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Exhaust PM and NOx Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland Timothy Dallmann and Robert Harley University of California, Berkeley

Thomas Kirchstetter Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Acknowledgments   Phil Martien, Virginia Lau & other District staff (Bay Area AQMD)   Drew Gentner (UC Berkeley)   Brad Edgar (Cleaire)   Research funding: Bay Area AQMD

Introduction   Communities near ports and rail yards have disproportionate diesel exhaust impact (trucks, locomotives, ships) SF-Oakland Bay Bridge Port of Oakland

West Oakland

UP and BNSF Rail Yards

Port of Oakland Truck Age Age of trucks entering/exiting terminal gates 1817 unique license plates matched to DMV records ~100% HD diesel trucks. Survey date: Oct/Nov 2008 50% of trucks 1997 or older

ARB Port Truck Rule

Port of Oakland Truck Program   $25M grant funding provided by ARB, BAAQMD, Port of Oakland, and EPA »  1300 trucks retrofit with diesel particle filters (DPF) – 4 different filter designs »  200 new truck replacements »  truck owners paid some of the costs

  In this study, Port truck emissions were measured in Nov 2009 and Jun 2010 »  most retrofits happened during this period


UP Rail   Yard  

TO   I-­‐880  S  

Mobile Lab Measurements Species




Li-Cor 820

Non-dispersive infrared absorption


Eco Physics CLD 64




Light attenuation (filter)


TSI DustTrak

Light scattering

All measurements had 1-second time resolution

Sample Truck Plumes A typical “average” truck

Truck with low BC/PM emissions

Black Carbon Emission Factors

PM2.5 Emission Factors

NOx Emission Factors

Discussion/Summary   Emission factor reductions »  ~50% for exhaust PM/black carbon »  ~40% for NOx (surprising given DPF focus) »  Port truck clean-up occurred rapidly – Similar reductions for HD trucks @ Caldecott tunnel took 9 years (1997-2006) to achieve!

  Further measurements planned in 2011 »  NO/NO2 split, particle # and size distribution »  durability of retrofits?

PM and NOx at the Port of Oakland  

Study sponsored by BAAQMD to assess Exhaust PM and NOx Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

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