Page 1

IT’S THE

LENS Vol.1

William Anderson Gittens Author, B.A. Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts ,Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher

ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5


It’s The Lens First Edition © 2018

ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

IT’S THE

LENS Vol.1 William Anderson Gittens Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, ,Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher

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Although Profiling is a cultural abstract yet it is infectious and as old as Methuselah1, ironically it is also paradoxical… Profiling and human beings are inextricably link within their geographical space2...

William Anderson Gittens Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, , Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

1 Methuselah (Hebrew: ‫מְתוּ ֶשׁלַח‬, Methushelah "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "his death shall bring judgment"[1]) is the man reported to have lived the longest at the age of 969 in the Hebrew Bible.[2] Methuselah was the son of Enoch, the father of Lamech, and the grandfather of Noah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah

2 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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It’s The Lens First Edition © 2018 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Magnola and William Anderson Gittens the copyright owners. Typesetting, Layout Design, Illustrations, and Photography William Anderson Gittens Edited by William Anderson Gittens ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5 Published by Devgro Media Arts Services Printed by Massy Technologies InfoCom (Barbados) Ltd. Tel: 246 2404174 https://www.instagram.com/gittens.william/ Twitter account William Gittens @lisalaron https://www.facebook.com/wgittens2 www.linkedin.com/pub/william-gittens/95/575/35b/ William Anderson Gittens Email address wgittens11@gmail.com https://www.pinterest.com/wgittens2/

William Anderson Gittens Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, ,Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher

ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

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STATEMENT It's The Lens is symbolic, it is a cultural abstract and a conversation which is discussed figuratively and metaphorically the subject of profiling through the lens as a Media Arts Specialist in context. This conversation was stage to create an intellectual consciousness within the minds of the global citizens by analysing and examining randomly selected authors, experts, and professionals extracts on the subject of profiling. The pertinent question how, when, where, why is asked and the lens is used figuratively and metaphorically to find answers since human beings are initiators and recipients of profiling. The said human beings discussed in this book are characterized as profile practitioners who use their lens too; to covertly, explicitly, implicitly, and overtly profile within their space in so many ways3 . William Anderson Gittens Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, , Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

3 These include Abstract, An Art Not A Science, Camera, Categorized, Character Profile, Data, Disc, DNA, Editing, Elisa Betta, How To Create A Character Profile, Individual, Irony of Profiling, Language Profiling, Linguistic Profiling Patient, Pathologist, Process, Racial, Threat Profile, Why People is discussed in context of Profiling.

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Summary As a Media Arts Specialist I will use the cultural abstract It's The Lens Volume 1 by way of a conversation to stage scenes punctuated figuratively, metaphorically, symbolically, to imply, infer and characterize profiling as a way of life since profiling is as old as Methuselah4 and it is also infectious.

Paradoxically the said text underscores Profiling as a profession where the profiler is profiled within their geographical space5. It is for this reason that I have introduced the cultural abstract to highlight extracts of profiling because it allows me to use angles and lenses to bring attention to the various random selected views of authors who are the actors, initiators and recipients of profiling.

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Methuselah (Hebrew: ‫שׁלַח‬ ֶ ‫מְתוּ‬, Methushelah "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "his death shall bring judgment"[1]) is the man reported to have lived the longest at the age of 969 in the Hebrew Bible.[2] Methuselah was the son of Enoch, the father of Lamech, and the grandfather of Noah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah

5 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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Ironically this abstract is also paradoxical because Profiling and human beings are inextricably link within their geographical space6... Overall this ad nauseam7 conversation discusses some of the ways profiling is practiced. These includes Abstract, An Art Not A Science, Camera, Categorized, Character Profile, Data, Disc, Digital Profiling, DNA, Editing, Elisa Betta, How To Create A Character Profile, Individual, Irony of Profiling, Language Profiling, Linguistic Profiling Patient, Pathologist, Process, Racial, Threat Profile, Why People is discussed in context of Profiling. All of these ways should certainly stir up an intellectual consciousness within the minds of the global citizens especially in this post-colonial modernity era. William Anderson Gittens Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, , Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

6 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist 7 Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued 'to [the point of] nausea'. For example, the sentence "This topic has been discussed ad ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_nauseam

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History of PROFILE 8 The Pocket Oxford Dictionary9 of Current English has suggested that outline,esp.of a human face,as seen from one side. Representation of this. 2 short biographical or character sketch- v. (ling) represent or describe by a profile. Keep a low profile remain inconspicuous[ Italian profilare draw in outline]

The Online Dictionary defines pro·file10 ˈprōˌfīl/ noun noun: profile; plural noun: profiles 1. an outline of something, especially a person's face, as seen from one side. "the man turned and she caught his profile"

8 https://www.slideshare.net/katierothery/history-of-editing 9 The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English First edited by F.G. and H.W. Fowler Eigth Edition Edited by Della Thompson Clarendon Press. Oxford 1992 page 714

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h t t p s : / / w w w. g o o g l e . c o m / s e a r c h ? client=safari&channel=iphone_bm&ei=d0WVWpbZPKmE5wLSnJjgBQ&q=DEFINE+THE+WORD+ +profile+&oq=DEFINE+THE+WORD++profile+&gs_l=psy-ab. 1 2 . . . 5 3 3 1 2 . 6 5 5 2 3 . 0 . 6 7 8 3 6 . 2 2 . 2 2 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 4 6 . 2 4 7 5 . 7 j 1 5 . 2 2 . 0 . . . . 0 . . . 1 c. 1 . 6 4 . p s y - a b. . 0.7.937...0i7i30k1j0i8i7i30k1j33i22i29i30k1.0.fXgMEKLMu4Q

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synonyms:

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side view, outline, silhouette, contour, shape,

form, figure, lines "his handsome profile" a vertical cross section of a structure. "skillfully made vessels with an S-shaped profile" Geography an outline of part of the earth's surface, e.g., the course of a river, as seen in a vertical section. a flat piece of scenery or stage property that has been cut so as to form an outline or silhouette of an object. 2. a short article giving a description of a person or organization. "a profile of a Texas tycoon" synonyms: description, account, study, portrait, portrayal, depiction, rundown, sketch, outline "she wrote a profile of the organization" (on a social media website or application) a user's summary of their personal details or current situation. "he posted the pictures on his Facebook profile"

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3. a graphical or other representation of information relating to particular characteristics of something, recorded in quantified form. "the blood profiles of cancer patients" a record of a person's psychological or behavioral characteristics, preferences, etc. "they had been using personal details to build customer profiles" 4. the extent to which a person or organization attracts public notice. "raising the profile of women in industry" verb verb: profile; 3rd person present: profiles; past tense: profiled; past participle: profiled; gerund or present participle: profiling 1. describe (a person or organization, especially a public figure) in a short article. "he was to profile each candidate" synonyms: describe, write about, give an account of, portray, depict, sketch, outline "he was profiled in the local paper" 2. represent in outline from one side. Page 9! of 250 !


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"he was standing motionless, profiled on the far side of the swimming pool"

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Abstract In this text It's the Lens volume1 focuses on random selected extracts of Profiling which are exhibited by human beings. The underpinning of this ad nauseam11 conversation is design to stir up an intellectual consciousness within the minds of global citizens in this post-colonial modernity era. These extracts create the framework for this academic discussion which includes varying author’s expressions, conversations and interpretations. The same can be characterize as human behaviour and as a way of life in a cultural context. Randomly selected research views of professionals explain human behavior via Demographics, Digital identity, Digital traces, Forensic profiling, Identification(information),Identity, Labelling,

11 Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued 'to [the point of] nausea'. For example, the sentence "This topic has been discussed ad ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_nauseam

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Privacy Profiling, Offender profiling, Social Profile (Social Profiling) Stereotype User profile and theoretical standards.

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FOREWORD

From time immemorial human beings have been practicing profiling to the extent that it has become infectious, an ad nauseam conversation and a way of life practiced by global citizens within every geographical space12.

William Anderson Gittens

Author B.A., Cinematographer, Cultural Practitioner,Dip.Com. Arts, , Media Arts Specialists’ Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

12 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTRACT.......................................................................................….

PAGE

Statement:…………………………………………………………...…......4 Summary:……………………………………………………………….....5 History of Editing:…………………………………….…………...….......7 Abstract:………………………………………………………...…...........11 Foreword:………………………………………………………….….....13 Contents……………………………………...................................……......14 Acknowledgements………………….………………………...….…....…16 Dedication……….………………….………………………...…......…....18 Extract 1: Introduction……………………………………………..….....19 Extract 2: Profiling is as old as Methuselah………………...........................45 Extract 3 Irony of Profiling:……………………………………………..48 Extract 4: Profiling (information science):……………………………….51 Extract 5: Abstract Profiling: .............…………..………...............................58 Extract 6: Pathologist Profiles in Science …..…….……………….….......69 Extract 7: Elisabetta Povoledo………………………………………..….74 Extract8: Profiling An Art, Not A Science……….………………………81 EXTRACT9: Understanding……………………………………………..93 Extract10: How Does An Individual Profile……………………………..97 Extract11: …………………………………………………………… 101 Extract12: How To Create A Character Profile…………………………106 Extract13: Why The Populace Wants To Profile…………………….. 116 Extract14: Theory and Racial Profiling…………………………… …..120 Extract15: Discussion………..…………………….………………… ..122

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Extract16: What Does Data Profiling Mean…………………………… 132 Extract17: Profiling Through Language……………………………… .134 Extract18: Linguistic Profiling ……………………………………..…...141 Extract19: Profiling Via The Camera……………………………..….. .144 Extract20: Is Patient Profiling Essential To Care?……….…………

....153

Extract21: Profiling Process………………………….………….. …....156 Extract22: Profiling Through Editing….………………………… …...158 Extract23: DISC Profile…………………………………..……… …..163 Extract24: Complexity Profiling Through Editing………………… ….164 Extract25: Profiling Through Online Information……………….… ......172 Extract26: What Is Profiling…………………….…..………… .……...174 Extract27: Alica G.Walton Contribution…….……………….…......... ...177 Extract28: Threat Profile…………..………….…........................................184 Extract29: Profiling Categorized……….…………….…............................187 Extract30: DNA Profiling……………………....….....................................194 Extract31: Digital Profiling……………………..…………..………..….208 Extract32: Personal Reflections………………..…………..………..…. 211 Extract33: Conclusion Reflections ………….…………………..…...….218 Extract34: Conclusion: ……………….…………………………..…….219 About the Author:………………………………..………………...........224 Works Cited:….……………………………………………………........229

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special thanks to the Creator for his guidance and choosing me as a conduit to express the creative gifts he has given me and my late parents Charles and Ira Gittens. Thanks to those who assisted me along this journey namely my Beloved wife Magnola Gittens, my Brothers- Shurland, Charles, Ricardo, Arnott, Stephen, Sisters- Emerald, Marcella, Cheryl, Cousins-Joy Mayers, Kevin and Ernest Mayers, Donna Archer, Avis Dyer, Jackie Clarke, UnclesClifford, Leonard Mayers, David Bruce, Collin Rock. My children Laron and Lisa. Well-wishers-Mr.and Mrs. Andrew Platizky, Mr. Matthew Sutton, Mr.& Mrs. Gordon Alleyne, Mr. Juan Arroyo, Mr. and Mrs. David Lavine, Mrs. Ellen Gordon, Dr.Nicholas Gordon, the late Dr.Joseph Drew, Merline Mayers, Mr. and Mrs. Trevor Millington, Rev. & Mrs. Donavon Shoemaker, Ms. Geraldine Davis, Rev.Carl and Rev Angie Dixon, Mrs. Gloria Rock, Rev.Pauline Harewood, Mr. and Mrs. Stewart Russell, Mrs. Shirley Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Felton Ince, Mr. and Mrs. David Brathwaite, Page 16 ! of 250 !


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Mr.and Mrs. Ryan Miller Mr.and Mrs. Neilo Mascoll. All of the above contributed to my academic developmental journey. William Anderson Gittens Author, Media Arts Specialists’ Cultural Practitioner, Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

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DEDICATION It’s The Lens Volume 1 is dedicated in honour of my late parents Charles Alderson Gittens and Ira Louise Gittens. William Anderson Gittens Author, Media Arts Specialists’ Cultural Practitioner, Publisher ISBN 978-976-95731-8-5

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EXTRACT 1 Introduction

On reflection, I must confess that my actions as a child were shaped by my environment. For example, a stranger walking through our community whose very untidy appearance was perceived as a character by my peers. A character in this context means someone you should keep your eyes on. This confession perhaps explains the reason or reasons and the genesis of me profiling. Over the years my life has developed from a teenager to an adult and I am now able to flesh out and analyse my behavior and others in my orbit. Further, it is clear that the mindset that I once held towards Profiling is totally different now as opposed to then.

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I am more responsible for my actions as an adult more so than my adolescent stage which included the way that I think. I have been exposed to academic disciplines which may have influenced the way that I now profile. Just to digress a bit from as far back as I can recall whenever I heard the word Profile immediately it conjured up in my mind cultural social constructs such as a. Association, b. Colour, c. Class, d. Creed, e. Gender, f. Geographical location, g. Orientation, h. Political affiliation, Page 20 ! of 250 !


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i. Race, j. Status, and k.

Society

The aforementioned signifiers certainly created a space, set the tone and the gravity for this type of a conversation. In my view these signifiers evoked some level of intellectual consciousness within my mind and by extension global citizens; (a) it encourages people to evaluate the way they think, (b) perhaps cause the populace to evaluate the way they look at life, and (c) examine their behavior.

Such a topic has sharpened my analytical skills especially since I have occupied various cultural landscapes and interacted with people of varied cultural identities which included ethnic, political, race, religious, status and post academic studies.

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Importantly, what became very apparent I now find myself profiling by reasoning information about the person or object based on identifiable characteristics. In light of this admission I suppose that this was basis in which I was motivated to explore the abstract cultural cliché profiling. During the discourse this abstract subject profiling is discussed figuratively and metaphorically through the lens of a Media Arts Specialist in this book It’s The LensVolume1. This scholarly conversation

13

is constructed to discuss

random EXTRACTs of profiling thru the cultural construct It’s The Lens. This book can become a tool utilized in the life of media arts practitioners because it is one of the mediums which can be used controlled literally and representationally.

13 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10892-010-9092-9

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In my view there is that distinct possibility that during these conversations we may very well discover that asking the question how, what, when, where, and why may provide some insight from the random selected authors, experts, and professionals who are the initiators and recipients of profiling. A case in point the said Authors, Experts, Professionals and Theorist provide evidence of human behavior thru their lenses.

As you are aware a lens is used to facilitate light14 through the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the back of the eye and supports the retina. The retina receives the image that the cornea focuses through the eye's internal lens and transforms this image into electrical impulses that are carried by the optic nerve to the brain. Similarly, the actual Lens15 as a piece of glass or other transparent substance with curved sides for concentrating or dispersing light rays, used singly (as in a magnifying glass) or with other lenses (as in a 14 https://www.nkcf.org/about-keratoconus/how-the-human-eye-works/ 15 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lens

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telescope).the light-gathering device of a camera, typically containing a group of compound lenses as defined by Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines I suppose that the lens of a camera was constructed and modeled after the lens of a human being.

And this is one of the reasons why I believe that everything is examined and analyzed through a lens whether it is a camera lens a human lens or any kind of a lens for that matter whether it is local, regional and extra regional.

A Lens is the window to our soul and the question how, what, when, where you employ your lens determines how you will profile.

Aviva Hope Rutkin16 August 23, 2013 in an article titled Intelligent Machines A Camera That Sees like the Human Eye IBM’s brain like computer architecture paves the way for a new kind of artificial vision. 16 https://www.technologyreview.com/s/518586/a-camera-that-sees-like-the-human-eye/

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He has asserted that The retina is an enormously powerful tool. It sorts through massive amounts of data while operating on only a fraction of the power that a conventional digital camera and computer would require to do the same task.

Dynamic vision: The camera’s strength is in capturing movement, like the milk drops seen here. Now, engineers at a company called iniLabs in Switzerland are applying lessons from biology in an effort to build a more efficient digital camera inspired by the human retina. Like the individual neurons in our eyes, the new camera—named the Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS)—responds only to changes in a given scene. This approach eliminates large swaths of redundant data and could be useful for many fields, including surveillance, robotics, and microscopy. “Your eye and my eye are digital cameras too. [They’re] just a different kind of digital camera,” says Tobi Delbruck, the chief scientific officer at iniLabs. “We had machine vision that was as good as Page 25 ! of 250 !


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possible with existing architecture and hardware. But compared to biology, machine vision is pathetically poor.” An ordinary camera will take in everything it sees, storing the information to be processed later. This uses up a lot of power and a lot of space. Neurons in the eye, however, fire only when they sense a change—such as when a particular part of a scene gets brighter or dimmer. The DVS mimics that selectivity, transmitting information only in response to a shift in the scene. That takes less power and leaves less information to be processed. Let us take an extreme close up Understanding the Different Types of Camera Lens. According to Aviva Hope Rutkin the author of Photo Uno17 Understanding the Different Types of Camera Lenses18 is critical.

17 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/# 18 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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The author of Photo Uno point is valid to this conversation because people view life through their lens. And it is very possible that just as a camera showcases any event that is happening or takes places before the lens it seems to me that similar actions also happens to human beings. A case in point just as various cameras are fitted with various types of lenses19 similarly the populace are fitted with various lens. In this context whenever a person presents an alternative view, an idea, or a concept in my view this is there lens. On Mar. 01, 2016

Brenda Pagan-Duran MD reviewed

Kierstan Boyd article. In this article she has asserted that There are two general types of contact lenses20: hard and soft. The hard lenses most commonly used today are rigid, gas-permeable lenses (RGP for short). They are made of plastics and other materials such as 19 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/ 20 https://www.aao.org/eye-health/glasses-contacts/contact-lens-types

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silicone or fluoropolymers. Hard lenses hold their shape, yet allow the free flow of oxygen through the lenses to the cornea. RGP lenses may be the best choice when the cornea has enough astigmatism (is shaped like an egg instead of an orange) that a soft lens will not provide sharp vision. They may also be preferable when a person has allergies or tends to form protein deposits on his or her contacts. Soft lenses are the choice of most contact lens wearers. These lenses are comfortable and come in many versions, depending on how you want to wear them. Daily-wear lenses21 are the least expensive, are removed nightly and are replaced on an individualized schedule. They should not be used as an extended-wear lens. Extended-wear lenses are worn overnight but are removed at least weekly for thorough cleaning and disinfection. They are

21 https://www.aao.org/eye-health/glasses-contacts/contact-lens-types

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being recommended less frequently, since there is a greater risk of corneal infection with any overnight wear of contact lenses. Disposable-wear lenses are more expensive, but convenient. They are removed nightly and replaced on a daily, weekly, biweekly, or monthly basis. Disposable lenses are sometimes recommended for people with allergies and for those who tend to form deposits on their lenses. Colored contact lenses are contacts that change your eye color, the appearance of your eye, or both. And in the case of circle lenses they can also make your iris appear bigger. Colored lenses are available by prescription and should only be worn after an eye exam and fitting by a qualified eye care professional. Overthe-counter colored contacts, including circle lenses, are illegal and pose a serious danger to your eye health. They can cause eye injury, eye infection, and vision loss.

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Toric soft contact lenses22 can correct astigmatism, but sometimes not as well as RGP lenses do. They usually cost more than other contact lenses. Bifocal or multifocal contact lenses are available in both soft and RPG varieties. They can correct nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism in combination with presbyopia. Cleaning and disinfection are specific to the lens material. Visual quality is often not as good as with single vision lenses; however, for some people the ability to correct presbyopia is worth it. Prime lenses23

are also called “fixed lenses,” because the

focal length of a prime lens is fixed--meaning, you cannot zoom in or zoom out. You can only shoot from a single angle of view. If you want to add or remove certain elements from your picture, you will have to literally move yourself closer or farther away from your subject.

22 https://www.aao.org/eye-health/glasses-contacts/contact-lens-types 23 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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A zoom lens, on the other hand, refers to any lens that has a variable focal length--meaning you can zoom in and out at will. With a zoom lens, you can remain in the same position but zoom in or out to change the content of your photo. There are pros and cons to both prime and zoom lenses. Prime Lens24 Prime lenses tend to produce sharper images. They tend to perform better in low light conditions. They make you take your time when composing your images. They are lighter and more compact than zoom lenses. They tend to be less expensive than zoom lenses. Prime Lenses You are not able to zoom in or out.

24 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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You have to physically move in order to change the composition of your photo. You may end up carrying more than one lens with you. Zoom Lens25 You can zoom in and out as needed. They can replace two or more prime lenses. You do not need to physically change your position in order to recompose your image. Zoom lenses are bulkier and heavier than prime lenses. Images may not be as crisp as with a prime lens. They may not perform as well as prime lenses in darker situations. They tend to be more expensive. Now that we’ve clarified the difference between prime and zoom camera lenses, let’s take a look at different types of lenses. 25 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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Wide-Angle Camera Lens26 “Wide-angle” usually refers to lenses with focal lengths between 17mm and 40mm. Wide-angle lenses provide you with a broad view of the scene before you. This makes them ideal for photographing landscapes, small interior spaces that you want to look larger, events like concerts where you are very close to your subjects, street photography, and environmental portraits that also include your subject’s surroundings. The biggest downside of wide-angle lenses is that they can create distortion--they tend to stretch things out and make them look larger, especially elements that are close to your lens. This makes them a less than ideal choice for portraiture; since they can be unflattering to your subject (no one wants their nose to look too big!).

Normal or Standard Camera Lens27

26 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/ 27 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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Lenses with a focal length of about 40mm to 60mm are considered “normal” lenses because they tend to replicate most accurately what the naked human eye sees. They do not have as much distortion as wide-angle lenses, but they are still wide enough to replicate the peripheral vision of the human eye. Because of these qualities, normal lenses are great for photographing portraits, creating precise compositions, street photography, and documentary photography projects. This is a very useful and flexible lens. When asked which single lens they would choose if they could only have one, many professional photographers answer “my normal lens.” Telephoto Camera Lens28 Any lens with a focal length of about 70mm and longer is considered a telephoto lens.

These lenses produce the least

distortion--making them another excellent choice for flattering portraits. They are also extremely useful in situations where you

28 htt https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/ ps://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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cannot get too close to your subject--photographing a sports event, or while on safari, for example. The downsides to these lenses are their size and weight--they tend to be quite heavy--and the fact that you cannot photograph subjects that are too close to you. Specialty Camera Lenses: Macro and Fisheye Lenses29 Macro lenses are used to create extreme close-up images, typically of very small objects, such as flowers and insects.

A

macro lens can produce a life-size or even larger-than-life size scale image of tiny subjects. They also allow you to get much closer to your subject than a typical lens while still retaining sharp focus. If you’re interested in photographing nature, or perhaps cataloguing your coin or stamp collection, a macro lens will prove extremely useful.

There are some downsides to macro lenses,

however. Because you are so close to your subject, you need to keep your camera extra steady, so you may need to use a tripod.

29

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Macro lenses also tend to produce images with a very blurry background, so you must be very careful and precise when you focus the lens. A fisheye lens is an ultra wide-angle lens--any lens with a focal length less than 15mm. These types of lenses tend to have about a 180-degree field of vision. The effect you achieve with this lens makes it seem like you are seeing the world from inside a fishbowl--hence the name, “fisheye.” Everything along the edges of your photo becomes extremely distorted, and your subject will seem much larger than normal. Some common uses of fisheye lenses are for photographing action sports, landscapes, and to capture unusual perspectives. These lenses are great for getting creative--but be warned, their novelty tends to wear off pretty quickly! The human lens and the camera lens highlight scenes which can cause the profiler to be profiled. For instance for there is

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evidence of “Profiler being Profiled” is highlighted in the twelfth episode of Season Two of Criminal Minds30. In Summary while visiting his family for his mother's birthday in Chicago, Morgan is accused by local police of murdering three young boys, and the BAU investigates to find the real killer and exonerate him. Meanwhile, Hotch believes that Morgan may be hiding more than his sealed juvenile record after questioning him. Since Profiling is as old as Methuselah31 and infectious within this global space we have observed that throughout history there are indications which suggest that the practitioners of profiling use their various lenses figuratively and metaphorically to profile covertly, explicitly, implicitly, and overtly within a cultural context.

30 http://criminalminds.wikia.com/wiki/Profiler,_Profiled 31 Methuselah (Hebrew: ‫מְתוּ ֶשׁלַח‬, Methushelah "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "his death shall bring judgment"[1]) is the man reported to have lived the longest at the age of 969 in the Hebrew Bible.[2] Methuselah was the son of Enoch, the father of Lamech, and the grandfather of Noah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah

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At this juncture it is imperative that I insert Merriamwebster.com32 definition on profiling. It is the act or process of extrapolating information about a person based on known traits or tendencies. Given the above mentioned definition concerning profiling it clear that this abstract is also profiled. For instance there is consumer profiling merriamwebster.com defines consumer profiling specifically as the act of suspecting or targeting a person on the basis of observed characteristics or behavior. A personality profile is a knowledge management tool used to provide an evaluation of an employee's personal attributes, values and life skills in an effort to maximize his or her job performance and contribution to the company. ... There are two generally accepted categories of personality profile tests, trait and type . 32 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/profiling

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In software engineering33, profiling ("program profiling," "software profiling") is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. A cardinal rule for any successful business is to "know your customer." ... Online profiling34 data, which is information gleaned from a customer's use of a Web site, can be used to target advertisements, personalize Web sites and match services to a specific customer's needs. Therefore according to merriam-Webster.com profiling is a process of extrapolating information about a person based on known traits or tendencies. A case in point I recently had a conversation with Robert Forde35 a friend who grew up me in the community. Mr. Forde 33 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profiling_(computer_programming) 34 https://www.computerworld.com/article/2597220/retail-it/online-profiling.html 35 Forde, Robert interviewed on the te;lephone March 23, 2018

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relayed his lived experience to me that sometime in the past he visited a signal station to conduct some business. While at that location, he asked the officer that was communicating via the radio to a captain of a ship at sea at the said station. The officer replied that he was communicating with the captain on the ship out there pointing to the horizon. Mr. Forde said he looked, looked and looked with his eyes as far as his eyes could see and he saw no traces of a ship. He intimated this to the said officer. The officer gave Robert some type of apparatus with was later discovered as a telephonic lens. According to Mr. Forde upon looking through the lens to his surprised there was a humongous object which appeared to be a ship on the horizon. An analysis of Robert’s lived experienced highlights the fact that metaphorically speaking Mr. Forde was utilizing a Normal or Standard Camera Lens36 Further, the fact that Mr. Forde used a different approach he got results. In other words, Robert used a

36 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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different lens which allowed him to appreciate what the officer at that station had previously expressed to him. Aviva Hope Rutkin the author of Photo Uno37 makes the point that Lenses with a focal length of about 40 mm to 60 mm are considered “normal” lenses because they tend to replicate most accurately what the naked human eye sees looking at the horizon with his lens he saw nothing. According to Aviva Hope Rutkin the author of Photo Uno38 These types of lenses tend to have about a 180-degree field of vision. The effect you achieve with this lens makes it seem like you are seeing the world from inside a fishbowl--hence they name, “Fisheye.” Everything along the edges of your photo becomes extremely distorted, and your subject will seem much larger than normal.

Some common uses of fisheye lenses are for

37 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/# 38 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/#

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photographing action sports, landscapes, and to capture unusual perspectives. These lenses are great for getting creative--but be warned, their novelty tends to wear off pretty quickly! Metaphorically speaking when Mr. Forde changed his lens, presumably he would have deployed the fisheye lens approach. Further, if human race changes their lens there is that distinct possibility that our approach to profiling may change. In this context the fisheye lens means changed an individual’s perspective and become more analytical.

In other

words Robert would have engaged his critical thinking skills which lead him to try another approach which gave optimum results. This lens is an ultra-wide-angle lens--any lens with a focal length less than 15 mm. Since I am profiling I would have drawn some conclusion by reasoning sufficient facts about the subject based on known characteristics.

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Profiling conjures up in my mind the abstract lens simply because a lens helps to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically. And I dare say if this abstract piece of equipment namely a lens can do so much, similarly; one can only imagine how potent a human eye is in this context. Overall all human beings are conduits who practice profiling consciously or unconsciously. It is my view that this staged cultural conversation has the propensity to create an intellectual conscience within the minds of the populace. A case in point, just as a camera lens is used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically;39 Likewise, if human beings use their eyes which acts as lens and are windows to their soul to 39 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_lens

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see the world through two small40, flat retinae at the backs of our eyes; it seems remarkable that what each of us perceives is a seamless, three-dimensional visual world.

The sensor41 is the part of the digital camera that captures light to create an image. It is analogous to the film in non-digital cameras. Similar to the coating of light-sensitive material on photographic film, the sensor of a digital camera has lightsensitive cells. The sensor is one of the most important parts of the digital camera and the size of the sensor is one of its most important aspects.

40 https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/11/how-does-the-brain-process-what-we-see/ 41 http://www.hardwaresecrets.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-camera-sensors/

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EXTRACT 2 Profiling is as old as Methuselah Profiling is as old as Methuselah…42 Example of what I am referring is staged in John 7:53–8:11 in the New Revised Standard Version: 53 Then each of them went home, 1 while Jesus went to the Mount of Olives43. 2 Early in the morning he came again to the temple. All the people came to him and he sat down and began to teach them. 3 The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery; and making her stand before all of them, 4 They said to him, "Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of committing adultery. 42 Methuselah (Hebrew: ‫ׁשלַח‬ ֶ ‫מְתּו‬, Methushelah "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "his death shall bring judgment"[1]) is the man reported to have lived the longest at the age of 969 in the Hebrew Bible.[2] Methuselah was the son of Enoch, the father of Lamech, and the grandfather of Noah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah

43 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus_and_the_woman_taken_in_adultery

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5 Now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?" 6 They said this to test him, so that they might have some charge to bring against him. Jesus bent down and wrote with his finger on the ground. 7 When they kept on questioning him, he straightened up and said to them, "Let anyone among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her." 8 And once again he bent down and wrote on the ground. 9 When they heard it, they went away, one by one, beginning with the elders; and Jesus was left alone with the woman standing before him. 10 Jesus straightened up and said to her, "Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?" 11 She said, "No one, sir." And Jesus said, "Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sin again." Page 46 ! of 250 !


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As I examined the above mentioned extract through my lens it is clear that the series of events that unfolded regarding the woman accused of adultery can be interpreted as Ironic since the profiler who are the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who was profiled by the profiler within their geographical space44who had been caught in adultery; and making her stand before all of them.

44 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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EXTRACT 3 Irony of Profiling The irony about profiling is the fact that it is an apparent innate behavior practiced by all human beings who also profile other human beings regardless of their identity. Cultural identity45 is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity.

45 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_identity Moha Ennaji, Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco, Springer Science & Business Media, 2005, pp.19-23

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Cultural identity is able to take many forms and can change depending on the cultural area. This flexibility is what allows people to feel like part of society wherever they go46. A case in point, there is Psychological profiling47 which involves looking at clues in a crime scene to discover if the circumstances suggest a psychological disorder. For example, if there are seemingly random victims who are attacked in similar ways, it may show a particular psychological disorder. Another example, criminal acts that systematically target the eyes may point to a perpetrator who is autistic because people who suffer from autism spectrum disorder frequently do not make eye contact. Victimology focuses on the victim rather than the perpetrator. For example, if the criminal targets people with blue eyes and dark hair, the police can use that information to predict 46 Holliday, A (2010). "Complexity in cultural identity". Language and Intercultural Communication. 10 (2): 165–177. doi:10.1080/14708470903267384.

47 https://www.reference.com/government-politics/different-types-profiling-cf6ac51ab396ae45

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future victims. Another example is when the perpetrator targets victims who all work in a particular location or have certain activities. Criminal profiling uses crime scene clues to figure out something about the criminal. For example, if the crime occurred in a location with many drug dealers, the profiler may deduce that the criminal is a drug dealer. Additionally, witnesses who identify markings linked with gang affiliation lead investigators to look for criminals who are members of that gang. This cultural cliché may be perceived or interpreted differently depending on the individual’s cultural identity such as race, class and gender. According to Stuart Hall “Identities function as points of identification”48 The identities of which I referring is the type which is defined by Stuart Hall. Hall, explain and classify the functions and importance of the populace’ that make up the global village. 48 Stuart Hall,

”Introduction: Who Needs Identity Questions of Cultural Identity?” Stuart Hall and Paul duGay,ed., (London: Sage Publications,1996), 1-17(p.5).

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EXTRACT 4 Profiling (information science) In information science, profiling49 refers to the process of construction and application of user profiles generated by computerized data analysis. This involves the use of algorithms or other mathematical techniques that allow the discovery of patterns or correlations in large quantities of data, aggregated in databases. When these patterns or correlations are used to identify or represent people, they can be called profiles. Other than a discussion of profiling technologies or population profiling, the notion of profiling in this sense is not just about the construction of profiles, but also concerns the application of group profiles to individuals, e. g., in the cases of credit scoring, price

49 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profiling_(information_science)

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discrimination, or identification of security risks (Hildebrandt & Gutwirth 2008) (Elmer 2004). Profiling is not simply a matter of computerized patternrecognition; it enables refined price-discrimination, targeted servicing, fraud detection, and extensive social sorting. Real-time machine profiling constitutes the precondition for emerging socio-technical infrastructures envisioned by advocates of ambient intelligence,50 autonomic computing (Kephart & Chess 2003) and ubiquitous computing (Weiser 1991). One of the most challenging problems of the information society involves dealing with increasing data-overload. With the digitizing of all sorts of content as well as the improvement and drop in cost of recording technologies, the amount of available information has become enormous and increases exponentially. It has thus become important for companies, governments, and individuals to discriminate information from noise, detecting 50 ISTAG (2001), Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence in 2010, Information Society Technology Advisory Group

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useful or interesting data. The development of profiling technologies must be seen against this background. These technologies are thought to efficiently collect and analyse data in order to find or test knowledge in the form of statistical patterns between data. This process, called Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) (Fayyad, Piatetsky-Shapiro & Smyth 1996), provides the profiler with sets of correlated data usable as "profiles". • Behavioral targeting • Data mining • Demographics • Digital identity • Digital traces • Forensic profiling • Identification (information) Page 53 ! of 250 !


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• Identity • Labelling • Privacy • Profiling • Offender profiling • Social Profile (Social Profiling) • Stereotype • User profile Another opinion advance concerning Cultural identity51 is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both characteristic of the individual but 51 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_identity Moha Ennaji, Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco, Springer Science & Business Media, 2005, pp.19-23

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also of the culturally identical group of members sharing the same cultural identity. Cultural identity is able to take many forms and can change depending on the cultural area. This flexibility is what allows people to feel like part of society wherever they go52. According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia in journalism, a human interest story53 is a feature story that discusses a person, or people, or a pet in an emotional way54. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer. Human interest stories are a type of soft news.55

52 Holliday, A (2010). "Complexity in cultural identity". Language and Intercultural Communication. 10 (2): 165–177. doi:10.1080/14708470903267384.

53 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_interest_story

54 Miller, Laura (October 16, 2011). "'Sybil Exposed': Memory, lies and therapy". Salon. Salon Media Group. Retrieved October 17, 2011.

55 Granato, Len (2002). Newspaper Feature Writing. UNSW Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780868404530.

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Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement. A study published in the American Behavioral Scientist illustrates that human interest stories are furthermore often used in the news coverage of irregular immigration, although the frequency differs from country to country.56 Human interest stories are sometimes criticized as "soft" news, or manipulative,57 sensationalistic programming. Major human interest stories are presented with a view to entertain the readers or viewers while informing them. Although this could be

56 Tine Ustad Figenschou & Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud, "Faces of an Invisible Population: Human Interest Framing of Irregular Immigration News in the United States, France, and Norway", "SAGE Publisher", 19/06/2015. Retrieved 05/10/2015.

57 Miller, Laura (October 16, 2011). "'Sybil Exposed': Memory, lies and therapy". Salon. Salon Media Group. Retrieved October 17, 2011.

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considered a strategy, it has been referenced as a successful method of persuasion. Terry Morris, an early proponent of the genre, said she took "considerable license with the facts that are given to me."58 An analysis of Wikipedia’s extract has validated the theory extracts that journalism presents a human interest story that underscores the fact that profiling is used to highlight identity, character and behavior.

58 Miller, Laura (October 16, 2011). "'Sybil Exposed': Memory, lies and therapy". Salon. Salon Media Group. Retrieved October 17, 2011.

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EXTRACT 5 Abstract Profiling

Profiling is infectious and a cultural abstract which has pervaded all aspects of our lives for example let us look at are free and interactive career profile database of an individual career profile59 of a Graphic and Web Designer.

1. What exactly do you do? What field is your job in?

Advertising And Marketing

59 https://www.thecareerproject.org/job-profile/4953/

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What is your job title?

Graphic And Web Designer Please provide a brief description of the firm or organization that you currently work for (size and general description of what type of organization it is)

Freelance How long have you been employed in this position?

5 years

How many hours do you work a week on average?

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40 Please provide a BRIEF description of your duties and responsibilities. (job description)

40 Please provide a BRIEF description of your duties and responsibilities. (job description)

Create adverting materials, Print and Web What was your gross income last year? Please include any bonuses or incentives received.

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What is your expected gross income for this year? Please include any bonuses or incentives you expect to receive.

40000

Please list any benefits you have (Please include number of weeks vacation, sick leave and type of health insurance, retirement plan 401k)

401K, Health and Dental, Vacation and Sick pay

Do you feel you are under/well/over compensated at your current position?

NO

2. Work environment!

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Does your job entail you working with others on a daily basis? Is this something you like/dislike about your job? Explain

Yes, like Do you work collaboratively with supervisors/managers?

Do you work collaboratively with your co-workers?

Describe your work location (e.g., office, home, theatre, in the field) and what you like/dislike about working in it

No

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Please rank in order of importance from 1-8 (1-most important 8least important) Assign each number once.

Income Work Environment - co-workers Work Environment - supervisors Benefits Hours Level of responsibility The actual "work" you do at your job Job Title

3. How should someone new to the workforce get a J-O-B like yours? If someone wanted to go about getting a job similar to yours, what would you recommend for him or her to do? Page 63 ! of 250 !


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What skills do you think a person should have if they want to pursue a position like yours? Please be specific and explain why (e.g., social skills, organization skills, technical skills)

Do you feel that you need a certain level of education or training to be successful in your job?

What advice would you give to someone who was about to start work in your position/ line of work?

4. How did you get your J-O-B

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How did you find your current job? (e.g. newspaper, internet, referral, etc.)

What was the application process for your job? (e.g. submitted resume, paper application, electronic application, all, etc.)

Did you have to interview for your current job? If yes, what did the interview process entail? (e.g., number of interviews, who you interviewed with, group interview, individual interview, etc.)

If you can remember, what questions were you asked at your interview?

Is this the job / field you planned to work in?

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No If your job is in a different field from your original plan how did you get here? Explain (Plan can be from high school/college/post college/ personal plan)

5. Background: Are you qualified? Was there training for your current position? If yes, what did it entail?

Do you feel your employer properly prepared you for your job? Explain

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If applicable, do you feel your internship experience helped you prepare you for your job?

6. The Future and Beyond (FINAL SECTION) If someone were to observe you at work, what would he or she say is "fun" about your job?

What is (are) the most fulfilling aspect(s) and least fulfilling aspect(s) of your current employment? (e.g. fiscal, spiritual, type of work, hours, commute, compensation, etc.)

Is your current employment part of your career plan? Why or why not? Page 67 ! of 250 !


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What are your current career goals? (Can be broad or specific)

Is there anything else you would like to share about your career?

7. A Day in the Life Of...

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EXTRACT 6 Pathologist Profiles in Science CARL ZIMMER, Human Nature’s Pathologist Profiles in Science NOV. 28, 2011 article has asserted that CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — Steven Pinker60 was a 15-year-old anarchist. He didn’t think people needed a police force to keep the peace. Governments caused the very problems they were supposed to solve. Besides, it was 1969, said Dr. Pinker, who is now a 57-yearold psychologist at Harvard. “If you weren’t an anarchist,” he said, “you couldn’t get a date.” At the dinner table, he argued with his parents about human nature. “They said, ‘What would happen if there were no police?’

60 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/science/human-natures-pathologist.html CARL ZIMMER Nature’s Pathologist Profiles in Science NOV. 28, 2011

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” he recalled. “I said: ‘What would we do? Would we rob banks? Of course not. Police make no difference.’ ” This was in Montreal, “a city that prided itself on civility and low rates of crime,” he said. Then, on Oct. 17, 1969, police officers and firefighters went on strike, and he had a chance to test his first hypothesis about human nature. “All hell broke loose,” Dr. Pinker recalled. “Within a few hours there was looting. There were riots. There was arson. There were two murders. And this was in the morning that they called the strike.” The ’60s changed the lives of many people and, in Dr. Pinker’s61 case, left him deeply curious about how humans work. That curiosity turned into a career as a leading expert on language, and then as a leading advocate of evolutionary psychology. In a series of best-selling books, he has argued that our mental faculties — from emotions to decision-making to visual cognition — were forged by natural selection.

61 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/science/human-natures-pathologist.html

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He has also become a withering critic of those who would deny the deep marks of evolution on our minds — social engineers who believe they can remake children as they wish, modernist architects who believe they can rebuild cities as utopias. Even in the 21st century, Dr. Pinker argues, we ignore our evolved brains at our own peril. Given this track record, Dr. Pinker’s62 newest book, published in October, struck some critics as a jackknife turn. In “The Better Angels of Our Nature” (Viking), he investigates one of the most primal aspects of life: violence. Over the course of 802 pages, he argues that violence has fallen drastically over thousands of years — whether one considers homicide rates, war casualties as a percentage of national populations, or other measures. This may seem at odds with evolutionary psychology, which is often seen as an argument for hard-wired Stone Age behavior, 62 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/science/human-natures-pathologist.html

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but Dr. Pinker sees that view as a misunderstanding of the science. Our evolved brains, he argues, are capable of a wide range of responses to their environment. Under the right conditions, they can allow us to live in greater and greater peace. “The Better Angels of Our Nature” is full of the flourishes that Dr. Pinker’s readers have come to expect. He offers gruesomely delightful details about cutting off noses and torturing heretics. Like his other popular books, starting with “The Language Instinct” (1994), it is a far cry from his first published works in the late 1970s — esoteric reports from his graduate work at Harvard, with titles like “The Representation and Manipulation of Three-Dimensional Space in Mental Images.” If you want peace, Dr. Goldstein argues, work for peace. Dr. Pinker agrees. Dr. Pinker63 concluded that “It’s psychologically astute, given the massive amount of self-serving biases,” he said. “In any

63 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/science/human-natures-pathologist.html

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dispute, each side thinks it’s in the right and the other side is demons.” The moral of his own book might be, If you want peace, understand psychology. Dr. Pinker EXTRACT categorically implies and infers EXTRACTs of profiling.

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EXTRACT 7 Elisabetta Povoledo The New York Times ROME — ELISABETTA POVOLEDO64 FEB. 9, 2018 under the caption She Won Italians’ Hearts. But Can She Win Their Votes? The Saturday Profile has asserted that Emma Bonino had wrapped up the keynote speech at a rally in a Rome convention center to begin her campaign for Parliament in Italy’s national elections on March 4, and the cheery, generic background music had just come on. At that, Ms. Bonino whirled around, grabbed the microphone and protested: “Play the Ninth. Find me Beethoven’s Ninth.”

64 https://www.nytimes.com/https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/09/world/europe/bonino-italy-election.html? r r e f = c o l l e c t i o n % 2 F c o l u m n % 2 F t h e - s a t u r d a y profile&action=click&contentCollection=world&region=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPla cement=5&pgtype=collection

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Moments of D.J. angst followed, but, finally, the last movement of the symphony — better known as “Ode to Joy” — boomed through the speakers. Her demand wasn’t simply a whim. “Ode to Joy” is also the anthem of the European Union, and Ms. Bonino has placed Italy’s commitment to the bloc at the center of her new political movement, which she has named “Più Europa,” or More Europe. After more than 40 years on the political scene, Ms. Bonino is one of Italy’s best-known female politicians. She made her name during decades of civil rights battles, protracted hunger strikes, headline-grabbing arrests and loud parliamentary debates in Rome and Brussels. In recent public opinion polls, her approval ratings have reached as high as 43 percent, second only to the prime minister, Paolo Gentiloni, and she is often mentioned as a candidate for Italy’s presidency. The country’s mostly male Parliament — which chooses the president — has repeatedly bypassed her for men. Page 75 ! of 250 !


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Yet that general aura of popularity around Ms. Bonino has not always translated into votes. Her Radical Party has traditionally hovered around what she calls “our beloved 2 percent” in election results, short of the 3 percent of the total vote now needed to merit a seat in Parliament. That has prompted her to adopt a new slogan: “Love Me Less, Vote Me More.” When asked why her vote totals have always lagged behind her popularity, Ms. Bonino sighed. “You need to ask an expert,” she said somewhat dispiritedly, during an interview in her cheery, book-filled attic apartment in central Rome. Some suggest it has something to do with the unpopular causes she has taken up.

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“That is my destiny, and the destiny of the Radicals,” Ms. Bonino said. “It’s to be unpopular at the beginning, become popular during the struggle and then be shoved aside at the end.”

I have chosen this approach/method since it allows me to analyse and frame this conversation thru “ IT'S The Lens” of a Media Arts Specialist ironically “IT'S The Lens” is the name of this text. Therefore, the underpinning of this conversation will be discussed figuratively, metaphorically, philosophically, and in a theoretical in context. Historically, crime and criminals have galvanized the attention of law-abiding citizens65. Whatever the reason, be it the romance of a Capone or a Dillinger, or the utter lack of any understanding of how or why criminals can do what they do, books, TV ,and movies flood the market with police and crime. 65 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23999_1___Psychological_Profiling.pdf

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Russell Vorpagel (1998),anex-FBI agent, speaks of his own contributions to the development of psychological profiling in the early years with the FBI. In his book, Profiles in Murder: An FBI Legend Dissects Killers and Their Crimes, he claims that he along with Ressler, Douglas, and others were, pioneers in the process of crime scene analysis. Further, Vorpagel states that he was instrumental in helping Detective Ray Biondi in Sacramento, California, with the Richard Trenton Chase murder case. Unfortunately, Vorpagel was not able to profile Chase’s suicide by pills while Chase was in Vacaville prison. Robert Ressler, another retired FBI agent, speaks of the same Richard Chase case in his book co-authored with Tom Shachtman, Whoever Fights Monsters (1992), but with only one line devoted to the help of Vorpagel in developing a separate profile, amazingly similar to Ressler’sown: “The fact that Chase so

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precisely fit the profile that I had drawn up in conjunction with Russ Vorpagel was gratifying to me ...” (p. 9). Ressler continues to mention other serial killers, such as Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, David Berkowitz, Edmund Kemper, Peter Sutcliffe, Jeffrey Dahmer, and mass killer Richard Speck. Unfortunately there is no mention of an interviewing methodology used in the meetings. Ressler has published another book with Shachtman entitled I Have Lived in the Monster: Inside the Minds of the World’s Most Notorious Serial Killers (1997). In this book, interesting stories abound that relate to Ressler’s work with many serial killers during his career in the FBI. Not to be outdone, John Douglas and his co-author Mark Olshaker wrote Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI’s Elite Serial Crime Unit (1995). In this book, Douglas lays claim to a friendship with Thomas Harris, the author of The Silence of the Lambs (1981), Red Dragon (1988), and Hannibal (1999). He takes the reader Page 79 ! of 250 !


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along the steps in his work in several major cases and the effects that the profiling work has on mind and health. The book jacket claims66 that he is the model for Jack Crawford in Harris’s book The Silence of the Lambs, a claim, however, that Harris denies (T. Harris, personal interview, June 20, 2000). The book jacket also says that Douglas has interviewed dozens of serial killers and assassins—including Richard Speck, Charles Manson, and James Earl Ray among them. He has published two other books, The Cases That Haunt Us: From Jack the Ripper to JonBenet Ramsey, the FBI’s Legenda.

66 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23999_1___Psychological_Profiling.pdf

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EXTRACT 8 Profiling: An Art, Not A Science Not everyone agrees that psychological profiling is of benefit to law enforcement (Jenkins, 1994). Indeed, not all crimes are suitable for the profiling process. While virtually any crime showing mental, emotional or personality aberration can be analyzed for profiling purposes, certain crimes are particularly appropriate for the process; these crimes include a series of rapes, serial murders, child molesting, ritualistic crimes, threat communications, violence in the workplace, and serial arson. (Hazelwood & Burgess, 1995, p. 12) Vernon Geberth, a retired homicide commander with the New York Police Department and author of many books dealing with homicide investigations, was in 1994 and still is being misquoted today as saying that he “was not aware of one serial murder case where a profile led to an arrest.” In a personal Page 81 ! of 250 !


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communication with Geberth, he said that the actual quote should be as follows: Criminal profiling is an excellent law enforcement tool. However, it is just one of the many tools and does not replace good investigative techniques. In fact, I don’t know of any profile in and by itself that has resulted in an actual arrest.” (V . Gerberth, personal communication, February 6, 1995) While there may be some truth to this criticism, it is reasonable to expect that the profiler’s years of education and training will be of value to law enforcement in its attempts to solve heinous and difficult crimes. But again, we agree with Geberth: By itself, a profile does not solve any crime. It is only one forensic tool of many that should be utilized in the investigation of a crime. There are a few discrete rules to adhere to in the profiling of a difficult criminal case. Of course, educated guesses are made. They are, however, aided by knowledge gained from the profiler’s experience in the criminal justice system and Page 82 ! of 250 !


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from his familiarity with relevant concepts in criminology, sociology, psychology, and psychiatry. In addition, the profiler is aided by an intuitive sense in the profiling process. That is, he develops a feel for the crime. This is the art dimension. Nonprofessional sources of information seldom have the mixture of competencies essential for efficient profiling. Psychological Profiling67 13 saying that he “was not aware of one serial murder case where a profile led to an arrest.” In a personal communication with Geberth, he said that the actual quote should be as follows: Criminal profiling is an excellent law enforcement tool. However, it is just one of many tools and does not replace good investigative techniques. In fact, I don’t know of any profile in and by itself that has resulted in an actual arrest.” (V . Gerberth, personal communication, February 6, 1995) 67 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23999_1___Psychological_Profiling.pdf

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While there may be some truth to this criticism, it is reasonable to expect that the profiler’s years of education and training will be of value to law enforcement in its attempts to solve heinous and difficult crimes. But again, we agree with Geberth: By itself, a profile does not solve any crime. It is only one forensic tool of many that should be utilized in the investigation of a crime. There are a few discrete rules to adhere to in the profiling of a difficult criminal case. Of course, educated guesses are made. They are, however, aided by knowledge gained from the profiler’s experience in the criminal justice system and from his familiarity with relevant concepts in criminology, sociology, psychology, and psychiatry. In addition, the profiler is aided by an intuitive sense in the profiling process. That is, he develops a feel for the crime. This is the art dimension. Nonprofessional sources of information seldom have the mixture of competencies essential for efficient profiling. Page 84 ! of 250 !


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The author has concluded that there are obvious cases that are more suitable and appropriate for psychological profiling68 than others. The role of the profiler, then, is to assist the police department in its investigations of the cases in which additional aid is sought for the successful resolution of a case, such as lust murder, rape, and the like. The successful profiler will blend his educational and training background to offer insight into the type of person who would commit the crime currently under investigation. It is, however, more than a simple list of suspected characteristics. The profiler will keep in mind his role in assisting the police by fulfilling fundamental processes in the profiling endeavor.

68 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23999_1___Psychological_Profiling.pdf

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The goals, then, are reached as much through education69 and training as they are through the acquired art of profiling itself. EILEEN O'CONNOR

has asserted that from the

university to Capitol Hill, from community workers to clinical psychologists70, "racial profiling is a problem all of us can have a role in solving," says symposium discussant Ellen Scrivner, PhD, deputy director at the U.S. Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing Services Office. "Racial profiling can't be solved in a vacuum," she says, "and thus we will have all facets of psychology and law enforcement at the table." Patient Profiling: Are You a Victim? Posted on January 21, 2014 by Pamela Wible MD

69 http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/23999_1___Psychological_Profiling.pdf 70 http://www.apa.org/monitor/may01/raceprofile.aspxPsychology responds to racial profiling More psychologists are utilizing their unique skills to help communities, law enforcement and government officials understand racial profiling. By EILEEN O'CONNOR Monitor Staff May 2001, Vol 32, No. 5

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Ever felt misjudged71 by a doctor? Or treated unfairly by a clinic or hospital? You may be a victim of patient profiling. Patient profiling is the practice of regarding particular patients as more likely to have certain behaviors or illnesses based on their appearance, race, gender, financial status, or other observable characteristics. Profiling disproportionately, impacts patients with chronic pain, mental illness, the uninsured, and patients of color. Like racial profiling by police, patient profiling by physicians is more common than you think. We rely on doctors to first do no harm–to safeguard our health–but profiling patients often leads to improper medical care, and distrust of physicians and the health care system, with potential lifelong consequences. For the first time, people share their stories.

71 http://www.idealmedicalcare.org/blog/patient-profiling-are-you-a-victim/

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Pamela Wible MD I’ve been a doctor for 20 years. I thought I’d seen it all. Drug addicts have altered my prescriptions, even forged my name. Patients have lied to me. Many haven’t followed my treatment plans. Some have died as a result. Still, I try to treat everyone fairly and with respect. But now I’m wondering, “Have I ever profiled a patient?” I bet I have. So on behalf of my colleagues and myself, I’ve got a message for any patient who has ever been misjudged or mistreated. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief EXTRACT of the content: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 78.1 (2004) 253-255

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RNA interference72 is thought to require near-identity between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) and its cognate mRNA. Here, we used gene expression profiling to characterize the specificity of gene silencing by siRNAs in cultured human cells. Transcript profiles revealed siRNA-specific rather than target-specific signatures, including direct silencing of nontargeted genes containing as few as eleven contiguous nucleotides of identity to the siRNA. These results demonstrate that siRNAs may cross-react with targets of limited sequence similarity.

The gravity of this theoretical statement has the tendency to evoke an intellectual consciousness, figuratively, metaphorically and philosophically within the minds of the populace. Importantly, this conversation certainly is predicated on the fact that all humanity has the ability to put a value on something

72 https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt831

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whether it is intrinsically or instrumentally” 73 Moreover, Rolston Holmes III made the telling point that Humans 74

are the

measures, the Valuers of Things, even when we measure what they are in themselves.”

The pertinent conversation which I wish to advance what is profiling in summary what does it mean to be profiled? My reasons for advancing the aforementioned conversation are because it has always pervaded my mind. It is for this reason that I have decided to advance such a conversation which is discussed in an academic cultural context. The gravity of this theoretical construct invariably has the tendency to stir up an intellectual consciousness, figuratively,

73 http://rhodes-enviroethics.wikidot.com/intrinsic-value Rolston, Holmes III. "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value." Environmental Ethics. Ed. Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III. Malden: Blackwell, 2003. 143-153.

74 http://rhodes-enviroethics.wikidot.com/intrinsic-value Rolston, Holmes III. "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value." Environmental Ethics. Ed. Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III. Malden: Blackwell, 2003. 143-153.

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metaphorically and philosophically within the minds of the populace. What is equally important the more that my life has sojourned here on earth I am still developing and growing. In this vein, I am beginning to think that consciously/unconsciously I have practiced profiling deliberately or not intentionally. May be all humanity is complicit in this regard. Importantly, profiling certainly is predicated on the fact that all humanity has the ability to put a value on something whether it is intrinsically or instrumentally�75 Rolston Holmes III It is because of the above reasons that the underpinning of my conversation discusses in context (a) human behaviour (b) as an uninformed, (c) the populace lives out their lives regarding any subject matter(d) how long they resided on this earth, (e) lived experiences and (f) academic exposure.

75 http://rhodes-enviroethics.wikidot.com/intrinsic-value Rolston, Holmes III. "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value." Environmental Ethics. Ed. Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III. Malden: Blackwell, 2003. 143-153.

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A case in point in this setting this state of consciousness which I am referring to seems to remain until the populace received that psychological 76 process namely understanding which takes place regarding the academic cultural cliché profile.

76 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Understanding

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EXTRACT9 Understanding Defined According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Understanding77 is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.

Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of understanding.

Understanding implies abilities and dispositions with respect to an object of knowledge that are sufficient to support

77 Bereiter, Carl. "Education and mind in the Knowledge Age".

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intelligent behaviour.

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Wikipedia explanation of understanding

certainly synchronizes my conversation. Since the aforementioned is deemed logical and has relevance I am motivated to unravel what it means to be profiled? Since it appears that the word profiled can be used interchangeably or in other words it can be implied or inferred. A case in point according to Rochel Leah Goldblatt, these women78, who all call Rockland home, often feel harshly judged and stereotyped. Instead of ignoring these feelings, they decided to confront them head on, asking their neighbors in the county to get to know them. "I see a lot of negativity about Jewish women," Grossman said. "Jews in general but a lot about Jewish women, how we're barefoot and pregnant in the kitchen, we're being abused, we can't do this, we can't do that, we can't go out, but we do." Grossman agreed to do this project to help change the perception of the Orthodox community in Rockland County. 78 Rochel Leah Goldblatt, rgoldblatt@lohud.com https://www.lohud.com/story/news/local/rockland/ 2018/03/09/5-jewish-women-orthodox-rockland/319005002/

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"Get to know us instead of just looking at us and passing judgment," she said. Feiner, a community activist, constantly puts herself in the public eye in order to educate people about the Jewish community. 79 When we examined in context Rochel Leah Goldblatt expressions it is evident that the Orthodox community in Rockland County has the profile experienced.

Adam Darby- Google engineer80 says women are paid less because of biological differences, ignites firestorm. It argues that differences in pay between men and women in the technology sector are not entirely related to bias against women, but are partly attributable to biological differences between the genders,

79 https://www.lohud.com/story/news/local/rockland/2018/03/09/5-jewish-women-orthodox-rockland/ 319005002/

80 adarby@kcstar.com http://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/national/article165736682.html

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CNBC reports. It also called on Google to “stop alienating conservatives” and calls into question practices like “unconscious bias” training for committees that promote employees. “Women, on average, have more openness directed towards feelings and aesthetics rather than ideas. Women generally also have a stronger interest in people rather than things, relative to men.” He states that women tend to be more interested in people rather than things, “Empathizing vs. systemizing,” whereas men have a higher drive for status and so tend to end up in leadership positions. Adam Darby also says that on average, women have more “neuroticism,” as defined as “higher anxiety, lower stress tolerance.” Outrage from within and outside the company was swift, with #GoogleManifesto trending on Twitter. Adam Darby article suggest that profiling has taken place.

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EXTRACT 10 How Does An Individual Profile Dr Kumar Mahabir in a researched paper asserts that in a CLR James films show how Whites collude with Blacks to exclude Indians has stated on Tuesday, June 20, 2017 19 Comments that In my view 81, whites have colluded with Blacks/ Africans in Trinidad and elsewhere to exclude or marginalize Indians in advertisements in the print and electronic media, the Caribbean Examinations Council's CSEC and CAPE syllabi, the Bocas Literary Festival, and in many other areas that should be empirically and statistically investigated 82. In her research paper entitled “The Representation of Indians in the Education System of Trinidad and Tobago, 1845-1980,” historian Dr Sherry-Ann Singh commented on the 81 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/opinion/clr-james-films-show-how-whites-collude-with-blacks-to-excludeindians_102397?profile=1096

82 CLR James films show how Whites collude with Blacks to exclude Indians Dr Kumar Mahabir Tuesday, June 20, 2017 19 Comments

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representation of Indians in textbooks for primary school children. She wrote that these textbooks, written by whites, included “many African Anansi folk tales, illustrations and pictures of African orientation, references to local creole food and practices. Neither Indian names nor characters were employed in any of the general illustrations. The very sparse inclusion of Indians both stereotyped and clearly situated Indians as the proverbial 'other' in the society …” These examples of Black-White collusion against Indians can be explained by orientalism and post-colonial theories. Sharing similar western and Christian cultural traits, Blacks have found common ground with whites and off-whites – the French Creoles and Syrians in Trinidad, and the Portuguese in Guyana. Both groups see (East) Indians/Asians as the “Other” because they belong to a Hindu and Muslim Indian cultural tradition, indicated at least by their last name. Despite class and Page 98 ! of 250 !


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religious differences among Indians, Orientalism theory explains why the Black-White alliance views Indians as a “homogeneous cultural entity”. An analysis of Dr Kumar Mahabir’s researched paper seems to be suggesting that profiling did took place.

According to

orientalism and post-colonialism theories - first conceptualised by Edward Said and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak respectively — the Western world has developed a thought system that treats nonChristian culture as backward, exotic, uncivilised and inferior. In some societies, minority White elites have used Blacks against Indians to retain economic dominance through the political strategy of divide and rule. The powerful White elites in Trinidad fear the threat of Indians to their control and supremacy in business, international trade, the professions and education. Blacks are more likely to embrace Whites than Indians, which can be explained by Frantz Fanon in his seminal book, White Skin Black Masks (1952). Having lost most of their culture Page 99 ! of 250 !


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and religion through slavery, Blacks have tried to appropriate, imitate and adapt the culture, religion and behavior of their former colonisers. Dr Kumar Mahabir, PhD Anthropology, University of Florida and MPhil, BA Literatures in English, University of the West Indies is the 2011 National Award (Silver) recipient for education and a former Organization of American States (OAS) Fellow. He lives in Trinidad and Tobago and can be reached at dmahabir@gmail.com

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EXTRACT 11

From time to time the question/thought that passes through my mind do people ever tell any person the real reason why they practice profiling?

The reality is there is that that distinct

possibility that most people may only say what the position is unless it is useful to do so. In light of the aforementioned view there is that distinct possibility that some employers may embraced the Machiavellians83 theory within the work environment. Machiavellian84 in the workplace is the employment of cunning and duplicity in a business setting. It is an increasingly studied phenomenon. The root of the concept of Machiavellian 83 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

84 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

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is the book The Prince by Machiavelli which lays out advice to rulers how to govern their subjects. In summary Machiavellian85 has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with manipulative leadership, and morally bankrupt tactics. It has in recent times been adapted and applied to the context of the workplace and organizations by many writers and academics. The Machiavellian typically only manipulates on occasions where it is necessary to achieve the required objectives. Oliver James identifies Machiavellian 86 as one of the dark triadic personality traits in the workplace, the others being narcissism and psychopathy.

85 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

86 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

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Oliver James identifies Machiavellianism87 as a new model of Machiavellianism based in organizational settings which consists of three factors namely maintaining power, harsh management tactics, and manipulative behaviors. In context I would like to borrow one of the three concept phrases from a new model of Machiavellianism since it based in organizational settings that consists of three factors namely maintaining power, harsh management, and tactics manipulative behaviors. One of the tenets of the Machiavellianism organizational settings namely maintaining power when examined in the context of profiling it is clear that Activity without direction or purpose is simply motion. According to Charles D. Kerns, Phd, MBA

in his 2001

Volume 4 Issue 1 titled The Power of Performance88 No more. 87 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

88 https://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2001/08/the-power-of-performance-profiling/ Charles D. Kerns, Phd, MBA 2001 Volume4 Issue 1 titled The Power of Performance

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No less. Traditional job descriptions focus on activity. It is far better to throw out your activity-based job descriptions and replace them with performance profiles that focus on results – not activity. According to Kerns The Power of Performance89 Profiling has advocated that there are eight good reasons to concentrate on results.

This call for performance profiling goes out to all

organizations wanting to improve their results by better defining the work that needs to be done. It is useful for organizations in any stage – from entrepreneurial ventures to large, hierarchical organizations. Performance profiling can even be used to improve innovation and cross-functional teamwork. This is a proven way to enhance outcome metrics like sales and profitability. If your organization does not have a formal index of its various positions, the first step in building a performance-based 89 https://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2001/08/the-power-of-performance-profiling/ Charles D. Kerns, Phd, MBA 2001 Volume4 Issue 1 titled The Power of Performance

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organization can be to adapt the powerful performance profile process, from top to bottom.

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EXTRACT 12 How To Create A Character Profile

The Lazy Scholar explained How to Create a Character Profile in The Internet Writing Journal, June 1998 Category: Fiction Writing. Character profiles 90 are useful when writing in any genre. Depending on the genre in which you write, you will create additional sections on the Character Profile Worksheet. For example, fantasy writers can use the character profiles to keep track of factors such as magical abilities, family lineage, spells the character is under, and limitations on the character's power to ensure continuity in the action.

90 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986

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For literary91 and mainstream novels, profiles are especially useful for keeping in mind motivations of the character -- hurts and disappointments in the past which may not be alluded to directly in the dialogue, but which nevertheless color everything the character thinks and feels. For example, someone who was abused as a child will most likely react differently92 in certain situations than someone who had a happy, loving childhood. A Character Profile93 is also of great help during the rewrite stage of your novel. You can use the profile to ensure continuity in the character's actions. For example, if in draft 1 your heroine is just recovering from a nasty divorce and in draft 2 you've decided to make her a happily married mother of three, you will know to check every scene with dialogue about her marital status

91 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986 92 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986 93 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986

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as well as scenes where the (now non-existent) dastardly exhusband is mentioned.

If you change an attribute of your character, be sure to update your Character Profile Worksheet 94 right away. Obviously, a character can develop over the course of the novel. The Worksheet provides a place for you to note that fact so that when you read over your final draft you can see if you achieved your particular character development goal for that character.

A Character Profile95 is just meant to be a guide where you can list facts and details to help you get to know your characters, especially if you get stuck on one character who doesn't quite seem real.

94 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986 95 https://www.writerswrite.com/journal/jun98/how-to-create-a-character-profile-6986

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Maybe he needs a new characteristic -- a hidden trauma, a fabulous skill or a deadly secret -- something that will make the character come alive for you. How detailed you want your character worksheets to be just depends on what works best for you. So, next time you're stuck on characterization, pull out the Character Profile Worksheet and get to know someone new. Character Profile Worksheet96 Basic Statistics Name: Age: Nationality: Socioeconomic Level as a child: Socioeconomic Level as an adult: Hometown:

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Current Residence: Occupation: Income: Talents/Skills: Salary: Birth order: Siblings (describe relationship): Spouse (describe relationship): Children (describe relationship): Grandparents (describe relationship): Grandchildren (describe relationship): Significant Others (describe relationship): Relationship skills: Physical Characteristics: Page 110 ! of !250

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Height: Weight: Race: Eye Color: Hair Color: Glasses or contact lenses? Skin color: Shape of Face: Distinguishing features: How does he/she dress? Mannerisms: Habits: (smoking, drinking etc.) Health: Hobbies: Page 111 ! of 250 !


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Favorite Sayings: Speech patterns: Disabilities: Style (Elegant, shabby etc.): Greatest flaw: Best quality: Intellectual/Mental/Personality Attributes and Attitudes

Educational Background: Intelligence Level: Any Mental Illnesses? Learning Experiences: Character's short-term goals in life: Character's long-term goals in life: Page 112 ! of !250


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How does Character see himself/herself ? How does Character believe he/she is perceived by others? How self-confident is the character? Does the character seem ruled by emotion or logic or some combination thereof ? What would most embarrass this character? Emotional Characteristics Strengths/Weaknesses: Introvert or Extrovert? How does the character deal with anger? With sadness? With conflict? With change? With loss? Page 113 ! of !250


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What does the character want out of life? What would the character like to change in his/her life? What motivates this character? What frightens this character? What makes this character happy? Is the character judgmental of others? Is the character generous or stingy? Is the character generally polite or rude? Spiritual Characteristics Does the character believe in God? What are the character's spiritual beliefs? Is religion or spirituality a part of this character's life? If so, what role does it play? How the Character is Involved in the Story Page 114 ! of !250


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Character's role in the novel (main character? hero? heroine? Romantic interest? etc.): Scene where character first appears: Relationships with other characters: 1. Character's Name: -- (Describe relationship with this character and changes to relationship over the course of the novel). 2. Character's Name: -- (Describe relationship with this character and changes to relationship over the course of the novel). 3. Character's Name: -- (Describe relationship with this character and changes to relationship over the course of the novel). 4. Character's Name: -- (Describe relationship with this character and changes to relationship over the course of the novel). Page 115 ! of !250


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EXTRACT 13 Why The Populace Wants To Profile Have the thought ever arise in your mind why the populace wants to profile. Presumably it is an innate thing that all human beings consciously or unconsciously display. For the record I am not trained psychologist but I have pursued three credits of social psychology during my academic career at New Jersey City University therefore I am unable to speak with any authority as to whether profiling is innate behaviour or not. However what I can categorically state that I have traveled extensively to Baltimore, Canada, Cartagena, Toulon France, Barcelona Spain, Florence-Pisa, Genoa, Gibraltar, Italy, Colonna Pennsylvania, Pisa, Rome, Martinique, Mediterranean, Nevis-, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and United States of America. Page 116 ! of !250


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During my tenure occupying these spaces

and I have

observed that all of the people who occupy all of the various classes, creeds, cultures, identities, races, and ethnicities and backgrounds displayed some measure of profiling. According to Wikihow97

People try to understand the

thinking of people, the way they behave themselves and act the way they do, it appears that profiling is a key skill to learn. Wikihow has asserted that you Pause98 the world around you and watch others. Many people travel to get from Point A to Point B, but have you really paid attention to them in greater detail? Seeing beyond what you see, so to speak. Are there levels of profiling? Are there stages of profiling? Are there phases of profiling?

97 https://www.wikihow.com/Profile-People 98 https://www.wikihow.com/Profile-People

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Can Profiling be weaponized? Who benefits as a result of profiling Is profiling inherent Is profiling necessary Does Humans profile each other? At what point does profiling begin Can profiling protect a company furthermore people Are cultures profiled? Where does profiling come from? Who started profiling? Is profiling essential Does the bible support profiling Should profiling be standardized? Is profiling a subculture Page 118 ! of !250


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Is profiling a lived experienced

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EXTRACT 14 Theory and Racial Profiling Perhaps the Machiavellianism99 theory and the Theory and racial profiling may be extricable linked. A case in point Theory and racial profiling: Shortcomings and future directions in research The volatile political environment that surrounds the issue of “racial profiling”

100has

led local and state police agencies

across the nation to start collecting information about traffic and pedestrian stops.

99 Kessler, SR; Bandeiii, AC; Spector, PE; Borman, WC; Nelson, CE; and Penney, LM 2010. Reexamining Machiavelli: A three dimensional model of Machiavellianism in the workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 1868–1896 James O Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks (2013)

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The controversy over this issue is overwhelmed by the unsupported assumption that all race based decision making by police officers is motivated by individual police officers’ racial prejudice. This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions. Using the conceptual framework for police research presented by Bernard and Engel, it reviews a number of theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops. The authors argue that to explain police behavior better, theoretical models must guide future data collection efforts.

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EXTRACT 15 Discussion Current research on racial profiling101 has suggested that in some jurisdictions, officers disproportionately stop nonwhite citizens. Some studies have characterized these stops as discrimination, while others have only acknowledged that a disparity exists and correctly noted that inferences as to the cause of the disparity cannot be appropriately made with the data available. Unfortunately, the current research on differential stop patterns by police officers has not taken us much beyond early systematic observational research of the 1960s-70s that suggested that officers’ discretionary decision making differed for white and nonwhite citizens (Black, 1980; Sherman, 1980). Indeed, we have not advanced much beyond Boydstun’s (1975) report on field 101 https://cjonline.uc.edu/resources/criminal-justice-research/theory-and-racial-profiling-shortcomings-and-futuredirections-in-research/

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interrogation stops by the police in San Diego in 1975, which found that minority citizens102 were stopped by the police disproportionately to their population in the community. One reason for. this failure to progress is the absence of explicitly stated theories in studies of racial profiling. Although it is clear that these studies have operated under the implicit theory of the prescriptive ideal, confusion arises because the underlying theory and resulting specific hypotheses are not explicitly stated. As a result, the literature103 on racial profiling is misleading, fails to include crucial explanatory variables, and provides a limited understanding of the phenomenon. Accordingly, no firm policy implications can be derived from this research.

102 https://cjonline.uc.edu/resources/criminal-justice-research/theory-and-racial-profiling-shortcomings-and-futuredirections-in-research/

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Once researchers104 properly utilize theoretical frameworks and conduct their studies at one of the levels of analysis described by Bernard and Engel (2001), clearer policy implications will result. For example, examinations of individual officers’ decision making that test specific hypotheses generated from theoretical frameworks may suggest that recruitment and hiring procedures should be more stringent; similarly, racial sensitivity training should be mandatory for all officers. In contrast, examining race based decision making at the departmental level may suggest that corrective policies be implemented through changes to the department’s rewards and incentives structure, supervisory styles, and other formal organizational policies. Finally, examining race-based decision making105 at the aggregate level returns us to the broader issue of the prescriptive 104 https://cjonline.uc.edu/resources/criminal-justice-research/theory-and-racial-profiling-shortcomings-and-futuredirections-in-research/

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ideal in criminal justice research. That is, we have argued that the underlying theory guiding racial profiling research is implicit rather than explicit. Thus, it is implied that the disproportionality in aggregate rates of traffic and field stop dispositions is due to officers making decisions based on citizens’ race, which is troublesome because of the underlying prescriptive ideal in criminal justice research (i.e., what ought to be, as opposed to what actually is). This issue of the prescriptive ideal in racial profiling106 needs to be explicitly addressed. The prescriptive ideal currently suggests the total eradication of the racial prejudice of individual police officers in decision making. But beyond this are much more complicated questions about “what ought to be.” For example, George Kelling, a leading criminal justice scholar (quoted in Herszenhorn, 2000. p. 41), raised the issue of departmental policies concerning race-based stops for gun searches and seizures in Newark, New Jersey: “`The good news is 106 Et al

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the Portuguese aren’t shooting each other,’ he said. ‘Unfortunately, the African-Americans107 are. If I’m going to go looking for guns, am I going to look in the Ironbound?’ he asked, referring to a predominantly Portuguese neighborhood in Newark. `Now,’ he asked, `is that racial profiling or is that good planning?’” By opposing “racial profiling” with “good planning,” Kelling essentially asked whether this practice is “bad” or “good.” That is, he raised a complex argument about appropriate police practices: Assuming the accuracy of the factual basis of the policy (i.e., that blacks are shooting each other, but the Portuguese are not), should police use explicitly race-based policies or not? Given the catastrophic events of September 11, 2001, our society will be entering a new collective dialogue regarding the proper balance between individual rights and societal protection.

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Racial and ethnic profiling by law enforcement will undoubtedly be at the forefront of that discussion. The complex issue raised by Kelling108-of whether certain forms of profiling are simply “good planning”-will also be at the heart of the debate. Public opinion polls conducted after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon suggest that the public’s perception of “what ought to be” in regard to law enforcement and security have dramatically changed (Gallup News Service, 2001). While our politicians and policy makers struggle to maintain the delicate balance between preserving individual rights and maintaining public security, the debate will continue regarding where that line should be drawn. In this vein, researchers need to conduct theoretically guided, methodologically sound inquiries that generate reliable findings to better inform policy. It is only

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when we seek to explain officers’ behavior that we may then take steps to control it. Note, however, that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 nullified many of these laws that were based on racial discrimination and prejudice. Spitzer109 (1999), however, examined pedestrian stops, rather than traffic stops. 3 While the theory of reasoned action argues that attitudes influence behavior indirectly through intentions, empirical research has suggested that the role of intentions varies across situations. In stressful situations or those that require a more immediate response, the formation of intentions is likely to be less (Bagozzi & Yi, 1989; Liska, 1984). Bagozzi and Yi found that the mediating role of intentions was reduced when intentions were poorly

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formed, resulting in a stronger direct relationship between attitudes and behavior. Applying this theory to the police, one could argue that many of the situations officers handle are stressful and require immediate decision making (Bittner, 1970). Therefore, one might expect officers’ intentions to be poorly formed, leading to a stronger direct relationship between attitudes and behavior. 4 Black110 (1976) defined stratification as “any uneven distribution of the material conditions of existence” (p. 11); morphology as the “distribution of people in relation to one another” (p. 37); culture as “the symbolic aspect of social life, including expressions of what is true, good, and beautiful” (p. 61); organization as “the corporate aspect of social life, the capacity for collective action” (p. 85); and social control as “the normative aspect of social life” (p. 105).

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* A previous version of this article was presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Washington, DC, April 2001. Address all correspondence to Robin Shepard Engel, Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210389, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0309; e-mail: robin.engel@ uc.edu. Robin Shepard Engel,

111

Ph.D., is associate professor of

criminal justice at the University of Cincinnati and received her Ph.D. in criminal justice from the University at Albany. Her research includes theoretical and empirical explorations of police supervision, patrol ofcers’ behavior, police response toward problem citizens, and criminal justice theory more generally. She is currently engaged in the collection and analysis of policecitizen contact data during all traffic stops for the Pennsylvania State Police. Recent articles have appeared in Criminology, Justice

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Quarterly, Crime and Delinquency, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. *** Jennifer M. Calnon, M.A., is a graduate research assistant in crime, law, and justice at the Pennsylvania State University. Her research interests include patrol officers’ decision making, the role of race in the criminal justice system, and intimate partner violence. She recently completed thesis research that examines the help-seeking behavior of victims of domestic violence. Thomas J. Bernard112, Ph.D., is professor of criminal justice and sociology at the Pennsylvania State University. Most of his writings are in the areas of criminological theory and juvenile justice. He is currently focusing on criminal justice theory.

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EXTRACT 16 What Does Data Profiling Mean? Data profiling113 is a technique used to examine data for different purposes like determining accuracy and completeness. This process examines a data source such as a database to uncover the erroneous areas in data organization. Deployment of this technique improves data quality. Data profiling is also referred to as data discovery. Techopedia explains Data Profiling Data profiling is the method of examining the data available in a data source and collecting statistics and information about that data. Such statistics help to identify the use and data quality of metadata. This method is widely used in enterprise data warehousing.

113 https://www.techopedia.com/definition/25986/data-profiling

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Data profiling clarifies the structure, relationship, content and derivation rules of data, which aid in the understanding of anomalies within metadata. Data profiling uses different kinds of descriptive statistics including mean, minimum, maximum, percentile, frequency and other aggregates such as count and sum. The additional metadata information obtained during profiling is data type, length, discrete values, uniqueness and abstract type recognition.

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EXTRACT 17 Language Profiling Alt-Right LIAM STACKAUG. 15, 2017 has asserted that the “altright” is a racist,114 far-right movement based on an ideology of white nationalism and anti-Semitism. Many news organizations do not use the term, preferring terms like “white nationalism” and “far right.” Alt-Light The “alt-light” comprises members of the far right who once fell under the “alt-right” umbrella but have since split from the group because, by and large, racism and anti-Semitism are not central to its far-right nationalist views, according to Ryan Lenz, the editor of Hatewatch, a publication of the Southern Poverty

114 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/15/us/politics/alt-left-alt-right-glossary.html Politics Alt-Right, Alt-Left, Antifa: A Glossary of Extremist Language 查看简体中⽂版 查看繁體中⽂版 By LIAM STACKAUG. 15, 2017

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Law Center. Members of the alt-right mocked these dissidents as “the alt-light.” Antifa “Antifa” is a contraction of the word “anti-fascist.” It was coined in Germany in the 1960s and 1970s by a network of groups that spread across Europe to confront right-wing extremists, according to Mr. Pitcavage. A similar movement was seen in the 1980s in the United States and has re-emerged recently as the “alt-right” has risen to prominence. For some so-called antifa members, the goal is to physically confront white supremacists. “If they can get at them, to assault them and engage in street fighting,” Mr. Pitcavage said. Mr. Lenz, at the Southern Poverty Law Center, called the group “an old leftwing extremist movement.” Cuck “Cuck” is an insult used by the “alt-right” to attack the masculinity of an opponent, originally other conservatives, whom the movement deemed insufficiently committed to racism and anti-Semitism. S.J.W. Page 135 ! of 250 !


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S.J.W. is short for “social justice warrior” and is used by the right as an epithet for someone who advocates liberal causes like feminism, racial justice or gay and transgender rights. It is also sometimes used to imply that a person’s online advocacy of a cause is insincere or done for appearances. It became widely used during “GamerGate,” a controversy that began in 2014 over sexism in video game subcultures. Blood and Soil Video taken at the white supremacist rally in Charlottesville on Saturday showed marchers chanting “blood and soil.” The phrase is a 19th-century German nationalist term that connotes a mystical bond between the blood of an ethnic group and the soil of their country. It was used as a Nazi slogan in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s and since then “has been transported to neo-Nazi groups and other white supremacists around the world,” Mr.

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Pitcavage said. It is one of several Nazi symbols that have been adopted as a slogan by some members of the “alt-right.” Globalism Globalism is sometimes used as a synonym for globalization, the network of economic interconnection that became the dominant international system after the Cold War. The word has become more commonly used since Mr. Trump railed against globalism frequently on the campaign trail.

White Genocide White genocide is a white nationalist belief that white people, as a race, are endangered and face extinction as a result of nonwhite immigration and marriage between the races, a process being manipulated by Jews, according to Mr. Lenz. It is the underlying concept behind far-right, anti-immigration arguments, especially those aimed at immigrants who are not white Christians Page 137 ! of 250 !


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Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia highlights the fact that Linguistic profiling115 is the practice of identifying the social characteristics of an individual based on auditory cues, in particular dialect and accent. The theory was first developed by Professor John Baugh to explain discriminatory practices in the housing market based on the auditory redlining of prospective clientele by housing administrators. Linguistic profiling extends to issues of legal proceedings, employment opportunities, and education. The theory is frequently described as the auditory equivalent of racial profiling. The bulk of the research and evidence in support of the theory pertain to racial and ethnic distinctions, though its applicability holds within racial or ethnic groups, perceived gender and sexual orientation, and in distinguishing location of geographic origin.

115 Van Halteren, Hans (2004). "Linguistic profiling for author recognition and verification". Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics – ACL '04. p. 199. doi:10.3115/1218955.1218981. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

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Baugh's theory116 is distinct from linguistic profiling as defined by Hans van Halteren from the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. Van Halteren's theory deals with the categorization of linguistic features for the purposes of author identification and verification from a text, not necessarily specifically addressing the socially defined categories within which they are included Discrimination An important distinction exists between the many uses of linguistic profiling 117 and the potential for discriminatory treatment. The power to determine origin or racial identity based on speech can be utilized without overt discrimination, as argued in several court cases where voice was used in the prosecution of a suspect. The negative effects of linguistic profiling are seen in the

116 Van Halteren, Hans (2004). "Linguistic profiling for author recognition and verification". Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics – ACL '04. p. 199. doi:10.3115/1218955.1218981. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

117 Van Halteren, Hans (2004). "Linguistic profiling for author recognition and verification". Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics – ACL '04. p. 199. doi:10.3115/1218955.1218981. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

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practice of denying housing or employment based on stereotypes associated with dialect and/or accent. Further negative practices are associated with education and general treatment of individuals speaking stigmatized dialects.118 A more positive view of the practice is found in Baugh's description of expressions of ethnic pride119. Though average people have been shown to be well equipped in measuring social characteristics by means of speech, the failings of those unfamiliar with a speech community and the capability of manipulation of speech should be taken into account when determining the unbiased use of linguistic profiling.120

118 Alim, Samy H (2005). "Critical Language Awareness in the United States: Revisiting Issues and Revising

Pedagogies in a Resegregated Society". Educational Researcher. 34 (7): 24–31. doi:10.3102/0013189X034007024.

119 Baugh, John, Linguistic Profiling, in Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas 155, 155-63 (Sinfree Makoni et al. eds., 2003).

120 Salaberry, M. Rafael. Language allegiances and bilingualism in the US. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2009. ISBN 978-1847691774https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

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EXTRACT 18 Linguistic Profiling Primary education Linguistic profiling is also evident in education. Michael Sheperd’s study on teacher's perceptions of student responses compares how favorably teachers from the Los Angeles area viewed a response with the race and gender of the student speaker. Students were grouped based on white or minority and male or female. Teachers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds tended to view responses attributed to white females as being most favorable, followed by white boys, then minority girls. Students who were perceived as minority boys were ranked least favorably. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that Black and Hispanic teachers tended to rank responses given by minority boys, minority girls, and white boys, significantly lower than other teachers. While indicative of on overall stigmatization of boys, the Page 141 ! of 250 !


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study also provides evidence that the negative associations with minority students (who are identified through linguistic profiling) are held by members of all racial groups121. Higher education In higher education, linguistic profiling has been found to impede student comprehension. In a 1992 study, D. Rubin found that undergraduate university students would comprehend material more poorly if they heard a non-accented lecture presented with a picture of an Asian female. When the same non-accented lecture was presented with a European American teaching assistant, students had a greater ability to comprehend the material. This suggests that face identification may be enough to make students believe that language performance will be accented, which corresponded with a belief that comprehension would be reduced.122 121 Shepherd, Michael A (2011). "Effects of Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Evaluation of Students' Spoken Responses". Urban Education. 46 (5): 1011. doi:10.1177/0042085911400325. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Linguistic_profiling

122 Salaberry, M. Rafael. Language allegiances and bilingualism in the US. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2009. ISBN 978-1847691774https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

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Gender and sexual orientation Linguistic profiling also applies to gender and sexual orientation. Munson conducted a study in which naïve listeners were asked to distinguish between heterosexual male and female speakers, and gay male and bisexual or lesbian female speakers. He found that listeners tended to classify male and female speakers by masculinity and femininity, respectively; male speakers were perceived as gay if they sounded less masculine, while female speakers were identified as bisexual or lesbian if they sounded less feminine.123

123 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_profiling

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EXTRACT 19 Camera profiling Profiling is used in an abstract way. Neil Barstow made the claim that an ICC input profile, a camera profile or scanner profile is used by colour management savvy software such as Photoshop to adapt incoming images on the basis of accurate assessment of the input device's characteristics.

Big advances in the colour management124 targets and camera profiling software mean that the accuracy of reproduction of colour and tone using digital cameras can sometimes be significantly improved. Why? In many cases, in what seems to be an attempt to appeal to the majority of buyers, the camera manufacturer's

124 http://www.colourmanagement.net/services/camera-profiling-and-scanner-profiling http:// www.colourmanagement.net/

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engineers have apparently "optimised" their capture process to give, automatically and without user approval, what might simply be called "pretty pictures". To achieve this, contrast may have been enhanced, colour saturation boosted, even colour balance adjusted. This is, perhaps, useful for someone working fast with, say, people photography, where processing time is limited and where decent acceptable results are needed immediately, but, when accuracy is required rather than decent and acceptable, especially if, say, products or garments are included in an image, then this default optimisation can be way less than ideal. Unfortunately, industry feedback shows that, for many, buying consumer level input profiling gear and trying to optimise the system can be a good route to disappointment, especially if accuracy is the goal rather than "pleasing images". My experience with a number of fine art reproduction specialists including Christie's the auctioneers [report here] means that I can advise on the process and even come in and help get your own system sorted. Please click here to email for more information. Page 145 ! of 250 !


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Scanner profiling Neil Barstow further added that As well as a service to provide scanner set-up (optimisation of scanner settings) and ICC scanner profiling on site, I also offer a remote scanner profiling service using high-end input profiling software. This work is really best done working on site, perhaps as part of training in scanning techniques, because, like cameras, scanner software can include "optimisation" settings which can be less than ideal for "accurate" workflow. However, if you are familiar with your scanner and have some idea how to get the most out of it, as well as how to avoid any auto-corrections during scanning, I can make you an input profile remotely. Unfortunately, since the targets I need to scan are pretty fragile and very expensive, I can't let mine out on loan - So, the remote profiling service normally involves you purchasing a scanner target. Please click here for info about the Hutchcolor targets. (As an example, the 35mm transparency HCT is about 180 Page 146 ! of 250 !


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UK-Pounds.) A good scanner target is not a one use per year item, it's a pretty useful tool to have around to keep tabs on scanner performance. I prefer the Hutchcolor targets for optimal scanner profiling but there are also less sophisticated targets from others at lower prices. My remote scanner profiling125 service may sometimes require a bit of phone support time to help in scanner set-up as well (perhaps one or two x 15 minute sessions) just so you learn how to get your scanner settings right - for the ultimate results from your images using the profile. The process may also be iterative, step-by-step requiring more than one profile to be made. Actually making the profile is pretty easy - it's the analysis of the scanned target as well as the profile and results, plus setting up of your scanner that takes the experience, so, of course I offer help with this on the phone.

125 http://www.colourmanagement.net/services/camera-profiling-and-scanner-profiling http:// www.colourmanagement.net/

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Richard Harold has argued from a philosophical perspective that a large number of companies and individuals, from a variety of industries, participated in the development of the ICC specification which is designed to provide developers and other interested parties with a clear description of the profile format. A nominal understanding of color science is assumed, such as familiarity with the CIELAB color space, general knowledge of device characterizations, and familiarity of at least one operating system level color management system. For those who require further background information on colorimetry, refer to An Introduction to Appearance Analysis"

Profile connection space (PCS) Harold further argued that A key component of the specification126 is a well-defined profile connection space. This

126 http://www.color.org/profile.xalter Richard Harold

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standard color space is the interface which provides an unambiguous connection between the input and output profiles as illustrated in the diagram below. It allows the profile transforms for input, display, and output devices to be decoupled so that they can be produced independently. A well-defined PCS provides the common interface for the individual device profiles. It is the virtual destination for input transforms and the virtual source for output transforms. If the input and output transforms are based on the same PCS definition, even though they are created independently, they can be paired arbitrarily at run time by the color-management engine (CMM) and will yield consistent and predictable results when applied to color values. The profile connection space is based on the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer. This experimentally derived standard observer provides a very good representation of the human visual system color matching capabilities. Unlike device dependent color spaces, if two colors have the same CIE Page 149 ! of 250 !


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colorimetry they will match if viewed under the same conditions as those defined for the colorimetry. Because images are typically produced for a wide variety of viewing environments, it is necessary to go beyond simple application of the CIE system. The profile connection space is defined as the CIE colorimetry which, in the case of the perceptual rendering intent (defined later), will produce the desired color appearance if rendered on a reference imaging media and viewed in a reference viewing environment. This reference corresponds to an ideal reflection print viewed in a standard viewing booth conforming to ISO standard viewing conditions. The default measurement parameters for the profile connection space and all other color spaces defined in this specification are based on the ISO 13655 standard, "Graphic technology - Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images."

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Essentially this defines a standard illuminant of D50, the 1931 CIE standard colorimetric observer, and 0° /45° or 45° /0° measurement geometry measured with a black backing behind the print for the reflectance measurements. The reference viewing condition is that defined in ISO 3664 as viewing condition P2 using the recommended 20% surround reflectance. This is a graphics arts and photography print viewing environment with a D50 illumination level of 500 lux. One of the first steps in profile building involves measuring a set of colors from some imaging media or display. If the imaging media or viewing environment differ from the reference, it will be necessary to adapt the colorimetric data to that appropriate for the profile connection space. These adaptations account for such differences as white point chromaticity and luminance relative to an ideal reflector, maximum density, viewing surround, viewing illuminant, and flare. Currently, it is the responsibility of the profile builder to do this adaptation. However, the possibility of Page 151 ! of 250 !


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allowing a variable illuminant in the PCS is under active consideration by the International Color Consortium.

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EXTRACT 20 Is Patient Profiling Essential to Care? Letter to the Editor: Is Patient Profiling Essential to Care? Emergency Medicine News: August 2014 - Volume 36 Issue 8 - p 4,18–18 doi: 10.1097/01.EEM.0000453173.56567.47 Letter to the Editor Editor: I read Dr. Thomas Cook's column127, and I think profiling is information for patient care, and consistency in care for all patients is mandatory. (“Patient Profiling [and Why You Need to Do it],” EMN 2014;36[6]:14; http://bit.ly/1jOzPTw.) Emergency physicians have to continually fight innate prejudices that act as barriers to decision-making. In the end, EPs are people who are practicing medicine. They make decisions with a personal taint.

127 https://journals.lww.com/em-news/fulltext/2014/08000/Letter_to_the_Editor__Is_Patient_Profiling.19.aspx https://journals.lww.com/em-news/fulltext/2014/08000/Letter_to_the_Editor__Is_Patient_Profiling.19.aspx#

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Balancing history, exam, data, knowledge, and feelings determines a physician's success.

Elliott Wentz, MD Greensboro, NC Dr. Cook responds: Thanks for your reply. As you likely know, one of the axioms of writing columns is to have a title that gets people to read it. Profiling128 is a hot topic right now, and hopefully the headline enticed some readers to read the column. The point, though, was to help residents and other physicians that the social history of ED patients is critical to understanding how we should care for them. All too often I ask residents about the patient's social status, and they respond with “I don't know” or a blank stare. As you might recall from the column, the disheveled elderly patient in pajamas was, in fact, an accomplished person, and

128

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understanding this was crucial to caring for him in the best way possible. I also recounted the ED visit of a day laborer with a hand-to-mouth lifestyle similar to my own before medical school. The physician has to understand this to do right by the patient. The lynchpin of the column was that EPs work in an environment where efficiency is a huge element of success for us and our patients. Understanding what a person does for a living (or did before retirement, unemployment, etc.) is a great way to understand how to speak his language, but it should not be interpreted as an option for providing a different level of care. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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EXTRACT 23 Profile Process As cities become larger and more complex places129, located in a world slipping into un sustainability, the complexity of measurement has redoubled. Measurement needs to be equally attuned to things as different as carbon emissions and the spirit of place. The Urban Profile Process is primarily intended as a way of developing a comprehensive and interpretative description of the sustainability of an urban region and its immediate hinterland. There are many such tools for measuring sustainability, but most of those tools either depend upon developing hugely expensive banks of statistics or turning to one-off, narrow and limited surveys. The profile template can be used for a region of any size including a city, metropolis, town, municipality, or village.

129 http://www.circlesofsustainability.org/tools/urban-profile-process/

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The Urban Profile Process uses a systematic series of qualitative questions organized around the four-domain model. By answering these questions across the full range of the social practices and meanings it is intended that a simple figurative representation can be developed of the complexity of a given situation at a given time (thus meeting the requirement of simple complexity discussed under About Our Approach).

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EXTRACT 22 Editing Profiled William Anderson Gittens and Magnola Gittens believes

that

Idealistically and culturally Editing can be placed into four categories 130 according Judith Butcher “substantive editing; detailed editing; checking for consistency and Clear presentation of the material for the typesetter.”131 Butcher paints a very interesting picture regarding editing. This picture can read as objective/ subjective or both but this depend primarily on an individual’s cultural position. Butcher provides another perspective, which infers that substantive editing improves the overall presentation coverage. Detailed editing provides the author’s meaning, individuals must be checking for consistency. Similarly, “the correct

130 Gittens, William Anderson, Gittens, Magnola, The Conversation Volume 1 Devgro Media Arts Services Publishing, ISBN 978-976-95731-5-4

131 Butcher, Judith. Copy-Editing Cambridge University Press1992 p.1

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grammar, punctuation, and spelling all help to clarify meaning and avoid confusion” 132 a view espoused by Jeannette A. Woodward. Woodward’s view is valid because she presents a systematic and logical way to editing. Likewise Fielding’s theory on editing to some extent has some veracity because Editing is essential and a practical invisible construct. Editing is an empirical art which influences people within a cultural space which is now embraced as a way of life in every cultural status quo.

Floyd K. Baskette, and Jack Z. Sisscors presents “editing as an empirical art and there is nothing scientific about it but there are no statistics, except after the fact that it can be relied on. Editing is intuitive

132 Jeannette A.

Woodward,

Writing Research Papers: Investigating Resources In Cyberspace. (Lincolnwood

Chicago: NTC Publishing Group, 1997),p.247

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whereas experience confirms intuition but does nothing to develop it.” 133 Baskette, et al is subjectively implying that editing is a practical process, which is arguable and can be challenged by similar theorist because of their cultural orientation. Nevertheless, whether editing is understood, implied, inferred, or otherwise what is important the terminology editing is a popular construct, which is practiced by people in every culture and it is essential. Similarly there is a parallel of television systems. In the United States of America, according to Chuck Petch and David Colborn “America NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) the organization that formulated standards for the NTSC television system”134. The American system of color telecasting is used

133 Baskette, Floyd. K. and Jack Z. Sissors. The Art of Editing, The Macmillan Company, 1971.p.2-3.

134 Chuck Petch. and David Colborn Grass Valley Group published in United States of America, 1991.p.45

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mainly in North America, Japan, and parts of South America. Conversely, Petch et al also cites another system PAL (Phase Alternative Line) PAL-M is a Brazilian color TV system with phase alternation by line.” 135 Irrespective of geographic space there is NTSC television system, used mainly in North America, Japan, and parts of South America and PAL-M is used in Brazilian color TV system. The parallel is just as editing is applied differently producing similar results likewise television systems which satisfies human needs which is perceived as a popular construct. Lynden Lewis “gender ideologies operating within a gender system reveals what is appropriate or expected of the socially constituted beings “women” and “men”.136

In essence, Lewis is

advocating that men and women can be classified as gender; however, the gender system operating within the Barbadian cultural space is male 135 ibid.p.48 136 Brian Meeks and Folke Lindah(ed).

New Caribbean Thought:

Press,2001). p.31.

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dominated based on hegemonic masculinity and patriarchy. However, the question is, if the roles were reversed and the paradigm had shifted and they were females instead of males would this issue become contentious?

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EXTRACT 23 DiSC profile The author of the extract DiSC profile137, published by Wiley, is a non-judgmental tool used for discussion of people's behavioral differences. Wiley has stated that if you participate in a DiSC program, you'll be asked to complete a series of questions that produce a detailed report about your personality and behavior. You'll also receive tips related to working with people of other styles. At a glance when I first read this review I thought that that the organizers of DiSC program may have preconceive ideas , stereotype or profile participants. However after completing reviewing comments

137 https://discprofile.com/what-is-disc/overview/

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EXTRACT 24 Complexity Profile It is much easier to think about the problem of understanding collective behavior using the concept of a complexity profile. The complexity profile138 focuses attention on the scale at which a certain behavior of a system is visible to an observer, or the extent of the impact it can have on its environment. Both of these are relevant to interactions of a system with its environment an observer can see the behavior only when the behavior is sufficiently large to affect the observer. A formal definition of scale considers the spatial extent, time duration, momentum and energy of a behavior. More intuitively, when many parts of a system act together to make a single behavior happen, that behavior is on a large scale, and when few parts of a system act together, that behavior is on a small

138 http://www.necsi.edu/projects/yaneer/Civilization.html

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scale. The energy of different actions of the system is also relevant. When the amount of energy devoted to an action is large, then it is a large scale action. To all intents and purposes, the units of energy are working together to make a large scale behavior. A more systematic treatment of the scale of particular behaviors leads to the complexity profile. The complexity profile counts the number of independent behaviors that are visible at a particular scale and includes all of the behaviors that have impact at larger scales. The use of the term "complexity" reflects a quantitative theory of the degree of difficulty of describing a system's behavior. In its most basic form, this theory simply counts the number of independent behaviors as a measure of the complexity of a system. The complexity profile characterizes the system behavior by describing the complexity as a function of scale. The central point is: When the independence of the components is reduced, scale of behavior is increased. To make a Page 165 ! of 250 !


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large collective behavior, the individual parts that make up this behavior must be correlated and not independent. This reduction of independence means that describing the collective behavior includes part or all of the behavior of the parts and therefore our description of the parts is simpler. When the behaviors of parts are coupled in subgroups, their behavior is manifest at the scale corresponding to the size of the group. Thus, fixing the material composition and the energy of the system, there are various ways the system can be organized. Each way of organizing the system and distributing the energy through the system results in tradeoffs between the complexity of their microscopic description against the complexity of their description at progressively larger scales. To illustrate the complexity profile, consider a system in which the parts behave independently. The system behavior at a small scale requires specifying what each of the parts is doing. However, when observing on a larger scale, it is not possible to Page 166 ! of 250 !


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distinguish the individual parts even in a small region of the system, only the aggregate effect of their behavior is observable. Since their behaviors are independent, they cancel each other in their impact on the environment. Thus, the description of the system behavior is simple. The behavior of each individual part disappears upon averaging the behavior of the local group. Examples of this include microorganisms swimming randomly in a pond or people moving around in a crowd that does not move as a whole. When one person goes one way, another person fills his place and together there is no collective movement. Independent behavior is to be contrasted with coherent motion. In coherent motion all of the parts of the system move in the same direction. This is the largest scale behavior possible for the system. Since the behaviors of the parts of the system are all the same, they are simple to describe on the largest scale. Moreover, once the largest scale behavior is described, the behavior of each of the parts is also known. Page 167 ! of 250 !


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Neither of these two examples corresponds to complex collective behavior. Unlike the coherent motion case, complex behavior must include many different behaviors. Unlike the independent action case, many of these behaviors are visible on a large scale. In order for such visibility to occur various subgroups of the system must have coordinated behaviors. The resulting dynamic correlations are distributed at different scales. Some of them are found at a microscopic scale in the coupled motion or positions of molecules, and others appear in the collective motion of, for example, muscle cells and the motion of the body as a whole. Thus, the complexity profile of a complex system like a human being involves a distribution of scales at which behavior manifests itself. This balance between highly random and highly ordered motion is characteristic of the behavior of complex systems. The discussion of independent, coherent and complex behavior can be applied to physical, biological or social systems. Think about the gas molecules that bounce independently in a Page 168 ! of 250 !


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room, or the coherent alignment of magnetic regions of a magnet. In the former case, all of the parts of the system act independently and the complexity profile resembles the independent component example. In the latter, the parts of the system are all aligned, and there is a large scale behavior. In biological systems a collection of microorganisms may act essentially independently, and a disease microorganism by multiplying and acting coherently in attacking the human body can have impact on a much larger scale. Finally, the cells of the body are interdependent and have collective complex behavior. The application of these concepts to human organizations and social systems will take us further in our understanding of various ways collective and coherent behaviors can arise. In this context, one of the main mechanisms for achieving coordinated behavior is the exercise of control by one individual over the behavior of others. Thus, it is particularly interesting to consider how control affects the collective behavior of human beings. Page 169 ! of 250 !


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Even research also highlights profiling. Gary D. Sandefur, Mary E. Campbell, and Jennifer Eggerling-Boeck in a research paper titled

2Racial and Ethnic Identification, Official

Classifications, and Health Disparities139 Our picture of racial and ethnic disparities in the health of older Americans is strongly influenced by the methods of collecting data on race and ethnicity. At one level there is a good deal of consistency in data collection. Most Americans and most researchers have in mind a general categorical scheme that includes whites, blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and American Indians. Most Americans and nearly all researchers are also aware that these general categories disguise significant heterogeneity within each of these major groups. To the extent possible, recent research has attempted to identify and compare subgroups within each of the major racial and ethnic groups, making distinctions by country of origin, nativity, and generation within the United States. Most researchers generally agree that these categories are 139 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK25522/

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primarily social constructions that have changed and will continue to change over time. Does speculation and profiling synchronizing Pharma & Healthcare #LiveLong

Mar 6, 2017 @ 02:06 PM 20,031 The Little Black Book of Billionaire Secrets Social Media May Make You Feel Socially Isolated: Study

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EXTRACT 25 Using Online Information A new study140 reveals employers are using online information about job applicants without their knowledge, to inform hiring decisions. Approximately 55% of organisations now have a policy about this type of practice, called profiling. However, despite its increased use, most employees are not comfortable with being profiled. A case in point, Algorithms141 vs. Heuristics. In psychology, algorithms are frequently contrasted with heuristics. A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows people to quickly make judgments and solve problems.

140 http://theconversation.com/is-your-employer-watching-you-online-profiling-blurs-the-boundary-of-our-public-and-privatelives-64300

141 https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-an-algorithm-2794807

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Over 60% believe they have a right to a private online identity that employers should not access. But only 40% of those surveyed in the study reported they always manage their social media activities with their current employer in mind.

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EXTRACT 26 What is profiling What is profiling?142 Most of us have probably used an internet search engine to find information about someone. Perhaps we searched for information on a potential flat mate, a new colleague, or even a new boss. With an internet search, we can easily learn important details about people before we meet them. What do they look like? What lifestyle choices have they made? What are their professional affiliations? And perhaps more controversially, do they seem like the “right” kind of person to employ? This is known as profiling. 142 http://theconversation.com/is-your-employer-watching-you-online-profiling-blurs-the-boundary-of-our-public-and-privatelives-64300

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A growing trend among organisations, profiling is the collection of online information for the purpose of monitoring and evaluating current and future employees. However, the practice is not without controversy. Academics143 have questioned the legitimacy of profiling. In particular, some have objected to the use of employees’ personal information, even though it is publicly available, because it contravenes an employees’ rights to a private identity. To investigate144 this question from the perspective of employees, we conducted a survey of 2,000 employees across a range of occupational groups in Australia and the UK. We used this sample to determine the extent of profiling, the outcomes of

143 http://theconversation.com/is-your-employer-watching-you-online-profiling-blurs-the-boundary-of-our-public-and-privatelives-64300

144 http://theconversation.com/is-your-employer-watching-you-online-profiling-blurs-the-boundary-of-our-public-and-privatelives-64300

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profiling and the attitudes of employees to profiling. We also looked at whether profiling depended on industry and profession and how often organisations defined the parameters of profiling in their policies.

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EXTRACT 27 Alice G. Walton, Contributor I cover health, medicine, psychology and neuroscience. Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Alice G. Walton has asserted that as researchers145 learn more about the oddly anti-social social media trend, they’re starting to understand how it affects and is affected by our behavior and moods—in other words, what’s the psychology that drives us to use it, and what’s the psychological fallout from using it? A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine finds that people who use social media more also report feeling more socially isolated. This may not surprise many of us to hear— 145 https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/ https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2017/03/06/social-media-and-social-isolation-go-hand-in-hand-but-which-comesfirst/#acc224717854

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earlier studies have certainly arrived at similar conclusions, finding that more time on social media is linked to depression, jealousy, low self-esteem and feelings of inferiority. But the question that still remains is: which comes first, the psychological issues or the social media? The team from the University of Pittsburgh had people aged 19 to 32 estimate how much time they spent on the social media sites Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Google Plus, Instagram, Snapchat, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest, Vine and LinkedIn. They also asked them to fill out the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, which tests, among other things, how socially connected or isolated a person feels. Walton146 added that Not surprisingly, people who spent more time on social media—two hours a day or more—had twice

146 Et Al

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the odds of feeling socially isolated than people who spent less than half an hour a day on it. And in terms of number of times a person visited the sites, those who visited 58 times or more in a week had three times the chance of feeling socially isolated as those who visited nine or fewer. She further suggested147 that the team suggest a few different mechanisms for the strange connection. One is that social media is just a time suck, and uses up time that might otherwise be spent in actual person-to-person socialization. Other theories involve the comparisons we make between ourselves and others through their posts: For instance, seeing pictures of people at fun events can trigger feelings of exclusion. And seeing other people’s “highlight reels” can inspire feelings of jealousy. "Instead of accurately 147 https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/ https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2017/03/06/social-media-and-social-isolation-go-hand-in-hand-but-which-comesfirst/#acc224717854

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representing reality," the authors write, "social media feeds are in fact highly curated by their owners. Exposure to such highly idealized representations of peers’ lives may elicit feelings of envy and the distorted belief that others lead happier and more successful lives, which may increase [perceived social isolation].” Walton148 believes that Past research has certainly hinted at the same phenomenon, and closely related ones. A study last year found that a larger circle of friends on social media doesn’t mean much at all—that there seems to be a cap on the number of true friends we have, no matter what our social media profiles might indicate. The authors suggest that for real friendships, there needs to be actual in-person contact to sustain it: Virtual connections do not a true friendship make. 148 https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/ https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2017/03/06/social-media-and-social-isolation-go-hand-in-hand-but-which-comesfirst/#acc224717854

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Walton149 underscores the point that and other work has not only hinted at the failure of social media to connect us, but it's laid out some of the specific mechanisms behind it. A study a few years ago, for instance, looked at how people related to others’ posts on Facebook. Making any kind of comparison between the self and another was linked to more feelings of depression—and not just for upward comparisons, where a person’s life seems better than yours, but downward ones, too, where you feel superior. Even neutral comparisons were linked to depression, which seems to suggest that without the back-and-forth of real social relationships, the snapshot-style comparisons that come along with social media may be part of the problem, if not an actual cause.

149 Et Al

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She150 also believes that The senior author of the new study points out that it’s not totally clear which way the relationship goes: "We do not yet know which came first—the social media use or the perceived social isolation," said senior author Elizabeth Miller in a news release. "It's possible that young adults who initially felt socially isolated turned to social media. Or it could be that their increased use of social media somehow led to feeling isolated from the real world. It also could be a combination of both. But even if the social isolation came first, it did not seem to be alleviated by spending time online, even in purportedly social situations." And this is really the rub: A central reason that we keep coming back to social media, other studies have found, is that we 150 https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/ https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2017/03/06/social-media-and-social-isolation-go-hand-in-hand-but-which-comesfirst/#acc224717854

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keep thinking it will give us a boost and make us feel better. But in reality, it makes us feel worse. That errant belief is part of the vicious cycle. Walton151 concluded that whether going cold turkey on social media is the answer isn’t totally clear—we do know that quitting it seems to make people feel better. But it does have its benefits, like keeping in touch friends and family members separated by large distances. Maybe it’s not necessary to give it up entirely. Perhaps cutting down, or adjusting our attitude toward it, is enough. Or maybe that’s just the type of wishful thinking and rationalization that keeps a person coming back for more.

151 https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/ https://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2017/03/06/social-media-and-social-isolation-go-hand-in-hand-but-which-comesfirst/#acc224717854

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EXTRACT 28 Threat Profile Stephen! Irwin,!stephen.irwin@gma authors of this paper Creating a Threat Profile for Your Organization GIAC (GCIH) Gold Certification Author has asserted Introduction Organizations are facing an increasing trend where threat scenarios from advanced persistent threats (APTs) are becoming more sophisticated and prevalent, and organizations are struggling to be able to defend against them. This paper provides information for organizations’ risk and incident management teams about how to develop detailed threat profiles152 that include information about APTs and threat campaigns. A threat profile

152 https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/threats/creating-threat-profile-organization-35492 Creating a Threat Profile for Your Organization GIAC (GCIH) Gold Certification Author:! Stephen!Irwin,!stephen.irwin@gma

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includes information about critical assets, threat actors, and threat scenarios. A threat scenario is an illustration in which one or more threat actors can mount one or more threat actions in an attempt to compromise an identified critical asset by exploiting both vulnerabilities and inadequate safeguards (Dziadyk, 2011). A threat scenario campaign is a series of related threat scenarios that are used together as part of an APT for a common objective. An organization’s threat profile includes all of this threat information and presents a clear and detailed illustration of how each of these components are used together. This paper references the Common Criteria security concepts and relationship figure from the General Model for Information Technology Security Evaluation and expands this figure to illustrate how APTs can be integrated. This model illustrates the relationships between the

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components that should be evaluated when determining risk (Common Criteria, 2005). This paper focuses on the asset, threat agent, and threat components of the model but also references vulnerabilities. It specifies which data attributes to collect for assets, threat actors, and threat scenarios so that organizations can organize threat information into a standardized format.

This

addresses the current challenge of inconsistent data element, format, and terminology usage. This paper incorporates elements, formats, and terminology from various sources and uses the most common ones to propose a consistent framework for recording threat information.

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Excerpt 29 Profiling Categorized When you get an advertisement for a politician on Facebook, thank William Jennings Bryan153. The Nebraska congressman and repeated Democratic presidential candidate is said to have been the first person to gather and act on political data, using index cards to record 500,000 supporters’ religions, incomes, and jobs in the early 1900s. The process used to gather and act on political data van be categorized as profiling. The century since has brought tremendous technological change, but Jennings Bryan’s idea has stayed the same: Know who might vote for you, and convince them to do it. The latest version of the approach is embodied in Cambridge Analytica, a UK-based firm. CA claims to have “up to 153 The industry that predicts your vote—and then alters it—is still just in its infancy Dave Gershgorn May 18, 2017 https://qz.com/977429/the-industry-that-predicts-your-vote-and-then-alters-it-is-still-just-in-itsinfancy/

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5,000 data points on over 230 million American voters,” which it uses to create psychological profiles for “micro-targeted” ad campaigns designed to appeal to each person emotionally. It’s been credited with helping bring about both a Donald Trump presidency and the Brexit vote. Britain’s data protection regulator, the Information Commissioner’s Office, has just announced an investigation into these sorts of methods. But there’s also been heavy skepticism about CA, 154 not least from Republicans and former Trump aides (paywall); it’s also admitted it didn’t actually use its “psychographic profiles” in the US election. So it possible to separate the hype from the reality? At heart, what CA does is simple. It’s an application of machine learning: algorithms that learn to make predictions by comparing very large sets of data. Youyou Wu, coauthor of formative research from Cambridge University in 2015 showing how to predict personality based on Facebook Likes—and which

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would reportedly be copied and turned into Cambridge Analytica’s software—says the algorithm itself is basic; the data are the key. In Wu’s studies, she usually gathers what she calls the “ground truth”—how people behave in reality—by having them fill out a survey. Cambridge Analytica says it gathers data from, among other things, “land registries, automotive data, shopping data, bonus cards, club memberships, what magazines you read, what churches you attend,” according to a Das Magazine report, as well as data from marketing firms like Acxiom and Experian, Facebook activity, and online surveys, on top of voter registration data. This is all then processed, the company says, to provide a comprehensive view of what kinds of people are likely to vote a certain way. David Carroll, 155 a professor at Parsons School of Design in New York, wanted to find out whether CA could really do what it claimed. So in February he asked CA to send him all the data it

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had on him, invoking a UK data-protection law. He couldn’t get it all—some information was protected as “trade secrets” and other bits were owned by third parties, but in March, Carroll finally received an Excel spreadsheet with three tabs and a few dozen lines of data. The results, he said, were surprisingly accurate. Partisanship? Very unlikely Republican. 156 Propensity to vote? Very high. Cares about immigration? High probability. “I was pretty impressed by how on it was. It’s wasn’t perfect, but it was almost perfect. Uncannily perfect,” Carroll says. The trouble is, knowing someone’s personality and voting habits is only half the battle. Politicians must then persuade people whom the algorithm has identified as probably undecided to actually vote for them. The form that persuasion takes might be different state by state, county by county, or person by person.

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Carroll’s data shows that CA is good at the prediction part, but we don’t have evidence about the persuasion part. This isn’t the case with online shopping. Companies that make their money from advertising, such as Facebook and Google, can track individual users around the internet, checking whether an advertisement led to a purchase. Facebook shows off “success stories” where sites get a 5.6x return on the money they spend on advertisements, and three-fold increase in orders. In politics157, however, we don’t have such granular data on outcomes. We know that Donald Trump is president and that Britain voted to leave the EU, but not who voted that way and whether those people saw targeted online ads. Those outside Cambridge Analytica don’t know where it spent resources to persuade voters. “Everyone universally agrees that their sales operation is better than their fulfillment product,” a Republican consultant told

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Ad Age last year. “The product comes late or it’s not quite what you envisioned.” Regardless of how well CA158 performed in 2016, the methods that companies like it use will only get more precise. Artificial intelligence and machine learning have boomed in scale and accuracy in the last decade, and yet technologists say these techniques are still nascent. A bigger question hangs over the availability of data. Wu says sources like Facebook have cracked down on third parties gathering data on its users. On the other hand, the US House of Representatives recently overturned rules that would have prevented internet service providers from selling their customers’ browsing data. Such data is notionally anonymized, but if it could be associated with people’s identities, as has been done in the past, it could be a powerful “ground truth” for training algorithms.

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How free future elections are will depend a lot on how much control countries gives citizens over their own data.

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Excerpt 30 DNA Profiling Justin Broyles Justice Theory Lance Miller through their lens speak to The Positive and Negative Effects of DNA Profiling159. Genetic engineering has developed and blossomed at a frightening rate in the last decade. Originating as merely an area of interest for scientists, genetic engineering has now become an area of which all people should be somewhat knowledgeable. DNA profiling has many uses, both positive and negative, in our society. Aside from its usefulness in many legal investigations, DNA profiling can be used in the workplace to discriminate against employees whose profiles could pose a financial risk. For example, genetic technology can and has been used to determine the capacity of a person to contract certain diseases such as sickle-

159 http://www.english-for-students.com/the-positive-and-negative-effects-of-dna-profiling.html

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cell anemia which could cause many employers to hesitate in the hiring and training of such people. In the early 1970's,160 the United States began a carrier screening for sickle cell anemia which affects 1 in 400 AfricanAmericans. Many of those identified as carriers mistakenly thought they were afflicted with this debilitating disease. Furthermore, confidentiality was often breached and in some cases, carriers were discriminated against and denied health insurance. Nevertheless, genetic profiling has been beneficial in paternity suits and rape cases, where the father or the assailant could be identified. However, despite its growing number of utilizations, DNA profiling is extremely hazardous when results are inaccurate or used to discriminate. The frequency of genetic testing in criminal investigations (more than 1,000 in the U.S. since 1987) has been increasing dramatically despite the inconclusive testing by the scientific 160 http://www.english-for-students.com/the-positive-and-negative-effects-of-dna-profiling.html

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community in many aspects of forensic identification. A correlation between DNA patterns taken from a crime scene and taken from the suspect has often been enough to charge a person with the offense in spite of proof that some procedures for testing DNA are fallible by legal and scientific standards. The complexity of scientific evidence, especially DNA profiling, has also caused many problems within the legal profession. It is no longer enough for attorneys or members of the jury to merely be knowledgeable about the law. People need to familiarize themselves with today's scientific research rather than relying on the credentials of a scientific expert witness. Too often, jury members become in awe of the complicated, scientific terms used in court and take a scientist's testimony as fact. Lawyers need to increase their scientific knowledge and keep up with ongoing research in order to competently question and understand scientific evidence put forth.

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But these do not represent the only possible downfalls of DNA profiling in criminology. The involuntary seizure of one's blood or hair undermines the constitutional rights guaranteed to all citizens by the Fourth Amendment (protection from unreasonable searches and seizures). Nevertheless, many argue that a DNA sample taken from a suspect could lead to an indictment or release of the individual and, thus, warrant an exception from the Fourth Amendment. Besides, one could make a plausible argument that, once held in custody, the seizure of a person's strand of hair does not violate a suspect's Fourth Amendment rights or rights of privacy because the hair is visible. However, the use of DNA profiling does not end in criminal investigations. DNA testing has ventured out of the courtroom in an effort to show a genetic link between race and violent tendencies. If successful, this link will do nothing but justify prejudice attitudes toward minorities, particularly the black race. Furthermore, such biological approaches towards criminality do not take into account sociological factors such as poverty and Page 197 ! of 250 !


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would inevitably lead to the practice of controlling minority children with the use of therapeutic drugs or worse. For this and other reasons, courts of all levels must implement harsher scrutiny in the area of genetic profiling and its uses. There is also a current effort to create a national database of DNA, much like the existing database of fingerprints. Supposedly, the use of numerical codes will allow huge databases to search for a match of an individual DNA band. However, these matches are not 100 percent. This inconclusive correlation between DNA patterns has led to a heated debate which has culminated in federal court with Daubert vs. Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. The ruling in the Daubert case said that the acceptance by the scientific community is not enough by itself to allow certain scientific techniques into court as evidence, especially given the reality that a suspect’s entire future could hang in the balance of a scientific finding. Many people have argued that the use of a national DNA database infringes on the individuals constitutional rights to privacy. However, law officials have claimed that the advantages Page 198 ! of 250 !


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this database presents for society supersede the individual's rights. This dilemma can easily be associated to the social contract presented by Thomas Hobbes. In this contract, Hobbes believed that each individual should give up certain individual rights in order to achieve protection from the whole. The forfeit of the right to privacy of one's DNA can thus be considered one of these forfeited rights. A person must weigh the advantages of having a past, present, or future criminal's DNA profile on database with the disadvantages of having one's own. But the disadvantages will outweigh the advantages when private institutions develop access to this database and use the information for discriminatory purposes. The impending usage of a national DNA database poses many possible risks of political and commercial abuse of such information, along with the danger this information falling into the hands of unfriendly parties are unpredictable. Such unpredictability, certainly, is a violation of people's rights to privacy. For instance, if a private institution, such as a bank, an employer, or an insurance company, receives access Page 199 ! of 250 !


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to this information, it could influence decisions on loans, hiring practices, insurance rates, etc. Society, then, is faced with a conflict between an individual's right to privacy in one's genetic composition and the employer's or insurance company's interest in knowing about a person's health problems. This conflict will constitute the remainder of this paper. Over the next ten to fifteen years, scientists involved in the federal government's human genome project will try to identify in detail each of the human cell's estimated 100,000 genes. The knowledge derived from the project will enable physicians to detect an increasing number of diseases and predispositions for diseases. When Frank married at age 31, he decided to take out a life insurance policy. A swimmer and avid racquetball player with no previous hospitalizations, he felt certain his low premiums would be a worthy investment for his family. Weeks later, after a routine physical exam, he was shocked by the insurance company's response. Sophisticated DNA testing had revealed in Frank's tissues a single missing copy of so-called RB anti-oncogene and Page 200 ! of 250 !


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minor variations in two other genes. Computer analysis showed the molecular misprints more than tripled his risk of getting smallcell lung cancer by age 55. His application was rejected. With the newfound ability to reveal an individual's molecular secrets come significant new possibilities for discrimination. The medical records of people who apply for insurance are stored by the Medical Information Bureau, a data bank shared by a consortium of hundreds of insurers. Ethicists warn that genetic tests could tempt insurers to discriminate against the healthy ill. People, who are not yet sick but who carry genetic traits predisposing them to future illness, such as in Frank's case. However, these people may not be denied health insurance totally. Rather, they may be guaranteed a basic level of treatment and rationed out of more costly procedures. For example, someone who carried the cystic fibrosis gene, even if asymptomatic, could be denied a lung transplant. The competitive nature of the industry may compel insurance companies to use genetic information, since the fundamental principle of the insurance Page 201 ! of 250 !


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business is pooling uncertainty. The concept of adverse selection also causes insurers much dismay. Adverse selection refers to the probability that people privately aware of a medical problem are more likely to seek medical insurance. This negates the insurer’s policy of setting premiums with accordance to statistical information on the rates of illnesses and sicknesses in society. The whole foundation of insurance is based on the fact that we and the insurance applicant are operating with equal levels of knowledge and ignorance. Without this level of ignorance, insurance companies will lose their social value as a means of spreading risk across groups of people. Genetic engineering with respect to insurance does not stop here. Further development could lead to a complete knowledge of who will develop a disease and when. This will drastically affect the practicality of life insurance policies. I can see 20 or 30 years from now that life insurance policies will be essentially accident policies, because everything else will be foreseeable. The essence of insurance is you assess a risk against the unknown. If there's no Page 202 ! of 250 !


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medical unknown, the only unknown is whether you're going to get hit by a bus. Another striking danger of insurance companies discriminating with respect to a person's DNA profile is with infants. The companies may become extremely hesitant in insuring babies who have a high susceptibility to certain diseases. In fact there have been some cases where the insurers actually demanded the parents to abort the fetus or risk losing insurance. This obviously constitutes a blatant violation of people's rights. Plus, it dangerously causes the insurance companies to begin to play the role of God, that is, in deciding who should live and who should not. By agreeing to pay for some infants and not for others, insurance companies could inadvertently practice a form of economic eugenics, based not on grand designs for a super race but on who requires the least expensive medical care. Perhaps, some form of national health insurance is the only remedy for these problems. Genetic testing may provide the best reason yet for a nationalized health-care policy. Page 203 ! of 250 !


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But insurance companies are not the only private entities with the potential to discriminate against people with unfavorable genetic profiles. Employers, too, have a substantial financial risk in hiring an employee with an above average propensity for illness or early death. Ellen spent four years completing her PhD in industrial and chemical engineering. Now, wincing as a company doctor drew a few drops of blood for her reemployment physical, she could hardly contain her excitement about the job she'd been offered at one of the country’s foremost metallurgical research institutes. Two days later the phone call came. You are perfectly healthy, the young doctor said. But tests have revealed you harbor a gene that can result in decreased levels of a blood enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate. Without the enzyme's protection, you have a slightly increased risk of developing a red blood cell disease if you come into contact with certain chemicals in our laboratory. I'm sorry, he said. The job has been offered to someone else. As Ellen's case shows, the danger of discrimination Page 204 ! of 250 !


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certainly does not end with health insurance. There is also a grave danger of discriminatory hiring practices in the workplace. In 1989, Jonathan Beckwith, a geneticist at Harvard and Dr. Paul Billings, director of the division of genetic medicine at Pacific Presbyterian Hospital in San Francisco, completed a small-scale study of genetic discrimination. Of 55 responses, Billings and Beckwith could document 29 people who reported multiple instances of discrimination by adoption agencies, employers and insurers. And the percentages will only get worse as more and more companies implement genetic screening policies. In a survey of 400 U.S. firms conducted in 1990, 15 percent of companies responded that by the year 2000, they planned to check the health status of not only their prospective employees, but their dependents as well before making a job offer. These statistics show all too well the impending problem with genetic discrimination in the workplace. Employers will have a number of potential justifications for genetic testing in the workplace. In Page 205 ! of 250 !


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some cases, there may be an argument in favor of testing for public health reasons. Fortunately, judges and juries have predicted these justifications and have begun to make the necessary rulings to ensure true justification for discrimination. The relevant judicial opinions indicate that there will have to be a significant or reasonable likelihood of harm to others from having the individual employed. Hopefully, rulings such as these will serve their purpose in protecting the right of all citizens. With the balance of interests laid out (individuals concerned about confidentiality and discrimination, and insurers and employers concerned about adverse selection and fiscal liability), it will fall upon legislators and the courts to define the proper use of genetic information. Policy makers will have to confront an apparent discrepancy between the reality of genetic variability and the democratic ideal that all citizens are created equal. The information itself is not the problem. What matters is how the knowledge is used. Scientific advancements are not to blame. What science does is give society opportunities. What we have to Page 206 ! of 250 !


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do is look at these opportunities and then set up the constraints and the rules that will allow society to benefit in appropriate ways. Without the proper constraints, the price of glimpsing one's medical future is high indeed. DNA profiling can be an extremely beneficial tool in the war against crime. However, when used for discriminatory purposes, this tool becomes a crime in itself. The ability to compare and contrast a person's genetic code with another should not be taken lightly, for with this great knowledge comes great responsibility. If not used wisely, this ability of the few... will develop into a disability for the many

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Excerpt 31 Digital Profiling Digital Profiling161 (DP) is a means in which we can analyse and piece together a person’s interaction with this digital data network and produce the outputs of profiling, trend analysis, market statistics, behavioral analysis and apply all this data to the Digital Profile.

DFMag makes the point that The technological era162 is rife with new methods and ways to do nearly everything. A vast increase in productivity and improvements are made using computers and all known digital devices. Computer crime and cybercrime is on the rise due to accessibility to the world wide web and the underlying networks from any corner of the Globe. Simple daily tasks and numerous core facilities and infrastructure reside on this global digital data network. Digital Profiling 161 www.digitalforensicsmagazine.com/index.php?option=com_con… 162 Written by DFMag https://www.digitalforensicsmagazine.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1031

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(DP) is a means in which we can analyse and piece together a person’s interaction with this digital data network and produce the outputs of profiling, trend analysis, market statistics, behavioral analysis and apply all this data to the Digital Profile.

This information is not only useful to computer crime investigators but anyone who can usefully interpret the data points. Remember each one of us (even those with zero involvement in criminal or suspect activities) all have a digital footprint.

Digital profiling is a core part of the broader topic of Criminal Profiling (more information on this is available in earlier issues of DFM). Like all other profiling techniques, DP takes into account the characteristics, behaviours, interactions and other data points that pertain to an individual who interacts with any data source.

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Digital Profiling163 is a computerized background check tool that gives you a complete report on a person’s online presence and behavior, in other words his/her Digital Profile. This report will enable you to see if certain information you have been using to judge a candidate is indeed accurate, and to make sure you don’t place your trust in untrue individuals.

As specialists in building and protecting businesses’ e-reputations, KBSD can perform thorough audits of your potential new hires and deliver a reliable Digital Profile to help you make the right choices. Take advantage of our know-how, in-depth understanding of the digital world and expert analysis.

163 http://digital-profiling.ch/en/

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Extract 32 Personal Reflections I would like to bring this intellectual conversation to a close by categorically stating that the lens focuses light164 through the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the back of the eye and supports the retina.

The retina receives the image that the cornea focuses through the eye's internal lens and transforms this image into electrical impulses that are carried by the optic nerve to the brain. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines Lens165 as a piece of glass or other transparent substance with curved sides for concentrating or dispersing light rays, used singly (as in a magnifying glass) or with other lenses (as in a telescope).the light-gathering device of a camera, typically containing a group of compound lenses. However, in this setting although THE LENS in this context is applied as an abstract construct yet it mimics / 164 https://www.nkcf.org/about-keratoconus/how-the-human-eye-works/ 165 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lens

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operates somewhat like the eye of a human being to chronicle the behaviour of the populace.

In this conversation I will be using the

cliché The Lens figuratively and metaphorically to draw attention or highlight innate human behaviour namely EXTRACTs of Profiling Volume 1 as practiced

by the populace.

EXTRACTs of Profiling are expressions explicitly or implicitly covertly or overtly made by human beings. These human beings are labelled as authors, experts, and professional’s theorist to name a few of varying cultural identities occupying various geographical spaces from time immemorial.

Ayse Cufoglu Anglia Ruskin University Department of Computing and Technology Cambridge, UK has asserted that Today there are numerous services available for the users across various electronic devices (e.g. smartphone, tablet computers).

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In this competitive market, user profiles become very important for service providers to achieve a successful service personalization. Personalized services aim to match users’ requirements, preferences and needs with the service delivery. The success of these services relies on How Well the Service Provider Knows the User and how well this is reflected on the service. User profiles are there presentation of the users and they are the outcome of the user profiling process. There are two main challenges in user profiling process.

These are the generation of an initial user profile 166 for a new user and the continuous update of the profile information to adapt user’s changing preferences, interests and needs.

In literature two fundamental user profiling methods have been proposed to tackle these challenges. These are the content-based and the collaborative methods. Both of these methods have limitations and the 166 Ayse Cufoglu Anglia Ruskin University Department of Computing and Technology Cambridge, UK https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eecb/f9358916a8e7db20511c611eaceaac554417.pdf

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hybrid user profiling has been proposed to overcome these limitations by combining these two.

The user profiles167 that are created based on the traditional user profiling methods were not adequate to personalize different services. For this reason, various clustering and classification algorithms have been utilized to create more comprehensive user profiles. However, these profiles are lack in representing the multi-dimensionality of the user profiles and still not adequate to personalize different services.

My wide point of view supports the fact that overt profiling is very prevalent because Behavior168 is any action an organism uses to adjust to the environment. But, there has always been divergent opinions about what ought to be included under the category of behavior. In the narrower sense, only behaviors or actions that can be sensed or are visible are categorized as behaviors. Behaviorists and

167 Ayse Cufoglu Anglia Ruskin University Department of Computing and Technology Cambridge, UK 168 https://www.psychestudy.com/behavioral/behavior/overt-vs-covert

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psychologists argue that change in the environment are only seen when the behaviors are observable, which are also called overt behaviors.

I am cognizant of the fact that Human actions however, are not limited to observable actions, and there are wide ranges of emotions, thought processes which are not seen or sensed.

In broader sense, behavior is psycho-physical in origin and includes anything that the individual does or experiences. For instance, ideas, dreams, glandular responses, running, reading in silent etc. are actions that are not overtly observed, yet, they hold significant value influencing the overt behaviors and bringing change to the environment. These behaviors are called covert behaviors.

An extreme close up of the differences between overt and covert behavior suggest the following.

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The word “Overt”169 is an adjective which refers to something which is clearly apparent. The word “Covert” refers to something which is not openly acknowledged or displayed. It is for this reason why I have advanced this conversation namely EXTRACTs of profiling.

This cultural cliché is analysed in context through The Lens to show how it makes every human being complicit.

Since cliché is practiced by human kind in every culture it is logical and rational to assume that the same can be categorized as a way of life furthermore a lived experienced. Further, the fact that human beings are initiators and are recipients of EXTRACTs of profiling; invariably this conversation will be discussed ad nauseam170" in other words extensively.

169 https://www.psychestudy.com/behavioral/behavior/overt-vs-covert 170 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_nauseam

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Ironically, Profiling can be characterized as an innate human being behavior. It is for all of the aforementioned reasons that I was inspired to share through THE LENS Volume one eye witness accounts of the behaviour of human beings who are occupying this global space171 .

171 William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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Extract 33 Conclusions Reflections The lens of human beings mimic or behave somewhat like the lens of cameras Camera Lenses172

so whether Prime, Zoom, Wide-

Angle Camera Lens, Normal Standard Camera Lens, Telephoto Camera Lens, Specialty Camera Lenses, Macro and Fisheye Lenses, Prime, Zoom lens, figuratively and metaphorically the populace use them to profile. Profiling can be practiced via many lens namely- Abstract, An Art Not A Science, Camera, Categorized, Character Profile, Data, Digital Profiling, Disc, DNA, Editing, Elisa Betta, How To Create A Character Profile, Individual, Irony of Profiling, Language Profiling, Linguistic Profiling Patient, Pathologist, Process, Racial, Threat Profile, Why People are discussed in context of Profiling. All of these ways should certainly stir up an intellectual consciousness within the minds of the populace especially in this postcolonial modernity era.

172 https://www.photouno.com/a/tips/15/types-camera-lenses/

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Extract 34 Conclusion In conclusion after gleaning through this information regarding profiling the thought that still pervades my mind has to do with the fact that metaphorically since the sensor173 is the part of the digital camera that captures the light to create an image and the eyes of humans are windows to the soul and they record everything that happens in the space of the viewer like the camera. Therefore, this symbolic cultural abstract It’s The Lens Volume 1 did examine profiling through various lens in a cultural context as a Media Arts Specialist. Just as the sensor is one of the most important parts of the digital camera and the size of the sensor is one of its most important aspects. Metaphorically speaking humans also have sensors that operate or function similar to that on the camera.

173 http://www.hardwaresecrets.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-camera-sensors/

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Figuratively and Metaphorically speaking the lenses which I am referring include how, what, when, where, and why. These lenses combined together with random selected authors, experts, professionals and theorist beliefs; likewise influence the lives of other human beings who are also initiators and recipients of profiling.

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Moreover in this context the profiling of which I referred has to do with human beings who are deemed as profile practitioners representing various identities; who use their various cultural lenses figuratively and metaphorically to profile covertly, explicitly, implicitly, and overtly within their space in a cultural context.

What was most astounding Profiling is as old as Methuselah… 174and since this construct is so deeply ingrained with the psyche of the populace. It is only logical to assume that this narrative is a relevant to the conversation. And it is logical and reasonable to suggest that human kind has always practiced the same from time immemorial 175 and it is an apparent innate human behaviour practiced within every geographical space.

174

Methuselah (Hebrew: ‫שׁלַח‬ ֶ ‫מְתוּ‬, Methushelah "Man of the dart/spear", or alternatively "his death shall bring judgment"[1]) is the man reported to have lived the longest at the age of 969 in the Hebrew Bible.[2] Methuselah was the son of Enoch, the father of Lamech, and the grandfather of Noah. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methuselah

175

William Anderson Gittens Dip.Com. Arts, B.A. Author, Cinematographer,Media Arts Specialists’ Cultural Practitioner, Publisher

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The underpinning of the Ad nauseam176 conversation Its the Lens volume one

was constructed to stir up an intellectual

consciousness within the minds of the populace in other words encourage the populace to revisit or use another angle concerning this abstract in this post-colonial modernity era.

EXTRACTs of profiling are used as the framework of this academic discussion since it includes human behavior. Such behavior is expressed in various forms namely: Demographics, Digital identity, Digital traces, Forensic profiling, Identification, Identity, Labelling, Privacy Profiling, Offender profiling, Social Profiling, Stereotype User profile and theoretical standards.

In light of this admission it was reasonable to conclude from the information provided that It’s The Lens volume one combined together with EXTRACTs of profiling draws attention to; 176

Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued 'to [the point of] nausea'. For example, the sentence "This topic has been discussed ad ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_nauseam

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(a)

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Profiling is a profession that allows the profiler to be profiled;

(b)

it has become a way of life,

(c)

it is a lived experienced and it is a limited conversation held by Practitioners of Profiling within the geographical space177.

Overall, it was clear that from time immemorial human beings were practicing profiling because it is as old as Methuselah and if the existence of human beings were suspended perhaps Profiling may be suspended indefinitely.

177

William Anderson Gittens Author, Cinematographer, Media Arts Specialist

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About the Author

BELIEFS Developing and growing in the context of excellence, professionalism and quality in Multimedia Services is what we do best. Magnola and William are married Children Lisa Gittens and Laron Gittens 2017 Codrington College Estate Committee Trailer

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2017 Produced A Centennial Documentary & Murals - Carrington Wesleyan Holiness Church 2015 CEO/Managing Director Consultant Devgro Media Arts Services 2011Project Manager Thorsby EDUCATION: 2004-2006 Post Masters work at the University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus Cultural Studies 2002 Management Course BIMAP 1995 Bachelors of Arts in Media Arts Jersey City State University-special concentration pre and postproduction 1992 General Education Diploma (U.S.A.) 1992 pursued the Diploma Video Production at the Barbados Community College. 1991 Diploma in Communication Arts at the University of the West Indies the course concentrated primarily upon public speaking; Journalism techniques, Writing and speaking; Audio and video production, and the legal aspect of journalism. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2015 CEO ,Managing Director, Consultant, 12th January 2015, Devgro Media Arts Services was registered in the Register of Business Names under No. 54463 and a Member of Small Business Association # 20912 Devgro Media Arts Services We will develop and grow in what we do best in this Global Space in the context of Excellence, Professionalism and Quality in the production of Multimedia PowerPoint Presentations for - Anniversaries, Birthdays, Conference Planning, Consultancy Services, Documentaries, Funerals, Graduations, Publishing and Weddings .. July 4-8 2011 Coordinator 47th Caribbean Food Crops Society Conference Managing a budget of BDS. $200.000.00 dollars as well as managing the logistical aspect of the conference, networking information to international delegates, soliciting sponsorship, coordination 12 subcommittees, drafting the president’s speech, Liaising with the following; the Chief Immigration Officer requesting the waiving of visas for international delegates from Haiti, Chief Protocol Officer Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade regarding seating of diplomats and specially invited guests. Ministry of Health, requesting information of the countries that will require vaccinations to

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facilitate their at Conference; CEO at Grantley Adams International Airport Incorporated requesting passes for Liaison Officers and Transportation Officers in facilitating delegates. The Commissioner of Police requesting Police Officers to provide security and to serve on the Protocol Committee for the conference. Managed a budget of BDS$110,489.91the 21st Conference of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Regional Commission for the Americas held in Barbados November 26-29, 2012 at two hundred and for ty-three thousand six hundred dollars (BDS$110,489.91) Barbados dollars; AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER: October 2000 Author and Publisher of Educational/Historical Children Books 1) Images of Yesteryear in Barbados volume 1 , 2) Images of Yesteryear in Barbados volume 2, 3) Building for the Future Vol1, 4) Colour Me Vol1, 5) Mise en scene Vol1, 6) Land Marks Vol1, 7) Technique Demonstration Vol1, 8) Established in Barbados Vol 1 9) Monuments Vol1 10) Focus Vol1 11) People Vol 1 12) People Vol2 13) People of Conversation Vol1 . 14) Have You Considered This Approach? Vol.1 15) Is There Anything New Under The Sun? Vol.1 16) The Children of Immigrants Vol.1 17) Barbados In Review Vol.1 18) 13.75 Vol.1 19) The Conversation Vol.1 20) Expressions Of A Century

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21) The Optics Vol.1 22) The Launch Vol.1 23) Our Matriarch Vol.1 24) To Classic Or Not To Classic Vol.1 25) A Singular Island Vol.1 26) Relics Vol.1 27) Through The Lens of a Media Arts Specialist Vol1 28) Excerpts from Icons Vol.1 29) It’s the Lens Vol.1 30) Global Landmarks Vol.1 Editor In Chief 1992-1994 -Duties included setting up meetings to discuss tender proposals. With prospective tenders of publishing firms and - photography firms for selection. Managed a staff of ten students; managed a budget of $35,000.00 to $50,000.00 in U.S. currency pages, laying out pages press ready. Taking photographs of students and activities on campus 1992- 1994 -Member of the Judicial Committee Jersey City State University Duties included listening to student's complaints that contravened the institutions 'regulations. 1990 ~ 1991 Seconded to the Faculty of Education, University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus. Duties included preparing workshops for CARNEID and UNESCO. Teaching graphic arts, video and still photography to teachers in the Dip Ed Programme and Masters programme Graphic Artist1990 -1991 Technical Assistant- Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and Sports Audio Visual Aids Department. Duties-processing black and white, colour film and Transparencies slide, graphic arts and illustrations. 1983-1988 1 Official Composite Artists of The Royal Barbados Police Force Duties included -sketching composites of suspects, stolen items jewelry from written information, Intelligence unit, Crime prevention Unit and Special branch 1989 –2005 Freelance Photojournalist –Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation Duties - field assignments, live broadcast, and shell umbra cup football Jazz festival, Arial photography

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1978-1979 Supervisor at Barbados Knitting and Spinning 1972-2015 Member of the Barbados Regiment and the Barbados Boys Scouts Association HONORS AND AWARDS ➢ Inducted in the Hall of Professionals of St.Giles Primary ➢ Recipient of the 12th International Prestigious Scout Award Arco Italy ➢ Presented to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of England for outstanding contributions in the field of art. ➢ Presented to His Excellency Governor General Sir Hugh Springer for outstanding contributions in the field of art and Scouting in Barbados. ➢ Received Special accreditation from Hackney England International Art Exhibition. ➢ Designer of postage stamps commemorating 60 years of scouting in Barbados

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Works Cited Adalian, Josef (2001-12-14). "UTA TV focus the real deal". Retrieved 2016-08-18. "Admitting strategy error, Bush adds Iraq troops". MSNBC. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006.Anderson, Chris (2008). "The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete". Wired Magazine. 16 (7). Alim, Samy H (2005). "Critical Language Awareness in the United States: Revisiting Issues and Revising Pedagogies in a Resegregated Society". Educational Researcher. 34 (7): 24–31. doi: 10.3102/0013189X034007024. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888-918. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bagozzi, R. P., &Yi, Y. (1989). The degree of intention formation as a moderator of the attitude-behavior relationship. Social Psychological Quarterly, 52, 266-279. Bernard, T. J., & Engel, R. S. (2001). Conceptualizing criminal justice theory. Justice Quarterly, 18, 1-30. Baker, W; Eddington, D; Nay, L (2009). "Dialect Identification: The Effects of Region of Origin and Amount of Experience". American Speech. 84: 48. doi:10.1215/00031283-2009-004. Barthes, Roland. “Myth Today” (1972) Mythologies, London Cape Baskette, Floyd. K. and Jack Z. Sissors. The Art of Editing, The Macmillan Company, 1971. Barrass R. (1978) Scientists must write. Chapman & Hall: London. Baugh, John, Linguistic Profiling, in Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas 155, 155-63 (Sinfree Makoni et al. eds., 2003). Page 229 ! of 250 !


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Beach, Mark. Editing Your Newsletter. 4 ed. Published by Digest Books. 1995. Beasley, Augie. “Camcorders and Still Image Cameras: Superb tools” Media and Methods Vol. 30 .1, 1993. Boardwell, David. And Kristin Thompson.: Film Art an introduction, fourth edition, University of Wisconsin 1993 Bittner, E. (1970). The functions of the police in modern society. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Bordwell, David. and Kristin, Thompson. What Editing Is. Film A r t A n I n t r o d u c t i o n , 4 t h E d i t i o n . M c - G r aw - H i l l . 1993,1990,1986,1979. Brookes I. and Marshall D. (2004) Good writing guide. Chambers: Edinburgh. Brathwaite, Kamau Edward. Contradictory Omens. Mona: Savacou, 1974. Brandford. Albert, “Trading into the business of culture published.” Weekend Nation, 7 March 2006. Bernard, T. J., & Ritti, R. R. (1990). The role of theory in scientific research. In K L. Kempf (Ed.), Measurement issues in criminology (pp.1-20). New York: SpringerVerlag. B. Wahlström, Safety principles in I&C design, NPIC & HMIT 2015, Charlotte NC (2015). B. Wahlström, C. Rollenhagen, Safety management – a multi-level control problem. Safety Science, 69, pp.3–17 (2014). B. Wahlström, A. Duchac, IAEA safety principles applied to NPP instrumentation and control, NPIC & HMIT 2015, Charlotte, NC (2015).

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"Bush: we went to war on faulty intelligence". The Times. UK. December 14, 2005. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2009. "Bush Reviews Iraq War Strategy as Violence Mounts (Update3)". Bloomberg L.P. October 21, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008. "Bush on anniversary: War in Iraq must go on". CNN. March 19, 2008. Buller, D. B., LePoire, B. A., Aune, R. K., & Eloy, S. V. (1992). "Social perceptions as mediators of the effect of speech rate similarity on compliance". Human Communication Research. 19: 286–311. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1992.tb00303.x. Burgoon, K., & Coker, D. A., & Coker, R. A. (1986). "Communicative effects of gaze behavior: A test of two contrasting explanations". Human Communication. Brown, M. K. (1988). Working the street: Police discretion and the dilemmas of reform. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Black, D. (1976). The behavior of law. New York: Academic Press. Black, D. (1980). The manner and customs of the police. New York: Academic Press. Boydstun, J. E. (1975). San Francisco field interrogation final report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. Boyle, J., Dienstfrey, S., & Sothoron, A. (1998). National Survey of Speeding and Other Unsafe Driving Actions: Driver attitudes and behavior (Vol 2.). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (1997). 1995 American Travel Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Calnon, J. M., & Bernard, T. J. (2000, November 17). Discrimination without prejudice: The systemic production of discriminatory Page 231 ! of 250 !


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outcomes in criminal justice. Paper presented at the 2000 American Society of Criminology Meeting, San Francisco. Campbell, J. P., & Pritchard, R. D. (1976). Motivation theory in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 63-130). Chicago: Rand McNally. Cashmore, Ellis. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. 4th ed. 1999 Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Lt, December 15, 1988 Canhoto, A.I. (2007). "Profiling behaviour: the social construction of categories in the detection of financial crime, dissertation at London School of Economics" (PDF). lse.ac.uk. Cordner, G., Williams, B., & Zuniga, M. (2000). Vehicle Stop Study: Mid-year report. San Diego, CA: San Diego Police Department. Crank, J. P. (1994). Watchman and community: Myth and institutionalization in policing. Law & Society Review, 28, 325-351. Crank, J. P., & Langworthy, R. (1992). An institutional perspective of policing. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 83, 338-363. Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David (2004). "Some acoustic cues for the perceptual categorization of American English regional dialects". Journal of Phonetics. 32 (1): 111–140. doi:10.1016/ S0095-4470(03)00009-3. PMC 3065110 . PMID 21451736. "Colin Powell says Iraq in a 'civil war'". Truthout. November 28, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2007. Crank, J. P., & Langworthy, R. (1996). Fragmented centralization and the organization of the police. Policing and Society, 6, 213-229. Cecilia Kang (October 31, 2011). "Obama names FCC commission-ers, both agency, Hill veterans". The Washington Post; Post Tech. Retrieved November 1, 2011. Page 232 ! of 250 !


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Cox, S. M., Pease, S. E., Miller, D. S., & Tyson, C. B. (2001). Interim report of traffic stops statistics for the state of Connecticut. Rocky Hill, CT: Division of Criminal Justice. C. Larman, Applying UML and patterns; an introduction to object-oriented analysis and design and iterative development, Prentice Hall (2005). Criminal investigation. Chicago: Nelson Hall. Peterson, M. (1997). Practical analytical techniques: A necessary addition to police education. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 8(1), 19–35. Custers, B.H.M. (2004). "The Power of Knowledge". Tilburg:Wolf Legal Publishers. DeJong, C., Mastrofski, S. D., & Parks, R. B. (2001). Patrol officers and problem solving. An application of expectancy theory. Justice Quarterly, 18, 31-61. Douglas, J. E., Burgess, A. W., Burgess, A. G. & Ressler, R. (1993). Crime classification manual. London: Simon & Shuster. Douglas, J., & Olshaker, M. (1995). Mind hunter: Inside the FBI’s elite serial crime unit. New York: Scribner. Douglas, J., & Olshaker, M. (1999). The anatomy of motive: The FBI’s legendary mindhunter explores the key to understanding and catching violent criminals. New York: Scribner. Douglas, J., & Olshaker, M. (2000). The cases that haunt us: From Jack the Ripper to JonBenet Ramsey, the FBI’s legendary mindhunter sheds light on the mysteries that won’t go away. New York: Scribner. Geberth, V . (1981). Psychological profiling. Drydakis, Nick (2010). "Ethnic Differences in Housing Opportunities in Athens". Urban Studies. 47 (12): 2573–2596. doi: 10.1177/0042098009359955.Craig, D. (1980). Dyer, Richard. Routledge 1997)

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Elmer, G. (2004). "Profiling Machines. Mapping the Personal Information Economy". MIT Press. Electronic Privacy Information Center. "EPIC - Workplace Privacy". epic.org. Electronic Privacy Information Center. "EPIC - Privacy and Consumer Profiling". epic.org. Ekstrand, L. E. (2000). Limited data available on motorist stops. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. Engel, R. S., & Worden, R. E. (2000). Police officers’ attitudes, behavior, and supervisory influences: An analysis of problemsolving (Final report submitted to the National Institute of Justice). Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Employee Profile at the FCC". FCC. January 4, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2017. 2016 Budget Estimate FCC Budget Estimates. FCC. "2008 Performance and Accountability Report" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. September 2008. EPRI, Operating Experience Insights on Common-Cause Failures in Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems, Report 1016731 (2008). Expertise in psychological profiling: A comparative assessment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(3), 311–331. Fagan, J., & Davies, G. (2000). Street stops and broken windows: Terry, race, and disorder in New York City. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 28, 457-504. Federal Highway Administration. (1995). Our nation’s travel: 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey early results report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Fayyad, U.M.; Piatetsky-Shapiro, G.; Smyth, P. (1996). "From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases" (PDF). AI Magazine. 17 (3): 37–54. Fair Housing Act, 42 U.S.C. § 3601 et seq. (1968) Page 234 ! of 250 !


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Fielding, Ken. Introduction to Television Production, Arizona State University 1990 Forman, Ernest http://expertchoice.com/rational-decisionmaking-is-subjective-decision-making/ Rational Decision Making is Subjective Decision Making 16 Nov Fielding,Ken. Introduction To Television Production, Longman, 1990. Freeman, John. Practical Photography Hermes House Anness Publishing Limited, London, 1993. Gandy, O. (2002). "Data Mining and Surveillance in the post 9/11 environment, Presentation at IAMCR, Barcelona" (PDF). asc.upenn.edu.American Civil Liberties Union. (2000). Plaintiffs fifth monitoring report: Pedestrian and car stop audit [On-line]. Available: http://www.aclupa.org/report.htm Geradts, Zeno; Sommer, Peter (2008). "D6.7c: Forensic Profiling" (PDF). FIDIS Deliverables. 6 (7c). Grogger, Jeffrey (2011). "Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality". Journal of Human Resources. 46: 1. doi:10.3368/jhr. 46.1.1. Gallup News Service. (2001, September 17). Attack on America: Review of public opinion. Princeton, NJ: Gallup News Organization. Harris, D. A. (1997). “Driving while black” and all other traffic offenses: The Supreme Court and pretextual traffic stops. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 87, 544-582. Harris, D. A. (1999a). Driving while black: Racial profiling on our nation’s highways [On-line]. Available: http://www.aclu.org/ profiling/report/index.html Harris, D. A. (1999b). The stories, the statistics, and the law: Why “driving while black” matters. Minnesota Law Review, 84, 265-326. Page 235 ! of 250 !


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Herszenhorn, D. M. (2000, October 22). Police and union chiefs meet to address racial profiling. New York Times, Sec.1, p. 41. Hall, Stuart. (ed) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices ( London: Sage,1977) Hannibal. New York: Delacorte. Hazelwood, R., & Michaud, S. (2001). Harcourt, B. E. (2006). "Against Prediction. Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age". The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. Hildebrandt, Mireille; Gutwirth, Serge (2008). Profiling the European Citizen. Cross Disciplinary Perspectives. Springer, Dordrecht. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6914-7. ISBN 978-1-4020-6913-0. Hip pocket guide to planning and evaluation. Austin, TX: Learning Concepts. Douglas, J., & Burgess, A. (1986). Criminal profiling: A viable investigative tool against violent crime. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 55, 9–13. Hillman, S. Richard, and Thomas J. D’Agostino. Understanding The Contemporary Caribbean: Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers; 2003. https://www.datenschutzzentrum.de/guetesiegel/register.htm https://www.datenschutzzentrum.de/guetesiegel/kurzgutachten/ g041006/ Hodges,John C., Mary E.Whitten, Winifred B. Horner, Suzanne S. Webb, Robert K.Miller Harbrace College Handbook eleventh edition, Harcourt Brace, Jonvanovich, Publishers,U.S.A.1990. Horton, Robin. Patterns of Thought in Africa and the West: Cambridge University Press,1997 HumanDeveloment.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Human_development_(humanity) Page 236 ! of 250 !


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h t t p s : / / w w w. g o o g l e . c o m / s e a r c h ? client=safari&channel=iphone_bm&ei=d0WVWpbZPKmE5wLSn J j g B Q & q = D E F I N E + T H E + W O R D + +profile+&oq=DEFINE+THE+WORD++profile+&gs_l=psyab.12...53312.65523.0.67836.22.22.0.0.0.0.146.2475.7j15.22.0....0...1c. 1 . 6 4 . p s y a b . . 0.7.937...0i7i30k1j0i8i7i30k1j33i22i29i30k1.0.fXgMEKLMu4Q IAEA, Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control: A Guidebook, TRS239 (1984). IAEA, Protecting against Common Cause Failures in Digital I&C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, NP-T-1.5 (2009). ISTAG (2001), Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence in 2010, Information Society Technology Advisory Group "Iraq Body Count". Iraq Body Count. Retrieved September 18, 2016. "Iraq Constitution Passes in Referendum". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. October 25, 2005. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006. Retrieved May 31, 2008. Jaquet-Chiffelle, David-Olivier (2008). "Reply: Direct and Indirect Profiling in the Light of Virtual Persons. To: Defining Profiling: A New Type of Knowledge?". In Hildebrandt, Mireille; Gutwirth, Serge. Profiling the European Citizen. Springer Netherlands. pp. 17– 45. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6914-7_2. J. Valkonen, I. Karanta, M. Koskimies, K. Heljanko, I. Niemelä, D. Sheridan, R.E. Bloomfield, NPP Safety Automation Systems Analysis State of the Art, VTT Working Papers 94 (2008). J. Lahtinen, J. Valkonen, K. Björkman, J. Frits, I. Niemelä, K. Heljanko, Model checking of safety-critical software in the nuclear engineering domain, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 105, pp.104-113 (2012). Page 237 ! of 250 !


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Jussi Lahtinen, Hardware failure modelling methodology for model checking, VTT-R-00213-14 (2014). Kennedy, R. (1997). Race, crime, and the law. New York: Vintage Books. Kephart, J. O.; Chess, D. M. (2003). "The Vision of Autonomic Computing" (PDF). Computer. 36 (1 January): 96–104. doi:10.1109/ MC.2003.1160055. King,Andrea. ’Changes soon for CBC,NCF” Weekend Nation 13April 2006. Krug,Cheryl. “Video Editing Techniques in Schools”. Media and Methods. Vol.35. 5 (1999). 55. Klinger, D. (1996). Bringing crime back in: Toward a better understanding of police arrest decisions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 333-336. Lamberth, J. (1996). A report to the ACLU. New York: America Civil Liberties Union. Laclau, Ernesto. and Chantal Mouffe. New Reflections on the Revolution of Our Time (London:Verso, ‘Post-Marxism without apologies’,NewLeft...http://www.essex.ac.uk/methods/ Courses%202004/Outlines/2U%20outline05.htm Law and Order, 29, 46–49. Geberth, V . (2006). Langan, P. A., Greenfeld, L. A., Smith, S. K., Durose, M. R., & Levin, D. J. (2001). Contacts between police and the public: Findings from the 1999 national survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Lansdowne, W. M. (2000). Vehicle stop demographic study. San Jose, CA: San Jose Police Department. Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Greenleaf, R. G. (1994). Police-citizen encounters: Turk on norm resistance. Justice Quarterly, 11, 605-623. Leopold, N.; Meints, M. (2008). "Profiling in Employment Situations (Fraud)". In Hildebrandt, Mireille; Gutwirth, Serge. Profiling the Page 238 ! of 250 !


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European Citizen. Springer Netherlands. pp. 217–237. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6914-7_12. Lessig, L. (2006). "Code 2.0". Basic Books, New York. L. Bainbridge Ironies of Automation, Automatica, 19, pp.775-779 (1983). Licensing of safety critical software for nuclear reactors – Common position of seven European nuclear regulators and authorised technical support organisations, BEL V, BfS, CSN, ISTec, ONR, SSM, STUK, http://www.onr.org.uk/software.pdf. (2013). Liska, A. E. (1984). A critical examination of the causal structure of the Fishbein/ Ajzen attitude-behavior model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 47, 61-74. Lundman, R. J. (1994). Demeanor or crime? The Midwest city police-citizen encounters study. Criminology, 32, 631-656. Lyon, D. (2003). "Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk, and Digital Discrimination". Routledge. Nabeth, Thierry (2008). "User Profiling for Attention Support for School and Work". In Hildebrandt, Mireille; Gutwirth, Serge. Profiling the European Citizen. Springer Netherlands. pp. 185–200. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6914-7_10. Quinney, R. (1980). Class, state and crime. New York: Longman. Ramirez, D., McDevitt, J., & Farrell, A. (2000). A Resource guide on racial profiling data collection systems: Promising practices and lessons learned. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Remington, F. J. (1990). Development of criminal justice as an academic field. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 1, 9-20. Riksheim, E. C., & Chermak, S. M. (1993). Causes of police behavior revisited. Journal of Criminal Justice, 21, 353-382. Rubinstein, J. (1973). City police. New York: Ballantine. Page 239 ! of 250 !


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Schuman, H., & Johnson, M. P. (1976). Attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 161-207. Schwartz, P. (2000). "Beyond Lessig's Code for the Internet Privacy: Cyberspace Filters, Privacy-Control and Fair Information Practices". Wis. Law Review. 743: 743–788. Solove, D.J. (2004). The Digital Person. Technology and Privacy in the Information Age. New York, New York University Press. Steinbock, D. (2005). "Data Matching, Data Mining, and Due Process". Georgia Law Review. 40 (1): 1–84. Sherman, L. W. (1980). Causes of police behavior: The current state of quantitative research. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 17, 69-100. Skolnick, J. H. (1966). Justice without trial: Law enforcement in a democratic society. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, D. A., & Klein, J. R. (1983). Police agency characteristics and arrest decisions. In G. P. Whitaker & C. D. Phillips, Evaluating performance of criminal justice agencies (pp.63-97). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Smith, M. R., & Petrocelli, M. (2001). Racial profiling? A multivariate analysis of police traffic stop data. Police Quarterly, 4, 4-27. Smith, W. R., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Mason, M., Zingraff, M. T., Chambers, C., Warren, P., & Wright, C. (2000). “Driving while black:” Establishing a baseline of driver behavior by measuring driving speed and demographic characteristics. Unpublished manuscript, North Carolina State University. Snipes, J. B., & Mastrofski, S. D. (1990). An empirical test of Muir’s typology of police officers. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 14, 268-296. Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department’s “stop and frisk”practices: A Report to the people of the state of New Page 240 ! of 250 !


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York from the Office of the Attorney General. Albany: New York Attorney General’s Office. State of New Jersey v. Pedro Soto, 734 A.2d 350 (1996). Stith, S. M. (1990). Police response to domestic violence: The influence of individual and familial factors. Violence and Victims, 5, 37-49. Taylor, J., & Whitney, G. (1999). Crime and racial profiling by U.S. police: Is there an empirical basis? Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 24, 485510. Tedeschi, J. T., & Felson, R. B. (1994). Violence, aggression, and coercive actions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Texas Department of Public Safety. (2000). Traffic stop data report [On-line]. Available: http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/ public-information/trafrep2q00. pdf Turk, A. T. (1969). Criminality and legal order. Chicago: Rand McNally. Manxymuk,John. Using Desktop Publishing To Create Newsletters, Handouts,and Webpages, A How To Do It Manual ( Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc. New York London 1997) Massey, Douglas S; Lundy, Garvey (2016). "Use of Black English and Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets". Urban Affairs Review. 36 (4): 452. doi:10.1177/10780870122184957. Meeks, Brian. and Folke Lindah (ed) New Caribbean Thought (Mona: The Press, 2001) Manning, P. K. (1977). Police work: The social organization of policing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mastrofski, S. D., & Parks, R. B. (1990). Improving observational studies of police. Criminology, 28, 475- 496. Mastrofski, S. D., Ritti, R. R., & Snipes, J. B. (1994). Expectancy theory and police productivity in DUI enforcement. Law & Society Page 241 ! of 250 !


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Review, 28, 113-148. Mastrofski, S. D., Worden, R. E., & Snipes, J. B. (1995). Law enforcement in a time of community policing. Criminology, 33, 539-563. Maxfield, M. G., Allen, D. N., & Antunes, G. E. (1981). The role of street-level supervisors in police patrol operations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC. Meyers, A. R., Heeren, T., & Hingson, R. (1989). Discretionary leniency in police enforcement of laws against drinking and driving: Two examples from the state of Maine, USA. Journal of Criminal Justice, 17, 179-186. Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Expectancy models of job satisfaction, occupational preference and effort: A theoretical, methodological, and empirical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 1053-1077. Michaud, S. (1986, October 26). The FBI’s new psyche squad. New York Times Magazine. Palmiotto, M. (1994). "Mission Not Accomplished". Time. October 6, 2003. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2009. Murder in America (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Jenkins,P .(1994).Using murder: The social construction of serial homicide.NewYork:Aldine de Gruyter. Kocsis, R., Orwin, H., & Hayes, A. (2000). Munson, Benjamin (2016). "The Acoustic Correlates of Perceived Masculinity, Perceived Femininity, and Perceived Sexual Orientation". Language and Speech. 50 (Pt 1): 125–42. doi: 10.1177/00238309070500010601. PMID 17518106. Nettleford. Rex. Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of Jamaica. An Essay in Cultural Dynamics. (Kingston: Ian Randle, Newman, M; Wu, A (2011). ""do You Sound Asian when You Speak English?" Racial Identification and Voice in Chinese and Page 242 ! of 250 !


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Korean Americans' English". American Speech. 86 (2): 152. doi: 10.1215/00031283-1336992. 2003). Non Linear Editinghttp://www.altvetmed.com/face/823-nonlinear-editing.html Friday February 11, 2005. Odlyzko, A. (2003). "Privacy, economics, and price discrimination on the Internet, A. M. Odlyzko. ICEC2003: Fifth International Conference on Electronic Commerce, N. Sadeh, ed., ACM, pp. 355– 366" (PDF). O. Bäckström, J.-E. Holmberg, M. Jockenhövel-Barttfeld, M. Porthin, A. Taurines. Software reliability analysis for PSA, NKS-304, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (2014). "Perceptual and Phonetic Experiments on American English Dialect Identification" (PDF). Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 18: 10. doi:10.1177/0261927X99018001002. Practical homicide investigation (4th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Harris, T. (1981). Petch, Chuck. and David Colborn Grass Valley Group published in United States of America, 1991. Pressley. Michael "Comprehension Instruction: What Works". ReadingRockets. Retrieved 2008-03-15. P. Savioja, Evaluating systems usability in complex work; development of a systemic usability concept to benefit control room design, VTT Science 57 (2014). "President George W. Bush speaks during a video teleconference with Vice President Dick Cheney, on screen, and military commanders". October 21, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2008. Page 243 ! of 250 !


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Profiles in murder: An FBI legend dissects killers and their crimes. New York: Dell.Abdulhadi,Abba Kyari (2017). Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare. Purnell, Thomas; Idsardi, William; Baugh, John (2016). Rahman, J (2008). "Middle-Class African Americans: Reactions and Attitudes Toward African American English". American Speech. 83 (2): 141. doi:10.1215/00031283-2008-009. Red dragon. New York: Putnam. Harris, T. (1988). The silence of the lambs. New York: St. Martin’s. Harris, T. (1999). Rehman,N.Sharaf. “The Power of Editing” Media and Methods. Vol. 40 (1987):12. Rehrauer,Dr.George. The Film User’s Handbook (Publisher R.R. Bowker Company, A Xerox Education Company. 1975) Ressler, R., & Shachtman, T. (1992). Whoever fights monsters. New York: St. Martin’s. Ressler,R.,&Shachtman,T.(1997). I have lived in the monster: Inside the minds of the world’s most notorious serial killers. New York: St. Martin’s. Sears, D. (1991). To kill again. Rolston, Holmes III. "Value in Nature and the Nature of Value." Environmental Ethics. Ed. Andrew Light and Holmes Rolston III. Malden: Blackwell, 2003. 143-153. Rothery, Katie. https://www.slideshare.net/katierothery/historyof-editing R.C. Conant, W.R. Ashby, Every good regulator of a system must be a model of that system, Int. J. Systems Sci., 1, pp. 89-97 (1970) Salaberry, M. Rafael. Language allegiances and bilingualism in the US. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2009. ISBN 978-1847691774

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Schifferes, Steve (March 18, 2003). "US names 'coalition of the willing'". BBC News. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008. Schneider, Michael (2002-09-27). "‘Surreal’s’ appeal". Retrieved 2016-08-18. Shapiro, Ilya L.; de Berredo-Peixoto, Guilherme (2013). Lecture Notes on Newtonian Mechanics: Lessons from Modern Concepts. Shepherd, Michael A (2011). "Effects of Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Evaluation of Students' Spoken Responses". Urban Education. 46 (5): 1011. doi:10.1177/0042085911400325. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 116. ISBN  1461478251. Retrieved 28 September 2016. Smalls, DL (2004). "Linguistic Profiling and the law" (PDF). Stanford Law & Policy Review. 15. "Sporadic violence doesn't deter Iraqi voters". CNN. January 31, 2005. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved May 31, 2008. Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Zeleny, Jeff (May 1, 2007). "Bush Vetoes Bill Taylor, John R. (2005). Classical Mechanics. University Science Books. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9781891389221. The evil that men do: FBI profiler Roy Hazelwood’s journey into the minds of sexual predators. New York: Scribner. Holmes, R., & Holmes, S. (1992). The lust killer. New York: Signet. Vorpagel, R. (1998). Thom, Randy. Audio Craft Second Edition, Published by National Federation of Community Broadcasters 1982, Second Edition 1989, Second Printing July 1990 Tuhiwai,Smith, Linda. Decolonizing Methodlogies. Research and Page 245 ! of 250 !


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Walker, S. (1999). The police in America (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill College. Walker, S. (2001). Searching for the denominator: Problems with police traffic stop data and an early warning system solution. Justice Research and Policy, 3, 6395. Washington State Patrol. (2001). Report to the legislature on routine traffic stop data. Seattle: Washington State Patrol and Criminal Justice Training Commission. Weiser, M. (1991). "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century". Scientific American. 265 (3): 94–104. doi:10.1038/ scientificamerican0991-94. Wilson, J. Q. (1968). Varieties of police behavior: The management of law and order in eight communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Worden, R. E. (1989). Situational and attitudinal explanations of police behavior: A theoretical reappraisal and empirical assessment. Law and Society Review, 23, 667-711. Worden, R. E., & Shepard, R. L. (1996). Demeanor, crime, and police behavior: A reexamination of the Police Services Study data. Criminology, 34, 83-105. Zatz, M. S. (1987). The changing forms of racial/ethnic biases in sentencing. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 24, 69-92. Walker, Richard J. and Robert E.Walker Exploring Photography the Goodheart-Willcox.,Inc.Publishers, U.S.A. 1983. Wheeler, Tom (March 29, 2017). "How the Republicans Sold Your Privacy to Internet Providers". New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2017. Willing, Si. How To Sell Radio Advertising, published by Tab Books, Pa. U.S.A,1970. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources. Stack,A. (1983). Page 247 ! of 250 !


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Woodward, Jeannette A. Writing Research Papers: Investigating Resources In Cyberspace. (Lincolnwood Chicag o: NTC Publishing Group, 1997), Wolcott H. (2001) Writing up qualitative research. 2nd Edition. Sage: Thousand Oaks. Zarsky, T. (2002). ""Mine Your Own Business!": Making the Case for the Implications of the Data Mining or Personal Information in the Forum of Public Opinion". Yale Journal of Law and Technology. 5 (4): 17–47. Zingraff, M. T., Mason, H. M., Smith, W. R., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Warren, P., McMurray, H. L., & Fenlon, C. R. (2000). Evaluating North Carolina State Highway Patrol data: Citations, warnings, and s e a r c h e s i n 1 9 9 8 [ O n - l i n e ] . Av a i l a b l e h t t p : / / www.nccrimecontrol.org/shp/ncshpreport.htm ROBIN SHEPARD ENGEL** University of Cincinnati JENNIFER M. CALNON*** THOMAS J. BERNARD**** Pennsylvania State University The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English First edited by F.G. and H.W. Fowler Eigth Edition Edited by Della Thompson Clarendon Press. Oxford 1992 page 714

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IT'S THE LENS VOL.1  

It's The Lens is symbolic, it is a cultural abstract and a conversation which is discussed figuratively and metaphorically the subject of pr...

IT'S THE LENS VOL.1  

It's The Lens is symbolic, it is a cultural abstract and a conversation which is discussed figuratively and metaphorically the subject of pr...

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