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Project Book

Architecture Studio 471 Fall 2012 Holly Burley Wenyi Zhang

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Content Sketches from San Francisco

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Site Inventory/Analysis

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Climate and Analysis

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Zoning Regulations

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Cultural Context

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Context Model Documentation

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Demographics

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Household Size

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Land Distribution

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Crime Statistics

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Education

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Religious

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Content History of San Francisco

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History of Tall Buildings

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Designing Vertical Communities

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Building Codes/Life Safety/Security

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Residential Living/Service/ Mixed-use Issues

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Case Studies

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Design Intention Statement & Goals

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Urban Activity Sketches

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Building Program

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Sustainable Strategies

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Building Interface

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Structure System Description

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Content Wind and Sun Diagrams

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Internal Organization Diagrams

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Vertical Transportation System

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HVAC System Description

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LEED Platinum Checklist

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Sustainability Alternatives

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Materials

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Documentation of Design Process

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Copies of Graphic Presentation

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Pro - Forma

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Bibliography

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Sketches of San Francisco

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Sketches of San Francisco

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Site Inventory / Analysis There are some environmental concerns surrounding our site choice. The flood plane is not far from Folsom and in an extreme case we could have to deal with that flood water. There are also seismic concerns in this area which will affect the material choices and building construction.

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Site Inventory / Analysis

The Pacific Gas and Electric building housing telephone lines does not provide a pleasant view.

Buildings in the general surroundings range from 2-10 stories in height. This will take some consideration to not shadow them completely when building a 35 story building.

An unfortunate dead patch of vegetation offers an opportunity to liven up the space with a bit of green.

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Climate and Analysis

San Francisco is in the Mediterranean which is characterized by dry summers and mild moist winters. It is home to the least temperature change per year in the United States sticking to an average of 55-70 degrees farenheit.

*Sun diagram and wind diagram

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Zoning Regulation Zoning District Transbay Downtown Residential District (TB-DTR) Height & bulk districts: 50/85/550-TB FAR

Calculations Area of lot -48800ft 48800x9=439200ft 439200/35=12548 35x15(max)=525ft 525ft<550ft height restriction

Special use districts: None Special sign districts: None Legislative setbacks: None Coastal zone: Not in the coastal zone Port: Not under port jurisdiction Limited and nonconforming use: None Redevelopment Area:Transbay Zone 1 (Expires 2035) Jurisdiction:Oversight Board Reason for Jurisdiction:Major Approved Development Project per Ord 11-12: Ordinance Document

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Culture Context

Featured districts: • The Castro • Chinatown • Fillmore District • Haight Ashbury • Mission • North Beach • Tenderloin • Japantown • Etc.

A huge tourist city Diverse culture context Globe experience Highly developed urban environment

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Context Model Documentation The Transbay Downtown Residential District, which is wholly within the Transbay Redevelopment Project Area, comprises mostly publicly owned parcels containing infrastructure or underutilized land related to the Transbay Terminal and former Embarcadero Freeway. This district generally extends along the north side of Folsom Street from Spear to Essex Streets, and between Main and Beale Streets to the north side of Howard Street. Laid out in the Transbay Redevelopment Plan and its companion documents, including the Design for the Development and the Development Controls and Design Guidelines for the Transbay Redevelopment Project, is the comprehensive vision for this underutilized area as a high-density, predominantly residential, district within walking distance of the downtown core, transit facilities, and the waterfront. The plan for the district includes: a mix of widely-spaced high-rises, mixed with a street-defining base of low- and mid-rise buildings with ground floor townhouses; a public open space on part of the block bounded by Folsom, Beale, Howard, and Main Streets; ground-floor retail along Folsom Street; and several new alleyways to break up the size of the blocks.

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Demographics

Census 2000 Census 2010 TOTAL POPULATION 776,733 100.0% 805,235 In households In group quarters

756,976 19,757

97.5% 2.5%

100.0%

780,971 24,264

97.0% 3.0%

390,387 48,870 4,024 267,915 3,359 53,021 37,659

48.5% 6.1% 0.5% 33.3% 0.4% 6.6% 4.7%

RACE White 385,728 49.7% Black or African American 60,515 7.8% American Indian and Alaska Native 3,458 0.4% Asian 239,565 30.8% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 3,844 0.5% Some other race 50,365 6.5% Two or more races 33,255 4.3%

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Demographics

Census 2000 Census 2010 SEX Male 394,828 50.8% 408,462 Female 381,905 49.2% 396,773

50.7% 49.3%

AGE Under 5 years 31,633 4.1% 35,203 4.4% 5 to 17 years 81,169 10.4% 72,321 9.0% 18 to 64 years 557,820 71.8% 587,869 73.0% 65 years and over 106,111 13.7% 109,842 13.6% Median age 36.5 X 38.5 X

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Household Size Census 2000 Census 2010 HOUSEHOLDS Total households 329,700 100.0% 345,811 Family households 145,186 44.0% 151,029 Families with children under 18 54,707 16.0% 55,212 Average household size 2.30 X 2.26 Average family size 3.22 X 3.11 HOUSING OCCUPANCY Total housing units 346,527 100.0% Occupied housing units 329,700 95.1% Owner-occupied housing units 115,391 35.0% Renter-occupied housing units 214,309 65.0% Vacant housing units 16,827 4.9% 1 unit, detached housing 62,653 18.1% Median value owner occupied unit (dollars) 396,400 X Median gross rent (dollars) 928 X Http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov/counties/SanFranciscoCounty.

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376,942 345,811 123,646 222,165 31,131

100.0% 43.7% 16.0% X X

100.0% 91.7% 35.8% 64.2% 8.3%


Land Distribution Housing Units/acre 7421 houses/condos per mile² 1 mile² = 640 acre 11.59 houses/condos per acre

Total Area 29,884

Park Area 5,384

Percent of parks 18.0%

≈ 12 houses/condos per acre

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Crime Statistics

City Wide (2012) Jan Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

7 4 3 7 5 2 7 4 14 11 10 14 12 9 14 11 21 18 17 21 19 16 21 18 28 25 24 28 26 23 28 25

*Recent crime statistics map

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Education

Census 2000

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Population 25 and over 595,805 High school graduate 82,618 Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree 170,186 Graduate or professional degree 97,806

Census 2010

100.0% 13.9% 28.6% 16.4%

608,563

100.0% 14.4% 31.5% 19.7%

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Religious

Percentage of population affiliated with a religious congregation: 41.83% Here USA

41.8% 50.2%

Total adherents in this county: 324,882, state total: 15,614,071 Total congregations in this county: 408, state total: 16,921 County population: 776,733

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History of San Francisco

The area that was once known as Yerba Buena and part of Mexico, began to attract American settlers and was claimed as part of America during the Mexican-American war in 1846. It was then renamed San Francisco but remained a small settlement because of the geography. The population boom in 1848 was thanks mostly to the California Gold Rush and later Silver discoveries. The famous cable cars started in 1873 and as the population kept growing, it earned the title of 8th largest city in the US around 1890. It was known for itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s art scene as well as its flamboyant styles and large houses. In 1906 a large earthquake struck San Francisco and ruptured many gas lines that set a fire that would burn through the city for several days. The fire destroyed 3/4 of the city including most of downtown. More than half the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population was left homeless and settled in tents in Golden Gate Park. The rebuild was quick and the majority in the Beaux Arts style. In the Great Depression San Francisco held steady and constructed the Golden Gate Bridge and the Bay Bridge. Around this same time Alcatraz became the maximum security prison it is known for today. Freeways began going up in the 50s and 60s and the city began to lose industrial jobs leading to a decrease in the population. A large influx of writers inhabited the North Beach area, Hippies to Haight-Ashbury, and in the 70s the city became a gay rights hub. Another earthquake reeked havoc 1989, damaging much in the South of Market and Marina districts as well as the Embarcadero and Central freeways. In the late 90s there was a boom of entrepreneurs leading to record high populations in the 2000s leading to a wave of high-rise development. The Transbay terminal redesign has led to a revitalization of the SOMA region and continued high-rise development.

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History of Tall Building There were two developments in the 19th century that paved the way for high rise buildings. The first was the safer elevator with the safety feature to not allow you to plummet to the bottom of the shaft if one of the cable broke and a motor to make it a more practical option. The second was the steel beam and column construction that allowed buildings to be constructed taller and more resistant to the forces. Some of the modern materials used aside from steel are concrete because of its versatility and glass to let the light in. Some of the early skyscrapers were the Metropolitan Life Insurance Tower, the Woolworth Building, Bank of Manhattan, Chrysler Building, Empire State Building, World Trade Center, the Sears Tower, Petronia Tower, Taipei 101, and the Burj Khalifa.

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Design Vertical Communities There has been a lot of research in the area of vertical communities and ways to better them in recent years. The idea of building up has been around for a long time but modern ideas are focusing more on an entire community in an upward form. The idea of having each floor represent a block that are stacked upon each other creating smaller neighborhoods that come together to create a larger â&#x20AC;&#x153;cityâ&#x20AC;? that contains all you may need. When space to build is becoming scarcer, it is important to investigate other options. The environmental benefits to vertical communities is immense. Most of these communities are being designed in a sustainable manner and with an entire neighborhood stacked on a smaller parcel of land, it leaves more area to be taken advantage of by the environment. These buildings usually contain a large number of residential units, some green spaces, and a generous amount of multi-use capacity.

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Building Codes / Life Safety / Security

This bulletin is designed to standardize the San Francisco Fire Department’s requirements for annunciation panels in high-rise buildings. It is the Bureau’s policy to require that all alarm initiating devices (including water-flow alarms), be annunciated in the Fire Command Center (FCC) by means of a visual display which indicates the type of device by building floor, zone, or other approved designation from which the signal originated. Audible indication at the panel is required for supervisory and trouble signals. Additionally, visible annunciation shall be provided to indicate the status of emergency equipment that may affect building occupants in a fire situation, i.e. emergency generator, fire pump, etc. Other fire protection systems in the building, such as FM 200, Inergen, Ansul, etc. Shall also be annunciated visibly and shall sound the alarm in the appropriate areas. A red LED (light emitting diode) type of visual display is required for all alarm initiating devices. An indicator light is required for each type of initiating device present on each floor. Manual pull stations, area smoke detectors, duct detectors, elevator lobby and machine room smoke detectors, heat detectors, auxiliary alarms, and sprinkler water-flow must be indicated separately. The following items must also be indicated on the LED panel: 1. Fire Pump: a) Running: green lamp b) Trouble: yellow lamp c) Phase reversal (electric): yellow lamp d) Low fuel (diesel): yellow lamp

2. Emergency Generator: a) Running: green lamp b) Trouble: yellow lamp c) Low fuel: yellow lamp 3. Secondary Water Supply: a) Low water level: yellow lamp b) High water level: yellow lamp

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4. Firefighter’s Air Replenishment System: a) System low air pressure: yellow lamp b) CO monitoring system (Existing systems with monitors): yellow lamp


Building Codes / Life Safety / Security

Building applications must also meet LEED standards for the use of on-site renewable energy or the purchase of renewable energy credits

The new provisions address many areas relating to design, construction, and emergency egress from tall buildings, such as increasing structural resilience to building collapse from fire and incidents, requiring a third stairway for tall buildings, increasing width of all stairways by 50 percent in new high-rises, calling for luminous markings delineating exit paths in buildings more than 75-feet tall to facilitate rapid egress and full building evacuation, and a host of other recommendations relating to construction and emergency response.

Trying to pass a bird friendly standard to remove clear glass that poses a danger to migratory birds.

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Residential Living / Service / Mixed - use Issue Residential Living / Service Concerns

• Moving heavy objects • Too many stairs • Limited gardening • Noise nuisance • Storage • Pets • HOA dues (monthly dues to cover upkeep, payroll, insurance, etc.) • Amenities • Parking • Small units

Mixed - use Issue

Real or precieved conflict between different types of uses; Different types of development and management expertise required for different uses; Different land costs supported by various land use, specialization in the source of finance for different types of development; Different service requirement; Varying ways of acquiring and holding space;

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Case Study Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong Bank of China (BOC) Tower is located at No.1, Garden Road, a flourishing center of activity in Hong Kong’s business and financial core. The tower structure of 315 meters and two masts of 50 odd meters give the building its aspiring height of 367.4 meters – which, in 1989, made it the tallest in Hong Kong as well as the fifth by height in the world. The BOC Tower is a masterpiece of the world-renowned Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei. His inspiration for the building’s construction was the elegant stature of bamboo, its sectioned trunk reaching higher and higher with each new growth.

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Case Study Millennium Tower, San Francisco This 58 story building offers multiple sizes and styles of dwelling units. From the penthouse with 2706 square feet to a smaller more affordable 773 square feet this high rise offers 3 types of units- the residences, the city residences and the grand residences. The building is home to a 20000 sq. ft. ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s club level with a pool, wine tasting room, terrace, fitness club, and children room. The ground floor houses a contemporary French restaurant. Leasing these ranges from $4000-$20000 per month and they can be purchased for $600000-$5 million. This building has thrived because of its location in the Bay area.

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Http://www.socketsite.com/Millennium%20Tower%20SF.jpg http://www.millenniumtowersf.com


Case Study One Ricon Hill , San Francisco

The condominiums of One Ricon Hill offers a multitude of choices, from size to the view, you can pick what you want. The resort style ammeneties they offer make this a place that you could easily call home. Valet, bike storage, a hospitality room, gym, infinity pool, doorman, concierge, and dry cleaning are just a few of the perks you obtain as a home owner in this building.

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Design Intention & Goals

Intention:

To create a multi-use high rise building that will fulfill many of the necessary functions of the area. Right now, the site is serving as a storage unit for the Trans bay Redevelopment and following that the area will be open and unused. There is significant traffic surrounding the area from a large highway as well as a bike route that travels on Folsom. Because of the traffic the first couple floors will be used to house an assortment of retail stores. There are not many stores in the immediate area and the added retail will provide easier access to those in the vicinity. There will be a few floors of office area providing opportunity for businesses to operate in the Trans bay region. Because of the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location near many popular tourist spots there will also be hotel floors included to house travelers in part of town that is being rejuvenated by the redevelopment. The majority of the building will be used for residential housing, something that is needed in the south of market area. In addition to providing the necessary functions of the area we will incorporate modern technology and design to create a building that will integrate well in its surroundings and explore the future of sustainability. There is no limit on the cost of the building. The materials used will need to be strong and stiff enough to support the ultimate height of the design and giving enough to allow the integration of natural light and ventilation. The building will not exceed 12,500 square feet per floor nor 40 floors.

Goals:

Design a building That can be integrated into its surroundings That will be LEED certified That will include as many sustainable and green technologies that are possible That has a human scaled feeling That will fulfill a multitude of functions efficiently That will be constructed in a fiscally responsible material and design That will following the building, fire, and other codes of the city of San Francisco and the state of California That is unique to its site, designers, and city of San Francisco

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Urban Activity Sketches

We would like to incorporate a green space facing the elevated street side of our site, a courtyard on the corner where a main entrance will be located, and a side of retail spaces with their individual entrances and store windows.

Green Space

Courtyard

Retail up to sidewalk

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Building Program Residential Use 50%

Hotel 35%

Shared Area 62,000 sq² Studio 600~800 sq² / 50 units One bedroom 1000~1400 sq² / 30units Two bedroom 1200~2000 sq² / 20 units

Lobby 9,360 sq² Deluxe Room 500 sq² / 50 units Superior Room 650 sq² / 50 units Premiere Room 1000 sq² / 10 units Hotel Facilities 9,000 sq² Restaurant & Bars 9,000 sq² Meeting & Events 9,360 sq²

Office 9% Retail 6%

Summary: Estimated on-site area: 48,900 sq² Local Floor Area Ration (FAR) : 9 Total Floor Area : 440,100 sq² Estimated Floor Efficiency : 0.75 Total Floor Area in use : 330,075 sq²

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Building Program

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Sustainable Strategy Material Many of the earlier tall buildings were over designed and did not make to most efficient use of the structural materials that they were using. Tubular systems have begun being used more which helps but looking into the rigid systems, they seem to have the most efficient outcome for the least amount of material, that is after you select the right geometric configuration. It is also important to select the material with the right stiffness, this can also help to cut down on materials.

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Sustainable Strategy Reducing Energy Use

Through Design-It is important to design with the environment in mind. Since San Francisco does not vary much in the temperatures experienced, we can study the peak times to use the environment for heating and cooling and have a ventilation system set up to accomplish that. We also plan to design to allow nearly every space access to natural light. Double skin facades could be considered due to their helpful wind buffering on the top floors allowing you to still use the natural environment for circulation. Displacement Ventilation Light Shelves

Generating Energy Through Wind-Because San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides there is a possibility of significant energy collection via wind. Creating a wind farm incorporating the upper floors of a tall building can significantly decrease energy needed from the grid. This is being incorporated is many tall building around the world including one significant example proposed on a lake front building in Chicago. Through Sunlight-Photovoltaic Panels are another great way to collect free energy on tall buildings. By placing them in areas that receive a large amount of sun throughout the day, you can collect a sizeable amount of energy to help run the building on. There are some concerns with this method, however. It is key to note where the building is receiving the maximum sunlight throughout the day. This will change as the sun path changes throughout the year and it is crucial to place these panels where their maximum potential will be recognized. There have been recent developments of pv technology, including glass that can be used throughout the entire building facade. They have also developed colored solar panels that can be integrated to give more choices on how this building could look.

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Building Interface

DN UP

DN

N

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UP


Structural System Description Overall Structural System

Moment Frame + Shear Core system Building Skin

Column Struc-

Central Core

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Wind and Sun Diagrams

spring equinox

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summer solstice

fall equinox

winter solstice


Internal Organization Diagrams

B2 - B1 underground parking L1 - L2 lobby L3 - L5 office space L6 restaurant L7 - L21 hotel L22 - L39 residential area

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Internal Organization Diagrams

L1 - L2 lobby

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L3 - L5 office space

L6 restaurant

L7 - L21 hotel

L22 - L39 residential area


Vertical Transportation System

Exit Staircase

B2 - L 39

Residence Access Elevator B2 - L39 (west side) Hotel Access Elevator (east side)

B2 - L20

Office Access Elevator B2 - L6 (west side)

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HVAC System Overall HVAC System Descriptions piping tunnel

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floor mechanical sheft

mechanical floor


LEED Platinum Checklist Sustainable Sites

Prerequisite 1: Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Required Intent: To reduce pollution from construction activities by controlling soil erosion, waterway sedimentation and airborne dust generation. Requirements: Create and implement an erosion and sedimentation control plan for all construction activities associated with the project. The plan must conform to the erosion and sedimentation requirements of the 2003 EPA Construction General Permit OR local standards and codes, whichever is more stringent. The plan must describe the measures implemented to accomplish the following objectives: To prevent loss of soil during construction by stormwater runoff and/or wind erosion, including protecting topsoil by stockpiling for reuse. To prevent sedimentation of storm sewers or receiving streams. To prevent pollution of the air with dust and particulate matter. The EPA’s construction general permit outlines the provisions necessary to comply with Phase I and Phase II of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. While the permit only applies to construction sites greater than 1 acre (0.4 hectare), the requirements are applied to all projects for the purposes of this prerequisite. Potential Technologies & Strategies: Create an erosion and sedimentation control plan during the design phase of the project. Consider employing strategies such as temporary and permanent seeding, mulching, earthen dikes, silt fencing, sediment traps and sediment basins.

Sustainable Sites - Credit 2 5 Points

A:Schools B:Banks C:Beauty Salon D:Super Market E:Pharmacy F:Places of Worship G:Post Offices H:Parks I:Child Care J:Medical & Dental

Sustainable Sites - Credit 4.1 6 Points

Green: Transbay Terminal Red: High Rise Site

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Sustainable Sites - Credit 4.3 3 Points

Intent To reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. Requirements OPTION 1 Provide preferred parking1 for low-emitting and fuel-efficient vehicles2 for 5% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site.

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Sustainable Sites Credit 4.4 2 Points

Intent To reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. Requirements CASE 2. Residential Projects OPTION 1 Size parking capacity to meet but not exceed minimum local zoning requirements. Provide infrastructure and support programs to facilitate shared vehicle use such as carpool drop-off areas, designated parking for vanpools, car-share services, ride boards and shuttle services to mass transit.

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LEED Platinum Checklist •

Sustainable Sites - Credit 5.1 1 Point

Intent To conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity. Requirements CASE 2. Previously Developed2 Areas or Graded Sites Restore or protect a minimum of 50% of the site (excluding the building footprint) or 20% of the total site area (including building footprint), whichever is greater, with native or adapted vegetation3. Projects earning SS Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity may include vegetated roof surface in this calculation if the plants are native or adapted, provide habitat, and promote biodiversity. Projects with limited landscape opportunities may also donate offsite land in perpetuity, equal to 60% of the previously developed area (including the building footprint), to a land trust within the same EPA Level III Ecoregion identified for the project site. The land trust must adhere to the Land Trust Alliance ‘Land Trust Standards and Practices’ 2004 Revision.

Sustainable Sites - Credit 5.2 1 Point

Intent To promote biodiversity by providing a high ratio of open space to development footprint. Requirements CASE 3. Sites with Zoning Ordinances but No Open Space Requirements Provide vegetated open space equal to 20% of the project site area. ALL CASES For projects in urban areas that earn SS Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity, vegetated roof areas can contribute to credit compliance. For projects in urban areas that earn SS Credit 2: Development Density and Community Connectivity, pedestrian-oriented hardscape areas can contribute to credit compliance. For such projects, a minimum of 25% of the open space counted must be vegetated.

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Sustainable Sites - Credit 6.2 1 Point

Intent: To limit disruption and pollution of natural water flows by managing stormwater runoff. Requirements Implement a stormwater management plan that reduces impervious cover, promotes infiltration and captures and treats the stormwater runoff from 90% of the average annual rainfall1 using acceptable best management practices (BMPs). BMPs used to treat runoff must be capable of removing 80% of the average annual postdevelopment total suspended solids (TSS) load based on existing monitoring reports. BMPs are considered to meet these criteria if: They are designed in accordance with standards and specifications from a state or local program that has adopted these performance standards, OR There exists infield performance monitoring data demonstrating compliance with the criteria. Data must conform to accepted protocol (e.g., Technolo-

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Sustainable Sites - Credit 7.2 1 Point

Intent: To reduce heat islands1 to minimize impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats. Requirements OPTION 2 Install a vegetated roof that covers at least 50% of the roof area.

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Sustainable Sites - Credit 8 1 Point

Intent To minimize light trespass from the building and site, reduce sky-glow to increase night sky access, improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction and reduce development impact from lighting on nocturnal environments. Requirements Project teams must comply with 1 of the 2 options for interior lighting AND the requirement for exterior lighting. For Interior Lighting Reduce the input power (by automatic device) of all nonemergency interior luminaires with a direct line of sight to any openings in the envelope (translucent or transparent) by at least 50% between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. After-hours override may be provided by a manual or occupant-sensing device provided the override lasts no more than 30 minutes. For Exterior Lighting LZ2: Low (primarily residential zones, neighborhood business districts, light industrial areas with limited nighttime use and residential mixed-use areas) Design exterior lighting so that all site and building-mounted luminaires produce a maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 0.10 horizontal and vertical footcandles (1.0 horizontal and vertical lux) at the LEED project boundary and no greater than 0.01 horizontal footcandles (0.1 horizontal lux) 10 feet (3 meters) beyond the LEED project boundary. Document that no more than 2% of the total initial designed fixture lumens (sum total of all fixtures on site) are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down).

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LEED Platinum Checklist Water Efficiency

Prerequisite 1: Water Use Reduction Required Intent: To increase water efficiency within buildings to reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems. Requirements: Employ strategies that in aggregate use 20% less water than the water use baseline calculated for the building (not including irrigation). Calculate the baseline according to the commercial and/or residential baselines outlined below.1 Calculations are based on estimated occupant usage and must include only the following fixtures and fixture fittings (as applicable to the project scope): water closets, urinals, lavatory faucets, showers, kitchen sink faucets and prerinse spray valves.

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Water Efficiency - Credit 1 4 Points

Intent To limit or eliminate the use of potable water or other natural surface or subsurface water resources available on or near the project site for landscape irrigation. Requirements OPTION 2. No Potable Water Use or Irrigation PAT H 1 Use only captured rainwater, recycled wastewater, recycled graywater or water treated and conveyed by a public agency specifically for nonpotable uses for irrigation. OR PAT H 2 Install landscaping that does not require permanent irrigation systems. Temporary irrigation systems used for plant establishment are allowed only if removed within a period not to exceed 18 months of installation.

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Water Efficiency Credit 2 2 Points

Intent To reduce wastewater generation and potable water demand while increasing the local aquifer recharge. Requirements OPTION 1 Reduce potable water use for building sewage conveyance by 50% through the use of water-conserving fixtures (e.g., water closets, urinals) or nonpotable water (e.g., captured rainwater, recycled graywater, on-site or municipally treated wastewater).

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Water Efficiency - Credit 3 4 Points

Intent To further increase water efficiency within buildings to reduce the burden on municipal water supply and wastewater systems. Requirements Employ strategies that in aggregate use less water than the water use baseline calculated for the building (not including irrigation). To reduce 40% based on the standards given in the prereqesite. The following fixtures, fittings and appliances are outside the scope of the water use reduction calculation: Commercial Steam Cookers Commercial Dishwashers Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Commercial (family-sized) Clothes Washers Residential Clothes Washers Standard and Compact Residential Dishwashers

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LEED Platinum Checklist Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems Required Intent: To verify that the project’s energy-related systems are installed, and calibrated to perform according to the owner’s project requirements, basis of design and construction documents. Benefits of commissioning include reduced energy use, lower operating costs, fewer contractor callbacks, better building documentation, improved occupant productivity and verification that the systems perform in accordance with the owner’s project requirements. Requirements The following commissioning process activities must be completed by the project team: Designate an individual as the commissioning authority (CxA) to lead, review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process activities. The CxA must have documented commissioning authority experience in at least 2 building projects. The individual serving as the CxA must be independent of the project design and construction management, though the CxA may be an employee of any firm providing those services. The CxA may be a qualified employee or consultant of the owner. The CxA must report results, findings and recommendations directly to the owner. For projects smaller than 50,000 gross square feet (4,600 gross square meters), the CxA may be a qualified person on the design or construction team who has the required experience. Domestic hot water systems Renewable energy systems (e.g., wind, solar) The owner must document the owner’s project requirements. The design team must develop the basis of design. The CxA must review these documents for clarity and completeness. The owner and design team must be responsible for updates to their respective documents. Develop and incorporate commissioning requirements into the construction documents. Develop and implement a commissioning plan. Verify the installation and performance of the systems to be commissioned. Complete a summary commissioning report. Commissioned Systems Commissioning process activities must be completed for the following energy-related systems, at a minimum: Heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems (mechanical and passive) and associated controls Lighting and daylighting controls

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LEED Platinum Checklist Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance Required Intent To establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use. Requirements OPTION 1. Demonstrate a 10% improvement in the proposed building performance rating for new buildings, or a 5% improvement in the proposed building performance rating for major renovations to existing buildings, compared with the baseline building performance rating. Prerequisite 3: Fundamental Refrigerant Management Required Intent: To reduce stratospheric ozone depletion. Requirements Zero use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based refrigerants in new base building heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. When reusing existing base building HVAC equipment, complete a comprehensive CFC phase-out conversion prior to project completion. Phase-out plans extending beyond the project completion date will be considered on their merits. Existing small HVAC units (defined as containing less than 0.5 pounds [0.227 kg] of refrigerant) and other equipment, such as standard refrigerators, small water coolers and any other equipment that contains less than 0.5 pounds (0.227 kg) of refrigerant, are not considered part of the base building system and are not subject to the requirements of this prerequisite.

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LEED Platinum Checklist â&#x20AC;˘

Energy and Atmosphere - Credit 1 15 Points

Intent To achieve increasing levels of energy performance beyond the prerequisite standard to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use. Requirements Select 1 of the 3 compliance path options described below. Project teams documenting achievement using any of the 3 options are assumed to be in compliance with EA Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance. OPTION 1. Demonstrate a percentage improvement in the proposed building performance rating compared with the baseline building performance rating. Calculate the baseline building performance according to Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (with errata but without addenda1) using a computer simulation model for the whole building project. Projects outside the U.S. may use a USGBC approved equivalent standard2. The minimum energy cost savings percentage for 15 points at 40% savings. For the purpose of this analysis, process energy is considered to include, but is not limited to, office and general miscellaneous equipment, computers, elevators and escalators, kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and drying, lighting exempt from the lighting power allowance (e.g., lighting integral to medical equipment) and other (e.g., waterfall pumps). Regulated (non-process) energy includes lighting (e.g., for the interior, parking garage, surface parking, façade, or building grounds, etc. except as noted above), heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) (e.g., for space heating, space cooling, fans, pumps, toilet exhaust, parking garage ventilation, kitchen hood exhaust, etc.), and ervice water heating for domestic or space heating purposes. For this credit, process loads must be identical for both the baseline building performance rating and the proposed building performance rating. However, project teams may follow the exceptional calculation method (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.12007 G2.5) or USGBC approved equivalent to document measures that reduce process loads. Documentation of process load energy savings must include a list of the assumptions made for both the base and proposed design, and theoretical or empirical information supporting these assumptions.

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LEED Platinum Checklist •

Energy and Atmosphere - Credit 2 5 Points

Intent: To encourage and recognize increasing levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use. Requirements Use on-site renewable energy systems to offset building energy costs. Calculate project performance by expressing the energy produced by the renewable systems as a percentage of the building’s annual energy cost and use the table below to determine the number of points achieved. Use the building annual energy cost calculated in EA Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance or the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database to determine the estimated electricity use. The minimum renewable energy percentage for 5 points is 9% savings.

Energy and Atmosphere - Credit 4 2 Points

Intent: To reduce ozone depletion and support early compliance with the Montreal Protocol while minimizing direct contributions to climate change. Requirements OPTION 2 Select refrigerants and heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment that minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and climate change. The base building HVAC&R equipment must comply with the formula, which sets a maximum threshold for the combined contributions to ozone depletion and global warming potential. Small HVAC units (defined as containing less than 0.5 pounds [0.227 kg] of refrigerant) and other equipment, such as standard refrigerators, small water coolers and any other cooling equipment that contains less than 0.5 pounds (0.227 kg) of refrigerant, are not considered part of the base building system and are not subject to the requirements of this credit. Do not operate or install fire suppression systems that contain ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or halons.

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LEED Platinum Checklist Materials and Resources Prerequisite 1: Storage and Collection of Recyclables Required Intent: To facilitate the reduction of waste generated by building occupants that is hauled to and disposed of in landfills. Requirements Provide an easily-accessible dedicated area or areas for the collection and storage of materials for recycling for the entire building. Materials must include, at a minimum: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics and metals.

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Materials and Resources - Credit 2 2 Points

Intent To divert construction and demolition debris from disposal in landfills and incineration facilities. Redirect recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process and reusable materials to appropriate sites. Requirements Recycle and/or salvage nonhazardous construction and demolition debris. Develop and implement a construction waste management plan that, at a minimum, identifies the materials to be diverted from disposal and whether the materials will be sorted on-site or comingled. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris do not contribute to this credit. Calculations can be done by weight or volume, but must be consistent throughout. The minimum percentage debris to be recycled or salvaged for each point threshold is as follows:

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Sustainability Alternatives Energy We included photo-voltaic panels of glass in the garden design to help create energy for the building used to power the hallway and exterior lighting.

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Sustainability Alternatives Water

We implemented a water saving technique including installing water saving toilets and appliances and using the gray water from these things to irrigate the green spaces of the building.

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Materials

Recycled Steel-for beams and mullions

Site Cast Concrete-core composition

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Glazed Curtain Wall-the outter wall

Recycled Concrete all non-structural concrete surfaces

MDF

Cherry

Travertine

Marble


Documentation of Design Process

context model

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Documentation of Design Process

structrual model

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Documentation of Design Process

public space model

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Graphic Prsentation

ground level view

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Graphic Prsentation

lobby

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Graphic Prsentation

patio view

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Graphic Prsentation

office

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Graphic Prsentation

restaurant & bar

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Graphic Prsentation

hotel room

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Pro - Forma

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Pro - Forma

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Bibliograhpy Page 8 - Http://ec2-50-17-237-182.compute-1.amazonaws.com/docs/PlanningProvisions/info%20sheet%20v1.3.pdf Http://photos.metrojacksonville.com/photos/627140732_p5tJv-M.jpg Page 10 - Http://www.gaisma.com/en/sunbath/san-francisco-california.png Http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/ozone/areas/windr/23234.gif Page 11 - Http://ec2-50-17-237-182.compute-1.amazonaws.com/ Page 15 - Http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov/counties/SanFranciscoCounty Page 17 - Http://www.city-data.com/top2/h211.html Http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/ccpe_Acreage_and_Employees_Data_2010.pdf Page 18 - Http://www.sf-police.org/index.aspxPage 19 - Http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov/counties/SanFranciscoCounty Page 20 - Http://www.city-data.com/county/religion/San-Francisco-County-CA Page 22 - Http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/67/Met_life_tower_crop.jpg/250px-Met_life_tower_crop.jpg Http://www.jamesmaherphotography.com/images/0000/0927/chrysler_building_1930.jpeg Http://www.chicagoarchitecture.info/CAI/Images/TheLoop/SearsTower-010.jpg Http://elghamanda.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/burj_khalifa.jpg Page 23 - Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/IllinoisInstituteofTech/2012_HiRiseLoCarbChicagoStudio/PlymouthTower/tabid/3319/lan guage/en-US/Default.aspx Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/CTBUH2011CompetitionEntries/188_CultureTranscend/tabid/3147/language/en-US/Default. aspx Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/IllinoisInstituteofTech/2012_HiRiseLoCarbChicagoStudio/Co2ngressGateway/tabid/3311/ language/en-US/Default.aspx Page 24 - Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/IllinoisInstituteofTech/2012_HiRiseLoCarbChicagoStudio/PlymouthTower/tabid/3319/lan guage/en-US/Default.aspx Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/CTBUH2011CompetitionEntries/188_CultureTranscend/tabid/3147/language/en-US/Default. aspx Http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/AcademicStudentWork/IllinoisInstituteofTech/2012_HiRiseLoCarbChicagoStudio/Co2ngressGateway/tabid/3311/ language/en-US/Default.aspx Page 25 - Http://www.amlegal.com/nxt/gateway.dll/California/planning/article15off-streetparkingandloading?f=templates%24fn%3Ddefault.ht m%243.0%24vid%3Damlegal%3Asanfrancisco_ca%24anc%3DJD_155 Http://ec2-50-17-237-182.compute-1.amazonaws.com/docs/PlanningProvisions/recy.pdf

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Bibliograhpy Http://ufsw.org/pdfs/high_rise_manual.pdf Http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=CA56R&re=0&ee=0 Http://38.106.4.187/index.aspx?page=1093 Page 26 - Http://www.highrises.com/buying-a-high-rise-condo.php Http://ohmyapt.apartmentratings.com/the-disadvantages-of-high-rise-apartment-living.html#b Http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/gifford/pdf/ASR%20High%20Rises%20proof.pdf Page 27 - Http://www.mixedusecores.com/documents/Problems%20Achieving%20Mixed%20Use. Page 28 - Http://baike.baidu.com/view/75683.htm Http://img.bbs.szhome.com/UploadFiles/BBS/2006/06/30/23523187_848.796.jpg Http://highrise.bk.tudelft.nl/pdf/Bank_of_China_Tower_WEB.pdf Page 29 - http://www.socketsite.com/Millennium%20Tower%20SF.jpg http://www.millenniumtowersf.com Http://www.socketsite.com/Millennium%20Tower%20SF.jpg Http://www.millenniumtowersf.com Page 30 - Http://www.onerinconhill.com/amenities.html#3 Page 34 - Http://www.worldarchitecturefestival.com/clientUpload/images/project/large/2489_Construction_Story_N5_medium.jpg Http://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2007/11/structure-copieversion2-copie.jpg Http://www.sasbe2009.com/proceedings/documents/SASBE2009_paper_SUSTAINABLE_DESIGN_OF_TALL_BUILDING_STRUCTURES_AND_ FCADES.pdf Page 35 - Http://cuilingyan.blogspot.com/2009/10/week-11.html Http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_public/documents/pdf/aiap080038.pdf Http://www.sasbe2009.com/ Page 56 - http://www.solarthermalmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/glass-to-glass-advanced-solar-pv-modules.jpg Page 57 - http://www.mcdonaldphac.com/images/water_saving_toilet.jpg, http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/gray-water-reclamation.jpg Page 58 - http://www.stylepark.com/db-images/cms/article/img/v299338_958_480_331-2.jpg, http://www.ulcos.org/en/images/img2.jpg, http://www.mnartists.org/uploads/users/user_7164/3912dfad212b0f688b24972d39afa00a/3912dfad212b 0f688b24972d39afa00a.jpg, http://www.constructionweekonline.com/ pictures/gallery/Design/glass_sheets.jpg, http://www.designbuild-network.com/contractor_images/energyglass/1-eg-composition.jpg, http://www.1-unicarpenter-oy.com/Wood%20facts/images/CherryWoodSample.jpg, http://www.marblemaster.com/travertine/Travertine_Tile/images/travertine-gld-sun.jpg

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projectbookhighrise  

this is the project book me and my partner created for our high rise project in year 4

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