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49TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE

  Denver, Colorado

October 7 - 10, 2009

WIRED WEST

WESTERN HISTORY ASSOCIATION FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE PROGRAM

WIRED WEST

October 7-10, 2009 Grand Hyatt Denver Denver, Colorado

Aerial view of Civic Center and downtown Denver, Colorado. Buildings include the City and County Building, Arapahoe County Courthouse, Republic Building, Mountain States Bell Telephone and Telegraph Building, Brown Palace, and Daniels and Fisher Tower. The Front Range of the Rocky Mountains is in the distance, c. 1931-1933. Photo Courtesy of the Denver Public Library History and Genealogy Department.

The West used to mean part of our country. Now it means part of the world. -- Thomas Hornsby Ferril

Cover Illustration: Henry Farny, “The Song of the Talking Wire,� 1904, Oil on Canvas; Gift of Charles Phelps and Anna Sinton Taft, The Taft Museum of Art, Cincinnati, Ohio.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Conference Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Welcome to Denver From the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 2009 WHA Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Business, Council, and Committee Meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Breakfasts and Luncheons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Receptions and Dinners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2009 Local Arrangements Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Downtown Denver Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Schedule-at-a-Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-18 Presidential Luncheon/WHA Awards Banquet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Tours/Wired West Workshops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-24 Wired West 2009 Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 From the Program Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-27 WHA Book Corral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Meeting Space Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-29 Wednesday Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-31 Thursday Sessions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-39 Friday Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-51 Saturday Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-59 Exhibitors & Advertisers Index of Exhibitors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Exhibit Hall Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Index of Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-83 Western History Association Awards and Honors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2009 WHA Committees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85-86 WHA Donors, Patrons, & Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-90 WHA History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91-92 2010 Call for Proposals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93-94 Index of Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-98 2010 Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Membership Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Special Events Donors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102-104

CONFERENCE INFORMATION Kevin J. Fernlund Executive Director Laura L. Diel Executive Assistant

Betty Ditmeyer Executive Assistant

Berta Simic Graduate Research Assistant

Valenda Curtis Graduate Research Assistant GRADUATE STUDENT STAFF

University of New Mexico Elaine M. Nelson Rebecca Vanucci B. Erin Cole

Meg Frisbee Sarah E.M. Grossman Bryan Turo Robin S. Walden

University of Nevada-LasVegas Leisl Carr Childers Michael Childers

REGISTRATION Conference pre-registration Deadline is September 14, 2009. Registration must be received in the office by that date, with full payment, in order to receive the pre-registration price including all electronic registrations and paypal transactions. Registration fees below apply Pre-registration on or before September 14, 2009 WHA Member WHA Member/K-12 Teacher Discount WHA Student Member Non-Member Guest/Spouse (w/registered attendee) One-day Registration

$82 $75 $40 $125 $15 $50

Onsite Registration $90 $85 $50 $135 $25 $60

Please note: Regular Membership is $80.00. There is a membership application in the back of this program. The membership form is also available on our website at www.westernhistoryassociation.org. Teachers and Graduate Students, please note that Continuing Education Units and Graduate Credit are available at the conference from Colorado State University. For more information, please contact Brian Collier (Brian.S.Collier@gmail.com). REFUND POLICY Refunds less a $20.00 handling fee will be given for cancellations received by September 14, 2009. No refunds can be given for cancellations after that date. 4

CONFERENCE INFORMATION ROOM RESERVATIONS Reservations for the event will be made by the individual attendees directly by calling 1-800-633-7313 for the Grand Hyatt Denver. Members may also make arrangements with the hotel online by visiting the WHA website (www.westernhistoryassociation.org). To receive the negotiated group rate for the Grand Hyatt Denver, you will need to reference “Western History Association” at the time your reservation is made. Grand Hyatt Denver Rate is $179.00 single or double occupancy Cutoff date for room reservation is September 5, 2009 Grand Hyatt Denver 1750 Welton Street Denver, Colorado USA (303) 295-1234 CONFERENCE & REGISTRATION Grand Hyatt Denver

Imperial Ballroom and Foyer

REGISTRATION HOURS Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

1:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. 8:00 a.m. – Noon

CONFERENCE BOOK EXHIBITS Grand Hyatt Denver

Imperial Ballroom and Foyer

EXHIBIT HOURS Thursday Friday Saturday

8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. 8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. 8:00 a.m. – Noon

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Western History Association Office would like to take this opportunity to thank the University of Missouri – St. Louis for its generous support, in particular the Center for Transportation Studies, the St. Louis Mercantile Library, the College of Education, and the College of Arts and Sciences. 5

FROM THE PRESIDENT The theme for this year’s Western History Association Conference is “The Wired West.” That phrase evokes varied images from barbed wire used to keep people apart to telegraph and telephone lines and fiber optic cables to connect them. Louis Warren and Colleen O’Neill, the program co-chairs, and I had in mind both material and metaphorical meanings of wire and the range of papers and sessions that theme elicited led to the exciting list of offerings you will find in this program. My use of it here refers to wire as linkage, for this conference offers a wonderful opportunity to get connected with people, ideas, and the excitement of researching and teaching west- Sherry L. Smith ern history. And I can’t think of a better place than Denver to get “wired” for western history. And, of course, Denver in autumn, located in the heart of the American West, can’t be beat as our meeting place. The Local Arrangements Committee, headed by Tom Noel and Jim Kroll, have organized tours and off site sessions designed to encourage you, at least occasionally, to venture out of our beautiful hotel and into the dynamic streets of downtown Denver and to discover the rich cultural offerings of the Denver Art Museum, Colorado Historical Society, the Denver Public Library; and the Rockies themselves where the golden aspens should be at their peak. Whether your tastes run to nineteenth century mining towns and railroads or the 20th century hippie entrepreneurs of Boulder and Cold War related sites of the Front Range, we have outings to match. The Western History Association has a welcoming tradition – encouraging connections between professional and avocational scholars, academic and public historians, teachers and students, writers and readers. We pride ourselves in the accessibility of our members’ work and our eagerness to connect with audiences. Still, there is more work to be done in making our conference available to people who share an interest in researching, teaching, and learning about the American West. To that end, this year we are making particular efforts to invite and include K-12 teachers and our colleagues who teach at two-year colleges. We are building, for example, on the foundation created last year when eighty K-12 teachers participated in the Salt Lake City conference, largely through the Teach for American History program. It is gratifying to report that many Utah-based teachers will join us again in Denver. And, of course, we are particularly encouraging participation from Colorado/Wyoming teachers this time. Further, the WHA Teaching Western History Committee recently received a Library of Congress Teaching with 6

Primary Sources Grant. The primary purpose of the grant is to train K-12 teachers and social studies/history methods teachers from state universities in how best to use the Library of Congress website and American Memory resources. However, one university faculty member and one K-12 teacher from nine western states will also attend the WHA conference and receive memberships. Finally, the Charles Redd Center/WHA teacher award will once again bring talented teachers to our conference. Another initiative this year has been to encourage historians who work at two-year colleges to come to Denver. We have a dedicated group of people from this cohort who attend every year. But we would like to increase those numbers. Jim Leiker, Kurt Kinbacher, Geoff Hunt, Jeremy Johnson, Katie Curtis and Jay Antle have been helping us identify and invite people from this group. These historians teach more U.S. History survey and state history courses than Western, Native American or Borderlands topics. But the opportunities to integrate insights and examples from our field are rife and the possibilities of reaching students early in their college career with the joys of western history are too good to pass up. Of course, we remain dedicated to graduate student and junior faculty participation, as well, and understand they face economic challenges, particularly in attending those meal functions where important “wiring” often takes places. Happily, this year the Coalition for Western Women’s History and the WHA have initiated a Graduate Student Support Fund on the registration form to raise money for attendance at breakfast and lunch events. The way it works is simple. Members and attendees can contribute to the fund when they pre-register. Then the CWWH will turn those donations into meal tickets which will be distributed through a lottery. Of course, faculty always have the option of treating their graduate student to one of the meals! As for other costs, Denver is centrally located, fuel prices are down, and airfares are reasonable. The Grand Hyatt Denver is a recently remodeled hotel in downtown Denver. It will be our venue for the 2012 conference, as well. Our intrepid Executive Director Kevin Fernlund has locked in the 2009 room price for that latter conference. So, that represents a significant savings in the future. The Denver Art Museum – venue for some outstanding sessions – will allow conference attendees free admission to the museum. All you have to do is show your conference badge. In sum, this year’s conference has shaped up to be an outstanding event – with rich intellectual content, opportunities for professional and social networking, and just plain fun. Please come to Denver and join us! Finally, none of this would happen without the hard work of Kevin and the WHA staff at University of Missouri, St. Louis: Laura Diel, Berta Simic, Valenda Curtis, Patty Archer, and Betty Ditmeyer. My deepest thanks to all. Welcome to Denver. Sherry L. Smith

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2008 WHA OFFICERS PRESIDENT Sherry L. Smith, Southern Methodist University PRESIDENT-ELECT John R. Wunder, University of Nebraska, Lincoln EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Kevin J. Fernlund, University of Missouri, St. Louis COUNCIL Peter Blodgett (2010) Huntington Library

Anne M. Butler (2009) Utah State University (Emerita)

R. David Edmunds (2010) University of Texas, Dallas

David G. Gutierrez (2011) University of California, San Diego

Maria Montoya (2010) New York University

Katherine G. Morrissey (2011) University of Arizona

Virginia Scharff (2010) University of New Mexico

David Wrobel (2009) University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Liping Zhu (2009) Eastern Washington University NOMINATING COMMITTEE William Bauer, Jr. (2010) University of Wyoming

Karen Leong (2009) Arizona State University

B. Byron Price (2010) University of Oklahoma

Louise Pubols (2009) Oakland Museum of California

Barbara O. Reyes (2010) University of New Mexico EX-OFFICIO David Rich Lewis Western Historical Quarterly

Molly Holz Montana Magazine

FINANCIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Gordon Bakken, Chair California State University

Gregory Thompson University of Utah 8

Janet Fireman California History

BUSINESS, COUNCIL, AND COMMITTEE MEETINGS

WEDNESDAY Noon – 5:00 p.m. • Longs Peak Room WHA Council Meeting 3:00 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. • Mt. Yale Room WHA Technology Task Force Meeting 10:30 a.m. – Noon • Mt. Wilson Room WHA Teaching Western History Committee Meeting 3:00 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. • Pikes Peak Room WHA Membership Committee Meeting 4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. • Mt. Oxford Room CWWH Business Meeting (Immediately following the Wednesday Roundtable) FRIDAY 10:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. • Pikes Peak Room WHA 2010 Program Committee Meeting Closed Door 4:00 p.m. • Mt. Elbert Room WHA Business Meeting

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BREAKFASTS AND LUNCHEONS THURSDAY 7:00 a.m. • Mt. Elbert Room Mining History Breakfast 7:00 a.m. • Longs Peak Room ASEH Breakfast NOON • Mt. Elbert Room Phi Alpha Theta Luncheon NOON • Longs Peak Room WHQ Editorial Board Luncheon NOON • Pikes Peak Room Montana The Magazine Luncheon FRIDAY 7:00 a.m. • Mt. Elbert Room CWWH Breakfast 7:00 a.m. • Longs Peak Room Public History Breakfast NOON • 38th Floor PC Capitol Peak Room Presidential Luncheon SATURDAY 7:00 a.m. • Longs Peak Room Westerners International Breakfast 7:00 a.m. • Mt. Elbert Room Borderlands/Fronterizo Breakfast 7:00 a.m. • Pikes Peak Room Community College Breakfast NOON • Mt. Elbert Room Indian Scholars Luncheon NOON • Pikes Peak Room Military History Luncheon

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RECEPTIONS AND DINNERS

WEDNESDAY 5:30 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. • 38th Floor PC Capitol Peak Room WHA Opening Reception Ticket required.

THURSDAY 4:30 p.m. • Mt. Elbert Room Graduate Student Reception Ticket required. Sponsored by

the five museums of the

Buffalo Bill Historical Center 720 Sheridan Avenue, Cody, Wyoming 82414 307.587.4771 • www.bbhc.org

FRIDAY 7:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m. • 38th Floor PC Capitol Peak Room WHA Awards Banquet Ticket required.

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2009 LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS Denver Local Arrangements Co-Chairs: Jim Kroll, Denver Public Library Tom Noel, University of Colorado at Denver

Tom Noel

Jim Kroll

Thomas Andrews, University of Colorado Denver Sue Anschutz-Rodgers, Anschutz Family Foundation William J. Convery, Colorado Historical Society Brian DeLay, University of Colorado, Boulder James E. Fell, University of Colorado, Denver Mark Fiege, Colorado State University Steve Friesen, Buffalo Bill Museum Peter Hassrick, Denver Art Museum Ernest House, Colorado Commission on Indian Affairs Anne Hyde, Colorado College Holly Arnold Kinney, Fort Restaurant James Xavier Kroll, Denver Public Library Patricia Limerick, University of Colorado, Boulder John Monnett, Metropolitan State College Ed Nichols, Colorado Historical Society Jared Orsi, Colorado State University Lewis Sharp, Denver Art Museum Dan Shosky, SWCA Consulting Duane A. Smith, Fort Lewis College Greg Smoak, Colorado State University Joan Troccoli, Denver Art Museum Steve Weil, Denver Posse of Westerners 12

WELCOME TO DENVER WELCOME TO MEXICAN DIGGINGS, ER, UH, DENVER Jerome Smiley in his 1901, 978-page tome, History of Denver, reported that John Simpson Smith — a mountain man married into the Cheyenne tribe — was already there when Denver's "founders" arrived. As Smiley put it, "Smith, in company with some Mexicans had, in the summer of 1857, discovered and taken out considerable gold at a place on the Platte River, about three miles above the mouth of Cheery Creek. The spot thus became known in the local annals as 'the Mexican Diggings' — or, by some, as 'the Spanish Diggings.'" Mexican Diggings disappeared without even a historic marker. The “discovery” of gold and “founding” of Denver City is attributed to white folks arriving a year later. What prehistoric residents called the future site of Denver at the junction of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek is unknown. Some early accounts refer to it as Arapaho Camp, a winter camp for a tribe that hunted buffalo on the plains in spring and in the high country in summer. Before the Arapaho, the Utes were here. The Utes remain the only tribe with reservations in Colorado. They have the best right to the “Native” bumper stickers and license plates, which locals nowadays use to distinguish themselves from neo-natives. Fittingly, Ute Mountain Ute leader Ernest House, Jr., Executive Secretary of the Colorado Commission of Indian Affairs, will bless us at the Friday night banquet.

DIA’s Jeppesen Terminal, suggest the Native American tipis once on the site, courtesy of Fentress Architects.

The Anglo-American discovery that gave birth to Denver was made by experienced Georgia prospectors, the William Green Russell party. They found gold in the summer of 1858 in Cherry Creek and the South Platte, and that October founded Auraria City. A month later William H. Larimer, a Pennsylvanian, jumped a claim and called it Denver City. He and other Yankees soon chased off the Russells and other confederates. The name Auraria did not reappear until 1976 with the establishment of the Auraria Higher Education Center — the state’s largest campus with 43,000 students at the consolidated campus of the Community College of Denver, Metropolitan State College of Denver and the University of Colorado, Denver. These schools welcome students from any economic and educational background, including those from the once ostracized Native and Hispanic American populations. The sprawling metropolis called Denver welcomes the WHA for the forth time in 49 years. Despite the national depression, you will find the Mile High City a much slicker, bigger city, resting on its laurels after giving Barrack Obama the boost he needed with the Democratic National Convention. That event coincided last year with Denver’s 150th birthday celebrations. The city’s past is commemorated with exhibits at the Colorado History Museum, with its amazingly accurate and detailed WPA diorama of 1860 Denver; at the Denver Art Museum with its fabulous native American and Western Art; and at the Denver Public Library, with a Western History Department that is this planet’s finest haven for Rocky Mountain history. These three side-by-side resources are on the south side of Civic Center, seven blocks from our convention hotel — the Grand Hyatt (use the free 16th Street Mall Shuttle to cover five of these blocks). These institutions, special speakers, and exhibits will be included on the Thursday walking tours. Saturday walking tours cover the old Union Station/Skid Row district of warehouses and whorehouses reborn as Lower Downtown (LoDO). 13

Thursday’s bus tour features Patricia Limerick’s grand tour of the People’s Republic of Boulder and environs. Saturday’s bus tour whisks you to the mountains for a Georgetown Loop Railroad and Lebanon Mine excursion, followed by a walking tour of the well preserved silver city of Georgetown with Duane Smith — Colorado’s Homer of the Hills, and associates. After many ups and downs since its golden beginnings, Denver has been riding high lately. It is one of the few U.S. core cities to be gaining population and still building high rises downtown. Federal offices, high tech industries, health care, cable television, and tourism are mainstays, along with a big mining and energy sector. Gold mining, which gave Denver its start, is back in business, 24/7. President Barack Obama signed his history-shattering stimulus package bill in Denver earlier this year in part to promote renewable energy, a major Colorado thrust. Another kind of pep comes from a booming vineyard, winery and brewing industry — including over a 100 brewpubs and micro-breweries — not to mention the giant Coors and Budweiser plants. Colorado now produces more suds than any other state. Mayor John Hickenlooper, who rose to fame by launching the state’s first brew pub, will be the Friday night speaker at President Sherry Smith’s banquet. Like many core cities, Denver lost population between 1970 and 1990, but from 1990 to 2000 the population grew from 467,610 to 554,636. Growth can be credited to the establishment of the LoDo Historic District and 45 other historic districts which have stabilized once declining core neighborhoods. LoDo transformed the old Union Station/Skid Row neighborhood into million dollar lofts, and nearly a hundred bars, restaurants, and brew pubs. Don’t miss LoDo’s Tattered Cover Book Store, Old Map Gallery, and Rockmount Ranch Wear with its crackerjack cowboy and cowgirl garb.

Union Station at Night, courtesy of Tom Noel.

The LoDo/Central South Platte Valley area with its many foot trails and parks includes a Downtown Aquarium, Elitch Gardens Amusement Park, the Children’s Museum, and the sports venues of Mile High Stadium, Coors Field and the Pepsi Center. At Platte and 15th streets, lurks Denver’s oldest continually operating saloon, My Brother’s Bar, offering neoclassical hamburgers and classical music. The new Colorado Convention Center and one of the nation’s top three (in terms of seats and theatres) Performing Arts Complexes have sparked the current eruption of high rise residences and hotels along 14th Street. Conversion of the former Stapleton Airport and Lowry Air Force Base into booming residential areas, as well as the growing population of once declining core city neighborhoods, has fueled expectations that Denver will pass the 600,000 mark with the 2010 Census. Surrounding suburban counties (Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Broomfield, Douglas and Jefferson) grew even faster, giving the metro area a population of 2,157,657 by 2000. The Native and Hispanic Americans dispossessed in Denver’s kitten years are returning. Today the city is 1.3 % Native American, 3 % Asian, 11 % black and 32 % Hispanic. So, howdy pard. Welcome to the Mile City. You will find it a safe, friendly, walkable town that can take your breath away. Tom Noel Jim Kroll Co-chairs, 2009 Local Arrangements Committee 14

DOWNTOWN DENVER

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SCHEDULE-AT-A-GLANCE WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 7TH WHA Teaching Western History Committee Meeting WHA Council Meeting CWWH Roundtable, “Gender, Region, and Culture...” CWWH Business Meeting Teaching Western History & Teaching American History... Active Learning Lessons in the K-20 Classroom Western Literature & Film in Grade 3-12 Learning Communities for Teaching Western History Traveling Trunks: Grand Canyon Project WHA Technology Task Force WHA Membership Meeting WHA Opening Reception

10:30 am Noon 2:30 pm 4:00 pm 1:00 am 1:00 pm 1:00 pm 3:00 pm 3:00 pm 3:00 pm 3:00 pm 5:30 pm

Noon 5:00 pm 4:00 pm 5:00 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 4:30 pm 4:30 pm 4:30 pm 4:30 pm 7:00 pm

Mt. Wilson Room Longs Peak Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Princeton Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Yale Room Pikes Peak Room 38th Floor PC Capitol Room

8:00 am 8:00 am 7:00 am 7:00 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am Noon Noon Noon 4:30 pm 1:30 pm 1:30 pm 1:30 pm

5:00 pm 5:00 pm 8:00 am 8:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon

Imperial Ballroom Imperial Ballroom Foyer Mt. Elbert Room Longs Peak Room Mt. Wilson Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Harvard Room Torreys Peak Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Yale Room Mt. Princeton Room Blanca Peak Room Grays Peak Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Wilson Room Mt. Harvard Room Blanca Peak Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Yale Room Mt. Princeton Room Grays Peak Room Torreys Peak Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Elbert Room Longs Peak Room Pikes Peak Room Mt. Elbert Room Maroon Peak Room Meet in Lobby

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 8TH Exhibitors Registration Mining History Breakfast ASEH Breakfast Western Modernism Home and Away: Reform, Representation ..... Bureau of Reclamation: Identity, Representation ..... Is the West Exceptional in Comparison? ..... Technologies of Migration Control Women, Gender, and Western Rural Work Teaching the West: A Roundtable Discussion Mining Cultures Nature Bound & Unbound Assessing the Legacy of the Colorado Mining Rush: ..... Re-Imagining the West and Westerners: ..... The Wired Northwest: Electric Power, Political Power ..... Time and Place in American Indian History Jews & the Creation of a Regional Society in the Pacific Teaching to Transcend: ..... Both Borders: ..... It Seemed Like a Good Marriage: ..... Technologies, Communication & Representation ..... Doing History Outside Academia: A Roundtable ..... African Americans on the Great Plains: A Roundtable ..... Phi Alpha Theta Luncheon WHQ Editorial Board Luncheon Montana the Magazine Luncheon Graduate Student Reception The Wired West: A Hands On Images Workshop Civic Center Walking Tour Boulder Bus Tour

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5:00 pm

Side Entrance between 17th & 18th

SCHEDULE-AT-A-GLANCE FRIDAY, OCTOBER 9TH Exhibitors Registration CWWH Breakfast Public History Breakfast WHA Program Committee Meeting Denver Art Museum: Challenging Images I Moving Faith: Religion & Migration since 1800 Bounding a Bountiful Land: Indian, Animals ..... Dressing Western: From Tourist to Hollywood Identity & Agency in American Indian ..... Collision, Face-offs & Evasion ..... Teaching About Women, Gender & Sexuality ... The Electric West: A Roundtable Discussion Environment, Culture, & the Colorado Gold ..... Racial Violence Denver Art Museum: Challenging Images II Sponsored Mexican Nationalism in the ..... Michael Harrison: Connecting the Old West ..... Wired Together: The Interaction of the ..... Expert Testimony in Tribal Litigation: ..... Expanding Borderlands Gender & Western Landscape Forging Federal Ties: Racial Community ..... A Minority Influence on a National Religion Contested Interconnections: Transnational ..... Presidential Luncheon Denver Art Museum: Charles Deas ..... Writing & Reading Between the Lines: ..... New Media in the Wired West ..... Urban Nature Re-Touring Native Pasts: ..... Western Women’s History: ..... Wiring Wellness in the West: ..... Modern Wonders: The West Remade by ..... The Pacific World in 19th Century ..... West by Southwest: Southern Music ..... WHA Book Corral WHA Business Meeting WHA Awards Banquet

8:00 am 8:00 am 7:00 am 7:00 am 10:00 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am Noon 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 2:30 pm 4:30 pm 5:00 pm 7:00 pm

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5:00 pm 5:00 pm 8:00 am 8:00 am 4:00 pm 10:30 pm 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon 2:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 4:00 pm 6:00 pm 6:00 pm 9:00 pm

Imperial Ballroom Imperial Ballroom Foyer Mt. Elbert Room Longs Peak Room Pikes Peak Room Denver Art Museum: C-Level Lecture Hall

Mt. Wilson Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Princeton Room Mt. Yale Room Torreys Peak Room Blanca Peak Room Grays Peak Room Mt. Oxford Room Denver Art Museum: C-Level Lecture Hall

Maroon Peak Room Mt. Wilson Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Princeton Room Mt. Yale Room Torreys Peak Room Grays Peak Room Blanca Peak Room 38th Floor PC Capitol Peak Denver Art Museum: C-Level Lecture Hall

Mt. Wilson Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Princeton Room Grays Peak Room Blanca Peak Room Mt. Oxford Room Torreys Peak Room Mt. Yale Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Elbert Room 38th Floor PC Capitol Peak

SCHEDULE-AT-A-GLANCE SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10TH Exhibitors Registration Westerners International Breakfast Borderlands/Fronterizo Breakfast Community College Breakfast Teaching with Primary Sources ..... Zebulon Pike Redux Spatial History: Rewiring the Western Past ..... Taking Flight in Colorado: The Aerospace Industry ..... Echoes of the Sand Creek Massacre: ..... Expulsion Repatriation, and Emigration ..... Mining Masculinities Rewired: Oral History in the 21st Century ..... Ranching in the Wired West: ..... Wiring & Rewiring Western Identities: ..... Colts & Winchesters and Weapons of Mass ..... Exploring & Visualizing the Mid-Nineteenth ... The “Inter-connection” of Indigenous & ..... Climate History, Water, & Global Warming ..... Sand Creek in American History: A Roundtable ..... Borderlands/Fronterizo Session Railroads & Radios in the Making of the Canadian ..... Foremothers of the New Western History ..... Media Culture & Western Social Movements Railroading Opportunities?: Railroads & State Power ..... Vine Deloria and the Uses of History: ..... Indian Scholars Luncheon Military History Luncheon Downtown Denver Pub Crawl & Walking Tour Georgetown Bus, Narrow Gauge Train Tour

8:00 am 8:00 am 7:00 am 7:00 am 7:00 am 9:00 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 8:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am 10:30 am Noon Noon 1:30 pm 1:30 pm

Noon Noon 8:00 am 8:00 am 8:00 am 5:00 pm 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am 10:00 am Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon Noon

Imperial Ballroom Imperial Ballroom Foyer Longs Peak Room Mt. Elbert Room Pikes Peak Room Metropolitan State College Mt. Wilson Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Princeton Room Mt. Yale Room Grays Peak Room Blanca Peak Room Torreys Peak Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Columbia Room Maroon Peak Room Mt. Wilson Room Mt. Harvard Room Mt. Oxford Room Mt. Columbia Room Mt. Princeton Room Blanca Peak Room Torreys Peak Room Mt. Yale Room Grays Peak Room Mt. Elbert Room Pikes Peak Room Meet in Lobby Side Entrance between 17th & 18th

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 11TH Teaching with Primary Sources .....

9:00 am Noon

18

Metropolitan State College

PRESIDENTIAL LUNCHEON Ticket required.

NOON – FRIDAY, OCTOBER 9TH 38TH FLOOR (PINNACLE CLUB CAPITOL PEAK BALLROOM) Luncheon Address by Sherry L. Smith, WHA President

Reconciliation and Restitution in the American West

WHA AWARDS BANQUET Ticket required.

7:00 P.M. – FRIDAY, OCTOBER 9TH 38TH FLOOR (PINNACLE CLUB CAPITOL PEAK BALLROOM) Master of Ceremonies John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor of Denver Denver and the West in the 21st Century ~ Presentation of Awards 19

2009 WIRED WEST TOUR SCHEDULE THURSDAY, OCTOBER 8, 2009 Civic Center Walking Tour 1:30 p.m.

Denver’s cow town roots are celebrated in Alexander Phimster Proctor’s Civic Center sculpture, Broncho [sic] Buster, Courtesy of Visit Denver.

Tour includes a free mall shuttle ride to Broadway then a walk through Civic Center Park with stops at the Colorado State Capitol, the City & County Buildings, ByersEvans Houes Museum and other wonders. At 2:30 you will be welcomed to the Colorado State History Museum, 1300 Broadway, by CEO Ed Nichols and Colorado State Historian Bill Convery. Don’t miss the museum’s WPA diorama of 1860 Denver and the Imagine a Great City sesquicentennial exhibit. At 3:30 meet at the Denver Art Museum in the Sharp Auditorium of the spectacular new Hamilton Wing, 13th and Acoma, for a welcome from DAM CEO Lewis Sharp and a talk by Peter Hassrick & associates. Meet at 5:00 at the west entrance of the Denver Public Library, 14th and Acoma, for a welcome from City Librarian Shirley Amore. James X. Kroll, manager of the Western History Department, will give you a special tour of that fabulous department followed by a reception in the Gates Reading Room on the fifth floor. Please plan to meet in the lobby of the Grand Hyatt Hotel, at 1750 Welton Street. Ticket and WHA Name Badge required.

20

2009 WIRED WEST TOUR SCHEDULE THURSDAY, OCTOBER 8, 2009 Boulder Bus Tour 1:30 p.m.

Boulder, Colorado, 1895-1901, Lawrence P. Bass photo. Courtesy of the Denver Public Library History and Genealogy Department.

Tracing a loop along the foothills west of Denver, this tour will explore themes of the post-World War II West. A visit to the city of Lakewood, guided by its recent mayor, the very insightful and principled Steve Burkholder, will accent both the conglomeration of federal agencies there and the complicated history and legacy of Denver area desegregation. A stop at the Rocky Flats site, accompanied by two leading historians of the facility, will highlight the heritage of nuclear weapons production. Arriving in the people’s republic of Boulder, the tour will culminate with a dinner in Boulder, where we will meet long-time Boulderites (including Celestial Seasonings’ founder Mo Siegel) who played central roles in the community’s eco-entrepreneurial tradition and precedent-setting open space preservation campaigns. Accompanied by a couple of younger historians who have done recent studies of the Denver area, our tour captain Patricia Limerick will offer observations and anecdotes from her twenty-five, action-packed years in Colorado. Please plan to meet the tour bus at the Grand Hyatt Hotel’s side entrance, between 17th & 18th Street. Buses will return you to that location. Ticket and WHA Name Badge required.

21

2009 WIRED WEST TOUR SCHEDULE SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2009 Downton Denver Pub Crawl and Walking Tour 1:30 p.m.

The Brown Palace Hotel, Courtesy of the Denver Public Library History and Genealogy Department.

Tom Noel & associates will guide you on a tour of Lower Downtown (LoDo). We begin with a free 16th Street mall bus ride to Larimer Street. Tour stops include the Larimer Square murals, Market Street Red Light District, Rockmount Ranch Wear, Oxford Hotel & Cruise Room, Union Station, Coors Field, Hop Alley (Chinatown), El Chapultipec Jazz Bar, Japan Town and Anschutz Art Gallery in the old Navarre. On this one mile walk, we will point out various dining possibilities in LoDo, which houses more than 50 bars and restaurants. Debriefing in the Ship Tavern of Brown Palace Hotel. Suggested readings: Tom Noel’s The City & The Saloon and Colorado: A Liquid History & Tavern Guide to the Highest State. Please plan to meet in the lobby of the Grand Hyatt Hotel, at 1750 Welton Street. Ticket and WHA Name Badge required.

22

2009 WIRED WEST TOUR SCHEDULE SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2009 Georgetown Bus, Narrow Gauge Train, Lebanon Silver Mine & Walking Tour 1:30 p.m.

Georgetown Loop narrow gauge train, 1885, Courtesy of Georgetown Loop Railroad and the Colorado Historical Society.

Georgetown Bus, Narrow Gauge Train, Lebanon Silver Mine & Walking Tour with Jay Fell & Duane Smith. Hear stories of the Colorado gold rush on your hour-long ride through the Front Range of the Rockies to the well preserved silver city of Georgetown. Board the world famous Georgetown Loop narrow gauge train at Georgetown at 2:55 for an hour and a half ride, including a stop at the Lebanon Mine for an optional tour of this 1870s silver strike. Afterwards, stroll the streets of Georgetown on a guided tour with Profs. Fell and Smith. Next, board the bus and head for Morrison and a wild west dinner at the Fort Restaurant at 7 p.m. with owneroperator Holly Arnold-Kinney. Suggested readings: all 54 Duane Smith’s books, especially The Rise of the Silver Queen, written with Liston Leyendecker and Christine Bradley, as well as Jay Fell’s Ores to Metals, The Rocky Mountain Smelting Industry. Please plan to meet the tour bus at the Grand Hyatt Hotel’s side entrance, between 17th & 18th Street. Buses will return you to that location. Ticket and WHA Name Badge required.

23

2009 WIRED WEST WORKSHOPS THURSDAY

1:30-5:00

MAROON PEAK

A Hands-On Images Workshop This workshop is intended for historians who wish to add images to their pedagogical repertoire, use images in their research, or augment their websites, blogs, or research projects with illustrations. Although the intent of this session is to teach common techniques for editing images for digital and print projects, the workshop will also discuss the uses of images, image problems, image restoration (or not), copyright, and sources for western images. Workshop participants should plan to bring a laptop computer with Photoshop CS4 (Win & Mac) or Photoshop Elements 7.0 (Win) or Photoshop Elements 6.0 (Mac) loaded and a 1 GB USB thumb or jump drive or other external drive. The images that we will use during the workshop will be available for download from the instructor’s site two weeks before the WHA. Participants are also encouraged to bring one or more of their own images for discussion or work. Presenter:

Paula Petrik, Center for History & New Media, George Mason University

SATURDAY 9:00-5:00

SUNDAY 9:00-NOON

METROPOLITAN STATE COLLEGE

Teaching with Primary Sources and Active Learning Workshop (by pre-arrangement) This training is for K-12 social studies and history teachers and social studies methods instructors in the use of active learning methods, primary sources on the Library of Congress American Memory website, and Denver Public Library’s collection of primary sources. Preregistration for this event is required. This workshop will be held off-site at Metropolitan State College. This event is sponsored by the United States Library of Congress (LOC), the Western History Association (WHA), the Denver Public Library, and Metropolitan State College. For more information, please contact Brian Collier (Brian.S.Collier@gmail.com).

Presenters:

Peggy O’Neill-Jones, Metropolitan State College of Denver Brian S. Collier, University of Notre Dame Lindsey Passenger, Northern Arizona University Matthew S. Makley, Metropolitan State College of Denver

24

2009 PROGRAM COMMITTEE 2009 Program Committee Co-Chairs: Colleen O’Neill, Western Historical Quarterly Louis Warren, University of California, Davis

Colleen O’Neill

Louis Warren

Al Broussard, Texas A&M University Flannery Burke, Saint Louis University Ned Blackhawk, University of Wisconsin Raquel Casas, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Kathleen Brosman, University of Houston Connie Y. Chiang, Bowdoin College Amanda Cobb, Chickasaw Nation/American Indian Quarterly Sterling Evans, Brandon University Rick Ewig, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming Chuck Grench, University of North Carolina Press Richard Hart, Hart, West & Associates Kelly Lytle Hernandez, University of California, Los Angeles Margaret Jacobs, University of Nebraska Karl Jacoby, Brown University Jared Orsi, Colorado State University Monica Perales, University of Houston William Truettner, Smithsonian American Art Museum Garrett Voggesser, National Wildlife Foundation Lysa Wegman-French, National Park Service 25

FROM THE PROGRAM COMMITTEE We meet in a global city astride an ancient road. Along the shoulders of the Front Range, in the sheltered edge where prairie becomes mountain, runs a route connecting the dwelling places of long ago peoples. The pathway is old beyond imagining, a trace of America’s first peoples, who perhaps began to carve it with their first journey out of the north and into these American Plains. Hard as it is to reckon the distant past, we can speculate that since those days, the place of our meeting has been a meeting place. On the spot where we meet, others met long, long ago to swap goods, news, ideas, and stories. So they renewed old friendships, began new ones, re-thought their connections to one another and to the world. Our gathering is profoundly unlike theirs, in almost every conceivable way. And yet, like them we bring remarkable stories to this gathering. Among us are scholars of borders, gender, race, violence, weather, and art. We compare the U.S. West to the Kazakh steppe and the Australian outback, U.S. - Mexico borderlands with U.S.Canada borderlands, and the image of the Old West in Italy and the Future West in Gene Autry movies. We swap and compare histories of migration, immigration, and public history. We explore gender and sex, Jews and Mormons, Catholics and Protestants, dams and fences. We speak of camping, guiding, women radio station owners, warfare, law and expert witnesses, music, western space and aerospace, and of course wire—barbed wire, copper wire, telegraph wire, and even haywire. Our technologies, our newest wires, might seem to transcend history. But as much as the microchip and fiber optic cable seem to have re-wired humanity, they are only the latest in a long line of inventions through which people transformed this space and their lives on it, with vast and often unintended consequences. Here horses once constituted an economic and political revolution. They made life easier, but they also limited people’s options when natural systems changed or when newcomers blocked routes to the best grasslands. The technological revolutions of our own day offer us the kind of power and wealth once unimaginable. And yet we remain vulnerable to the changes in nature we unleash, sometimes unintentionally. The environmental history papers at this conference, which explore topics ranging from bears to Los Angeles and the implications of global warming, might help to remind us just how vulnerable we remain. Thinking about the history of this space will not always be an easy process. It has been 150 years since the Colorado Gold Rush began, and so we have two panels exploring the explosion in commerce and the raft of social, political, and economic changes it brought. Of course, with it came cultural collisions and morbid atrocities. Two panels on the massacre at Sand Creek will help us to consider the costs in honor and human suffering that made a great city like Denver. Looking beyond 19th century violence, scholars are exploring American Indian histories in boarding schools and in community building as well as thinking about Native struggles to 26

FROM THE PROGRAM COMMITTEE control land energy resources and sovereignty. And there’s more. There are panels on teaching the West, western archives and libraries, digital history and new media in the classroom and beyond, and threestandout sessions on painting and photography at the Denver Art Museum. All told, Denver is a fabulous place to think about the past and the future and how they’re connected. In some sense, that’s what people have been doing here for a long time. We are pleased to be part of that tradition, and thank you all for making it possible. Louis Warren Colleen O’Neill Co-chairs, 2009 Program Committee

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The 2009 Program Committee Co-chairs would like to thank USU history graduate students, Travis Mecham and Philip Lockette, for all of their hard work.

WHA BOOK CORRAL The 2009 WHA Book Corral will be held Friday, October 9th, 4:30 p.m. - 6:00 p.m., in Mt. Columbia. Meet your favorite author, get your book signed (and receive a free drink with every purchase), and support the WHA. All proceeds go to the WHA endowment fund.

27

CONFERENCE CENTER MAP G R A N D H YAT T D E N V E R SECOND FLOOR

THIRD FLOOR

L O B B Y L E V E L M T. S O P R I S

28

CONFERENCE CENTER MAP AT R I U M T O W E R 38TH FLOOR - PINNACLE CLUB

37TH FLOOR - PINNACLE CLUB

S E C O N D F L O O R - G R A N D H YAT T C O N F E R E N C E C E N T E R

29

WIRED WEST SESSIONS WEDNESDAY

1:00-2:30

MT. COLUMBIA

Teaching Western History and Teaching American History Grants This roundtable discussion is intended to help TAH Grant Winners discuss their different grants and to give others ideas about how to write effective grant writing. Panelists

WEDNESDAY

Kelly Long, Colorado State University, Project Teach Grant William L. Virden, Colorado Institute for Historical Study, Ties that Bind/Routes of American Democracy Daniel McInerney, Utah State University, NUPaths TAH Grant

1:00-2:30

MT. HARVARD

Active Learning Lessons in the K-20 Classroom This session is designed to model four active learning lessons on topics in the American West. Every participant in this session will leave with not only new teaching methods, but also access to three sets of lesson plans. Chair & Comments Presenters

WEDNESDAY

Brian S. Collier, University of Notre Dame Erin Thorton, Bishop Machebeuf High School, Denver, Colorado Cassie Pease, Caledonia High School, Caledonia, Michigan Taryn Elizabeth Lewis, St. Augustine School, Dallas, Texas Lindsey Passenger, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona

1:00-2:30

MT. PRINCETON

Western Literature and Film in Grades 3-12 and for Preservice Teacher Classrooms Attendees will participate in brief activities, as teachers at each level will share a writing assignment, literature suggestions, and film suggestions and/or clips. Presenters will also solicit ideas from participants and work to establish a network to be used in the future. Topics include: American Indians, Pioneers, Mountain Men, Defining the West, and Cowboys. Presenters

Dorothy Dobson, 3rd grade, Cache County School District, River Heights, Utah Anitra Jensen, 5th grade Edith Bowen Laboratory School, Logan, Utah Joe Ribera, 7th grade, Cache Country School District, Hyde Park, Utah Arlene Churchill, Julie Major and April Cooper, High School, Cache School District, Hyrum, Utah

30

WIRED WEST SESSIONS WEDNESDAY

2:30-4:00

MT. OXFORD

CWWH Roundtable Gender, Region, and Culture: New Voice and Directions Chair Participants

Comment

WEDNESDAY

Lynne Getz, Appalachian State University Dee Garceau-Hagen, Rhodes College Lori Lahlum, Minnesota State University, Mankato Lillian Marrujo-Duck, City College of San Francisco Maritza De La Trinidad, West Texas A&M University Susan Gray, Arizona State University

3:00-4:30

MT. HARVARD

Learning Communities for Teaching Western History With a group of former students, the group will discuss Western history and controversies –notably Sand Creek—in a collaborative environment. This panel will offer training, testimony, and statistical success rates about the benefits of learning communities. Presenters

WEDNESDAY

Katherine Scott Sturdevant, Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs, Colorado Stephen Collins, Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs, Colorado Veteran Students of the PPCC History-Communication Learning Communities

3:00-4:30

MT. COLUMBIA

Traveling Trunks: Grand Canyon Project Presenters

THURSDAY

Mary DeStefano, Retired Elementary Teacher, Tucson, Arizona Linda Sargent Wood, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona Joan Miller, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona Paul Hirt, Arizona Sate University, Tempe, Arizona Bill DeStefano, Retired Community College Instructor, Tucson, Arizona

8:30-10:00

MT. WILSON

Western Modernism Chair

David Wrobel, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Paper

Making Modernism in the West: Mexican American Artists, 1930-1960 Stephanie Lewthwaite, University of Nottingham

Paper

Barbed and Dangerous Lyn Bennett, Utah Valley University & Scott Abbott, Utah Valley University

Paper

Modern Mountain Views Melanie Shellenbarger, University of Colorado, Denver

Comment

Carl Abbott, Portland State University

31

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

MAROON PEAK

Home and Away: Reform, Representation, and the Experience of American Indian Education in the Early Twentieth Century Chair

David Adams, Cleveland State University

Paper

Summertime Blues: Home-Visitation Policy at the Sherman Institute and the Limits of Indian Educational Reform Julie Cohen, University of California, Irvine

Paper

Snapshots and Snap Judgments: Rethinking Native Experience in American Indian Boarding Schools, 1900-1920 Nicole Goude, University of California, Los Angeles

Paper

Educating Geronimo at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition Kevin Shupe, George Mason University

Comment

Tsianina Lomawaima, University of Arizona

THURSDAY

8:30-10:30

MT. HARVARD

Bureau of Reclamation: Identity, Representation, and Narrative Chair

Brit Allan Storey, Bureau of Reclamation

Paper

Big Dam Reclamation; or, the Demotion of Small Projects in the Forging of an Institutional Identity Jedediah S. Rogers, Arizona State University

Paper

Memory and Representation in the Reclaiming of Arid Lands Andrew Gahan, University of Nevada, Reno

Paper

The Bureau of Reclamation and the Defense of Hoover Dam During World War II Jim Bailey, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

Comment

Donald C. Jackson, Lafayette College

THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. COLUMBIA

Technologies of Migration Control Chair & Comment Paper

Kelly Lytle Hernรกndez, University of California, Los Angeles

Paper

Governing Immigrants Through Crime: Anti-Citizenship Technologies and the Management of the Border Jonathan Inda, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Paper

Pathologized Hybridities and Anthropological Provincialities Gilberto Rosas, University of Chicago

Immobilizing Categories: Discursive Technologies of Immigrant Detention David Hernandez, University of California, Los Angeles

32

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

TORREYS PEAK

Is the West Exceptional in Comparison? Borders, Colonization, and Indigenous Peoples Chair & Comment Paper

Carol Higham, Davidson College

Paper

Sioux, Kazakhs, and Contested Lands: Comparing American Colonization of the Northern Plains and Russian Colonization of the Kazakh Steppe Steve Sabol, University of North Carolina, Charlotte

Paper

Food, Control, and Resistance: Rations and Indigenous Peoples in the American Great Plains and South Australia Tamara Levi, Jacksonville State University

THURSDAY

Fraternal Twins or Distant Cousins? The Two Borders of the United States West Sheila McManus, University of Lethbridge

8:30-10:00

MT. OXFORD

Women, Gender and Western Rural Work Chair

Annette Atkins, St. John’s University

Paper

Grizzly Bears, Menstruation, and the West: Women and the Forest Service Carla Fisher, Purdue University

Paper

Rural Women in the Postwar West: Montana Women, Rural Magazines, and Rural Life Amy McKinney, University of Calgary

Paper

Voices of the Prairie: Pioneer Women Radio Station Owners Janolyn LoVecchio, University of Arizona

Comment

Laura Woodworth-Ney, Idaho State University

THURSDAY

8:30-10:30 Teaching the West: A Roundtable Discussion A Roundtable Discussion

Moderator & Panelist

Maria Montoya, New York University

Panelists

Elliott West, University of Arkansas Patricia Limerick, University of Colorado, Boulder Wendy Thowdis, North Syracuse Central School District

33

MT. YALE

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. PRINCETON

Mining Cultures Chair

Laurie Mercier, Washington State University, Vancouver

Paper

When Ethnicity Loses its Place and Manliness Loses its Function: Open-Pit Mining and Ethnic Neighborhoods in Butte, Montana Brian Leech, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Paper

Rethinking “Gold Fever”: The Transnational Dimensions of a Gold Rush Insane Asylum Angela Hawk, University of California, Irvine

Paper

Copper for the Country’s Wires: The Birth of Economic Geology at Butte, Montana Maeve Boland, Colorado School of Mines

Paper

Tenderfeet at Columbia: Mining Engineers and Labor Management in the 19th Century Southwest Sarah Grossman, University of New Mexico

Comment

The Audience

THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

BLANCA PEAK

Nature Bound and Unbound Chair

Jared Farmer, SUNY-Stony Brook

Paper

Wire and Rails: Making Order on the North Texas Plains Jahue Anderson, Texas Christian University

Paper

When Nature Goes Haywire: The Origins and Impact of Chronic Wasting Disease in Colorado Chris Rein, U.S. Air Force Academy

Paper

Pulling Apart San Francisco's Live-Work Spaces John D. Whitmer, Shasta College

Comment

Andy Kirk, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

34

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

GRAYS PEAK

Assessing the Legacy of the Colorado Mining Rush: A Roundtable Discussion Chair

Duane Smith, Fort Lewis College

Panelists

Gordon Bakken, California State University, Fullerton James Fell, University of Colorado, Denver Roger Burt, University of Exeter Elizabeth Jameson, University of Calgary Jeremy Mouat, University of Athabasaca Alma Parra, National Institute of History and Archeology Robert Spude, National Park Service

THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

MAROON PEAK

Re-Imagining the West and Westerners: the Future, the Native, and the Foreign

Chair

Janet Fireman, California History

Paper

Gene Autry and The Phantom Empire (1935): A Metaphorical Look at the Cowboy in the Wired West of the Future Ron Briley, Sandia Preparatory School

Paper

Someone's Bin Pullin Yer Leg: The American Indian in Bill Maudlin's World War II Cartoons Jay Casey, University of Arkansas, Fort Smith

Paper

Cowboys and Cappuccinos: American-Style Rodeo and Dude Ranches in Western Italy Renee Laegreid, Hastings College

Comment

J.C. Mutchler, University of Arizona, South

35

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. WILSON

The Wired Northwest: Electric Power, Political Power, and Regionalization Chair & Comment Paper

Daniel Pope, University of Oregon

Paper

Regionalizing Electric Power in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: Ideals, Consequences, and Politics Eve Vogel, University of Massachusetts

Paper

Historical Development of the Pacific Northwest's Pacific Southwest Intertie System Joshua Binus, Portland State University

THURSDAY

Power Incorporated in the Wired Northwest: The Evolution of Northwest Electric Power Systems, 1880-1930 Paul Hirt, Arizona State University

10:30-NOON

MT. HARVARD

Time and Place in American Indian History Chair

L. G. Moses, Oklahoma State University

Paper

Across Place and Time: Connecting Pre-Colonial, Colonial, and Post-Colonial History in the Traditions of the Caddo Carla Gerona, Georgia Institute of Technology

Paper

Where the Wash Meets the West: The Ak-Chin Indian Community’s SelfDetermination in the Midst of Change Diana Meneses, Arizona State University

Paper

“My Place and My Girls”: The Perspectives and Connections of Missionary Women in the “Dakota Field” Gretchen Albers, University of Calgary

Comment

Ross Frank, University of California, San Diego

36

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

BLANCA PEAK

Jews and the Creation of a Regional Society in the Pacific Chair

Jeanne Abrams, University of Denver

Paper

New Jewries and the Reinvention of a Regional Culture in the Pacific West William Toll, University of Oregon

Paper

Networks of Philanthropy: Western Jewish Regionalism and the Care of Others Ava Kahn, University of California, Berkeley

Paper

Networking Jewish Neighborhoods: the Singularity of the Pacific West Ellen Eisenberg, Willamette University

Comment

John Findlay, University of Washington

THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. OXFORD

Teaching to Transcend: A Roundtable Discussion Sponsored by Phi Alpha Theta Moderator & Panelist Panelists

Flannery Burke, Saint Louis University Deborah Pearce, Golden High School, Golden, Colorado Mark Wilensky, Stevens Elementary, Wheatridge, Colorado

THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. PRINCETON

It Seemed Like a Good Marriage: Does Environmental History Still Need the American West? Chair

David Rich Lewis, Utah State University

Paper

Colter, Glass, and Beckwourth: Working Bodies and the Abusive Spectacle of Environmental Americanism Jon Coleman, University of Notre Dame

Paper

Easternmost in Quality, Westernmost in Flavor: Lines and the History of Camping Phoebe Kropp, University of Colorado, Boulder

Paper

Outdoor Guides and the Narration of Place Annie Coleman, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis

Comment

Kathryn Morse, Middlebury College

37

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. YALE

Both Borders: Researching and Writing on the West's Mexican and Canadian Borderlands, A Roundtable Discussion Chair

Ben Johnson, Southern Methodist University

Panelists

Transborder Trade Networks in Early America Steve Fountain, Washington State University, Vancouver Transborder Indigenous Migration and Refugee Experiences Brenden Rensink, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Transnational Criminality Katherine Unterman, Yale University Transborder Agricultural and Environmental Connections Sterling Evans, University of Oklahoma Transborder Cultural History via Film Dominique Bregent-Heald, Memorial University of Newfoundland

THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

GRAYS PEAK

Technologies, Communication, and Representation in the Making of the Modern West Chair

Sherry Smith, Southern Methodist University

Paper

Shaping Public Perception in the West: Rhetoric, Technology, and the Lakota Sioux Ghost Dance. Brianna Theobald, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Paper

“Wired� Wild West: The U.S. Army and the Telegraph in the Trans-Pecos Region of Texas, 1870-1891 James Lewallen, Ector County Independent School District, Texas

Paper

Auto-touring Journalism on the Western Trails: the Travel Books of Emily Post, Beatrice Massey, and Mary Roberts Rinehart Wallace Lewis, Western State College of Colorado

Comment

Greg E. Smoak, Colorado State University

38

WIRED WEST SESSIONS THURSDAY

10:30-NOON

TORREYS PEAK

Doing History Outside of Academia: A Roundtable Discussion Moderator

Garrett Voggesser, National Wildlife Federation

Panelists

Douglas Helms, U.S. Department of Agriculture Douglas Littlefield, Littlefield Historical Research Mark Madison, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Jeff Pappas, Colorado State University & Lead Ranger, Yosemite National Park

THURSDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. COLUMBIA

African Americans on the Great Plains: A Roundtable Discussion Moderator

Bruce A. Glasrud, California State University, East Bay

Panelists

Charles A. “Chuck” Braithwaite, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Richard M. Breaux, Colorado State University James N. Leiker, Johnson County Community College Marc Rice, Truman State University Jean Van Delinder, Oklahoma State University

THURSDAY

1:30-5:00

MAROON PEAK

A Hands-On Images Workshop This workshop is intended for historians who wish to add images to their pedagogical repertoire, use images in their research, or augment their websites, blogs, or research projects with illustrations. Although the intent of this session is to teach common techniques for editing images for digital and print projects, the workshop will also discuss the uses of images, image problems, image restoration (or not), copyright, and sources for western images. Workshop participants should plan to bring a laptop computer with Photoshop CS4 (Win & Mac) or Photoshop Elements 7.0 (Win) or Photoshop Elements 6.0 (Mac) loaded and a 1 GB USB thumb or jump drive or other external drive. The images that we will use during the workshop will be available for download from the instructor’s site two weeks before the WHA. Participants are also encouraged to bring one or more of their own images for discussion or work. Presenter:

Paula Petrik, Center for History & New Media, George Mason University

39

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

8:30-10:30

DENVER ART MUSEUM: C-LEVEL LECTURE HALL

Challenging Images of the Old West, Part I Chair

William Truettner, Smithsonian American Art Museum

Paper

Artists and Hunters: Re-imagining the Art of Alfred Jacob Miller Kenneth Haltman, University of Oklahoma

Paper

We’re Not Alone: The Case of an Early Photograph of Shoshone Falls Frank Goodyear, National Portrait Gallery

Paper

Complicating the Colonial Gaze in the Work of Ernest L. Blumenschein Sascha Scott, Syracuse University

Comment

The Audience

FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. WILSON

Moving Faith: Religion and Migration since 1800 Chair

Anthony Mora, University of Michigan

Paper

A Microhistory of an Unknown Migration: Three French Seminarians in the Catholic Diocese of Tucson, 1850-1936 Tangi Villerbu, University of La Rochelle

Paper

Ministering to the Dead: Protestant Missionaries, Northwest Indians, and Death, 1834-1848 Wendi Willeford, University of Washington

Paper

Mormon Passage through Missouri Fred Woods, Brigham Young University

Comment

Anne Butler, Utah State University

40

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MAROON PEAK

Bounding a Bountiful Land: Indians, Animals, and Energy in the Powder River Basin Chair

Brian Hosmer, University of Illinois at Chicago

Paper

"Hog Tight and Cattle Strong": Legacies of Historical Attempts to Bound the Northern Cheyenne People Jaime Allison, University of Virginia

Paper

Wolves Without Borders Timothy Lehman, Rocky Mountain College

Paper

Feral Lands, Animals and People: Un-domestication and Ideologies of Race, Place, and Species in the Custer and Bighorn National Forests Michael Wise, University of Minnesota

Comment

David Rich Lewis, Utah State University

FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. HARVARD

Dressing Western: From Tourist to Hollywood

Chair

Peter Blodgett, Huntington Library

Paper

Touring Yellowstone, What to Wear?: Travel Clothing from Train to Trunk Tamsen Hert, University of Wyoming Libraries Sonya Meyer, University of Wyoming

Paper

The Dude Ranch Wife: Hostage and Drudge Laurel Wilson, University of Missouri, Columbia

Paper

Authenticity vs. Movies Connie Lindmier, Laramie Plains Museum

Comment

Linda Carlson, Colorado State University

41

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. PRINCETON

Identity and Agency in American Indian Boarding Schools and Day Schools Chair

Patricia Loughlin, University of Central Oklahoma

Paper

"To Cultivate a Manly Bearing": Cultural and Ethnic Tension at the Cherokee Male Seminary Natalie Panther, Oklahoma State University

Paper

"Dear Mr. Crandall”: Pueblo Indian Day Schools as Communication Conduits Adrea Lawrence, American University

Paper

Drums Beyond the Mountains: Team Athletics at Native American Boarding Schools, 1890-1930 Travis Larsen, Oklahoma State University

Comment

The Audience

FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. YALE

Collisions, Face-offs and Evasion: Borders, Migrants and Labor Sponsored by the Labor and Working Class History Association Chair

Zaragosa Vargas, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Paper

Invoking the Transit Privilege: Japanese Immigrant Challenges to the Power of North American Borders to Exclude Andrea Geiger, Simon Fraser University

Paper

Migrant Labor and Martial Law: The 1936 Colorado-New Mexico Boundary Battle Derek Everett, University of Arkansas

Paper

“California’s Worse Single Road Wreck”: The Deaths of Thirty-two Braceros in Chualar, September 17, 1963 Stella C. Mancillas, University of California, Davis

Comment

Ernesto Chavez, University of Texas, El Paso

42

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

TORREYS PEAK

Teaching About Women, Gender, and Sexuality in the American West: A Roundtable Discussion Moderator

Gayle Gullett, Arizona State University

Panelists

Bรกrbara Reyes, University of New Mexico Cynthia Prescott, University of North Dakota Donna Akers, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Michael Lansing, Ausburg College

FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

BLANCA PEAK

The Electric West: A Roundtable Discussion Chair

Brian Frehner, Oklahoma State University

Panelist

The Changing Political Landscape of Electrical Generation, Transmission, and Distribution in the American West Jay Brigham, Morgan, Angel and Associates, LLC

Panelist

Rural Electrification: Getting on the Grid in the American West Leah Glaser, Central Connecticut State University

Panelist

Electricity, Indian Nationalism, and Metropolitan America Andrew Needham, New York University

FRIDAY

8:30-10:00 Environment, Culture, and the Colorado Gold Rush: A Roundtable Discussion

Moderator

Kathleen Brosnan, University of Houston

Panelists

Tom Noel, University of Colorado, Denver James E. Sherow, Kansas State University George Vrtis, Carleton College

43

GRAYS PEAK

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. OXFORD

Racial Violence Chair

Gregg Cantrell, Texas Christian University

Paper

Racial and Class Frontiers Michael J. Pfeifer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Paper

Police Resistance, Telegraph Wires, and the Suppression of Racist Mobs: Kansas, 1890-1910 Brent Campney, University of Texas, Pan American

Comment

William Carrigan, Rowan University

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

DENVER ART MUSEUM: C-LEVEL LECTURE HALL

Challenging Images of the Old West, Part II Chair

Kenneth Haltman, University of Oklahoma

Paper

Frederic Remington and the Civil War: A Ghost Story Alex Nemerov, Yale University

Paper

Exposing Images: William Henry Jackson’s Photographs of the American West Lynn Saltonstall, Yale University

Paper

The Redemptive Space of the Transcontinental Railroad Glenn Willumson, University of Florida

Comment

The Audience

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

MAROON PEAK

Sponsored Mexican Nationalism in the American West Chair

Matthew Bokovoy, University of Nebraska Press

Paper

Fighting Nativism with Nationalism: The Spanish Language Press in the Wake of the Depression Era Repatriation of Mexicans Nick Bravo, University of California, Irvine

Paper

Politics through a Transnational Prism: Celebrating the Mexico's Centenario in Los Angeles, Laredo, and El Paso Raul Ramos, University of Houston

Paper

Queen of the Mexican Festivals: Mexican Patriotism in War Time California Carlos Salomon, California State University, East Bay

Comment

José Alamillo, California State University, Channel Islands

44

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. WILSON

Michael Harrison: Connecting the Old West with the New Millennium Chair

Daryl Morrison, University of California, Davis

Paper

Michael Harrison and the Real West: The Life of a Collector Extraordinaire John Skarstad, University of California, Davis

Paper

The Barb in a Michael Harrison Response: the private correspondence of Mike Harrison Daryl Morrison, University of California, Davis

Paper

The Harrison Western Research Center: Connecting the Past to the Future John Sherlock, University of California, Davis

Comment

The Audience

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. HARVARD

Wired Together: The Interaction of the Federal Government and Westerners Chair

Lysa Wegman-French, National Park Service

Paper

More Federal Employees than Cowboys: Individualism and the Federal Government at the Faraway Guest Ranch Lysa Wegman-French, National Park Service

Paper

Electrical Resistance: Rural Objections to Being Wired to the Federal Government during the New Deal Jacqui Ainlay-Conley, National Park Service

Paper

Modern by Design: Mission 66 Architecture and Consumer Culture in Rocky Mountain National Park Janet Ore, Colorado State University

Comment

Tom Thomas, University of Colorado, Boulder

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON Expert Testimony in Tribal Litigation: A Roundtable Discussion

Chair

Gregory Thompson, University of Utah

Panelists

Walter Echo-Hawk, Native American Rights Fund David Edmunds, University of Texas, Dallas Francis Flavin, U.S. Department of the Interior Richard Hart, Hart West & Associates Richard White, Stanford University

45

MT. OXFORD

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. PRINCETON

Expanding Borderlands Chair

Sarah Carter, University of Alberta

Paper

The Third Border: The Yukon/Alaska Border and the Borderlands Discussion Charlene Porsild, University of New Mexico

Paper

The Plains MetĂ­s and the Historiographies of the Forty-Ninth Parallel Michel Hogue, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Paper

Comparing National Borders in North America Andrew Graybill, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Comment

Andres Resendez, University of California, Davis

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. YALE

Gender and Western Landscapes Chair

Joan Jensen, New Mexico State University

Paper

Absent Women: The Panama Pacific International Exposition as Argument for a Manly, Vigorous West Susanna Morrill, Lewis & Clark College

Paper

Paternalistic Intimacy: Mixed Transnational Mining Families in the U.S. Mexican Borderlands Juliette Maiorana, University of California, San Diego

Paper

Queer Ecologies: The Soil Conservation Project and Navajo Stock Reduction of the 1930s Traci Voyles, University of California, San Diego

Comment

Marsha Weisiger, New Mexico State University

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

GRAYS PEAK

A Minority Influence on a National Religion Chair & Comment Paper

Carol Higham, Davidson College

Paper

Creating Their Own Legitimacy: White Use of Indian Christians and Indian Assimilation Tash Smith, University of Oklahoma

Europe Speaking to America Through Africa: The African Creek Role in Introducing Christianity into the Creek Nation Gary Zellar, University of Saskatchewan

46

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

TORREYS PEAK

Forging Federal Ties: Racial Community Building and the State in the Modern American West Chair

Shana Bernstein, Southwestern University

Paper

Re-envisioning Rosie: Mexican American Women and the Wartime State Elizabeth Escobedo, University of Denver

Paper

Environment and Internment: The Japanese and the War Relocation Authority in the Arid West Connie Chiang, Bowdoin College

Paper

The Strange Career of Affirmative Action: Minorities, HEW, and the University of Texas at Austin, 1960-1980 Craig Collisson, University of Colorad, Denver

Comment

Stephen Pitti, Yale University

FRIDAY

10:30-NOON

BLANCA PEAK

Contested Interconnections: Transnational Crime, Vice, and Contraband Chair & Comment Paper

Sterling Evans, University of Oklahoma

Paper

The Double Game: Anti-Vice Moralizing While Supporting Whiskey and Narcotics Contraband in Ciudad Juarez, 1929-1934 Andrae Marak, California University of Pennsylvania "En aprietos mas grandes me he metido, por que no he de salir de este?" The Extradition of Ignacia Jasso la viuda de Gonzalez Elaine Carey, St. John's University

Paper

Partners in Crime: Raiding and Rustling on the US-Mexican Border, 1821-1890 Kathleen Chamberlain, Eastern Michigan University

47

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

DENVER ART MUSEUM: C-LEVEL LECTURE HALL

Charles Deas and His Legacy in the Art of the American West Chair & Comment Paper

John Hoover, University of Missouri, St. Louis

Paper

Mountain Man Requiem: William Ranney’s Paintings of the American Fur Trade Peter Hassrick, Denver Art Museum

Paper

“Carson’s Men”: The Free Trapper in the Art of Charles M. Russell Joan Troccoli, Denver Art Museum

FRIDAY

Charles Deas: Lost and Found Carol Clark, Amherst College

2:30-4:00

MT. WILSON

Writing and Reading Between the Lines: Recovering the Voices of Mexican-origin Women in the American West Sponsored by Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project Chair

Monica Perales, University of Houston

Paper

Embodying Legend: Tracing Literary Tales of Sexuality and Race in the Gold Rush Hanging of Josefa/Juanita Maythee Rojas, California State University, Long Beach

Paper

Visions and Voices: Finding Mexican Girls in Americanization Manuals of the 1920s Magdalena Barrera, San Jose State University

Paper

Women as Speaking Subjects in the Texas Borderlands: Jovita Idar and Leonor Villegas de Manon Donna Kabalen, Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico)

Comment

Michael Soto, Trinity University

FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

MAROON PEAK

New Media in the Wired West: Online Culture and the Intersection with History Moderator

Jason Dormady, Stephen F. Austin State University

Panelists

Chas Clifton, Colorado State University, Pueblo Marty Durlin, High Country News Karen Hergengrinder, Karbon Kounty Moos Jonathan Weber, New West Network

48

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

MT. HARVARD

Urban Nature Chair

Colleen O'Neill, Utah State University

Paper

The Nature of Suburbia Lawrence Culver, Utah State University

Paper

Wide Open Spaces, White Open Spaces: Western Heritage and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles Laura Barraclough, Kalamazoo College

Paper

Performing Nature's Presence in the Megalopolis Jenny Price, Writer and Los Angeles Urban Ranger

Comment

Benjamin Johnson, Southern Methodist University

FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

MT. PRINCETON

Re-Touring Native Pasts: Cultural Sovereignty, Tourism, and Indigenous Representations of the Past Chair & Comment Paper

Martin Padget, Aberysthwyth University

Paper

Over the Edge: The Grand Canyon Skywalk, Globalization, and Representatives of the Hualapai Past Jeffrey Shepherd, University of Texas, El Paso

Paper

Win, Lose or Draw: Indian Gaming, Indian Art in New Mexico Jane Sinclair, University of New Mexico

FRIDAY

Drowning Gods and Developing Prayer Sites: The Navajo Nation and Tourism at Rainbow Bridge National Monument, 1910-1980 Erika Bsumek, University of Texas, Austin

2:30-4:00

GRAYS PEAK

Western Women's History: Retrospective and Future Directions Sponsored by the Coalition for Western Women’s History Chair

Elizabeth Jameson, University of Calgary

Panelists

Margaret Jacobs, University of Nebraska Susan Lee Johnson, University of Wisconsin Mary Murphy, Montana State University

49

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

BLANCA PEAK

Wiring Wellness in the West: How Health and Disease Shaped Western People and Western Places Chair & Comment Paper

Jennifer Seltz, Western Washington University

Paper

Shaking Seattle to its Foundations: The Federal Government, City Officials and Efforts to Combat Venereal Disease during World War II Brian Casserly, University of Washington

Paper

Curanderismo and Cross-Cultural Healing in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region Brett Hendrickson, Arizona State University

Paper

Finding Nature's Sanitarium: Health-Seekers and the Southwest Kelly Roark, University of Wisconsin, Madison

FRIDAY

The West is Healthy?: Smog and Its Impact on the Cities of the West, 1950-1980 Jennifer Stevens, University of California, Davis

2:30-4:00

MT. OXFORD

Modern Wonders: The West Remade by Electricity and Telegraph Chair

Toni Linenberger, Independent Scholar

Paper

Wiring the Desert: Depicting Hydropower in Early 1900s Hoover Dam Imagery Anthony Arrigo, University of Minnesota

Paper

Wiring Arizona Douglas Kupel, City of Phoenix

Comment

Pamela W. Laird, University of Colorado, Denver

FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

MT. YALE

West by Southwest: Southern Music in and about the American West Lead Singer

Virginia Scharff, University of New Mexico

Presenters

Daniel Cady, California State University, Fresno Douglas Flamming, Georgia Institute of Technology

50

WIRED WEST SESSIONS FRIDAY

2:30-4:00

TORREYS PEAK

The Pacific World in 19th Century Western and US History Chair & Comment Paper

David Igler, University of California, Irvine

Paper

Negotiating the Coast: The Pacific Mail Steamship Company and the California Gold Rush, 1845-1856 Karen Jenks, University of California, Irvine

Paper

The Dark Age and Reemergence of the Pacific Sea Otter, 1850-1938 Richard Ravalli, University of California, Merced

SATURDAY

The Importance of the US-China Trade in American Exploration and Conquest in the Pacific, 1830-1850 Michael Block, University of Southern California

8:30-10:00

MAROON PEAK

Spatial History: Rewiring the Western Past, A Roundtable Discussion Moderator

William Cronon, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Panelists

Richard White, Stanford University Matthew Booker, North Carolina State University Jon Christensen, Stanford University

SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. WILSON

Zebulon Pike Redux Moderator

Matthew Harris, Colorado State University, Pueblo

Paper

Zebulon Montgomery Pike and American Science John Allen, University of Wyoming

Paper

Jeffersonian Exploration of Louisiana: The Expeditions of Zebulon Pike, Dunbar and Hunter, Freeman & Custis, and Lewis & Clark in Perspective Jay Buckley, Brigham Young University

Paper

Re-Wiring the French Connection in North America: Founding St. Louis as the First City of the New West, 1760-1770 Frederick Fausz, University of Missouri, St. Louis

Comment

Jared Orsi, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

51

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. HARVARD

Taking Flight in Colorado: The Aerospace Industry in the Modern West Chair & Comment Paper

Peter Westwick, Huntington-USC Institute on California and the West

Paper

Fabric, Wood, and Wire: The Flying Machine Arrives in 1910 Colorado John Hutchins, U.S. Attorney's Office, Denver

Paper

Making Wireless Connections: Aerospace Development along Colorado’s Front Range, 1908-2008 Rick Sturdevant, Peterson Air Force Base

SATURDAY

Flying West: William Boeing and the Start of Boeing Air Transport, June 30, 1927 Daniel Rust, University of Missouri, St. Louis

8:30-10:00

MT. PRINCETON

Echoes of the Sand Creek Massacre: The Event, Repercussions, and Memory Chair

Scott Forsythe, National Archives

Paper

Driving from Cover a Monster: John M. Chivington's Indian Depredation Claim Lori Cox-Paul, National Archives

Paper

Through the Crossfire: Silas Soule's Command at Sand Creek Pam Milavec, University of Colorado, Denver

Paper

The Glory Fades: Protest, Recrimination, Investigation and Condemnation of the Sand Creek Affair Gary L. Roberts, Abraham Baldwin College

Comment

David F. Halaas, Senator John Heinz History Center (Pittsburgh)

52

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. YALE

Expulsion, Repatriation, and Emigration: Counter Stories in the History of Mexican Immigration to the United States Chair

Kelly Lytle Hernandez, University of California, Los Angeles

Paper

Shaping the Modernist Project: Mexico, the United States, and the Struggle over the Vision of Modernization Deborah Cohen, University of Missouri, St. Louis

Paper

Early Mexican Expulsions from Texas, 1836-1855 Jose Angel Hernandez, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Paper

Los mexicanos en Estados Unidos durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, 1917- 1918 Fernando Saúl Alanís Enciso, El Colegio de San Luis

Comment

Jaime Aguila, Arizona State University

SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

GRAYS PEAK

Mining Masculinities Chair

Albert Hurtado, University of Oklahoma

Paper

“It Seems All the Good Men are Going to Klondike”: Vigorous Masculinity and the Klondike Gold Rush David Beyreis, University of Oklahoma

Paper

“Men of Brawn and Muscle, Men of Brain and Heart”: White Manhood, the California 49ers, and the Campaign to Rebuild Sutter’s Fort, 1888-1894 Brenda Frink, Stanford University

Paper

Crossed Wires: Work, Risk, and White Manliness During the Californian Gold Rush Christopher Herbert, University of Washington

Comment

Peter Boag, Washington State University

53

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

BLANCA PEAK

Rewired: Oral History in the 21st Century American West Chair

Jessie Embry, Brigham Young University

Panelist

Women in the American West Sandra Mathews, Nebraska Wesleyan University

Panelist

Institutions in the American West Melanie Newport, University of Utah

Panelist

Cultural and Ethnic Groups in the West Linda Meyer, Colorado State University

Panelist

Place and Oral History in the Inter-Mountain West Kristi Young, Brigham Young University

SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

TORREYS PEAK

Ranching in the ‘Wired’ West: Global Markets, Land Reform, and Technology in the 19th Century Chair & Comment Paper

Mark Fiege, Colorado State University

Paper

In Good Season: Thomas F. Boylen and the development of Eastern and Central Oregon Sheep Ranching, 1880-1920 Robert McCoy, Washington State University

Paper

Land Reform and Ranching Empires of the Pacific: Parallel Privatizations of Cattle in California and Hawai'i, 1833-1850 John Fischer, University of Wisconsin, River Falls

SATURDAY

Torn Wires and Competing Telegrams: The Role of Information Technology in the Johnson County Range War and its Aftermath Jeff Crane, Sam Houston State University

8:30-10:00

MT. OXFORD

Wiring and Rewiring Western Identities: Race, Mormons, and Frontier Mythologies Sponsored by the Mormon History Association Chair & Comment Paper

Paper

Mark Miller, Southern Utah University Believing Blood in the Borderlands: Early Protestant and Mormon Missionaries and the Construction of Race in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands Jared Tamez, University of Utah Christopher Jones, Brigham Young University Mormons and the Closing of the American Frontier, 1888-1900 Edward Jeter, Sam Houston State University

Paper

Red, White, and Mormon: Race and the Making of a Mormon-Indian Body Paul Reeve, University of Utah

54

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

8:30-10:00

MT. COLUMBIA

Colts and Winchesters as Weapons of Mass Destruction? Western Violence in Historical Memory Chair & Comment Paper

Robert Dykstra, Clark University

Paper

Remembering and Forgetting California's Enslaved Past Stacey Smith, Oregon State University

Paper

Historical Narratives and Indian Land Claims: Western Oregon's Bloody and Bloodless "Indian Wars" of the 1850s and the 1940s Gray Whaley, Southern Illinois University

Looking Backward, Forward, and Westward: Bleeding and Civil War Kansas in Western Historical Memory Matthew Stewart, Washington University

SATURDAY 9:00-5:00

SUNDAY 9:00-NOON

METROPOLITAN STATE COLLEGE

Teaching with Primary Sources and Active Learning Workshop (by pre-arrangement) This training is for K-12 social studies and history teachers and social studies methods instructors in the use of active learning methods, primary sources on the Library of Congress American Memory website, and Denver Public Library’s collection of primary sources. Preregistration for this event is required. This workshop will be held off-site at Metropolitan State College. This event is sponsored by the United States Library of Congress (LOC), the Western History Association (WHA), the Denver Public Library, and Metropolitan State College. For more information, please contact Brian Collier (Brian.S.Collier@gmail.com).

Presenters:

Peggy O’Neill-Jones, Metropolitan State College of Denver Brian S. Collier, University of Notre Dame Lindsey Passenger, Northern Arizona University Matthew S. Makley, Metropolitan State College of Denver

55

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MAROON PEAK

Exploring and Visualizing the Mid-Nineteenth Century West Through Digital History Chair

Durwood Ball, University of New Mexico

Paper

Mapping Slavery's Spread into the West: GIS and the Republic of Texas, 1836-1845 Andrew Torget, University of Virginia

Paper

National Expansion, Imperial Ideology, and the Utah Expedition Brent Rogers, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Comment

Todd Kerstetter, Texas Christian University

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. WILSON

The “Inter-connection” of Indigenous and European Cultures through Music: Social and Religious Implications in Spanish and Mexican California Chair

Rose Beebe, Santa Clara University

Paper

The Varieties of Music in Spanish and Mexican Alta California William Summers, Dartmouth College

Paper

Juan Bautista Sancho: Pioneer Composer of Alta California Craig Russell, California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo

Paper

The Native Choristers of the California Missions James Sandos, University of Redlands

Comment

Robert Senkewicz, Santa Clara University

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MAROON PEAK

Climate History, Water, and Global Warming in the North American West: A Roundtable Discussion Chair

Mark Fiege, Colorado State University

Panelists

Adrian Howkins, Colorado State University Joseph Taylor, University of Portland Georgiana Endfield, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom James Powell, University of Southern California Bonnie Lynn-Sherow, Kansas State University

56

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. WILSON

Sand Creek in American History: A Roundtable Discussion Chair

David F. Halaas, Senator John Heinz History Center (Pittsburgh)

Panelists

Ari Kelman, University of California, Davis Craig Moore, National Park Service Jeffrey C. Campbell, Sand Creek National Historic Site

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. HARVARD

Borderlands/Fronterizos Session La lucha de las comunidades nativas por la conservación de sus tierras en los territorios del suroeste en el periodo mexicano/The Struggle of Native American Communities for the Preservation of their Land Holdings During the Mexican Period Chair

Lucila del Carmen León Velazco, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, UABC

Paper

Native American Land Tenure Struggles and Mission Secularization in Alta California 1812-1846 Martha Ortega Soto, UAM-Iztapalapa, México

Paper

What's the use of citizenship? Pueblo Indian Land Tenure in the Face of Mexico's Independence and under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Danna A. Levin Rojo, UAM-Azcapotzalco, México

Paper

Under a New Master: The Native Communities of the Southwest and Land Legislation Promoted by the American Government (1836-1862) Maria Estela Baez-Villaseñor Moreno, UAM-Iztapalapa, México

Comment

Bárbara Reyes, University of New Mexico

57

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. PRINCETON

Railroads and Radios in the Making of the Canadian West Chair

Monica Rico, Lawrence University

Paper

The Wireless West Norman Fennema, University of Victoria

Paper

Westward Tracks: An Environmental History of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the Mountains Heather Longworth, University of Victoria

Comment

Richard Orsi, California State University, East Bay

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

BLANCA PEAK

Foremothers of the New Western History, the New Indian History and Ethnohistory Moderator

Shirley Leckie, University of Central Florida

Paper

Annie Heloise Abel: Groundbreaking Historian Suzanne Julin, Independent Scholar

Paper

Mari Sandoz, Pathbreaking Ethnohistorian John Wunder, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Paper

Marjorie Feguson Lambert Shelby Tisdale, Laboratory of Anthropology Dorothea Leighton: A Concern for Native Health and Well-being Nancy Parezo, University of Arizona

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON Vine Deloria and the Uses of History A Round Table Discussion

Chair

Raymond J. DeMallie, Indiana University

Panelists

Jeffrey Anderson, Hobart and William Smith Colleges Philip Deloria, University of Michigan Patricia Limerick, University of Colorado, Boulder David Wilkins, University of Minnesota

58

GRAYS PEAK

WIRED WEST SESSIONS SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

TORREYS PEAK

Media, Culture and Western Social Movements Chair

Rebecca Bales, California State University, Monterey Bay

Paper

The Wyoming Experiment and the Case for Practical Propaganda Emily Arendt, University of Wyoming

Paper

Linking Politics and Culture: Julia Ruuttila, People's World, and West Coast Radicalism, 1938-1956 Victoria Grieve, Utah State University

Paper

“Nationalism is a Journey; A Journey from Fear Into Hope”: The Workshop on American Indian Affairs and the Origins of Native Student Activism Bradley Shreve, Diné College

Comment

Michelle Nickerson, University of Texas, Dallas

SATURDAY

10:30-NOON

MT. YALE

Railroading Opportunities?: Railroads and State Power in Western Landscapes Chair & Comment Paper

Samuel Truett, University of New Mexico

Paper

James J. Hill's Borderlands Railways and the Northwest, 1886-1920: Anti-democratic Agents of Westward Expansion? Timothy Orr, University of California, Davis

Paper

Which Public? Whose Domain?: Railroad Corporations and Pueblo Indian Land Loss in New Mexico Denise Damico, Whitman College

Paper

Farmers, Railways, and the Roots of Western Conservation, 1879-1910 Anthony Carlson, University of Oklahoma

Developing the American West: Agricultural Sciences and the "Land Industry" in the Railroad Era Jeremy Vetter, Dickinson College

59

INDEX OF EXHIBITORS Alcorn Publication Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 University of Arizona Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 University of California Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Coalition for Western Women’s History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 University Press of Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Fulcrum Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Gale Cengage Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Harlan Davidson, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45-46 Harvard University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 University Press of Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Montana Historical Society Press/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Montana The Magazine of Western History University of Nebraska Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 University of Nevada Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 University of New Mexico Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 University of North Carolina Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 University of Oklahoma Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B Oregon-California Trails Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oregon StateUniversity Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Oxford University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Southern Methodist University Tesoro Cultural Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Texas Tech University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-28 University of Texas Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 University of Washington Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Western History Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Westerners International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Western Writers of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Yale University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

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Western History Association Grand Hyatt Hotel Denver, Colorado Imperial Ballroom & Foyer October 8-10, 2009

Main Entrance

EXHIBIT HALL MAP

WHA Registration

INDEX OF ADVERTISERS University of Arizona Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Bedford/St. Martins Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 University of California Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 University Press of Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 The Fort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Harlan Davidson, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside back cover Harvard University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 University of Illinois Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 University Press of Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Montana Historical Society Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71 The Mormon History Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 University of Nebraska Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 University of Nevada Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-81 University of North Carolina Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 University of Oklahoma Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . outside back cover Oxford University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Texas Tech University Press. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 University of Washington Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, . . . . . . . . . . . . inside front cover Southern Methodist University Western Historical Quarterly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Yale University Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

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AWARDS AND HONORS Arrington-Prucha Prize ($500) – for the best article on the history of religion in the West. Robert G. Athearn Award ($1,000) – biennial award for the best book on the twentieth century West.

Autry Public History Prize ($1000) – annual award for work completed that contributes to a broader public reflection and appreciation of the past or serves as a model of professional public history practice. Ray Allen Billington Award ($500) – for the best journal article in Western history, not published in the Western Historical Quarterly. Bolton-Cutter Award ($500) – for the best journal article on Spanish Borderlands history. Caughey Western History Association Prize ($2,500) – for the best book of the year in Western History. John C. Ewers Award ($500) – a biennial award for the best book on the topic of North American Indian Ethnohistory. Bert M. Fireman Award ($500) – for the best student essay published in the Western Historical Quarterly. Arrell M. Gibson Award ($500) – a biennial award for the best essay of the year on the history of Native Americans. Huntington-WHA Martin Ridge Fellowship ($2,000) – a one month research fellowship at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. Sara Jackson Award ($500) – to support graduate student research. W. Turrentine Jackson Award ($1,000) – a biennial award for a first published book on the American West. Jensen-Miller Award ($500) – an annual award for the best article in the field of women and gender in the North American West. Joan Paterson Kerr Award ($500) – a biennial award for a first illustrated book on the American West. Michael P. Malone Award ($500) – a biennial award for the best article, essay or commentary on state, provincial, or territorial history in North America appearing in a periodical publication. Hal K. Rothman Book Award ($500) – a biennial award for the best book in western environmental history. Walter Rundell Graduate Student Award ($1,500) – to support dissertation research. Dwight L. Smith (ABC-CLIO) Award ($500) – a biennial award for a bibliographic or research work. Robert M. Utley Award ($500) – annual award for the best book on the military history of the frontier and Western North America. Oscar O. Winther Award ($500) – for the best article published in the Western Historical Quarterly. Trennert-Iverson Conference Scholarship ($500) – to support graduate student attendees at the WHA conference. Indian Student Conference Scholarship ($500) – to support Indian student attendees at the WHA conference. Award of Merit – for outstanding service to the field of Western history and to the Western History Association. Honorary Life Membership – awarded by the WHA President.

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WHA AWARDS COMMITTEES 2009 Arrington-Prucha Prize Robert Carriker, Chair Gonzaga University

2009 Michael P. Malone Award Katie Curtiss, Chair Sheridan College

Elliott Barkan, California State University, San Bernadino

Jim Bailey, United States Bureau of Reclamation

Jessie Embry, Charles Redd Center for Western Studies

Michael Green, College of Southern Nevada

2009 Ray Allen Billington Prize Gary C. Anderson, Chair University of Oklahoma

2009 Robert G. Athearn Award Robert Righter, Chair Southern Methodist University

John Mack Faragher, Yale University

Kathleen Underwood, Grand Valley State University

Mary Murphy, Montana State University

John Chavez, Southern Methodist University

2009 Bolton-Cutter Award Steve Hackel, Chair Oregon State University

2009 Caughey Western History Association Prize Janet Fireman, Chair California History

Barbara O. Reyes, University of New Mexico

Pablo Mitchell, Oberlin College

Ben Johnson, Southern Methodist University

George Miles, Beinecke Library

2009 Arrell Gibson Award W. David Baird, Chair Pepperdine University

2010 John C. Ewers Book Award Michael Witgen, University of Michigan

Patti Loughlin, University of Central Oklahoma

Ned Blackhawk, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Susan Miller, Norman, OK 2009 Jensen-Miller Award Dee Garceau-Hagen, Chair Rhodes College

2009 W. Turrentine Jackson Book Award Alan Shackelford, Chair Denison University

Sarah Carter, University of Alberta

Phoebe Kropp, University of Colorado, Boulder

Elizabeth Escobedo, Denver, CO

Andy Kirk, University of Nevada, Las Vegas 85

2009 Joan Patterson Kerr Book Award Francis Flavin, Chair Indian Affairs Division, U. S. Department of the Interior

Lori Ann Lahlum, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Carolyn Brucken, Autry National Center

2009 Rundell Graduate Student Award Cheryl Wells, Chair University of Wyoming

Elizabeth James, University of Alaska, Anchorage

Matthew Whittaker, Arizona State University

David Gutierrez, University of California, San Diego

2009 Hal K. Rothman Award Maria Montoya, Chair New York University

Sandra Schackel, Boise State University 2009 WHA Indian Student Conference Scholarship Alessandra Jacobi, Chair University of Oklahoma Press

Mark Harvey, North Dakota State University James E. Sherow, Kansas State University

Brian Hosmer, University of Illinois, Chicago

2010 Dwight L. Smith (ABC-CLIO) Award Joe Herring, Chair Independent Scholar

Greg Smoak, Colorado State University 2009 WHA Trennert-Iverson Scholarship Laurie Arnold, Chair Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts, University of Notre Dame

Modupe Labode, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis Theresa Salazar, The Bancroft Library

Melody Miyamoto, Coe College

2009 Utley Book Award Jerry Greene, Chair National Park Service

Laurie Mercier, Washington State University

Michael Brodhead, United States Army Corps of Engineers

2009 Huntington-WHA Martin Ridge Fellowship Donald Fixico, Chair Arizona State University

Jim Leiker, Johnson County Community College

Clyde Ellis, Elon University

2009 Autry Public History Prize Judy Morley, Chair Grasshopper Communications

Brian DeLay, University of Colorado, Boulder

Art G贸mez, National Park Service

2009 Award of Merit Margaret Szasz, Chair University of New Mexico

Julie Dunn-Morton, Saint Louis Mercantile Library, University of Missouri,St. Louis

Stephen Aron, University of California, Los Angeles

2009 Sara Jackson Award Renee Laegreid, Chair Hastings College

Melody Webb, National Park Service 86

2009 DONORS Larry Burgess Tom Isern Suzzanne Kelley Maria Montoya L.G. Moses Paula Petrik Virginia Scharff John Wunder

2009 PATRONS Thomas Alexander Iris H. W. Engstrand Kevin J. Fernlund Karl E. Geier Alberto Hurtado David R. Lewis John H. Marshall James Rhonda Robert Righter Caroline F. Schimmel Sherry L. Smith Rodney Thomas Elliott West David M. Wrobel

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2009 SPONSORING MEMBERS • A. K. Smiley Public Library

• Godfrey Memorial Library

• American West Center

• Grasshopper Communications

• Amon Carter Museum

• Hayden Memorial Library, Arizona State University

• Archives and Library Information Center (ALIC), College Park, Maryland • Arizona Historical Society • Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records

• Harold B. Lee Library, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University • Historical Research Associates • The Huntington Library

• Autry National Center of the American West

• J. Willard Marriott Library, Special Collections, University of Utah

• The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

• JRP Historical Consulting

• Boise National Forest

• The John & LaRee Caughey Foundation

• Buffalo Bill Historical Center--McCracken Research Library

• Merrill-Cazier Library, Special Collections, Utah State University

• Center for Transportation Studies, University of Missouri, St. Louis

• Michael Vinson Rare Books

• Charles Redd Center for Western Studies, Brigham Young University

• Montana Historical Society • Nebraska State Historical Society

• Chevron Corporation

• Nevada Historic Preservation Office

• Coldwell Banker Heart of Oklahoma

• New Mexico State Records Center & Archives

• Colorado Historical Society • Colorado Springs Pioneers Museum • Denver Public Library

• Ninth Judicial Circuit Historical Society

• Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, Indianapolis, Indiana

• Oklahoma State University, Department of History

• Gerald R. Sherratt Library, Special Collections and Archives, Southern Utah University

• The Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado

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2009 SPONSORING MEMBERS • Saint Louis Mercantile Library

• Utah State University, Department of History

• Salt Lake Community College, History & Anthropology Department

• Utah Valley State University, Dept. of History & Political Science

• Signature Books/Smith-Petit Foundation

• Utah Valley State University, The Turning Points in History Lecture Series

• Southern Methodist University Fondren Library

• Washington State Library, Olympia Washington

• Stark Museum of Art • Stewart Library, Special Collections, Weber State University

• Utah Westerners

• Tanner Humanities Center, University of Utah

• Western Writers of America

• Western Historical Quarterly

• University of Missouri, St. Louis, College of Education • University of Missouri, St. Louis, Department of History • University of New Mexico, Department of History • University of Oklahoma, Department of History • University of Oklahoma Press • University of Oklahoma Libraries • University of Utah, Department of History • University of Utah Press • University of Wyoming Libraries • Utah State Historical Society, Division of State History

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2009 SUSTAINING MEMBERS Michael Amundson Edward Angel Arizona Historical Society Stephen Aron Peter Boag Alida Boorne Sarah Carter Jolane Culhane Bruce Dinges Dave Edmunds John Findlay Robert Goldberg Art G贸mez David Gutierrez Alexandra Harmon Anne Hyde Peter Iverson Marvin Kaiser Todd Kerstetter

Robert Kvasnicka Lori Ann Lahlum Roger Lotchin Patricia Louglin Katherine Morrissey Paula Nelson Richard Orsi LeRoy Reaza Jeff Roche Lyn Roper Frank Schubert Richard Smith Harold Sorenson Joseph Taylor Joan Troccoli Louis Warren Gary Wilson Raymond Wilson Kerry Wyatt Liping Zhu

Andy Kirk

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WHA HISTORY The Western History Association was founded in 1961 by a group of professional and avocational historians bound by their belief in the American West as a place rich in history and deserving of further study. “Its purpose shall be to promote the study of the North American West in its varied aspects and broadest sense,” reads the WHA’s constitution, and the association maintains this ideal by providing incentives for excellence through its prize and scholarship programs, and by offering a venue for a wide variety of scholarship during its annual conference. Although scholarship is the pride of the association, its mainstay continues to be the combination of professional and avocational historians that formed the WHA over four decades ago. This combination has given the organization the reputation of being not only intellectually stimulating, but just plain fun.

PAST PRESIDENTS Ray Allen Billington

Joe B. Frantz

Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.

O. O. Winther

William T. Hagan

Norris Hundley, Jr.

Robert Athearn

Vernon Carstensen

Richard White

John F. Bannon

Mary Lee Spence

Glenda Riley

W. Eugene Hollon

Walter Rundell, Jr.

Janet Fireman

Robert M. Utley

Francis Paul Prucha

Richard W. Etulain

Leonard Arrington

C. L. Sonnichsen

Patricia Nelson Limerick

Clark Spence

Gene M. Gressley

James P. Ronda

T. A. Larson

Gilbert Fite

Elliott West

Howard Lamar

Martin Ridge

Brian Dippie

John Caughey

Sandra Myres

Iris H. W. Engstrand

John P. Bloom

W. David Baird

Peter Iverson

Donald Worcester

Gerald D. Nash

Walter Nugent

Donald C. Cutter

David J. Weber

R. David Edmunds

W. T. Jackson

Richard M. Brown

Virginia Scharff

Rodman W. Paul

Earl Pomeroy 91

PAST SECRETARIES & EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS John Porter Bloom, 1961 – 1967 Arrell M. Gibson, 1968 – 1970 Everett L. Cooley, 1971 – 1973 William D. Rowley, 1973 – 1990 Paul Andrew Hutton, 1990 – 2006 Kevin J. Fernlund, 2006 –

CONFERENCE LOCATION HISTORY 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

Santa Fe Denver Salt Lake City Oklahoma City Helena El Paso San Francisco Tucson Omaha Reno Santa Fe New Haven Fort Worth Rapid City Tulsa Denver Portland

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Portland Hot Springs San Diego Kansas City San Antonio Phoenix Salt Lake City St. Paul Sacramento Billings Los Angeles Wichita Tacoma Reno Austin New Haven Tulsa

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1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Albuquerque Denver Lincoln St. Paul Sacramento Portland San Antonio San Diego Colorado Springs Fort Worth Las Vegas Scottsdale St. Louis Oklahoma City Salt Lake City Denver

2010 CALL FOR PROPOSALS 50TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE WESTERN HISTORY ASSOCIATION INCLINE VILLAGE, NEVADA (LAKE TAHOE), OCTOBER 13-16, 2010 “MANY WESTS: COMPARISONS

AND

CONNECTIONS”

SUBMISSION DEADLINE: SEPTEMBER 1, 2009 SUBMISSION GUIDELINES On October 13-16, 2010, the WHA will gather at Lake Tahoe in Incline Village, Nevada, for its annual conference. In this spectacular natural setting, we will chart the pasts and futures of our field and draw upon western history’s rich and varied insights, one of the most profound of which is the realization that there is not just one but many Wests. We are interested in the parallel and diverse ways in which histories, literary traditions, and popular images of the peoples of the American, Canadian, and Mexican Wests have evolved over time. We also want to look beyond North America to the Wests of Australia, South Africa, Brazil, New Zealand, Argentina, China, Russia, Europe, and elsewhere for illuminating comparisons. And while reaching outward for a broader international context for western history, we also want to ponder the West from within and revisit its many reincarnations from the Old to the New West, from the successive Cis-Mississippi Wests to the Far West, and from the mythical to the modern, globalized West. Wherever we place it on our physical and mental maps, the American West has been a contested entity, whose very meaning changes when the angle of vision shifts from rural to urban, from heartland to border-lands, from straight to queer, or from one ethnic group to another. Comparative international or local histories of Indigenous peoples, gender, and the environment are similarly essential. Thus, we invite contributions that not only illuminate these---and many other---Wests, but also place them in dialogue with one another. The Wests of North America emerged not in isolation but in interaction---a fitting model for our future endeavors in order to understand this evolving and multifaceted place. Submissions may be for an entire session of papers, a panel discussion, or an individual paper. When submitting an entire session or panel, include a brief abstract that outlines the purpose of the session and designates one participant as the contact person. Each paper proposal, whether individual or part of a session, should include a one-paragraph abstract and a one page c.v., including the address, phone, and email address for each participant. Indicate equipment needs, if any. The committee will assume that all listed individuals have agreed to participate. Email each submission, with supporting materials, as a single document (Word or PDF) to: wha2010proposals@gmail.com or send by mail service to: Pekka Hämäläinen, Department of History, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9410. Electronic submissions are preferred. 93

SUBMISSIONS SHOULD BE POSTMARKED BY SEPTEMBER 1, 2009. The 2010 Program Committee Co-chairs: Pekka Hämäläinen, University of California, Santa Barbara; Susan A. Miller, Norman, Oklahoma; and Sarah Carter, University of Alberta, Edmonton. 2010 WHA PROGRAM COMMITTEE Michael Amundson, Northern Arizona University Jay Buckley, Brigham Young University Yong Chen, University of California, Irvine Steve Crum, University of California, Davis Mark Ellis, University of Nebraska, Kearney Elizabeth Escobedo, University of Denver Gunlög Fur, Vaxjo University, Sweden Michel Hogue, University of Wisconsin Paivi Hoikkala, California State University, Pomona Tekla Ali Johnson, Johnson C. Smith University Judith Keeling, Texas Tech University Press Danny Keenan, University of Victoria, New Zealand Todd Kerstetter, Texas Christian University Kurt Kinbacher, Spokane Falls Community College Renee Laegreid, Hastings College Shirley Leckie, University of Central Florida Kevin Leonard, Western Washington University Akim Reinhardt, Towson University Andrés Reséndez, University of California, Davis Joan Troccoli, Denver Art Museum 2010 WHA PROGRAM CO-CHAIRS

Pekka Hämäläinen University of California, Santa Barbara

Susan Miller

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Sarah Carter University of Alberta

INDEX OF PARTICIPANTS A Abbott, Carl - 31 Abrams, Jeanne - 37 Adams, David - 32 Aguila, Jaime - 53 Ainlay-Conley, Jacqui - 45 Akers, Donna - 43 Alamillo, JosĂŠ - 44 Albers, Gretchen - 36 Alexander, Thomas - 87 Allen, John - 51 Allison, Jaime - 41 Amore, Shirley - 20 Amundson, Michael - 90, 94 Anderson, Jahue - 34 Anderson, Jeffrey - 58 Anderson, Gary C. - 85 Andrews, Thomas - 12 Angel, Edward - 90 Anschutz-Rodgers, Sue - 12 Antle, Jay - 7 Archer, Patty - 7 Arendt, Emily - 59 Arnold, Laurie - 86 Aron, Stephen - 86, 90 Arrigo, Anthony - 50 Arrington, Leonard - 91 Athearn, Robert - 91 Atkins, Annette - 33

B Bailey, Jim - 32, 85 Baird, W. David - 85, 91 Bakken, Gordon - 8, 35 Bales, Rebecca - 59 Ball, Durwood - 56 Bannon, John F. - 91 Barken, Elliott - 85 Barraclough, Laura - 49 Barrera, Magdalena - 48 Bauer, William Jr. - 8 Beebe, Rose - 56 Bennett, Lyn - 31 Bernstein, Shana - 47 Beyreis, David - 53 Billington, Ray Allen - 91 Binus, Joshua - 36

Blackhawk, Ned - 25, 85 Block, Michael - 51 Blodget, Peter - 8, 41 Bloom, John Porter - 91, 92 Boag, Peter - 53, 90 Bokovoy, Matthew - 44 Boland, Maeve - 34 Booker, Matthew - 51 Boorne, Alida - 90 Braithwaite, Charles A. (Chuck) - 39 Bravo, Nick - 44 Breaux, Richard M. - 39 Brigham, Jay - 43 Briley, Ron - 35 Brodhead, Michael - 86 Brosman, Kathleen - 25, 43 Broussard, Al - 25 Brown, Richard M. - 91 Brucken, Carolyn - 86 Bsumek, Erika - 49 Buckley, Jay - 51, 94 Burgess, Larry - 87 Burke, Flannery - 25, 37 Burkholder, Steve - 21 Burt, Roger - 35 Butler, Anne M. - 8, 40

C Cady, Daniel - 50 Campbell, Jeffrey C. - 57 Campney, Brent - 44 Cantrell, Gregg - 44 Carey, Elaine - 47 Carlson, Anthony - 59 Carlson, Linda - 41 Carrigan, William - 44 Carriker, Robert - 85 Carstensen, Vernon - 91 Carter, Sarah - 46, 85, 90, 94 Casas, Raquel - 25 Casey, Jay - 35 Casserly, Brian - 50 Caughey, John - 91 Chamberlain, Kathleen - 47 Chavez, Ernesto - 42 Chavez, John - 85 95

Chen, Young - 94 Chiang, Connie Y. - 25, 47 Childers, Leisl Carr - 4 Childers, Michael - 4 Christensen, Jon - 51 Churchill, Arlene - 30 Clark, Carol - 48 Clifton, Chas - 48 Cobb, Amanda - 25 Cohen, Deborah - 53 Cohen, Julie - 32 Cole, B. Erin - 4 Coleman, Annie - 37 Coleman, Jon - 37 Collier, Brian S. - 24, 30, 55 Collins, Stephen - 31 Collisson, Craig - 47 Convery, William J. - 12, 20 Cooley, Everett L. - 92 Cooper, April - 30 Cox-Paul, Lori - 52 Crane, Jeff - 54 Cronon, William - 51 Crum, Steve - 94 Culhane, Jolane - 90 Culver, Lawrence - 49 Curtis, Katie - 7, 85 Curtis, Valenda - 4, 7 Cutter, Donald C. - 91

D Damico, Denise - 59 De Lay, Brian - 12, 86 Deloria, Phillip - 58 De La Trinidad, Maritza - 31 De Mallie, Raymond J. - 58 De Stafano, Bill - 31 De Stafano, Mary - 31 Diel, Laura L. - 4, 7 Dinges, Bruce - 90 Dippie, Brian - 91 Ditmeyer, Betty - 4, 7 Dobson, Dorothy - 30 Dormandy, Jason - 48 Dunn-Morton, Julie - 86 Durlin, Marty - 48 Dykstra, Robert - 55

E Echo-Hawk, Walter - 45 Edmunds, R. David - 8, 45, 90, 91 Eisenberg, Ellen - 37 Ellis, Clyde - 86 Ellis, Mark - 94 Embry, Jessie - 54, 85 Enciso, Fernando Saul Alanis 53 Endfield, Georgiana - 56 Engstrand, Iris H.W. - 87, 91 Escobedo, Elizabeth - 47, 85, 94 Etulain, Richard W. - 91 Evans, Sterling - 25, 38, 47 Everett, Derek - 42 Ewig, Rick - 25

F Faragher, John Mack - 85 Farmer, Jared - 34 Fausz, Frederick - 51 Fell, James E. - 12, 23, 35 Fennema, Norman - 58 Fernlund, Kevin J. - 4, 7, 8, 87, 92 Fiege, Mark - 12, 54, 56 Findlay, John - 37, 90 Fireman, Janet - 8, 35, 85, 91 Fischer, John - 54 Fisher, Carla - 33 Fite, Gilbert - 91 Fixico, Donald - 86 Flamming, Douglas - 50 Flavin, Francis - 45, 86 Forsythe, Scott - 52 Fountain, Steve - 38 Frank, Ross - 36 Frantz, Joe B. - 91 Frehener, Brian - 43 Friesen, Steve - 12 Frink, Brenda - 53 Frisbee, Meg - 4 Fur, Gunlog - 94

G Gahan, Andrew - 32 Garceau-Hagen, Dee - 31, 85 Geier, Karl E. - 87 Geiger, Andrea - 42

Gerona, Carla - 36 Getz, Lynne - 31 Gibson, Arrell M. - 92 Glaser, Leah - 43 Glasrud, Bruce A. - 39 Goldberg, Robert - 90 G贸mez, Art - 86, 90 Goodyear, Frank - 40 Goude, Nicole - 32 Gray, Susan - 31 Graybill, Andrew - 46 Green, Jerry - 86 Green, Michael - 85 Grench, Chuck - 25 Gressley, Gene M. - 91 Grieve, Victoria - 59 Grossman, Sarah E.M. - 4, 34 Gullett, Gayle - 43 Gutierrez, David G. - 8, 86, 90

Holz, Molly - 8 Hoover, John N. - 48 Hosmer, Brian - 41, 86 House, Ernest - 12 Howkins, Adrian - 56 Hundley, Norris Jr. - 91 Hunt, Geoff - 7 Hurtado, Alberto - 53, 87 Hutchins, John - 52 Hutton, Paul Andrew - 92 Hyde, Anne M. - 12, 90

H

Jackson, Donald C. - 32 Jackson, W.T. - 91 Jacobi, Alessandra - 86 Jacobs, Margaret - 25, 49 Jacoby, Karl - 25 James, Elizabeth - 86 Jameson, Elizabeth - 35, 49 Jenks, Karen - 51 Jensen, Anitra - 30 Jensen, Joan - 46 Jeter, Edward - 54 Johnson, Ben - 38, 49, 85 Johnson, Jeremy - 7 Johnson, Susan Lee - 49 Johnson, Tekla Ali - 94 Jones, Christopher - 54 Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. - 91 Julin, Suzanne - 58

Hackel, Steve - 85 Hagan, William T. - 91 Halaas, David F. - 52, 57 Haltman, Kenneth - 40, 44 Hamalainen, Pekka - 93, 94 Harmon, Alexandra - 90 Harris, Matthew - 51 Hart, Richard - 25, 45 Harvey, Mark - 86 Hassrick, Peter - 12, 20, 48 Hawk, Angela - 34 Helms, Douglas - 39 Hendrickson, Brett - 50 Herbert, Christopher - 53 Hergengrinder, Karen - 48 Hernandez, David - 32 Hernandez, Jose Angel - 53 Hernandez, Kelly Lytle - 25, 32, 53 Herring, Joe - 86 Hert, Tamsen - 41 Hickenlooper, John W. - 19 Higham, Carol - 33, 46 Hirt, Paul - 31, 36 Hogue, Michael - 94 Hoikkala, Paivi - 94 Hollon, W. Eugene - 91 96

I Igler, David - 51 Inda, Jonathan - 32 Isern, Tom - 87 Iverson, Peter - 90, 91

J

K Kabalen, Donna - 48 Kahn, Ava - 37 Kaiser, Marvin - 90 Keeling, Judith - 94 Keenan, Danny - 94 Kelman, Ari - 57 Kerstetter, Todd - 56, 90, 94 Kinbacher, Kurt - 7, 94 Kinney, Holly Arnold - 12, 23 Kirk, Andy - 34, 85, 90

Kroll, Jim - 6, 12, 14, 20 Kropp, Phoebe, 37, 85 Kupel, Douglas - 50 Kvasnicka, Robert - 90

L Labode, Modupe - 86 Laegreid, Renee - 35, 86 Lahlum, Lori Ann - 31, 86, 90 Laird, Pamela W. - 50 Lamar, Howard - 91 Lansing, Michael - 43 Larsen, Travis - 42 Larson, T.A. - 91 Lawrence, Adrea - 42 Leckie, Shirley - 58, 94 Leech, Brian - 34 Lehman, Timothy - 41 Leiker, James N. - 7, 39, 86 Leonard, Kevin - 94 Leong, Karen - 8 Levi, Tamara - 33 Lewallen, James - 38 Lewis, David Rich - 8, 37, 41, 87 Lewis, Taryn Elizabeth - 30 Lewis, Wallace - 38 Lewthwaite, Stephanie - 31 Limerick, Patricia - 12, 21, 33, 58, 91 Lindmier, Connie - 41 Linenberger, Toni - 50 Littlefield, Douglas - 39 Lockette, Philip - 27 LoVecchio, Janolyn - 33 Lomawaima, Tsianina - 32 Long, Kelly Lytle - 30 Longworth, Heather - 58 Lotchin, Roger - 90 Loughlin, Patricia - 42, 85, 90 Lynn-Sherow, Bonnie - 56

M Madison, Mark - 39 Maiorana, Juliette - 46 Major, Julie - 30 Makley, Matthew S. - 24, 55 Mancillas, Stella C. - 42 Marak, Andrae - 47 Marrujo-Duck, Lillian - 31 Marshall, John H. - 87 Mathews, Sandra - 54 McCoy, Robert - 54 McInerney, Daniel - 30

McKinney, Amy - 33 McManus, Sheila - 33 Mecham, Travis - 27 Meneses, Diana - 36 Mercier, Laurie - 34, 86 Meyer, Linda - 54 Meyer, Sonya - 41 Milavec, Pam - 52 Miles, George - 85 Miller, Joan - 31 Miller, Mark - 54 Miller, Susan - 85, 94 Mitchell, Pablo, 85 Miyamoto, Melody - 86 Monnett, John - 12 Montoya, Maria - 8, 33, 86, 87 Mora, Anthony - 40 Moore, Craig - 57 Moreno, Maria Estella Baez-Vallasenor - 57 Morley, Judy - 86 Morrill, Susanna - 46 Morrison, Daryl - 45 Morrissey, Katherine G. 8, 90 Morse, Kathryn - 37 Moses, L.G. - 36, 87 Mouat, Jeremy - 35 Murphy, Mary - 49, 85 Mutchler, J.C. - 35 Myres, Sandra - 91

N Nash, Gerald D. - 91 Needham, Andrew - 43 Nelson, Elaine M. - 4 Nelson, Paula - 90 Nemerov, Alex - 44 Newport, Melanie - 54 Nichols, Ed - 12, 20 Nickerson, Michelle - 59 Noel, Tom - 6, 12, 14, 15, 22, 43 Nugent, Walter - 91

O O’Neill, Colleen - 6, 25, 27, 49 O’Neill-Jones, Peggy 24, 55 Ore, Janet - 45 97

Orr, Timothy - 59 Orsi, Jared - 12, 25, 51 Orsi, Richard - 58, 90

P Padget, Martin - 49 Panther, Natalie - 42 Parezo, Nancy - 58 Parra, Alma - 35 Passenger, Lindsey - 24, 30, 55 Paul, Rodman W. - 91 Pearce, Deborah - 37 Pease, Cassie - 30 Perales, Monica - 25, 48 Petrik, Paula - 24, 39, 87 Pfeifer, Michael J. - 44 Pitti, Stephen - 47 Pomeroy, Earl - 91 Pope, Daniel - 36 Porslid, Charlene - 46 Powell, James - 56 Prescott, Cynthia - 43 Price, B. Byron - 8 Price, Jenny - 49 Prucha, Francis Paul - 91 Pubols, Louise - 8

R Ramos, Raul - 44 Ravalli, Richard - 51 Reaza, LeRoy - 90 Reeve, Paul - 54 Rein, Chris - 34 Reinhardt, Akim - 94 Resendez, Andres - 46, 94 Reyes, Bárbara O. - 8, 43, 57, 86 Rensink, Brendan - 38 Rhonda, James - 87 Ribera, Joe - 30 Rice, Marc - 39 Rico, Monica - 58 Ridge, Martin - 91 Rigther, Robert - 85, 87 Riley, Glenda - 91 Roark, Kelly - 50 Roberts, Gary L. - 52 Roche, Jeffrey - 90 Rogers, Brent - 56 Rogers, Jedediah S. - 32

Rojas, Maythee - 48 Rojo, Dana A. Levin - 57 Ronda, James P. - 91 Roper, Lyn - 90 Rosas, Gilberto - 32 Rowley, William D. - 92 Rundell, Walter Jr. - 91 Russell, Craig - 56 Rust, Daniel - 52

S Sabol, Steve - 33 Salazar, Theresa - 86 Salomon, Carlos - 44 Saltonstall, Lynn - 44 Sandos, James - 56 Schackel, Sandra - 86 Scharff, Virginia - 8, 50, 87, 91 Schimmel, Caroline F. - 87 Schubert, Frank - 90 Scott, Sascha - 40 Seltz, Jennifer - 50 Senekewicz, Robert - 56 Shackelford, Alan - 85 Sharp, Lewis - 12, 20 Shellenbarger, Melanie - 31 Shepherd, Jeffrey - 49 Sherlock, John - 45 Sherow, James E. - 43, 86 Shosky, Dan - 12 Shreve, Bradley - 59 Shupe, Kevin - 32 Simic, Berta - 4, 7 Sinclair, Jane - 49 Skarstad, John - 45 Smith, Duane A. - 12, 23, 35 Smith, Richard - 90 Smith, Sherry L. - 7, 8, 19, 38, 87 Smith, Stacey - 55 Smith, Tash - 46 Smoak, Greg - 12, 38, 86 Sonnichsen, C.L. - 91 Sorenson, Harold - 90 Soto, Martha Ortega - 57 Soto, Michael - 48 Spence, Clark - 91 Spence, Mary Lee - 91 Spude, Robert - 35 Stevens, Jennifer - 50 Stewart, Matthew - 55 Storey, Brit Allan - 32

Sturdevant, Katherine Scott - 31 Sturdevant, Rick - 52 Summers, William - 56 Szasz, Margaret - 86

T Tamez, Jared - 54 Taylor, Joseph - 56, 90 Theobold, Brianna - 38 Thomas, Rodney - 87 Thomas, Tom - 45 Thompson, Gregory - 8, 45 Thorton, Erin - 30 Thowdis, Wendy - 33 Tisdale, Shelby - 58 Toll, William - 37 Torget, Andrew - 56 Troccoli, Joan - 12, 48, 90, 94 Truett, Samuel - 59 Truettner, William - 25, 40 Turo, Bryan - 4

U Underwood, Kathleen - 85 Utley, Robert M. - 91

V Van Delinder, Jeanne - 39 Vanucci, Rebecca - 4 Vargas, Zaragosa - 42 Velazco, Lucila del Carmen Leon - 57 Vetter, Jeremy - 59 Villerbu, Tangi - 40 Virden, William L. - 30 Vogel, Eve - 36 Voggesser, Garrett - 25, 39 Voyles, Traci - 46 Vrtis, George - 43

W Walden, Robin S. - 4 Warren, Louis - 6, 25, 27, 90 Webb, Melody - 86 Weber, David J. - 91 Weber, Jonathan - 48 Wegman-French, Lysa - 25, 45 98

Weil, Steve - 12 Weisiger, Marsha - 46 Wells, Cheryl - 86 West, Elliott - 33, 87, 91 Westwick, Peter - 52 Whaley, Gray - 55 White, Richard - 45, 51, 91 Whitmer, John D. - 34 Whittaker, Matthew - 86 Wilensky, Mark - 37 Wilkins, David - 58 Willeford, Wendi - 40 Willumson, Glenn - 44 Wilson, Gary - 90 Wilson, Laurel - 41 Wilson, Raymond - 90 Winther, O.O. - 91 Wise, Michael - 41 Witgen, Michael - 85 Wood, Linda Sargent - 31 Woods, Fred - 40 Woodworth-Ney, Laura 33 Worcester, Donald - 91 Wrobel, David - 8, 31, 87 Wunder, John R. - 8, 58, 87 Wyatt, Kerry - 90

Y Young, Kristi - 54

Z Zellar, Gary - 46 Zhu, Liping - 8, 90

WHA ORGANIZATION The WHA is governed by its members who elect a president, president-elect, council, and nomination committee. The latter consists of five members, each serving a two-year term. The council consists of the president, president-elect, executive director, seven regularly elected members (serving three year terms), and past presidents and executive directors during the two years succeeding their terms of office. Membership in the organization is open to all.

WHA CONFERENCE The annual conference is held Wednesday through Saturday in mid-October, and features over fifty sessions on all aspects of the American West, as well as tours to nearby historic sites on Thursday and Saturday afternoons. The location changes yearly, with recent conferences held in Scottsdale, St. Louis, Oklahoma City, and Salt Lake City. The highlights of the conference include the Presidential Luncheon where the president addresses the association as well as an evening banquet where the WHA awards are presented and the incoming president ushers in the new year. Conference programs with registration information are mailed in July.

99

Western History Association ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION

Membership in the association is open to any person interested in the North American West. Name ________________________________________________________________ Mailing Address ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ City _______________________ State or Province __________ Zip ______________ Country ____________________ Affiliation (if applicable) __________________________________________________________ Phone ________________________________________________________________ E-Mail __________________________________ (email and phone for WHA office use only) MEMBERSHIP LEVEL:

l NEW MEMBER

l CONTINUING MEMBER

If new please indicate level by checking one of the choices below. l l l l

REGULAR - $80 STUDENT - $30 EMERITUS/RETIRED - $45 JOINT - $95

l l l l

SUSTAINING - $125 PATRON - $250 DONOR - $500 SPONSOR (Institution) - $150

For a full description of membership benefits, please see our website –www.westernhistoryassociation.org – or membership brochure.

PAYMENT:

• Members outside the United States, Canada, and Mexico must pay an additional $15 for postage. • Acceptable payment methods: check or money order in U.S. dollars, or credit card (below) • The Western History Association is a not-for-profit organization, EIN# 54-6044435. l MASTERCARD

l VISA l DISCOVER

(CHECK ONE) **no debit cards

Name on Card (print) _____________________________________ Authorized Amount $ _________ Card Number ___________________________________________ Exp. Date _____/_______ Signature ______________________________________________

Please submit this completed form with payment to: WESTERN HISTORY ASSOCIATION University of Missouri-St. Louis • 152C University Center • One University Boulevard • St. Louis, MO 63121-4400 Phone: 314-516-7282 • Fax: 314-516-7272 • Email: wha@umsl.edu

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SPECIAL EVENTS SPONSORS

jJ

Denver Public Library Denver, Colorado History Department University of Colorado, Denver Denver, Colorado Royal Gold, Inc. Denver, Colorado Buffalo Bill Historical Center Cody, Wyoming Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas History Department University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder, Colorado University Press of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Denver Art Museum Denver, Colorado Colorado Historical Society Denver, Colorado

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NOTES

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NOTES

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WHA 49th Annual Conference Program