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Integrated Anti-tigerkidnapping Program


About the “Integrated anti-Tigerkidnapping Program” The AWDC Security Office, together with the Local Police of Antwerp, established an “Integrated Anti-Tigerkidnapping Program”, specifically tailored to the Antwerp Diamond Area. The primary objective of the “Integrated Anti-Tigerkidnapping Program” is to explain and assist in the prevention and the reaction to a tigerkidnapping in progress. This document is intended for: • members of the Federal and Local government services, to include, but not limited to the police forces and prosecutor’s office; • security managers active within the Secure-Antwerp Diamond Area (S-ADA); • management and supervisory personnel of Private Security companies and/or internal Private Security services active within the S-ADA; • the stakeholders within the insurance industry: underwriters, brokers, surveyors.


About the AWDC Security Office Today, in global terms, the diamond business represents more than $60 billion per annum, employs millions of skilled individuals in all five continents. The axis revolves around Antwerp, the world’s largest diamond trading hub. Security is one of the critical enablers of the Antwerp diamond business. In 2012, AWDC established AWDC Security Office, formerly known as ADA-security. Its mission is to support and facilitate the diamond business, and to protect the diamond community’s personnel, products, reputation, information and assets against all internal, external, deliberate or accidental threats. The AWDC Security Office has its own Board of Directors (http://www.ada-security.be/#About), currently chaired by Ari Epstein and Vice-Chairman Yvan De Mesmaeker. The AWDC Security Office is fully committed: • to enable and facilitate the diamond trade within the Secure-Antwerp Diamond Area by ensuring a safe and secure environment to its employees, contracted personnel and third party persons active within this area; • to treat all people with respect and dignity, and to accord with the Belgian laws and regulations in all their approaches and actions; • to continuously and effectively identify a nd manage risks in a defined, structured and controlled manner; • to establish security strategies, policies, plans, standards, procedures and guidelines to achieve the business objectives of the Secure-Antwerp Diamond Area; • to organize security programs to protect employees, contracted personnel and third party persons against all internal, external, deliberate or accidental threats; • to maintain a high degree of professionalism, knowledge, integrity and awareness towards everybody working within the Secure-Antwerp Diamond Area; • to provide the security expertise and resources required to develop a safe and secure working environment; • to be prepared to respond to incidents with appropriate and tested measures; • to investigate and analyze security incidents, to take appropriate action and continuously improve its methods; • to use technology which has proven to be successful, to increase the reliability and efficiency of the security operations. Since 18th February 2013, AWDC Security Office is managed by Stephan Van Hauwe, Senior Security Coordinator.

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Stephan Van Hauwe Stephan Van Hauwe has 16 years of experience in the fields of security, anti-crime, information security and antiterrorism. He is a skilled professional and well-known in the world of security. He started his career at a private security company at the US Embassy in Brussels, where he became the ‘Guard Force Commander’ of a team of 120 security officers. Five years later, Stephan Van Hauwe became ‘Special Investigator’ at the US Embassy’s Regional Security Office (RSO) in Brussels. At the US Embassy he managed the Local Guard Program, conducted investigations, coordinated special events and performed executive protection missions. Furthermore, he was the formal instructor of security, anti-crime, information security and anti-terrorism related topics. For the past six years Stephan Van Hauwe held the position of ‘Contract Manager’ within a private security company. He managed several departments within the Major Accounts Division: critical infrastructure, US military bases and the European Parliament. Next to his day-to-day activities, he continued his work as a special instructor and advisor for security, anti-crime, information security and anti-terrorism, and also managed the Security Scan and Red Team programs. For many years now, he manages the Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) program for the European Corporate Security Association (ECSA) organization. As ECSA OSINT coordinator, Stephan Van Hauwe informs the ECSA network on news, incidents, events and trends in the fields of crime, security, information security, terrorism, espionage, nonproliferation and other topics that might have an adverse impact on the security of businesses and organizations. Since the outset of his career, he has continuously participated in trainings to develop his skills and invested in numerous courses in the fields of security, investigations, leadership and management, not only in Belgium, but also abroad in the United States, The Netherlands, Austria and Israel.

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Stephan Van Hauwe is the ‘Single Point of Contact’ at AWDC Security Office for all security related topics and can be contacted through AWDC: Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) AWDC Security Office (SO) 22 Hoveniersstraat B-2018 Antwerp +32 (0)3 222 05 11 info@awdc-securityoffice.be www.awdc-securityoffice.be

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About the Local Police of Antwerp The Local Police of Antwerp is part of the Belgian integrated police services and responsible for all first line police tasks in the metropolitan city of Antwerp. The police division in charge of the diamond square mile is the “district Centrum”. Next to the regular intervention units and neighborhood policing, the diamond square mile has a dedicated police force, situated in the diamond square mile. This police force is equipped with several state of the art technological means to support their activities. The diamond square mile has full camera coverage. The real time video footage is monitored by trained police personnel 24/24 -7/7d. The city of Antwerp, Local Police and AWDC are working closely together to expand this coverage considerably over the next few years. Intelligent technologies will be added to this camera network Automatic Number Plate Recognition is in use on the police cars patrolling the diamond area. A police response team in the diamond area ensures a very fast response to every occurring within the square mile. Every possible type of incident will be dealt with in a structured way, adapted to the specificity of the diamond area. Tigerkidnappings in the diamond community are one of the phenomenon’s Local Police of Antwerp are trying to combat with a plan of action, aligned with the federal police and AWDC Security Office. The structures are prepared to tackle this phenomenon, but this can only work with your help and full cooperation. The Local Police of Antwerp counts on your cooperation.

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Acknowledgements We would like to extend our deepest gratitude to all those who have been involved in the research process for this project. Many have willingly given time, resources, commitment and support, without which any of this would have been possible. It is difficult to single out individuals, but we would like to express special thanks to the following people: Cathy Berx – Province of Antwerp Bart De Wever – City of Antwerp Ari Epstein – AWDC Yvan de Mesmaeker – AWDC Eddy De Raedt – Federal Police Serge Muyters – Local Police of Antwerp Koen Claus – Local Police of Antwerp …

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Content

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01 | Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 11

1.1 Scope.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Objectives.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 11 p. 12

02 | Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 12

2.1 Hostage taking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Kidnap and ransom.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Tigerkidnapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 12 p. 12

03 | Overview of tigerkidnappings over the past 10 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 13

3.1 Global. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Antwerp.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 13 p. 14

04 | Risk Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 17

4.1 Threat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Risk.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 17

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p. 11

p. 12

p. 15

p. 17 p. 17


05 | Modus operandi of tigerkidnappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 18

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11

p. 19

Set out intentions and objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open source analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Target selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operational planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Training and rehearsals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Escape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sale of the diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remain out of hands of police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

06 | Stakeholders in Security 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

p. 20 p. 24 p. 25 p. 28 p. 28 p. 28 p. 29 p. 31 p. 31 p. 31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 32

Federal Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Police . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Public Prosecution Office in Antwerp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Province of Antwerp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City of Antwerp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Police of Antwerp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWDC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AWDC Security Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diamond Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 33 p. 33 p. 33 p. 33 p. 33 p. 34 p. 34 p. 34 p. 34 p. 35 p. 35 p. 35

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07 | Integrated Security Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 36

7.1 Before – During – After. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 37

08 | Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 43

09 | Question and answers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 45

10 | List of sources.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 46

11 | Colophon.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 47

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01 | Introduction 1.1 Scope This guideline talks about tigerkidnappings. Tigerkidnapping is a violent, intrusive, traumatic and specific form of serious organized crime! There are still many misconceptions about tigerkidnappings. This can prevent individuals and organizations from understanding the rationality of the crime, and lead to a poor appreciation of the role that preventative measures can play in managing their own risks and lowering their susceptibility to tigerkidnappings. Overcoming such misconceptions is important in promoting a preventative, opportunities-based policy for tackling tigerkidnappings. It is important to build up a clear picture of the dynamics of tigerkidnapping: where it happens, who is at risk, who the kidnappers are, how they operate and what motivates them.

1.2 Background Contrary to general beliefs tigerkidnapping is certainly no new phenomenon. The practice began as a twist on a tactic used by the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which kidnapped people in order to coerce them into placing car bombs against British government targets. The first recorded crime that can be described as a tigerkidnapping occurred in 1972, but the term was coined in the 1980s and gained more widespread use in the following decade. Since tigerkidnapping is technically two crimes committed in tandem (i.e. robbery and hostage taking), statistics regarding their occurrence are difficult to compile on a global level.

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1.3 Objectives We will show that tigerkidnappers weigh up the risks of being caught and punished against the rewards on offer to them if they are successful. We will show the factors that can affect the balance between the risks and efforts versus the rewards for the tigerkidnappers. If we assume that tigerkidnappers make rational choices based on these conditions, then it will be possible for us to direct our efforts towards re-balancing this equation in order to make the crime a disadvantageous activity in which to be involved.

02 | Definitions 2.1 Hostage taking Hostage taking is a modus operandi used by criminal and terrorist organizations and groups whereby they seize or detain a person with the threat to kill, injure, or continue to detain that person in order to compel a third-person or organization to do, or to abstain from doing, an act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the person detained.

2.2 Kidnap and ransom There are different categories of Kidnap and Ransom (K&R): traditional, express, terrorist, political, etc. The traditional definition states that is a modus operandi used by criminal and terrorist organizations whereby they“pick up” a victim and hold him or her hostage pending payment of a ransom by the family or employer. The most common outcome – 70 % of the known incidents – is that the victim is released on payment of a ransom. Fewer than 10 % are rescued and fewer than 5 % are killed. The rest are released without payment or they escape

2.3 Tigerkidnapping Tigerkidnapping is the hostage taking, in the sense of an arrest, a loss of liberty or the abduction of one, or several persons, with the aim to oblige/constrain/force an employee (an authorized agent), a parent or all other person

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to take immediate possession of a value, an important sum of money, or other form of ransom belonging to an institution or firm. Tigerkidnapping differs from other forms of kidnapping because the aim of the criminals is not to extort money from the victim’s family, as is the norm in many kidnap for ransom cases, but instead to use the threat of violence against the person as leverage to force another to participate in a crime.

NEW TREND?: “PSEUDO TIGERKIDNAPPINGS” Perpetrators call you at the office and inform you that they hold your wife and/or children, and that you need to bring the diamonds to a specific location. In fact they are bluffing and do not have your wife and/or children.

03 | Overview of tigerkidnappings over the past 10 years 3.1 Global During the 1980s tigerkidnappings, which had once been a rare crime, began to increase in numbers. The original targets were primarily cash-in-transit vehicle personnel. In the 1990’s a shift was observed in the type of business targeted, with a move toward larger scale offences against retail bank branches. At the beginning of the 21st century, the tigerkidnapping threat evolved with a substantial increase in the number of cases reported, the amounts of money taken, the range of businesses targeted, and the geographical locations in which they occurred.

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3.2 Belgium At the beginning of the 21st century tigerkidnappings first appeared in Belgium. The original targets were primarily bank and postal offices. Several tigerkidnappings were executed in 2005 en 2006. As soon as the government, in close collaboration with the targeted sectors, started to analyze the phenomenon and to implement security counter measures. The security measures soon proved their positive impact with a drastic decrease of tigerkidnappings in the respective sectors. An average of 33% of the cases were solved and perpetrators arrested by the police. Regrettably, the tigerkidnappings did not stop. In fact, the criminals started to divert to other high value and low risk targets: the retail jewelry stores and diamond sectors. To date there are on average between 1 and 8 tigerkidnappings per year in Belgium and primarily in the following cities: Antwerp, Charleroi, Mons, Liège, Nivelles and Brussels.

WHY IN BELGIUM? Belgium is not the only country in which tigerkidnappings occur. There are however a couple of “enabling factors”: 1. Geo orientation of Belgium: a. multiple and quick escape routes to neighboring EU countries 2. Successful precedents a. high value loot b. low risk 3. Relatively low capture and conviction rate (30-40%) 4. Relatively limited sentencing once caught

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3.3 Antwerp As mentioned above, the criminals shifted their attention from the financial sector to the jewelry and diamond sector. Over the past 10 years, criminals used the tigerkidnapping MO three (3) times against members of the diamond community: 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tigerkidnappings against the Diamond Community tigerkidnappings in Belgium

(Source: Federal Police)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2011 2012

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• 2009 o A diamond trader and his family were victims of a tigerkidnapping at their home in Dilbeek. Three (3) masked and armed men penetrated his residence and forced the diamond trader to drive to his office in Antwerp to clear the contents of his safe, estimated at 380.000 euro. Two (2) threatened the man and drove with him to Antwerp, one (1) stayed with his family. After the robbery they returned to Dilbeek to pick up their accomplice and fled. • 2010 o

Criminals, speaking Italian, and dressed up as police officers, used a social engineering technique dressed as police officers to penetrated the home of an Indian diamond trader in Wilrijk, took hostage his wife, daughter, son, nephew and cook. When the husband came home from work they forced him to pick up diamonds, estimated at 4.5 M euro, at his office in the Diamond square mile in Antwerp. The tigerkidnapping lasted 18 hours.

• 2012 o

Criminals, speaking English, penetrated the apartment of a couple, whose husband was an employee at a diamond company. Whilst holding the wife hostage, they sent the husband to go to the office and pick up diamonds, estimated at 21 million euro, and return. The criminals left thereafter.

To date we notice that especially the Indian diamond community has been targeted by tigerkidnappers.

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04 | Risk Analysis 4.1 Threat A threat is an expression of intention to inflict evil, injury, or damage. Threat is binary, meaning: it is present or not. Tigerkidnapping is a clear and present threat to everyone active in the diamond community with direct or indirect access to valuables. Therefore tigerkidnapping needs to be considered, analyzed and protected against.

4.2 Risk We already determined that tigerkidnapping is indeed a viable threat to everyone active in the diamond community. When we apply even the simplest form of risk analysis we can conclude that the frequency is medium to high and the impact is very high to critical.

4.3 Conclusion Attention: any and all persons that have a regular, authorized and direct access to the actual diamonds, safes and vault areas can be targeted for a tigerkidnapping. Examples: owners, staff such as secretaries, administrative staff, as well as family members!

Criminals will select “the highest target(s) with the least amount of protection and the least level of risk for the perpetrators.�

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05 | Modus operandi of tigerkidnappings Tigerkidnappings are typically meticulously planned and prepared to minimize risk and achieve the highest probability of success. Criminals avoid the target’s strengths and concentrate on the target’s weaknesses.

Objectives Do not get caught

Open source Analysis

Sale of the Loot

Target Selection

Modus Operandi

Escape

Operational Planning

Execution

Surveillance

Detailed planning is a must!

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Surveillance


Collection of information around the targeted trader, his staff and family members may continue for weeks or months before an operation is decided upon. While some targets may be “soft” enough for shorter periods of observation, the information gathering will still be intense. Operations planned or underway may be altered, delayed, or cancelled due to changes to the target, perpetrators or local conditions.

The preparation of tigerkidnappings take quite some time, but once the actual tigerkidnapping is ongoing it’s relatively fast and mobile.

Most tigerkidnappings are executed by: • Well organized and prepared teams of 2 to 4 persons. • Perpetrators who often speak foreign languages (ex. Eastern European, Italian, French, English). • Perpetrators who are “experienced” in other crime (burglaries, robberies, heists, drugs, weapons, etc.). • Perpetrators who are trained in handling and using weapons. • Perpetrators who are not afraid to use violence, or the threat thereof.

5.1 Set out intentions and objectives The first point on the criminals’ agenda is spell out their intentions and determine their objectives: • A one-time and large scale operation with a higher risk, but also a higher reward. • A repetitive and small scale operation with a lower risk, but also a lower reward. • …. The level of difficulty and their “risk appetite” depends upon: • the size of the group; • the available funding; • the level of knowledge and experience of the individual group members; • the available tools and resources.

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Once they have a clear idea on their intentions and objectives, they identify possible targets that meet their strategy and they start their information collection operation.

5.2 Open source analysis This phase is the collection of information on the list of potential targets. Collection is gathered from diverse, primarily open, sources: the media, internet, social media, staff or contractors. Collectors of that information may be members of the group, sympathizers, or people providing information without knowledge of the intended purpose. The number of preliminary targets that can be screened is limited only by the capabilities of the group to collect information.

At least 80% of the information needed to plan their operation is provided through open sources!

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5.2.1 Press (Newspapers and magazines) Stories, statements, interviews, articles from newspapers, magazines and other media provide a lot of background information. They have easy to access searchable databases which can searched on names, location, topics, etc.

(Source: Knack)

5.2.2 TV The Diamond Community in Antwerp has been around for a very long time. Many local and foreign TV stations have come and gone to make reports on profiles, the history, the festivities, security measures, incidents, etc. They too have searchable databases in which the public, to include criminals, can search on names, location, topics, etc. This is also a valuable source of information.

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5.2.3 Internet 5.2.3.1 Websites

One of the easiest ways to collect information is using the Internet. It provides a wealth of data such as texts, pictures, blue prints, and video information. Many stakeholders within the Diamond Community have their own websites, providing a lot of interesting information: structure, positions, names, addresses, stock, special actions, pricings, etc. Another interesting source of information on the internet is the government’s KBO database of enterprises (http://kbopub.economie.fgov.be/kbopub/zoekwoordenform.html?lang=nl). It is a free, public and searchable database that provides centralized information on companies, statutes, personal addresses, financial information, etc. As well as details of the directors/shareholders and their private addresses. The financial year report of every Belgian company, publicly accessible at the Belgian National Bank, also contains very valuable information about the company’s activities and revenue. 5.2.3.2 Google Earth/Street View

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From a criminal’s perspective Google Earth, Google Street View and similar programs such as Bing Maps, etc. are “a gift from heaven”. Before these programs were available, the criminals had to physically go to the target residence, work, places of leisure, etc. This poses a certain risk to their operation, because they have to expose themselves. Now, by using these programs in-depth, they gather an enormous amount of information on the area, building, and security measures, escape routes, etc.

We recommend to consider to contact these companies in order to blur out sensitive areas, to include the residences and office buildings.

5.2.3.3 Social media

Social media

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The popularity of social networking sites has increased at astounding rate. There is no discussion about the usefulness of sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, etc. They can be used for professional networking and job searches, as a means to increase sales revenue, as a tool to keep the public informed of safety and other issues or as a way to reconnect with friends from way-back-when. However, as with any new tool or application, it is always important to keep a close watch on its security implications. Each of these tools comes with its own set of security concerns which can put your security and/or personal data at risk. Also within the Diamond Community the use of social media and networks are slowly but surely rising: • means of communication • networking and business contacts • stock presentations • business transactions • etc.

Keep a low profile! There is a direct correlation between your profile, your awareness and the required security measures. The higher your profile, the higher your awareness and security measures need to be!

5.3 Target selection The criminals have collected the required information. They will analyze and compare the gathered information and they’ll select target(s) that are considered vulnerable and which would further their goals for the next phase of their planning process.

“Hard versus soft target” A “hard target” is one which has considerable and effective protection or security; this means that a criminal attack runs the risk of failing or of being foiled. A “soft target” is one which has little or no protection or security and hence is an easy option for a criminal attack.

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If you are perceived as a “hard target”, they move on to another target!

Now the criminals clearly identified and zoomed in to their target(s) they will intensify their information gathering operations.

5.4 Surveillance So far, the criminals collected their information using open sources. Now they have a clearly identified target, they will have to change their modus operandi and go “in the field”.

They want to know EVERYTHING about you, your family, friends, residence, office, school, office staff, residence staff, contractors, routines, procedures, habits, hobbies, travel, etc!

There are different categories of targets: aware, unaware, able, unable and combinations thereof. Most of the targets identified by criminals within the Diamond Community are unaware and unable and therefore “easy prey”. Surveillance confirms information gathered from previous surveillance and reconnaissance activities. 5.4.1 Initial Surveillance is a skill: observing the target(s) without being seen. They already have a good view and more than 80% of the required information on the target, the target area, the business, etc. to plan their operation. Since they want to maximize their success and to minimize their risk they will go after the other 20% in order to know everything about you. They’ll enter the surveillance phase: physical and technical surveillance, observations, intrusion, infiltrations, grooming the insider, …

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• Practices/Procedures/Routines – For facilities this includes scheduled deliveries, work shift changes, identification procedures and other observable routines. For individuals, it can include regularly scheduled errands such as laundry pick up days or car parking locations. • Residence and Workplace – This category applies primarily to the physical layout and individual activities at the two places the target typically spends the most time. • Transportation/Routes of Travel – For individuals, this is the mode of transport and common routes to any regular destination such as house, work, gym, and school. For facilities, it addresses ingress and egress points, types of vehicles allowed on the grounds, or availability of transportation into the target site. • Security Measures – This topic includes collection areas depending on the complexity of the security around the target: presence of a guard force; the reaction time of response units; any hardening of structures, barriers, or sensors; personnel, package, and vehicle screening procedures; and the type and frequency of emergency reaction drills are examples of key collection objectives. This is one of the most important areas of information for attack selection, since an intent is to bypass and avoid security measures and be able to strike the target during any period. 5.4.2 Physical surveillance Physical surveillance is a form of monitoring where the target(s) is kept under physical observation. It can be combined with other modes of surveillance for complete coverage. This type of surveillance requires special skills and is labor intensive, as perpetrators must be continually rotated to provide coverage, and it may be necessary to use an array of observers to avoid attracting attention from the target(s) under observation. In physical surveillance, members of a surveillance team watch and track their target(s). Sometimes this is done in relatively close proximity, and in other cases, the person doing the surveillance may need to remain distant to avoid attracting attention. The surveillance team works on foot, in vehicles, and using other methods of transportation as necessary and must be highly alert, as well as flexible, to identify the movements of the target(s) and take appropriate actions. While executing their surveillance, the perpetrators often use technology to improve their efficiency, store the gathered information and stay undiscovered.

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5.4.3 The insider An insider is a member of any group of people of limited number and generally have restricted access. The term is used in the context of secret, privileged, hidden or otherwise esoteric information or knowledge: an insider is a “member of the gang” and as such knows things only people in the gang know. There are different categories of insider threats, based on the level of access the employee has. There are four types: • Pure insider: an direct-hire employee with all the rights and access associated with being employed by the company • Insider associate: they are not employees of the company and do not need full access, but they need limited access • Insider affiliate: a spouse, friend, or even client of an employee who uses the employee’s credentials to gain access • Outside affiliate: non-trusted outsiders who use open access to gain access to an organization’s resources. Each of these categories also has different motives. Understanding each is a key to building proper preventive and detective defenses. 5.4.4 Technical Another method of surveillance is using “technical surveillance”. It plays an important role in intelligence gathering operations. The criminals will use technical and technological equipment to spy on their targets(s) to include but not limited to: • CCTV: cameras, recorders, monitors • hard wired audio monitoring • radio transmitting devices • GPS • cellular network transmitters • telephone monitoring • computer & data monitoring > hacking of systems! 5.4.5 Conclusion

Report suspicious activities or persons immediately! Be a hard target!

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5.5 Operational planning Before starting their surveillance phase the criminals already had at least 80% of the required information. After a well-executed surveillance phase they will have the other 20% and can now start planning the execution of the actual tigerkidnapping: • who, what, when, how, … • approach • target(s) handling • dates and timing • action plan • resources • escape • sale of the loot • …

5.6 Training and rehearsals As with conventional military and business operations, rehearsals are conducted to improve the odds of success, confirm planning assumptions, and develop contingencies. Typical rehearsals include: • equipment and weapons training and performance • staging for final preparatory checks. • deployment into target area • actions on the objective • escape routes

5.7 Surveillance Since time has passed since their last information collection and surveillance, they reconfirm that the conditions upon which they based their operational plan haven’t changed. They do this by conducting specific surveillance. Again they will operate in the target(s) area. Exposure time will be kept to the minimum.

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5.8 Execution Once criminals reach this stage of their operation, the odds favor a successful operation against the target(s). Criminals conducting planned operations possess important tactical advantages. Since they are the attacker, they possess all the advantages of initiative and provide: • use of surprise • choice of time, place, and conditions of operation • employment of diversions and secondary or follow-up actions

Previous tigerkidnappings were primarily executed between: 04h00 – 09h00 and 21h00 – 01h00 Attention: The possibility exists that if security measures are focused too much on the after-hours tigerkidnappings, the modus operandi will shift to business hours.

5.8.1 Approach at residence Most tigerkidnappings start at the residence of the target(s). The criminals know the exact location, layout, ins and outs, and also how exactly to approach the residence in order to avoid camera’s, curious neighbors, police and private security, etc. They often use the covers, uniforms, vehicles and id’s of utility firm employees, police officers or other known and trusted professions. This MO falls into the category of “social engineering” and is best known as “the imposter”. 5.8.2 Penetration of residence Once they are at the residence and the target(s) opened door, or they forced their way in, they use violence or the threat of violence to surprise and “subdue” the target(s). In most cases the criminals used weapons, such as hand guns, machine guns and knives.

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Frequently the family members are physically and psychologically separated from the actual targets within the residence (bathroom, cellar, …). This increases the levels of uncertainty for the intended target and gives them more power over the targets. 5.8.3 Hostage taking of family and friends The hostage taking will last until the intended target meets their objectives and the criminals can escape. Having been in a hostage situation is an extremely traumatic event, especially for children, and will have long lasting negative psychological effects. For the target(s), primarily family members, it is important to be aware of the procedures and best practices concerning hostage taking situations. You’ll find more information in the security measures section.

Do not resist your attacker(s) and do not try to be a hero. Do not tell lies. This will only aggravate the situation.

While the family members are being separated, the intended target is being threatened. He or she is told there are many accomplices following their every move and if he/she does not fully comply with all instructions they will hurt or even kill the hostages. The intended target is then briefed on the exact requirements and prepped with electronics: • small mobile cameras • cell phones • GPS tracking • etc.

Previous tigerkidnappings have shown that when the intended target fully complies and does not deviate from the exact instructions of the criminals, the hostages and the intended target will be left unharmed, or only suffer minor and limited injuries. The prime and sole objective should be the well-being of the hostages!

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During the last tigerkidnappings in the diamond community, the criminals equipped the intended targets with small, mobile, wireless and remote controlled cameras so they could constantly monitor what the intended target was doing. 5.8.4 Collection The target is always instructed where, when and how to deliver the loot.

It is not uncommon that the perpetrators will instruct the victim collecting the loot to use a variety of transportation means (from own vehicle to public transportation) and instruct the victim to move around in the city or other cities to make the final drop of the loot.

5.9 Escape Escape plans are usually well rehearsed and executed. The criminals will pay close attention not to leave evidence at the crime scenes.

5.10 Sale of the diamonds Contrary to general belief, it is quite easy to sell rework or modify the rough or polished diamonds and to resell them. Very few, if any, diamonds originating from a tigerkidnapping are ever recovered.

5.11 Remain out of hands of police The final phase of the criminals is to maintain operational security, stay out of the hands of the police and bear the fruits of their crime. From the last three tigerkidnappings in the Diamond Community one (1) resulted in an arrest.

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06 | Stakeholders in Security Building owners

Federal Police

Federal Government

Public Prosecution Office

Private Security Antwerp Diamond Area

Contractors

Province of Antwerp City of Antwerp

Diamond Community

AWDC

Insurance Industry

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Local Police of Antwerp


6.1 Federal Government Tigerkidnapping falls under the shared authority of the Ministry of Interior (http://www.ibz.be/) (Federal and Local Police for the operational investigation and prevention) and the Ministry of Justice (http://just.fgov.be/) (Investigative judge and prosecutor for the prosecution). Tigerkidnapping is considered a priority for the respective ministries and both provide their support and resources to prevent Tigerkidnappings and assign the required resources to identify and arrest the perpetrators.

6.2 Federal Police Within the Federal Police the directorate DGJ/DJB “Fight crime against goods”, to include its section in Antwerp (http://www.srp.be/federale-politie/algemene-directie-gerechtelijke-politie/directie-bestrijding-criminaliteit-tegengoederen/index.html) is mandated and specialized in the analysis of tigerkidnappings. The Federal Police, the Local Police of Antwerp and the AWDC have organized several meetings about tigerkidnapping.

6.3 Public Prosecution Office in Antwerp The Investigative Judge and the Prosecutor’s office in Antwerp (http://www.pers-gerecht.be/document.php?document_id=81) are the judicial authority leading and investigating the circumstances related to the tigerkidnappings.

6.4 Province of Antwerp On the regional level the Province of Antwerp (http://www.provant.be/) is also actively involved in the prevention of tigerkidnapping. Amongst other things by frequently organizing awareness sessions about “residential security” related to the threat of tigerkidnapping. The Province, the City of Antwerp, the Local Police of Antwerp and the AWDC are working closely together on this specific topic.

6.5 City of Antwerp On a local,strategic and operational level the City of Antwerp (http://www.antwerpen.be/), and more specifically the Division “Actieve Stad”, works closely together with the Province, the Local Police of Antwerp and the AWDC in the areas of economy, security, infrastructure, environment.

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6.6 Local Police of Antwerp The Diamond Square Mile falls within the jurisdiction of the Local Police of Antwerp, District Centrum. Because of the special location, nature and threats the Local Police of Antwerp has created a dedicated Local Police section, called “DIA/ISRA”, located and active within the Diamond Square Mile, as well as the Jewish institutions. On a daily basis there are contacts between the chief superintendent of the unit and the AWDC Security Office. The Local Police of Antwerp also has dedicated personnel to perform effective, fast, free-of-charge, professional and discrete security audits on residences and offices. And in the event of an actual tigerkidnapping the Local Police can activate its victim support unit.

6.7 AWDC The Antwerp World Diamond Centre is an industry-established foundation whose mission is to serve and support the diamond business in Belgium. Headquartered in the heart of Antwerp’s diamond district, its Board of Directors is elected directly by those who define the Antwerp Diamond Community.

6.8 AWDC Security Office In 2012, AWDC established AWDC Security Office. Its mission is to support and facilitate the diamond business, and to protect the diamond community’s personnel, products, reputation, information and assets against all internal, external, deliberate or accidental threats. The AWDC Security Office is the Single Point of Contact (SPOC) for security related topics within the Diamond Square Mile for the diamond community and the authorities.

6.9 Insurance industry Insurance is the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another in exchange for payment. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. The AWDC Security Office has regular and proactive contacts on matters of security with the different stakeholders in the insurance industry: the insurers/underwriters, the brokers and the loss adjusters.The role and responsibility of the insurance industry (insurer/underwriter/brokers/Loss adjusters) in the “before phase” is also crucial! By implementing balanced and efficient standardization and application of security measures by their insurance takers.

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6.10 Diamond Community The Diamond Community in Antwerp is very large and complex: diamond traders, bourses, mining companies, banks, equipment retailers, etc. Additionally the activities of the approximately 1800 diamond companies are located in an area of one square mile. This is a unique feature which provides many advantages, but entails also some security risks. The Diamond Community plays a crucial role in securing the Diamond Square Mile. Awareness and vigilance are everyone’s responsibility.

6.11 Private Security The role of Private Security in deterring, detecting and defending against tigerkidnappings cannot be underestimated. Their primary objective is to observe and report any suspicious activities, persons or incidents in and around to the police.

6.12 Conclusion

Awareness

Security Survey

After care

Antwerp Diamond Area Investigation and Prosecution

Prevention Incident Management

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07 | Integrated Security Approach Security is a process designed to support and facilitate business and to protect the organization’s personnel, products, reputation, information and assets against all internal, external, deliberate or accidental threats. We differentiate five (5) important pillars within the security framework: • organizational security measures: awareness, policies, procedures, • physical security measures: construction material, windows, doors, locks, safe • electronical security measures: access control, biometrics, CCTV, fire alarm, Personal Protection Alarm, … • notification and response security measures: telecom connections, Alarm Monitoring Center, Mobile Intervention, … • information security measures: intrusion detection systems, firewalls, virus scanners

The organizational security measures are the most effective, as well as the least expensive!

Specific to the threat of tigerkidnapping, as well as the effective security measures we differentiate three (3) phases: • Before the tigerkidnapping -

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Focus on deterrence and early detection

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• During the tigerkidnapping -

Focus on defending, alarming and reaction

• After the tigerkidnapping -

Investigation

-

Focus on resilience

Security is not a cost, it’s an investment and an added value to protect what’s dearest to you!

Below we will provide an extensive list of security measures which can be implemented in a residential as well as office setting to decrease the risk of tigerkidnapping.

7.1 Before – During – After

Before

Tiger kidnapping

During

After

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7.1.1 Before

To date all tigerkidnappings started at the residence of the diamond trader. Ensure that the security of your residence is at a high level!

• Feeding Tigerkidnapping-database Get in touch with the AWDC Security Office and fill in the personal information form. This form inventorises all the information that is required by the special units of the police to handle an ongoing tigerkidnapping professionally. This information will be stored in a secured database that is managed by the AWDC Security Office. The use of this database is always logged; access is restricted to a limited number of persons at the AWDC Security Office. The necessary and relevant information will be immediately sent to the police services when a tigerkidnapping is ongoing. • Organizational security measures -

Lead by example!

-

Try to maintain a low profile.

-

Organize recurrent awareness training for diamond traders, family members, residence/office staff and contractors.

-

Consider to perform initial and recurrent vetting and screening of – new – residence and office staff personnel (incl. contractors).

-

Limit, organize, and control the authorized persons having access to your diamonds, including the safe and vault area.

-

Consider the “4-eyes principle” (more than one person should be required to provide access the valuables: this can be by physically having 2 people present, but also, for example, by having 2 persons physically seperated provide special codes to open the safe):

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-

Consider different timings: day, night, weekend, holidays.

-

Spread your stock over your office safe and the safe inside vault rooms located in many S-ADA buildings.

-

Attention: please select a well-protected vault room! -

Consider a seperate visitor waiting room.

-

Prevent non-authorised persons to have a clear and direct view on your safe.

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-

Consider monitored and controlled after-hours entry/exit to/from the S-ADA.

-

Consider to review and improve the residential security of all persons that have an authorized access to the diamonds, safe or vault area.

-

Create and implement clear and written security policies, procedures and standards – “lead by example” and ensure compliance by diamond traders, family members, staff and contractors. -

Consider a “special code or sign” known only to you, your family members or staff to indicate there is a problem.

-

Ensure you have a special procedure in the event that traders, family members, staff or contractors “request”

-

Be aware of “Pseudo tigerkidnappings”!

diamonds, because they are in the middle of a tigerkidnapping! • Use the tigerkidnapping procedure. -

Personally and proactively contact the local police of your city/commune to discuss the threat of tigerkidnapping and ask for a technoprevention advice at your home or office. Maximize the variation in your routes, timings and routines, try to be as unpredictable as possible. -

If desired you can also opt to hire a specialized security consultancy firm.

-

Watch and pay attention to the surroundings around the residence and the office.

-

Be aware and always report suspicious activities and incidents around the residence, on the routes and at around the office to the appropriate services. You can call the Antwerp Local Police 24h/24 at 0800 123 12. Or fill in a suspicious incident form on www.ada-security.be.

-

Use security stickers, signs and posters to create awareness and indicate the presence of security measures: CCTV, time-/night lock, alarmsystem, panic/holdup alarm, personal protection alarm, etc …

-

Consider to create and implement “BIN (BuurtInformatieNetwerk)” networks in your residential area – The AWDC Security Office can assist and coordinate.

-

Consider to join “consortium mobile guarding projects” within your residential area” – The AWDC Security Office can

-

Consider full and appropriate insurance coverage for yourself, family members, residence and office staff.

-

Always ask an identification document from visitors and clients. Also people wearing an official uniform (Police,

assist and advise you.

Belgacom, etc.) should be asked for this identification and make sure you check that identification with the company they work for.

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-

Be vigilant when opening doors, before opening the door, identify who wants to enter.

-

Be aware when people try to stop you on the road, even when they say they want to help you, because they claim you have a problem with your car.

• Physical security measures -

Use solid and qualitative construction materials for your office and residence.

-

If possible, compartmentalize your office and residence.

-

Consider to identify, create, transfer a real or improvised “panic room”.

-

Use certified doors, windows, shutters, gates and locks.

-

Consider to put anti-burglary films on the glass of your windows.

-

Consider to install or upgrade a mantrap system to control access to your office.

-

Use certified safes, vaults and installers.

• Electronical security measures -

Consider to install a certified and professionally installed: -

access control system

-

intercom system with integrated camera

-

intrusion alarm system

-

time and night lock on your safe or vault area

-

biometric security systems

-

CCTV system with recording capabilities

Maintain these systems as described in the manuals -

Consider to provide all persons, who have access to the valuables with a Personal Protection Alarm (PPA). You can choose between a hardware device or a special App, which can be installed on your smartphone.

• Notification and response security measures -

Ensure you, your staff and family members have all emergency contact information: email, telephone and mobile numbers of police, AWDC Security Office, etc.on hand and in the mobile phones.

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-

Consider to connect all your security systems to a recognized alarm monitoring center.

-

Test these systems regularly to ensure proper operation.

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• Information security measures -

Limit, manage and control the codes, users and passwords of your security systems – change frequently and apply procedures for people leaving.

-

Limit and control the information about yourself (incl. addresses, family, holiday plans, your vehicles, security measures), stock information (diamonds, values, …), by phone, on your internet site, social networks, and in the general press (newspapers, magazines, …).

-

Consider, limit, manage and control the trash leaving your residence and office.

-

Contact Google/Bing/Yahoo/… companies “to blur” out your satellite, street view and photo images.

7.1.2 During • Organizational security measures -

Do not resist and do not try to be the hero! -

-

The well-being of your family, yourselves and staff are crucial and most important!

Comply with and follow the instructions of the criminals. -

Only if you can safely and securely warn or alarm others by phone, SMS, email, in person, do so, if you have the slightest doubt, do not do it, and report the tigerkidnapping as soon as you and your family are safe!

-

Memorize as much information and details of the incident and criminals as possible: -

How many perpetrators • physical description: look out for specific identification marks such as scars, tattoos and the like • languages used

-

Information about the weapons used.

-

Information about the vehicles used.

Response of the police ONCE alarmed or warned about an ONGOING tigerkidnapping: -

The police will NOT approach the residence or the office in force, with their blue lights and sirens. Their objectives are prioritized: • The safety and security of the diamond trader, family, staff • The recovery of the goods • The arrest and prosecution of the criminals

-

The police will instruct their special intervention units to: • discretely and safely understand and observe the situation (location, layout, number of hostages, perpetrators,…) • plan the approach and modus operandi of freeing the hostages

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The primary objective for police and public prosecutor is the safety and security of the diamond trader, family, staff. They will not intervene until they’re 100% sure that all victims are safe.

-

Once the situation is safe and under control the police will send: • victim support units • forensic teams to collect evidence -

Make sure the police are the first to arrive at the scene of the crime.

-

Calling in friends or relatives will only make forensic analysis more complicated and less reliable. If you know the offenders have used the bathroom do not enter this area.

• Detectives of the federal judicial police

7.1.3 After • Organizational security measures -

Don’t touch anything in the places where the tigerkidnappings have been.

-

Always report a tigerkidnapping as soon as possible to the respective authorities. Don’t use the phones that have been used by the tigerkidnappers, don’t make any other phone calls. -

This is also required if you want to introduce a claim with your insurance broker/insurer or underwriter.

-

Don’t try to work through the traumatic event alone. Try as best you can to continue to live normally.

-

Request the presence and support of police victim support units.

-

Analyze the events leading up to, and during the tigerkidnapping together with the AWDC Security Office.

-

Review and or upgrade the presence and effectiveness of your security measures.

• Physical security measures -

Have damage to doors, windows, gates, alarm systems, CCTV and fences repaired as soon as possible.

• Information security measures -

Align your communication with the press through the AWDC Security Office. -

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Allow them to be your spokesperson. They are there to represent and support you!

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Check with respective federal, regional and local governments for premiums or tax reductions related to security improvements at your residences or offices! http://minfin.fgov.be/portail2/nl/themes/dwelling/protection/index.htm

08 | Conclusions Rule of Thumb: 1. Keep a low profile > Be aware of your visibility! a. Consider to use our “AWDC SO Security Awareness Quick Self-Assessment”. 2. Secure your residence and office effectively. 3. Be aware of your surroundings. 4. Report suspicious activities or persons immediately: a. If urgent: call the police by dialing “101”. b. If not urgent: -

through the Police: “Blauwe lijn”: 0800 123 12 E-mail: diamant@politie.antwerpen.be

-

through AWDC SO: “Security Hotline”: 0800 185 00 E-mail: atk@awdc-securityoffice.be

5. Register for the AWDC Security Office Anti-Tigerkidnapping Program. 6. In the event of an actual tigerkidnapping: apply the AWDC SO tigerkidnapping procedure. a. Trust in the special police response. b. Report a tigerkidnapping as soon as possible. 7. Consider after care: debriefing and victim support.

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Local Police of Antwerp will: • Organize structural awareness sessions on “residential security” and other security topics for diamond traders and their families. • Establish a professional integrated intervention plan for ongoing tigerkidnappings. The AWDC Security Office, together with the City of Antwerp and the Local Police of Antwerp will: • Organize local “BIN” in the residential neighborhoods of the diamond traders. • Provide on the request of the diamond traders and families free of charge “security advisors” to assess the security measures at their residences and propose improvements. • Be on a 24/24 - 7/7 basis stand by for installation of a crisis command center for an ongoing tigerkidnapping. The AWDC Security Office will: • Take the initiative to work together with all stakeholders to analyze the security risks and a range of minimum security recommendations. • Organize structural and separate security awareness briefings for diamond traders, office personnel, family members and contractors. • Create and provide security stickers, signs and posters. • Set up a 24/24 Security Hotline, tigerkidnapping procedure, response protocol, 24/7 Private Security. • Manage a personal tigerkidnapping database with all information needed for an ongoing tigerkidnapping on

a 24/24 – 7/7 base.

Sec_rity needs U! Let us all work together and be a “hard target”, so that the criminals stop using this modus operandi in the Diamond Community!

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09 | Questions and answers For questions and answers, please contact: • Antwerp World Diamond Centre Security Office Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) 22 Hoveniersstraat B-2018 Antwerp Office:+32 (0)3 222 05 11 E-mail: atk@awdc-securityoffice.be Visit us at www.awdc-securityoffice.be • Local Police of Antwerp 22 Hoveniersstraat B-2018 Antwerp Office + 32 (0)3 233 40 28 E-mail: diamant@politie.antwerpen.be

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10 | List of sources http://www.polfed-fedpol.be/crim/crim_tips10_en.php http://www.polfed-fedpol.be/police/panels/files_nl/brochure_tigerkidnapping_N.pdf http://www.catlin.com/flipbook/kidnap-and-ransom-today/files/inc/342692550.pdf http://www.zenzelesecurity.co.za%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_phocadownload%26view%3Dcategory%26id%3D11%3A crime%26download%3D37%3Atiger-kidnap-the-threat-to-theukbankingsector%26Itemid%3D59&ei=66Q_Ue6qHYLXPcvWgJA L&usg=AFQjCNFsQPDuFm--dB4NfUr4Mz0m3B4Rhttp://www.state.gov/documents/organization/86829.pdf http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/threat http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/guide.pdf http://www.gfi.com/whitepapers/Social_Networking_and_Security_Risks.pdf http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-physical-surveillance.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insider http://www.darkreading.com/blog/227700748/different-flavors-of-the-insider-threat.html http://www.nato.int/docu/colloq/w970707/p6.pdf

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11 | Colophon This anti-tigerkidnapping guide was created by:

Responsible publisher: Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) 22 Hoveniersstraat B-2018 Antwerp Visit us at www.awdc.be



Lokale Politie Antwerpen Brochure tigerkidnapping