.

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ISBN 978-976-95731-1-6Devgro Media Arts Services List of books by Tony Cozier Retrieved 12 May 2016. "Bajan days and nights". Cricinfo. ESPN. 13 April 2012. Baxter, Peter (2012). Can Anyone Hear Me?. Icon Books. Retrieved 13 May 2016. "Veteran West Indies cricket commentator Tony Cozier dies, aged 75". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. "Tony Cozier, voice of cricket in the West Indies, dies at 75". The Australian. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016. Berry, Scyld (11 May 2016). "Tony Cozier". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 May 2016.

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Profile for wgittens11

The children of immigrants 2016  

FOREWORD Arguably there are multiple conversations that shaped the contours concerning the children of immigrants. This is a character study...

The children of immigrants 2016  

FOREWORD Arguably there are multiple conversations that shaped the contours concerning the children of immigrants. This is a character study...

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