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of-money factors - if these parameters are applicable - are not included.

Further developments The simple levelised cost of energy analysis applied in the present study can be further refined by replacing the somewhat basic concept of ‘what the PV system owes the client’ with a more detailed net present value analysis, which would also include allowances for several of the variables noted as omissions in the assumptions. We can also note that the cost parity period analysis can be applied to off-grid PV systems, although in this case: 1. A figure would have to be allocated to the electricity tariff the system would displace, if the grid were available at the site; and,

© Winkens

PV economics

2. A  figure determined (again by a proper NPV analysis) to add to the notional grid tariff that accounts for all capital costs of getting the grid connected to the site (with a nominal plant lifetime period against which to amortise the capital expenditure).

Conclusion Figure 1 shows that the CPP for a gridconnected PV system occurs far earlier than the typical payback period. The CPP represents the point in time at which the cost of energy from the PV system beats the cost of energy from the electricity grid, and only keeps getting cheaper than grid electricity as time progresses. In this sense, the CPP realises the time when the PV system has demonstrated its true worth, and the client is

in an economically more advantageous position than if they had not installed the PV system. Laros Technologies

n products & services

Precious metal and alloy XRF analyser Portable gas detector The RKI Eagle 2 portable gas detector can be rented from TechRentals. Suitable for the oil and gas, industrial safety, air-quality, hazmat and military sectors, the gas detector provides confined space protection for lower explosive limit (LEL), O2, H2S and CO. It also incorporates a photoionisation detector (PID) for volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring. The unit comes standard with data logging; low-flow pump shut-off and alarm; auto calibration/single gas calibration; and an IrDA communications port. It is intrinsically safe and CSA approved. Other features include methane elimination for environmental use; powerful long-life pump up to 38 m range; and an alkaline 18 h or Ni-MH 20 h capability. TechRentals

Non-destructive testing (NDT) of manufactured materials by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a crucial tool in many industries. The latest handheld XRF analyser from Olympus, the Delta Element, is suitable for scrap metal sorting, positive material identification (PMI), alloy QA/QC and precious metals analysis. The handheld XRF analyser was developed for users who require the speed and ease of operation expected from the Delta Premium, yet do not require the extended element range necessary only for some specialty applications. With its lightweight, handheld design and durable construction, the product features rubber overmoulding to protect the analyser and an ergonomic grip for comfortable operation. With a powerful X-ray tube and Si-PIN detector, the product provides quick identification, screening and sorting of alloy and precious metals. Its combination of features is suitable for most alloy identification and sorting applications. The powerful tool is simple to operate - users can switch between precious metals and alloy mode at the touch of an onscreen icon. The device displays measured results and grade identification in seconds. With Olympus’ Grade Match Messaging (GMM) feature, the user can assign customised messages to any grade and use real-time or pop-up messages for immediate sorting instructions and improved user efficiency. The Delta Report software then allows for fast and professional reporting and certificate generation of any analysis. Olympus Australia Pty Ltd

36 Sustainability Matters - Feb/Mar 2015

Profile for Westwick-Farrow Media

Sustainability Matters Feb/Mar 2015  

Sustainability Matters is a bi-monthly magazine showcasing the latest products, technology and sustainable solutions for industry, governmen...

Sustainability Matters Feb/Mar 2015  

Sustainability Matters is a bi-monthly magazine showcasing the latest products, technology and sustainable solutions for industry, governmen...