Fairtrade Wines from around the World
Contents FAIR QUALITY
30 FAIR WINES FOR ANY BUDGET
A FAIR WINES OVERVIEW, FROM A TO Z
ARGENTINA • VINEYARDS FROM NORTH TO SOUTH
CHILE • PERFECT WINE COUNTRY
SOUTH AFRICA • THREE CENTURIES OF TRADITION
YOUR GRAPE GUIDE
FROM GRAPE TO HANDY FACTS ABOUT WINE
THE VINIFICATION PROCESS IN 7 STEPS
HANDY FACTS ABOUT WINE 30
Photo: Griet Hendrickx
WHAT ARE ORGANIC WINES?
WINE GUIDE Fairtrade wines from around the world
Don’t know how to decide? Are you looking for vegan or organic wine, or a particular grape or region? Check out the wine selector on apps.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/wijnkiezer (in Dutch). Would you like a customised quote? Our wine team would be delighted to help you select the right wine. Please send an e-mail to email@example.com or contact your nearest Oxfam-Wereldwinkel. Year end and New Year? In accordance with annual tradition, we celebrate the year end with a special wine promotion. Find out more on oxfamwereldwinkels.be (in Dutch) or inquire at a wereldwinkel near you.
Fair quality A glass of pure bliss – straight from the farmer and marketed with respect for Fairtrade regulations. Oxfam Fair Trade wine simply tastes better...
The wines featured in this Wine Guide have all been crafted by professionals who do their work well, under good conditions, and full of passion. And that comes out in the taste. It’s Oxfam’s proof that sustainable, fair trade is a viable option. Oxfam Fair Trade sees fair trade as a lever for structural change, which is why we provide our wine producers in Chile, Argentina, and South Africa with a fair income. Even better, the cooperatives they belong to receive a Fairtrade premium. They go on to invest the premium in health care for example, or in expert agricultural advice to winegrowers. We also guarantee our trade partners long-term cooperation and technical, financial, and organisational support. Oxfam encourages wine producers to invest in good grapes, sustainability, and robust management. The result is wine quality that continues to excel, i.e. the basis for progress. Year after year, the selection of Oxfam organic wines continues to expand. Our goal by 2030 is to exclusively sell organic wines.
Fair trade? Find out what that means to Oxfam on www.oxfamfairtrade.be/en/why-oxfam-matters
The majority of our wines are currently vegan as well, which means they don’t contain any animal products (e.g. gelatine or isinglass). What’s more, choosing Oxfam wine is a fantastically simple way to do business more sustainably (see p. 32). And with that, you can enjoy 100% peace of mind!
30 fair wines for any budget: an overview Oxfam Fair Trade has been buying directly from small-scale wine-producing cooperatives since 1976. Our in-house wine specialist selected classics such as chardonnay and the unique Chilean país, as well as true gems such as Malbec Gran Reserva. There are large and small sizes available, including 25 cl, 75 cl, and a 3 L party box.
1 out of 3 Oxfam wines is organic. Our goal is 100% organic wines by 2030.
SPARKLING WINE 20416 20415 20413
20250 20252 20253 20212 20257 20248 20225 20261 20263 20265 20262 20266 20211 20607 20414
BIO Ecologica Brut Torrontés 75cl x 6 Sensus Extra Brut 75cl x 6 Sensus Brut Rosé sparkling wine 75cl x 6
2 out of 3 Oxfam wines are vegan
Sauvignon Blanc BOX 3L x 6 Sauvignon Blanc 25cl x 20 Sauvignon Blanc 75cl x 6 Lautaro sauvignon blanc 75cl x 6 Chenin blanc 75cl x 6 Chenin Blanc BIB 3L x 6 Koopmanskloof Chenin Blanc 75cl x 6 Kpmnskloof chardonnay 75cl x 6 Campesino Chardonnay 75cl x 6 Camp Chard Gran Reserva 75cl x 6 BIO RAZA Selec Chardonnay 75cl x 6 BIO RAZA Pinot Gris 75cl x 6 BIO La Posada Torrontés 75cl x 6 Alto Del Carmen Pisco 40° 70cl x 6 Moscato Late Harvest 37,5cl x 12
ROSÉ 20180 20181 20182 20152 20154
Rosé Pinotage-Syrah BOX 3L x 6 Rosé Pinotage-Syrah 25cl x 20 Rosé Pinotage-Syrah 75cl x 6 Koopmanskloof Pinotage Rosé 75cl x 6 BIO La Posada Syrah Rosé 75cl x 6
RED 20060 20050 20058 20059 20032 20031 20073 20068 20070 20054 20074 20078 20052 20067
Merlot Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon BIO Lautaro Cab-sauv BIO Laut GranRes CabSauv Campesino Cab Res Campesino Carmenere Vidseca Pais-Car-Cab BIO La Posada Malbec BIO Raza SelecMalbec Shiraz BIO Raza Malbec Gran R Koopmanskloof Shiraz Koopmanskloof Pinotage
75cl x 6 BOX 3L x 6 25cl x 20 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6 75cl x 6
Our wines have ALL been 100% FAIRTRADE since 1976.
FAIR WINES FROM A TO Z
Vineyards from North to South Argentina is characterised by a stunning diversity of landscapes and climate zones, from subtropical heat to chilly Patagonia. Its first vineyards were planted as early as the sixteenth century by the Spanish and Portuguese. A few centuries later, French grape varieties were added to Argentina’s viticulture mix. The vineyards span a 1,700 km stretch from north to south and lie between 500 and 3,300 metres above sea level. Vineyards can primarily be found in the central west and north, in the shadow of the Andes Mountains. The province of Mendoza is the heart of the Argentinian wine industry, but the Salta and La Rioja provinces also produce excellent wines. Until just a few decades ago, Argentinians mainly produced table wines for the domestic market. However, viticulturists have been focussing on quality wines for export, in addition to their local markets, for several years now. Typical grape varieties that thrive in that region include the white torrontés and red malbec.
LA RIOJANA Chilecito Famatina Valley
Oxfam’s Fair Trade Argentinian wines derive from the more impoverished La Rioja. Farmers are largely dependent on viticulture in this dry region, where only a handful of crops are capable of thriving. While there aren’t many cooperatives left in Argentina, Oxfam’s wine partner had already dedicated itself to this working method as early as 1940.
Argentina is wine country. www.winesofargentina.org
Find out more!
A vineyard in the La Rioja region, at the foot of the Andes Mountains, nestled in the Famatina Valley in north-western Argentina.
Oxfam’s partner in Argentina:
BIO LA POSADA TORRONTÉS This dry white wine is a blend of torrontés grapes with slightly floral, spicy notes and sauvignon blanc grapes with a hint of citrus. The result is a delectably fresh wine with a delicate aroma of tropical fruits. Delicious with summery salads, seafood, and Thai cuisine.
BIO LA POSADA SYRAH ROSÉ This wine is fairly complex, with fresh red fruit on the nose. The flavours are full, juicy, and round, with a pleasant, crisp finish.
BIO LA POSADA MALBEC This wine boasts an intense bouquet of violet, red fruit, plum, berries, and hazelnuts, with a hint of tobacco, chocolate, and vanilla.
Delicious as an aperitif, with a light meal, or barbecue.
Delicious with grilled red meat, richly seasoned dishes, grilled vegetables, pasta, cheese, and dark chocolate.
‘La Riojana is one big family. When something goes wrong, we work on finding solutions together. Together, we can raise the quality of our wines to an even higher level.’ Francisco Pozo, La Riojana winegrower
• There was never any question about the priority at La Riojana, it was always about investing in basic facilities. Their first major project was the agrotechnical vocational school in Tilimuqui, which went from 33 to over 400 students within a year. The foundation of the workers’ cultural centre was also a cooperative initiative. • And because the community’s inhabitants currently still depend on a travelling doctor who visits once a week, the cooperative launched its next major project, the construction of a health centre. This will include offices and rooms for doctors, psychologists, ophthalmologists, and midwives. They hope to finalise the project over the course of 2021. • 80% of small and medium-sized wine producers in La Riojana belong to the cooperative.
Under construction: health centre with offices and rooms for doctors, psychologists, ophthalmologists, and midwives.
Find out more!
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/lariojana (Dutch only)
BIO ECOLOGICA TORRONTĂ‰S BRUT SPARKLING WINE This sparkling wine has a pale golden colour. It stands out from cava and French sparkling wines due to its subtle floral aromas with hints of citrus fruit, typical of torrontĂŠs grapes. Delicious as an aperitif and with fruity desserts.
BIO RAZA PINOT GRIS This vibrant, fruity pinot gris combines delicate floral aromas with refreshing apple, pineapple, and citrus notes. Delicious as an aperitif or as a drink on its own, and heavenly with Thai curry, creamy pasta, grilled fish, or chicken with herbs.
BIO RAZA SELECTION CHARDONNAY This full-bodied chardonnay features ripe fruit (peaches) and delightful vanilla notes infused during its ageing in French oak barrels.
BIO RAZA SELECTION MALBEC/SHIRAZ This full and fruity 50/50 blend of malbec and shiraz is juicy and smooth, with a warm spicy finesse, and elegantly integrated tannins.
Delicious with fish with sauce, poultry, and hot vegetable dishes with a zing.
Delicious with grilled dishes and spicy stews.
BIO RAZA MALBEC GRAN RESERVA A complex palette of dark fruit, woody notes (vanilla), and green herbs (thyme, bay leaf, oregano) unfurl in the nose. This Gran Reserva is a full-bodied, rich wine with balanced tannins and a long, silky finish. Delicious with hearty stews, roasted meat, game, and ripened cheeses.
ARGENTINA | 9
FAIR WINES FROM A TO Z
Ideal wine country The Spanish conquistadores brought the first wine grapes to Chile as early as the 16th century. And yet it was not until the 19th century that wine production really took off, with the help of French winegrowers. The valleys of Central Chile, between the Andes and the coastal mountains, have an ideal climate for growing wine grapes, similar to that of France and California. From November to March hardly any rain, if any, falls. The combination of hot, dry days and cold nights facilitate a long, gradual maturation. Where the vines are concerned, the loose, low-acidity soil with plenty of nutrients is ideal. CAPEL Vicuña Valle de Elqui Valle de Limarí
Every type of classic grape variety can be found in Chile, from cabernet sauvignon, merlot, malbec, and pinot noir, to sauvignon blanc, chardonnay, riesling and gewürztraminer. However, grape varieties long absent from Europe, such as carmenère, also grow in this viniculture paradise. The 1967 land reforms under President Eduardo Frei and later President Allende opened up opportunities for small growers. However, the military regime of Augusto Pinochet (1973-1989) reversed all that and made it incredibly hard for growers and farmers to maintain a living income. The close of the Pinochet era marked the advent of the Chileans’ quest to ascertain which products would be most profitable in the market. They (re)discovered wine as a result. Prior to 1990, Chile exported very little wine because the quality wasn’t up to par. As of the 1990s, however, domestic, and foreign wineries had begun heavily investing in the sector. Noble grape varieties were planted (such as cabernet sauvignon, merlot, and carmenère), and the quality of the wine improved markedly.
● ● ●
vinos lautaro Curicó Valle de Lontué
VIDSECA Cauquenes Valle del Maule
That said, small-scale growers are not profiting from this wine revolution. All the major wine producers have invested in their own vines, which means they buy fewer grapes from small winegrowers. When they do buy, it is frequently at bargain basement prices. However, when small growers organise as cooperatives, they can escape the clutches of the major wine producers. Cooperatives sell under Fairtrade principles to companies such as Oxfam Fair Trade, which makes it possible for them to pay their members decent wages.
Find out more! 10 | CHILE
RED DEL VINO Santa Cruz Valle de Colchagua
Chile is wine country. www.winesofchile.org
‘We’re proud to export our product – the outcome of years of hard work – to Europe, through Oxfam. It provides hope and confidence in our investments, and the courage to keep going.’
Oxfam’s partner in Chile:
RED DEL VINO
CAMPESINO CHARDONNAY The nose detects the peach aromas typical of chardonnay, complemented by citrus notes and a slight hint of spice (cinnamon). The initial impression is full-bodied, with lovely ripe fruit and an elegant, fresh finish. Delicious with light cheeses, poultry, and fish with sauce.
CAMPESINO CHARDONNAY GRAN RESERVA Maturation in French oak barrels evokes aromas of ripe pineapple, peaches, butter, and vanilla. The initial mouthfeel is overwhelmingly full-bodied, with a lovely minerality and a freshness in the long finish. Delicious with creamy dishes, with or without fish or poultry.
CAMPESINO CARMÉNÈRE This deep, ruby-red wine has an expressive nose of warm ripe fruit (cherry, blackberry, blackcurrant), with eucalyptus and paprika, bouquet garni, and delicate woody notes. This fruit explosion on the palate is incredibly juicy and smooth, with an excellent structure, sophisticated integration of tannins, and a warm finish.
CAMPESINO CABERNET SAUVIGNON RESERVA This dark, wood ripened cabernet reserve is a treat with pleasant aromas of sweet cherries, blackcurrant, green pepper, and vanilla. It leaves a powerful initial impression, characterised by recurring dark fruit, full structure, and high tannins. Delicious with grilled meat and stews.
Osvaldo Díaz Red Del Vino winegrower
Find out more!
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/ red-del-vino (Dutch only)
Delicious with refined cuisine featuring rich sauces, and also pairs marvellously with barbecues and grilled meat.
CHILE | 11
Oxfamâ€™s partner in Chile:
SAGRADA FAMILIA (VINOS LAUTARO)
LAUTARO SAUVIGNON BLANC A sauvignon blanc that initially greets the palate with a fresh, pleasant taste and which is characterised by the intense flavour of citrus fruit. It has a soft structure that brings out a grassiness in the finish. Delicious with paling in â€™t groen (a traditional Flemish dish with fried fresh water eel, spinach and green herbs.)
BIO LAUTARO CABERNET SAUVIGNON This complex cabernet has a sumptuous bouquet of fresh red fruit, eucalyptus, and a slight hint of vanilla. The flavour is full and juicy, with beautiful notes of cherry and a velvety finish. Delicious with finely sliced cold meat, red meat, and oven-baked dishes.
BIO LAUTARO CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAN RESERVA 18 months of ripening in oaken barrels lends this wine profuse finesse on the nose with dark fruit, a hint of chocolate, black pepper, and liquorice. The first impression is fruity and fresh; it has a lovely acidity, ripe tannins, and a full finish. Delicious with stews that have an herbaceous depth of flavour and grilled beef.
SAUVIGNON BLANC A wonderful full-bodied, fruity wine. Delicious as an aperitif, with rice dishes, and mild curries. Available as a 3 L Party box and in 75 cl and 25 cl glass bottles.
CABERNET SAUVIGNON A vivacious, fruity cabernet with polished tannins and a subtle spiciness. Delicious with red meat and grilled food. Available as a 3 L Party box and in 75 cl and 25 cl glass bottles.
MERLOT A lovely, attractive wine, ruby red in colour with a young purple sheen. It features fruity notes and has a smooth finish. This fruit-driven wine pairs immaculately with everyday cooking, such as simple tomato-based dishes. Delicious with ratatouille, osso buco, pasta, and roast poultry.
Rafael Espinoza in his organic vineyard, where the cabernet sauvignon grapes are grown for BIO Lautaro Cabernet Sauvignon Gran Reserva.
‘The income from our sales to Oxfam Fair Trade enables us to purchase better vines.’ Rafael Espinoza Producer and Chairman of the Sagrada Familia Board of Directors
• Sagrada Familia feels a little like the Chilean dream. 22 peasant families from the Lontué Valley in Central Chile went from being simple winegrowers to wine exporters in a proverbial heartbeat. • Oxfam-Wereldwinkels’ support makes it possible for growers to invest in high-quality, environmentally friendly production. Thanks to the Fairtrade premium, a social fund was set up. This fund provides every school-age child of Sagrada Familia members with a scholarship. It is also used to invest in health care and provide compensation should damage strike the crops.
Find out more!
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/sagradafamilia (Dutch only)
CHILE | 13
Oxfam’s partner in Chile:
VIDSECA PAÍS-CARIGNAN-CABERNET With ripe red fruit (cherry, raspberry) and a delicate spiciness (eucalyptus, white pepper) on the nose, this refreshingly soft red wine is subtly full-bodied. This red is a blend of 50% país, 30% carignan, and 20% cabernet sauvignon grapes. Delicious with lamb and hard/aged cheeses.
‘Many of us are descendants of families who have done nothing but grow grapes for four generations. What’s more, every grower produces their own artisanal wine personally. The cooperative turns those unique wines into an exclusive blend.’ Félipe Zúñiga VIDSECA Chairman
VIDSECA is committed to making small-scale viticulture liveable and aims to generate added value on behalf of its producers. The association is also mulling over alternative sources of income, such as sustainable wine tourism. To stem the tide of rural flight, VIDSECA does what it can to involve young people and educational institutions in their work. They provide training on grape growing and vinification to provide them with a future that’s close to home.
Find out more!
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/vidseca (Dutch only)
Félipe Zúñiga, Vidseca’s Chairman, discusses how the association of 22 small-scale wine producers in Cauquenes produce their Chilean artisanal país wine.
Oxfam’s partner in Chile:
SENSUS EXTRA BRUT SPARKLING WINE This straw-coloured, pale, and sophisticated sparkling wine with a continuous stream of fine bubbles is produced using the Charmat method. The nose is fresh and fruity with citrus and minerality with enticing hints of toasted bread. The mouthfeel is incredibly fresh and balanced, with a long finish. This wine possesses a gorgeous minerality, characteristic of this grape variety.
Delicious as an aperitif, with seafood (oysters) or fish, and ideal with sushi.
SENSUS BRUT ROSÉ SPARKLING WINE This fresh, elegantly purplepink wine is made from pedro jiménez and cabernet sauvignon grapes, favouring it with a clean nose of red fruit with floral (violet) and even mineral notes. There is a slight sweetness on the palate with very fruity cherry and strawberry flavours, and a harmonious finish. Delicious as an aperitif and with fruity desserts.
PRÓLOGO MOSCATO LATE HARVEST This sweet wine is a deep golden colour, with muscat aromas of rose, nectar, and honey. It exudes a sophisticated harmony, between sweetness and acidity, with a voluptuous finish. Delicious with almond cake, fruity desserts, and blue cheese.
ALTO DEL CARMEN PISCO 40°C This is mild pisco from muscat of Alexandria grapes, produced through double distillation, and aged in oak barrels. It delights with a delicate nutmeg bouquet and aromas of honey and dried flowers, with hints of vanilla. On the palate, the taste is wonderfully full and round, creamy and balanced, with sweet notes of candied fruit and caramel, vanilla, and banana. Drink this pisco chilled (10°C) and straight, on the rocks or not. 40% alcohol content.
‘Being a member of this cooperative is a lifestyle; it transcends financial or production-related considerations.’ Javier Marcos Capel Export Manager
• This cooperative has existed since 1934. • Capel is Chile’s market leader in pisco production. Despite lucrative proposals from the commercial sector, the organisation has kept the faith and remains dedicated to its cooperative structure and the importance of serving its members. Its services range from lending to accounting advice, health insurance and scholarships. • One of the key principles of Capel’s mission is to ‘improve member quality of life’.
Find out more!
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/capel (Dutch only)
FAIR WINES FROM A TO Z
A three-century-old tradition South Africa is famous for being one of the wine countries of the South. The country has a viticulture tradition that spans over three centuries. Apartheid put a significant damper on development in the wine sector; however, viticulture caught a second wind in the 1990s and has been booming ever since. A large group of companies focuses on lovers of cheap, slightly sweet, and fruity wines. Smaller family-owned vineyards are more interested in wines that exhibit distinct character due to the grapes and climate. Oxfam Fair Trade buys wines from the Western Cape, not far from Cape Town. The South African trading partner is a winning example of ‘black economic empowerment’, the post-apartheid policy intended to ensure economic participation by all South Africans. Participation gives employees more control over their situation, and better account is taken of everyone’s needs and wishes. The Fairtrade premium adds additional economic incentive to that.
Find out more!
South Africa is wine country. www.wosa.co.za
18 SOUTH AFRICA
Oxfam’s partner in South Africa:
KOOPMANSKLOOF CHENIN BLANC This classic chenin blanc has intense aromas of lime, quince, and tropical fruit, as well as a delicate pineapple aroma, and a clean, tart finish. Delicious with zeevruchten, salades en pasta.
KOOPMANSKLOOF CHARDONNAY This is a fruit-driven chardonnay, with vibrant tropical aromas, lime, and orange blossom on the nose. The mouthfeel is harmonious, fullbodied, and with a tart finish. Delicious as an aperitif, with salads, and exotic fish or chicken dishes.
KOOPMANSKLOOF PINOTAGE ROSÉ This pinotage rosé has a gorgeous aroma of red currant and raspberry, is fruity and silky on the palate, and has an elegant crisp finish. Delicious as wine to be enjoyed out on the terrace, with salads with fruit vinaigrette, grilled scampi, and light fish recipes.
KOOPMANSKLOOF SHIRAZ This bold, deep red wine has an expressive aroma of red fruit and spices. It is fruity and smooth on the palate, with notes of pepper and coffee. Delicious with game, barbecue, and richly spiced stews.
KOOPMANSKLOOF PINOTAGE This intense pinotage evokes aromas of pomegranate, elderberry, and green herbs. It is harmonious on the palate, initially tart with gorgeous fruit, delicate acidity, low tannins, and a hint of coffee in the finish. Delicious with strong cheese, richly spiced stews, roasts, and barbecue.
SOUTH AFRICA 19
‘A fifth of the shares are held by the workers.’ Rydal Jeftha, Koopmanskloof Manager
ROSÉ PINOTAGE-SYRAH This crisp, fruity rosé features delicious aromas of raspberry and strawberry. On the palate, this pinotage-syrah rosé is smooth, with a delightful crisp finish that makes it the perfect summer terrace drink!
CHENIN BLANC This wine is lovely to the eye with a pale yellow sheen and brilliant clarity. Fruity notes of grapefruit, ripe pear, and pineapple, full-bodied and juicy, grace the palate. A striking acidity ensures a tart finish. This is an immanently smooth, drinkable wine.
Delicious as a summer aperitif, with seafood, and fresh salads.
Delicious with Mediterranean fish recipes, salads, and slightly spicy Asian dishes.
Available as a 3 L Party box and in 75 cl and 25 cl glass bottles.
Available as a 3 L Party box and in 75 cl glass bottles.
• The workers own 18% of the company’s shares combined through a Workers’ Trust. This Workers’ Trust holds 40 of the 465 hectares of vineyards in usufruct, and all profits derived from it are passed directly on to the workers. • A percentage of the profits is deposited in a workers’ fund, enabling them to improve their homes or allowing their children to continue their studies. • The Fairtrade Premium Committee monitors the use of Fairtrade premium funds, which are used, among others, for crèche and after-school care, medical care, a music project, a pension fund, a music project, and as special allowances in the event of accidents or death.
Find out more! 20 SOUTH AFRICA
www.oxfamwereldwinkels.be/ koopmanskloof (Dutch only)
SOUTH AFRICA 21
YOUR GRAPE GUIDE SAUVIGNON BLANC
Ampelography: Sauvignon blanc is a small grape with a greenish-yellow skin.
Ampelography: chardonnay is the best known and most international grape. This variety thrives in nearly every wine region, from scorching heat to chilly, rainy climates.
Grown in: the grape originates in Bordeaux but today can be found scattered throughout the world. Profile: pleasing crispness and pronounced extroverted aromas. There are two types: sauvignon, based on fresh orchard fruit (green apple), which may even be reminiscent of herbaceous (grassy) notes, particularly aromatic and juicy with citrus fruit. These contrast with the introverted sauvignon, which leaves a more mineral impression. They tend to be less spectacularly aromatic but have greater finesse. Culinary: serve with poached or steamed fish, vegetables (salads), vegetarian dishes, poultry, or spicy dishes. Oxfam Fair Trade sauvignon blanc wines: Sauvignon blanc, Lautaro sauvignon blanc (Sagrada Familia – Chile)
Grown in: originally from France. This grape is particularly popular in the South. Profile: Chardonnay grapes, for the winemaker, are the perfect palette for creativity and innovation. It adapts well to various climates and soil types, enabling it to produce a wide range of flavours. Consequently, the taste and aroma of chardonnay wines are difficult to pin down or summarise in just a few terms. Most amateur wine lovers associate chardonnay with vanilla, nuts and (toasted) bread. However, this has more to do with how chardonnay wines are often aged in oak barrels than with the grape itself. Culinary: this ageing provides additional nuance that many people enjoy, especially when paired with fish, shellfish, white meat, poultry, and semi-hard abbey cheeses. Oxfam Fair Trade chardonnay wines: BIO Raza selection chardonnay (La Riojana – Argentina), Campesino chardonnay, Campesino chardonnay gran reserva (Red Del Vino – Chile), Koopmanskloof chardonnay (Koopmanskloof – South Africa)
Grown in: Chenin blanc, a white wine grape variety originally from Anjou, remains one of the most important white grapes in the Loire River Valley. The Huguenots introduced the variety to South Africa at the end of the seventeenth century. Today, over 18% of South African vineyards – an area the size of the Loire River Valley – has been planted with chenin blanc.
Ampelography: Torrontés grapes are round and not overly large and range from yellow-green to golden in colour.
Ampelography: Muscat of Alexandria is one of two hundred types of muscat grapes, an extremely sensitive grape variety. This amber to greenishyellow grape has a tough skin, crisp flesh, and a taste reminiscent of nutmeg.
Profile: Chenin blanc grown in South Africa is intensely aromatic. It produces crisp wines with a nicely balanced acidity. Its aromas include peach, pear, apple, apricot and tropical fruit, but also nuts, flowers and honey. Culinary: heavenly with chicken, seafood, or fish. Oxfam Fair Trade chenin blanc wines: chenin blanc & Koopmanskloof chenin blanc (Koopmanskloof – South Africa)
Grown in: Torrontés is Argentina’s indigenous white grape. However, torrontés riojano, its clone, is especially popular. It may well have been Spanish missionaries who first brought these vines to Argentina. The grape thrives best in cold, dry, and windy climates. The vineyards are often located at high altitudes (1,000 to 1,500 m above sea level), where the alternation between chilly nights and warm days creates a lovely balance of sugar and acidity in the wine.
Grown in: the grape itself probably originates west of the Nile Delta (Alexandria, Egypt), but is frequently cultivated, nowadays, in South Africa and South America. The Chileans primarily cultivate moscatel de Alejandria, the grape’s Spanish name, to distil pisco. Oxfam Fair Trade muscat wines and spirits: Prólogo Moscato Late Harvest & Pisco 40° (Capel – Chile)
This grape variety is mainly found in the provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, and San Juan. The best varieties are grown in Salta and La Rioja, the region from which Oxfam Fair Trade also procures its Argentinian wines. Profile: the result is a fresh, highly aromatic, and floral wine with peach and apricot aromas. Culinary: delicious with spicy meals and Asian dishes. Oxfam Fair Trade torrontés wines: BIO La Posada torrontés & BIO Ecologica torrontés Brut sparkling wine (La Riojana – Argentina)
Ampelography: not to be confused with the South Spanish Pedro Ximénez grape, primarily used for sherry due to its high sugar content. The point is that the Pedro Jiménez grown in Chile’s Coquimbo region is not a European, but rather an indigenous variety. The clusters grow large, with medium-sized round grapes that are a greenish-yellow. The vines themselves are sturdy, with remarkably high yields of 30 to 50 tonnes/ha, grown in parronal (an umbrella trellis system), offering pickers the advantage of being able to harvest under the shade provided by the foliage.
Ampelography: Pinot gris is one of the four commonly used types of pinot that share Burgundy as their place of origin, pinot noir, pinot gris, pinot blanc, and pinot meunier. The grapes range from brownish pink to greyish-blue and are small and either round or oval-shaped.
Grown in: nearly every wine country of relevance is home to the merlot grape.
Grown in: Chile and Argentina.
Profile: Pinot gris produces a wide variety of wines, from bone dry with pronounced acidity to powerfully sweet versions that boast exotic and even honeylike aromas.
Profile: The aroma is moderately expressive, dominated by citrus, white fruit (apple, pear), and gooseberries. This grape has excellent acidity when harvested for (sparkling) wine. To make pisco, grapes are only harvested once the grapes are very ripe. Culinary: as an aperitif, with fresh salads with vinaigrette, and heavenly with sushi as well. Oxfam Fair Trade Pedro Jiménez wines: Sensus Extra Brut sparkling wine, Sensus Rosé sparkling wine (Capel – Chile)
Grown in: : these grapes are grown in cold to temperate climates: France (Alsace), Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, and Romania. They are also grown in the new world: Canada, South Africa, Australia, California, and Argentina.
Culinary: drink these wines with flavourful dishes that include fish, poultry, or white meat. Pairs well with creamy sauces and milder cow’s milk cheeses. Oxfam Fair Trade pinot gris wines: BIO RAZA pinot gris (La Riojana – Argentina)
Profile: This plum-coloured and early-ripening variety gives the wine a fleshiness, fullness, and juiciness. The grape itself has a beautiful appearance. The wine is creamier, rounder, and softer than cabernet sauvignon, for example. Consequently, it is also a more popular wine. Merlot has a sweet and soft fruity bouquet, but also ages well, which lends the wine an aroma of coffee or cocoa. The grape is regularly paired with cabernet sauvignon and is used to take the edge off of cabernet sauvignons. Conversely, cabernet sauvignon adds more bite and body to merlot. Culinary: perfect for drinking with pizza, lasagne, turkey, red (beef) meat or game, and soft white cheeses. Oxfam Fair Trade merlot wines: merlot (Sagrada Familia – Chile)
Profile: Cabernet sauvignon is the world’s most famous vine, and the grape is synonymous with premium quality. These wines are characterised by a pronounced aroma of blackcurrants and their deep red, almost purple colour. Cabernet sauvignons taste of blackcurrants and herbs and evoke hints of clove. They are high in tannins and are typically wood-aged, gracing them with notes of toast and cedar.
Grown in: the carmenère grape originally derives from Bordeaux but has come to be predominantly associated with Chilean wines. This grape is nearly impossible to find in France, ever since the phylloxera epidemic that ravaged its vineyards at the end of the 19th century. It was introduced to Chile in the mid-19th century. The carmenère flourishes perfectly between the Andes and the coastal mountains due to the warmer climate.
Grown in: the Chilean país grape, a relative of the Listán Prieto, boasts an impressive history. In Cauquenes, people proudly recount how the first país vines were planted in their region during the first half of the 16th century (1532). The Spaniards arrived with the Jesuits in their wake, who had various grape varieties with them in tow. After all, you can’t hold Mass without wine. Some varieties adapted, which is how the país grape came about. Until just before the dawn of the 21st century, it was still the most cultivated grape variety in Chile. Afterwards, it was supplanted by French noble varieties, such as cabernet sauvignon.
Culinary: Cabernet sauvignon truly shines when paired with red meat (beef, lamb), large game, dove, guinea fowl, rabbit, and punchy white cheeses, such as Camembert or ripe Brie. Oxfam Fair Trade cabernet sauvignon wines: Cabernet sauvignon, BIO Lautaro cabernet sauvignon & BIO Lautaro cabernet sauvignon Gran Reserva (Sagrada Familia – Chile), VIDSECA país–carignan–cabernet (VIDSECA – Chile), Campesino cabernet reserva (Red del Vino – Chile).
Profile: these grapes produce a magnificent wine that is black cherry in colour, has a distinctive character and is especially striking for its overwhelming roundness and spiciness. These grapes are harvested a few weeks after the merlot. Grapes harvested early produce vegetal hints of sweet pepper and peppers, while ripe grapes taste of black fruit and chocolate. Culinary: sumptuous with roasted or grilled poultry, and other simple roasted meat dishes. Oxfam Fair Trade carmenère wines: Campesino carmenère (Red Del Vino – Chile)
Profile: wines made from país grapes tend to be on the thin side and often have a somewhat rustic character. Extraction is limited due to the grape’s thin skin. Harvest yields are respectable at 8 to 12 tonnes per hectare. There are also growers In Cauquenes with yields of up to 3 to 4 tonnes per hectare. The vines grow in bush vine/goblet form, usually without irrigation, which leads to roots that extend down to 15 m deep. Cauquenes has the perfect terroir for país, and the (cheaper) país wines of this region are often blended with cabernet sauvignon and other wines. The consumption of varietal país wine remains largely limited to the areas in which it is grown. So far, export has not ventured beyond sweet país wines; however, prestigious wine producers have recently begun specialising in the singular character of the país and are gradually making headway in their wooing of export markets. Oxfam Fair Trade país wines: VIDSECA país-carignan-cabernet (VIDSECA – Chile)
SHIRAZ / SYRAH
Grown in: Malbec (or Côt) is originally a French grape variety. The grape was brought to Argentina in the mid-nineteenth century, which heralded a new wave of enthusiasm for viticulture. With just over 33,000 hectares of vineyards, it currently enjoys first place as Argentina’s most prolific red grape. Every wine region in Argentina has been planted with malbec grapes, but the heart of production is in the province of Mendoza, near the Andes Mountains.
Ampelography: Shiraz is not an easy grape to grow, but it does produce a wine bursting with character. The grapes are small and have very thick skin.
Grown in: Pinotage is a typical South African grape: ‘Pinotage, wherever you plant it, whoever plants it, and whoever happens to produce the wine, remains inherently South African.’ The name is a contraction of the two varieties from which the grape originated, pinot noir and cinsault (also known as hermitage).
Profile: Malbec’s nom de plume as vin noir is hardly coincidental. With its intense fruit aromas (plums and blackberries) and velvety texture, Argentine malbec is in high demand. Argentine malbec wines are somewhat less robust and lower in tannins than their French counterparts that grow in the limestone soil of Cahors. Instead, they are softer, more accessible, and more mature. Malbec wines vary from fruity with a light structure to powerful and dark, and with fantastic ageing potential. This variation stems from the different terroirs in which the malbec grape is grown. Oxfam Fair Trade malbec wines: BIO La Posada malbec, BIO RAZA Selection malbec/ shiraz & BIO RAZA malbec Gran Reserva (La Riojana – Argentina)
Grown in: according to historians, the shiraz grape (also known as syrah) owes its name to its probable city of origin – Shiraz of Iran. This grape is one of the noblest varieties and cannot be planted just anywhere. The grape grows best in poor soils and can withstand high temperatures admirably. Profile: shiraz grapes have a dark and intense colour and a high proportion of tannins to juice, which usually results in highly concentrated wines. Oxfam Fair Trade shiraz/syrah wines: BIO La Posada Syrah Rosé, BIO RAZA Selection malbec/shiraz (La Riojana – Argentina), pinotage syrah rosé, Koopmanskloof shiraz (Koopmanskloof South Africa)
Profile: Profile: the pinotage grape has a distinctive personality, which indubitably goes for the wine as well. The method and duration of ageing determine the flavour and complexity of the wine. Young pinotage has a deep red, almost purple colour. Its aroma and taste are often associated with small dark and red fruits. The level of tannin development in a pinotage goes up or down depending on the region, but there is a striking constant – a solid but particularly fresh base of acidity. Older pinotage develops animal aromas (e.g. musk or leather). The influence of the (new) oak barrels often evokes associations with coffee, chocolate, and smoked wood. Culinary: a good solid pinotage pairs exceedingly well with all kinds of game dishes, herb-marinated or encrusted grilled red meat, and mature or punchy cheeses. The younger and fruitier type is heavenly with lamb recipes, white meat, stews and one-pot dishes. Oxfam Fair Trade pinotage wines: pinotage-syrah rosé, Koopmanskloof pinotage & Koopmanskloof pinotage rosé (Koopmanskloof South Africa)
THE VINIFICATION PROCESS in 7 STEPS
White grapes (usually still in clusters) are pressed right after harvesting. Red grapes are destemmed and crushed. Next, the juice – called must at this stage – flows into fermentation tanks.
Yeast cells (natural or added) start the alcohol fermentation process. The sugar in the grapes converts into alcohol and carbon dioxide, among other things. Constant temperature is crucial for keeping the fermentation process going.
Meanwhile, for red wines, it is time for maceration (skin contact). That means the grape skins are soaked in the must, which is what gives the wine its colour, tannin structure, and aromas.
This is followed by malolactic fermentation, where the malic acid in the wine is converted into lactic acid. This fermentation is the key process by which the wine’s acidity is reduced, and also refines its aroma, colour, and taste. This step is completely unnecessary for fresh white wines (e.g. sauvignon blanc), given that it is the hint of acerbity that brings out a white wine’s crispness.
Before the wine can be aged and bottled, it must be clarified first, to remove impurities. The wine is then filtered.
Now, ageing can begin. Traditionally, the best red wines are aged in oak barrels. It infuses the wine with additional aromas that blend perfectly with those of the grape.
Lastly, the wine is bottled.
WINE TASTING Wine tasting is a learned skill. It is simply a question of using your senses correctly. To reach a conclusion about the quality of a wine, a whole series of analyses and reflections is required. The process is always the same: first look, then smell, and lastly, taste.
How a wine looks says a lot about its evolution and the path it has tread, so to speak. The analysis focuses on colour, clarity, and intensity.
Smell the wine – this ‘immobile’ stage provides a crucial first impression of the intensity, quality, and nature of the aromas. Next, tilt the glass in circular movements (‘swirling’) and bring it to the nose to capture the aromas. When swirling, wine often adheres to the inside of the glass. The richer the wine, the slower these ‘tears’ or ‘legs’ drip down.
The colour of the wine provides an initial indication of its age and development. For example, greenish highlights in a white wine suggest a young wine. Colours that are more yellow, golden, or amber point to a wine that is older. Rosé wines that are pinkish-red are in tip-top condition. For red wines, there is a time and place for every stage of evolution on the red spectrum, from bluish-red (a young wine) to brick to rusty orange (an old wine). Where clarity is concerned, the following terms are used – in descending order: • crystalline: wine reminiscent of crystal • brilliant: clear, luminous wine • bright: very clear wine • clear: an excellent, clear wine • hazy: a slightly opalescent sheen • dull: slightly cloudy • cloudy: a wine with visible floating solid particles • lees: term for the large deposits in wine Colour intensity is described on a scale from pale to light, average, strong, and intense.
The initial impression of the wine’s scent provides an indication of the level and intensity of the aromas: • neutral or expressionless: a wine with little or no aroma • closed: a wine which has not yet fully developed its aromatic richness • moderate: a wine with a few recognisable aromas • aromatic: a wine with a medley of gorgeous fragrances • broad: a wine with a lovely, rich aromatic structure Next, it is time to try and classify the fragrances within the broad aroma families of wine. Wines have an infinite number of aromas, but they can be grouped into a few large categories: • fruity aromas: reminiscent of fruit • We distinguish between red fruit (e.g. raspberries, strawberries) and dark fruit (e.g. blackberries, elderberries). • floral aromas (e.g. rose and violet) • ‘toasted’ aromas (such as toasted hazelnuts) • wood aromas (a hint of vanilla) • spice aromas (coffee or cocoa) • animal aromas (e.g. leather)
Taste Take a sip of wine and let it glide over your tongue so that it penetrates your taste buds. Next, inhale a small amount of air between slightly open lips, and allow it to mingle with the wine in your mouth to bring out the flavour. Now you can analyse the wine’s flavour: Is the wine balanced? What is the ratio of acidity to alcohol like? Is the quality of tannins on point? Does it have nice body? When the alcohol in a wine is too pervasive, it is known as too alcoholic. When the alcohol balances immaculately with the other elements of the wine, it is called elegant, soft, and harmonious. The finish is how long the full impression of the wine lingers on the palate, even once the wine has been swallowed or spit out. Wines have a short, medium, or long finish. The longer the finish, the bigger the wine. With regard to ‘aftertaste’, terms include: • velvety wine: associated with velvet, a smooth finish • silky wine: when it feels like silk on the tongue • palatable wine: when it invigorates and treats the taste buds • powerful wine: when it full of character • juicy and lively wine: when it leaves a fat, full-bodied and generous impression There are four basic flavours that you can recognise in a wine – sour, sweet, bitter, and salty.
Wine contains the grape’s primary acids (tartaric, citric, and malic acids), as well as acids produced during fermentation (such as succinic and lactic acid). These acids occur based on how ripe the grapes are and also depend on the vinification process. Wine acidity is described as: • nervous: high, piercing acidity • lively: distinct acidity with a little carbon dioxide • sharp: unpleasantly high acidity, astringent
The taste of bitterness derives from the combination of natural phenolic compounds (e.g. tannins) in the grape, which leave traces in the wine during the vinification process.
Sweet A wine’s sweetness derives from natural sugars, but also from the sweetness of other natural substances in the wine (alcohol and glycerol). Common terms for sweetness include: • dry: containing less than two grams of sugar per litre • sweet: when the sweetness is impossible to miss • off dry: rich, full-bodied wine in which the sweetness pairs with a certain degree of richness • fat: when the sweet, full body slides clearly over the tongue and palate • richly sweet: when there is a high concentration of sugar and glycerol
We call a wine: • exceptionally smooth: low tannins • smooth: moderate tannin content • firm: distinct tannins • rigid: lingering tannins • tart (or astringent): high tannin content • harsh: too many tannins
Salty Despite it containing numerous salts, this flavour is rarely detectable in wine.
FROM THE GRAPES TO HANDY FACTS ABOUT WINE Wine is a natural product. Taste and quality vary from vintage to vintage because every wine is the product of a complex interplay of different elements. The grape variety is the key element that determines flavour. Differences in terroir (the combination of all the natural conditions affecting the growth of the vine) and vinification (winemaking) lead to an infinite stream of variation.
HOW DO YOU STORE WINE? Wine is a living product and is constantly evolving. The taste of a wine changes as it ages. Most contemporary wines are not produced for ageing but are intended to be ‘ready for consumption’. Oxfam Fair Trade does not have any true ‘cellaring wines’. Most of the selection’s wines are best drunk young, i.e. within two years of harvest. Some red wines have better ageing potential, such as the Malbec Gran Reserva.
Tips for storing wine: • Wine should be stored in a dark, cool space, either sidewise or upside down. The cork must be kept moist inside. Light and air oxidise wine. An opened bottle typically oxidises within three days. • The perfect storage temperature is 12°C. However, constant temperature is what counts. A storage temperature higher or lower than 12°C is better than a fluctuating temperature. Please note that storing wine below 6°C may damage the wine.
THE IDEAL POURING TEMPERATURE • Sparkling wine: 6 to 8°C • White wine: 8 to 12°C • Red wine: • Bordeaux (e.g. lautaro, cabernet sauvignon): 16 to 18°C • Burgundy: (e.g. shiraz, pinotage): 14 to 16°C • Other red wines (new vintages): 14 °C
WHAT ARE ORGANIC WINES?
A third of Oxfam Fair Trade’s wine selection is produced organically. That makes sense because Fairtrade and organic go hand in hand. Most people who are concerned about the social conditions in which a product is produced are usually also preoccupied with the environmental impact during production, and vice versa. But what makes a wine organic? Technically, any wine that pre-dates 2012 cannot be called organic. Wine only had to bear a label that said ‘wine made from organically grown grapes’. After all, the regulations said nothing about how the wine should be handled afterwards. That all changed in 2012. Now, the new conditions for organic wine certification also apply to the wine’s production method. For example, the maximum sulphite content is lower in organic wines than it is in conventional wines. The result is that organic wine is now organic across the board. An essential aspect of organic viticulture is ground vegetation. Clover in the undergrowth binds nitrogen to the soil which renders artificial fertiliser unnecessary. Flowers attract useful insects, such as predatory mites, ichneumon wasps, and hoverflies, which prevent harmful insects from hatching above the threshold. In spring, organic vineyards are often sprayed with organic preparations based on algae and equisetum arvense (horsetail). Algae stimulate root growth, and horsetail is burgeoning with silicic acid which hardens the cell wall, making it harder for fungal diseases to infect the vines. The
soil is also nourished with natural humus, which promotes biological activity in soil and plants and increases overall disease resistance. Organic farming not only contributes to a healthier environment but also contributes to the wine’s quality on several fronts. The absence of artificial fertiliser often encourages roots to penetrate deeper into the soil to locate the necessary nutrients. That enhances the flavour of the wine. Moreover, organic wine grapes are nearly always picked by hand, resulting in a selection of only the best ripe grapes. Mechanical grape harvesters cannot possibly compete with that. During the vinification of organically grown grapes, an absolute minimum of flavour enhancers is used, filtration is limited, and ‘wild yeasts’ (or spontaneous fermentation) are used during fermentation. The percentage of sulphites added for colour and storage is frequently as low as half the amount found in conventional wines. Oxfam Fair Trade BIO (organic) wines: BIO Ecologica Brut torrontés BIO La Posada syrah rosé BIO RAZA pinot gris BIO RAZA Selection chardonnay BIO Raza Selection malbec/shiraz BIO Raza malbec Gran Reserva BIO La Posada torrontés BIO La Posada malbec BIO Lautaro cabernet sauvignon BIO Lautaro cabernet sauvignon Gran Reserva
Find out more!
Organic and fair trade: a winning combo for your business
WINE GUIDE Fairtrade wines from around the world
Our Oxfam Fair Trade guarantee: 1. Impact on growers worldwide: • Bought directly from cooperatives of small scale winegrowers. • Fair price arrangements: Fairtrade minimum price + additional Fairtrade premium • Advance payment to partner producers • Bonus Oxfam project funding: environmental sustainability, conversion to organic farming, emergency aid for natural disasters, etc. 2. Independently certified • All Oxfam wines are Fairtrade certified. • Organic certification: 1 out of 3 Oxfam wines is organic (BIO). Oxfam aims to exclusively sell organic wines by 2030. 3. Quality • Careful selection and control by our own wine specialist • Analysis of all wines in an accredited laboratory • Years of sharing know-how and expertise with our partner producers • Excellent reviews by independent wine connoisseurs, sommeliers, and Test Aankoop.
Oxfam Fair Trade wine buyer Wim Melis visiting Roberto Lopez of Red Del Vino, grape producer for the CAMPESINO cabernet reserva (Colchagua, Chile)
OXFAM FAIR TRADE CV Ververijstraat 15 B - 9000 Ghent firstname.lastname@example.org tel: +32 (0)9 218 88 99
Publishing executive: Eva Smets • Ververijstraat 15 - 9000 Ghent Oxfam Fair Trade - Wine Guide • ed. NO20 • 210 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this catalogue may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, whether electronically, mechanically, via photocopy, recording or by any other means whatsoever, without the publisher’s prior consent. E-mail: email@example.com • PHOTOGRAPHY: Yel, Griet Hendrickx, Desmond Louw, Red Del Vino.